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Sample records for base saturation

  1. Saturation Detection-Based Blocking Scheme for Transformer Differential Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Eun Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a current differential relay for transformer protection that operates in conjunction with a core saturation detection-based blocking algorithm. The differential current for the magnetic inrush or over-excitation has a point of inflection at the start and end of each saturation period of the transformer core. At these instants, discontinuities arise in the first-difference function of the differential current. The second- and third-difference functions convert the points of inflection into pulses, the magnitudes of which are large enough to detect core saturation. The blocking signal is activated if the third-difference of the differential current is larger than the threshold and is maintained for one cycle. In addition, a method to discriminate between transformer saturation and current transformer (CT saturation is included. The performance of the proposed blocking scheme was compared with that of a conventional harmonic blocking method. The test results indicate that the proposed scheme successfully discriminates internal faults even with CT saturation from the magnetic inrush, over-excitation, and external faults with CT saturation, and can significantly reduce the operating time delay of the relay.

  2. Determination of saturation functions and wettability for chalk based on measured fluid saturations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.; Bech, N.; Moeller Nielsen, C.

    1998-08-01

    The end effect of displacement experiments on low permeable porous media is used for determination of relative permeability functions and capillary pressure functions. Saturation functions for a drainage process are determined from a primary drainage experiment. A reversal of the flooding direction creates an intrinsic imbibition process in the sample, which enables determination if imbibition saturation functions. The saturation functions are determined by a parameter estimation technique. Scanning effects are modelled by the method of Killough. Saturation profiles are determined by NMR. (au)

  3. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

  4. A Design Method of Saturation Test Image Based on CIEDE2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate color test image consistent with human perception in aspect of saturation, lightness, and hue of image, we propose a saturation test image design method based on CIEDE2000 color difference formula. This method exploits the subjective saturation parameter C′ of CIEDE2000 to get a series of test images with different saturation but same lightness and hue. It is found experimentally that the vision perception has linear relationship with the saturation parameter C′. This kind of saturation test image has various applications, such as in the checking of color masking effect in visual experiments and the testing of the visual effects of image similarity component.

  5. Nanographene-Based Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hui Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of femtosecond pulse laser in the erbium-doped fiber laser system is presented by integrating of the nanographene-based saturable absorbers (SAs. A simplified method of dispersed nanographene-based SAs side-polished fiber device with controllable polished length and depth was also developed. The dependence of geometry of a graphene-deposited side-polished fiber device on optical nonlinear characteristics and on the performance of the MLFL was screened. We found that the 10 mm polished length with 1.68 dB insertion loss had the highest modulation depth (MD of 1.2%. A stable MLFL with graphene-based SAs employing the optimized side-polished fiber device showed a pulse width, a 3 dB bandwidth, a time-bandwidth product (TBP, a repetition rate, and pulse energy of 523 fs, 5.4 nm, 0.347, 16.7 MHz, and 0.18 nJ, respectively, at fundamental soliton-like operation. The femtosecond pulse laser is achieved by evanescent field coupling through graphene-deposited side-polished fiber devices in the laser cavity. This study demonstrates that the polished depth is the key fabrication geometric parameter affecting the overall optical performance and better results exist within the certain polished range.

  6. Saturation properties of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Kaustubh S; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-24

    We study the liquid-vapor saturation properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) belonging to the homologous series 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][NTf2]) using Monte Carlo simulation. We examine the effect of temperature and cation alkyl chain length n on the saturated densities, vapor pressures, and enthalpies of vaporization. These properties are explicitly calculated for temperatures spanning from 280 to 1000 K for RTILs with n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. We also explore how the identity of the anion influences saturation properties. Specifically, we compare results for [C(4)mim][NTf2] with those for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C(4)mim][BF4]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF6]). Simulations are completed with a recently developed realistic united-atom force field. A combination of direct grand canonical and isothermal-isobaric temperature expanded ensemble simulations are used to construct phase diagrams. Our results are compared with experimental data and Gibbs ensemble simulation data. Overall, we find good agreement between our results and those measured experimentally. We find that the vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization show a strong dependence on the size of the alkyl chain at low temperatures, whereas no particular trend is observed at high temperatures. Finally, we also discuss the effect of temperature on liquid phase nanodomains observed in RTILs with large hydrophobic groups. We do not observe a drastic change in liquid phase structure upon variation of the temperature, which suggests there is not a sharp phase transition between a nanostructured and homogeneous liquid, as has been suggested in earlier studies. PMID:24986360

  7. Calculation of saturation in carbonate reservoirs based on electrical effi ciency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiong-Yan; Qin Rui-Bao; Liu Chun-Cheng; Mao Zhi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We derived an equation for saturation in carbonate reservoirs based on the electrical effi ciency model in the case of lacking core data. Owing to the complex pore structure and strong heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs, the relation between electrical efficiency and water porosity is either complex or linear. We proposed an electrical effi ciency equation that accounts for the relation between electrical effi ciency and water porosity. We also proposed a power-law relation between electrical effi ciency and deep-formation resistivity and analyzed the factors controlling the error in the water saturation computations. We concluded that the calculation accuracy of the electrical effi ciency is critical to the application of the saturation equation. The saturation equation was applied to the carbonate reservoirs of three wells in Iraq and Indonesia. For relative rock electrical effi ciency error below 0.1, the water saturation absolute error is also below 0.1. Therefore, we infer that the proposed saturation equation generally satisfi es the evaluation criteria for carbonate reservoirs.

  8. [Measurement of multi-wavelength pulse oxygen saturation based on dynamic spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The present paper puts forward multi-wavelength pulse oxygen saturation measurement based on dynamic spectroscopy to do the non-invasive determination of oxygen saturation. Compared to conventional ways, the new method makes full use of more wavelengths light and improves the measurement accuracy. During the experiment, the in-vivo measurements were carried out on 60 patients and their spectroscopic data were collected by the high sensitivity type fiber optic spectrometer. Singletrial estimation method was used to extract the dynamic spectroscopy at the wavelengths of 606. 44 approximately 987. 55 nm. Oxygen saturation obtained from arterial blood gas analysis is regarded as the true value. Synergy interval partial least square (siPLS) was used to establish the calibration model of subjects' oxygen saturation values against dynamic spectroscopy data. The relative error of prediction is +/-0. 017 6, but the relative error of the subjects in the same set measured by the patient monitor which was two-wavelength measure system is +/-0. 116 4. Measurement results show that the use of the high sensitivity type fiber optic spectrometer to collect multi-wavelength spectroscopic data and dynamic spectroscopy method to process data can do better in improving the accuracy of the oxygen saturation measurement. PMID:25095431

  9. BISQ model based on a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic frame in a partially saturated porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian-Xin; Ba, Jing; Yang, Ding-Hui; Yan, Xin-Fei; Yuan, Zhen-Yu; Qiao, Hai-Peng

    2012-06-01

    Taking into account three important porous media mechanisms during wave propagation (the Biot-flow, squirt-flow, and solid-skeleton viscoelastic mechanisms), we introduce water saturation into the dynamic governing equations of wave propagation by analyzing the effective medium theory and then providing a viscoelastic Biot/squirt (BISQ) model which can analyze the wave propagation problems in a partially viscous pore fluid saturated porous media. In this model, the effects of pore fluid distribution patterns on the effective bulk modulus at different frequencies are considered. Then we derive the wave dynamic equations in the time-space domain. The phase velocity and the attenuation coefficient equations of the viscoelatic BISQ model in the frequency-wavenumber domain are deduced through a set of plane harmonic solution assumptions. Finally, by means of numerical simulations, we investigate the effects of water saturation, permeability, and frequency on compressional wave velocity and attenuation. Based on tight sandstone and carbonate experimental observed data, the compressional wave velocities of partially saturated reservoir rocks are calculated. The compressional wave velocity in carbonate reservoirs is more sensitive to gas saturation than in sandstone reservoirs.

  10. A New Approximation of Water Saturation Estimation Based on Vertical Seismic Profiling Data

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    Sismanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water saturation is the ratio between the volumes of fluid in the rock pores. Water saturation is one of the important reservoir parameters to be known in the exploration or exploitation of oil and gas. I have developed a new technique to estimate the distribution of water saturation values based on the seismic wave attenuation analysis, frequency and porosity from the equation of Biot-Turgut-Yamamoto-Sismanto. It is applied to the real data using the vertical seismic profiling (VSP data in Pasir Cantang well, West Java for some layers. The obtained values of water saturation have not been calibrated to the known value of the well. This step needs to be done, so that the results that have been corrected can be performed to estimate the area around the well Pasir Cantang guided by seismic section. Regardless of the calibration factor, the method of the water saturation estimation on VSP data can technically be well done but still needs necessary calibration for the accuracy.

  11. A model for strong interactions at high energy based on the CGC/saturation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gotsman, E; Maor, U

    2014-01-01

    We present our first attempt to develop a model for soft interactions at high energy, based on the BFKL Pomeron and the CGC/saturation approach. We construct an eikonal-type model, whose opacity is determined by the exchange of the dressed BFKL Pomeron. The Green's function of the Pomeron is calculated in the framework of the CGC/saturation approach. Using five parameters we achieve a good description of the experimental data at high energies ( $W\\,\\geq\\,0.546\\,TeV$). The model results in different behaviour for the single and double diffraction cross sections at high energies. The single diffraction cross section reaches a saturated value (about 10 mb) at high energies, while the double diffraction cross section continues growing slowly

  12. ARTICLES: Saturation Magnetization and Law of Approach to Saturation for Self-formed Ionic Ferrofluids Based on MnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue-qiang; Li, Jian; Liu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Ting-zhen; Wen, Bang-cai; Zhang, Qing-mei; Miao, Hua

    2010-06-01

    The magnetization curves of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and self-formed ferrofluids based on these particles have been measured at room temperature. The median size of the particles is 13.67 nm. The specific saturation magnetization is less than the theoretical value for the ferrofluids. In the high field range from 5 kOe to 10 kOe, the higher the particle volume fraction is, the steeper the slope of the magnetization curves is when it approaches saturation. The behavior of the saturation magnetization and the law of approach to saturation are due to the presence of self-assembled aggregates of ring-like micelle structures which form in the absence of the magnetic field and field-induced aggregates, respectively. The field-induced aggregates have a dissipative structure, so that at high field, the law of approach to saturation magnetization is different from the one described using Langevin paramagnetism theory. The large particles in the ferrofluids result in apparent hysteresis.

  13. Bioinspired Coordinated Path Following for Vessels with Speed Saturation Based on Virtual Leader

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    Mingyu Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the coordinated path following of multiple marine vessels with speed saturation. Based on virtual leader strategy, the authors show how the neural dynamic model and passivity-based techniques are brought together to yield a distributed control strategy. The desired path following is achieved by means of a virtual dynamic leader, whose controller is designed based on the biological neural shunting model. Utilizing the characteristic of bounded and smooth output of neural dynamic model, the tracking error jump is avoided and speed saturation problem is solved in straight path. Meanwhile, the coordinated path following of multiple vessels with a desired spatial formation is achieved through defining the formation reference point. The consensus of formation reference point is realized by using the synchronization controller based on passivity. Finally, simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed coordinated algorithm.

  14. A new equation for dielectric permittivity of saturated soils based on polarization mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-peng CHEN; Yun-min CHEN; Wei XU; Zhi-gang LIANG; Wei FENG

    2008-01-01

    Based on polarization mechanisms, such as electronic, ionic and orientatioual polarizations, a new equation for dielectric permittivity of soil is proposed to interpret the dielectric behavior of a mixture like soil, in terms of polarization process of its components and the interactions between its components. The dielectric permittivity is expressed in terms of a frequency-dependent part and a frequency-independent part. These two parts correspond to polarizations occurred at different frequency range. It is a new volumetric mixing model with theoretical background. Based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements of saturated soil samples and test data from literature, comparisons of this model with some well established mixing models show that the curves for saturated sand soils and slurries resulted from the new equation, which agree well with TDR measurements, are close to those calculated from Birchak's model.

  15. Fuzzy Saturated Output Feedback Tracking Control for Robot Manipulators: A Singular Perturbation Theory Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huashan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of the output feedback tracking (OFT control with bounded torque inputs of robot manipulators, we propose a generalized fuzzy saturated OFT controller based on singular perturbation theory. First, considering the fact that the output toque of joint actuators is limited, a general expression for a class of saturation functions is given to be applied in the control law. Second, to carry out the whole closed‐loop control with only position measurements, linear and nonlinear filters are optionally involved to generate a pseudo signal to surrogate the actual velocity tracking error. As a third contribution, a fuzzy regulator is added to obtain a self‐tuning performance in tackling the disturbances. Moreover, an explicit but strict stability proof of the system based on the stability theory of singularly perturbed systems is presented. Finally, numerical simulations on several sample controllers are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Saturations-based nonlinear controllers with integral term: validation in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre, A. G.; Castillo, P.; Mondié, S.

    2016-05-01

    Popular saturations-based nonlinear controller usually include proportional and derivative components of the state or output. The fact that in many applications, these components do not suffice to insure the convergence to the desired output values, motivate the addition of an integral term. In this paper, three configurations of nonlinear controllers based on saturation functions are improved with an integral component. The stability of the three algorithms is analysed using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results validate the proposed control laws when they are applied to nonlinear systems with constant and unknown perturbations. Real-time experiments realised with a quad-rotor aerial vehicle and a hovercraft vehicle show that the proposed scheme can follow autonomously some trajectories, and that it could be robust with respect to delays.

  17. A novel method based on two cameras for accurate estimation of arterial oxygen saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, He; Ivanov, Kamen; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGi) that is based on camera allows acquiring photoplethysmogram and measuring physiological parameters such as pulse rate, respiration rate and perfusion level. It has also shown potential for estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). However, there are some technical limitations such as optical shunting, different camera sensitivity to different light spectra, different AC-to-DC ratios (the peak-to-peak amplitude to baseline ratio) of the PP...

  18. Stiffness of a granular base under optimum and saturated water contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Andrés Molina Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research work addressed the comparison of the stiffness of a granular base under optimum water content and total saturation conditions.Methodology: The methodology focused in the development of an experimental program and the computation of a function, which permits to assess the elastic moduli of the material. A triaxial cell equipped by local LVDT transducers, capable of managing different stress paths, was used to measure the small-strain stiffness of a granular base under two different conditions of moisture. The material was compacted with optimum water content and subjected to a series of loading-unloading cycles under isotropic conditions. In addition, identical specimens were prepared to be saturated and the experimental procedure was repeated to obtain the moduli in these new circumstances. The moduli were assessed by a hyperbolic model, and its relationship with the confining pressure was computed.Results: The results indicated that numerical model was adjusted to the experimental results. In addition, it was found that the elastic moduli decrease 3% to 8% in conditions of total saturation versus the condition of optimum water contents. Conclusions: The small-strain stiffness in the granular base depends on the water content, and the moisture can affect the deformation in the pavement structures. 

  19. Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Guo, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Yu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP), as the most alluring graphene analogue owing to its similar structure as graphene and thickness dependent direct band-gap, has now triggered a new wave of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials based photonics and optoelectronics. However, a major obstacle of practical applications for few-layer BPs comes from their instabilities of laser-induced optical damage. Herein, we demonstrate that, few-layer BPs, fabricated through the liquid exfoliation approach, can be developed as a new and practical saturable absorber (SA) by depositing few-layer BPs with microfiber. The saturable absorption property of few-layer BPs had been verified through an open-aperture z-scan measurement at the telecommunication band and the microfiber-based BP device had been found to show a saturable average power of ~4.5 mW and a modulation depth of 10.9%, which is further confirmed through a balanced twin detection measurement. By further integrating this optical SA device into an erbium-doped fiber...

  20. An interatomic potential for saturated hydrocarbons based on the modified embedded-atom method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouranian, S; Tschopp, M A; Gwaltney, S R; Baskes, M I; Horstemeyer, M F

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we developed an interatomic potential for saturated hydrocarbons using the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM), a reactive semi-empirical many-body potential based on density functional theory and pair potentials. We parameterized the potential by fitting to a large experimental and first-principles (FP) database consisting of (1) bond distances, bond angles, and atomization energies at 0 K of a homologous series of alkanes and their select isomers from methane to n-octane, (2) the potential energy curves of H2, CH, and C2 diatomics, (3) the potential energy curves of hydrogen, methane, ethane, and propane dimers, i.e., (H2)2, (CH4)2, (C2H6)2, and (C3H8)2, respectively, and (4) pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data of a dense high-pressure methane system with the density of 0.5534 g cc(-1). We compared the atomization energies and geometries of a range of linear alkanes, cycloalkanes, and free radicals calculated from the MEAM potential to those calculated by other commonly used reactive potentials for hydrocarbons, i.e., second-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) and reactive force field (ReaxFF). MEAM reproduced the experimental and/or FP data with accuracy comparable to or better than REBO or ReaxFF. The experimental PVT data for a relatively large series of methane, ethane, propane, and butane systems with different densities were predicted reasonably well by the MEAM potential. Although the MEAM formalism has been applied to atomic systems with predominantly metallic bonding in the past, the current work demonstrates the promising extension of the MEAM potential to covalently bonded molecular systems, specifically saturated hydrocarbons and saturated hydrocarbon-based polymers. The MEAM potential has already been parameterized for a large number of metallic unary, binary, ternary, carbide, nitride, and hydride systems, and extending it to saturated hydrocarbons provides a reliable and transferable potential for atomistic

  1. Recovery of soil base saturation following termination of N deposition: Increased biological weathering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R. W.; Högberg, P.

    2012-12-01

    Current models suggest the removal rate of base cations (i.e. calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) from forest soils due to forest growth or forest management practices is greater than the resupply rate in many areas of North America and Europe. This is particularly concerning given the recent historical depletion of base cations from forest soils during times of high acid deposition and their critical role in buffering against acidity changes in both soils and surface waters. Because base cations are not easily replaced in soil, being primarily supplied through slow processes such as the primary weathering of parent minerals or the decomposition of organic materials, rapid removals of base cations can jeopardize the long-term fertility of forests. Using a long-term nitrogen (N) addition experiment in a Pinus sylvestris forest that has been ongoing since 1970, we examined how the availability of inorganic N mediates the recovery of base cations in forest soil and tree pools in a boreal forest in northern Sweden. Contrary to model projections, exchangeable base cations in the top 10 cm of mineral soils recovered much faster than predicted. The base saturation of mineral soils in the high N addition treatment (90 kg N ha-1), which was applied annually from 1970-1990 and has been allowed to recover for the last 22 years, was 120% of that of soil in the control treatment. Similarly, the base saturation of the upper 10 cm of mineral soil in the medium N treatment (60 kg N ha-1 yr-1) increased from 30% of that of the control in 2007 following 37 years of N addition to 80% of that of the control in 2010 following two years of recovery. Importantly, the base saturation of the low N treatment (30 kg N ha-1 yr-1) continually declined from 1970 to 2007 and remained low in 2010. Furthermore, the total calcium pool in the top 10 cm of mineral soil was significantly lower in the high and medium N treatments than in the control treatment. These results suggest there may

  2. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module. PMID:26524782

  3. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  4. A 70 kV solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2014-02-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in many fields. In recent years, solid-state and operating at repetitive mode are the most important developing trends of high voltage pulse generators. A solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. The proposed generator is consisted of three parts. They are charging system, triggering system, and the major loop. Saturable pulse transformer is the key component of the whole generator, which acts as a step-up transformer and main switch during working process of this generator. The circuit and working principles of the proposed pulse generator are introduced first in this paper, and the saturable pulse transformer used in this generator is introduced in detail. Circuit of the major loop is simulated to verify the design of the system. Demonstration experiments are carried out, and the results show that when the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to a high voltage, such as 2.5 kV, a voltage with amplitude of 86 kV can be achieved on the secondary winding. The magnetic core of saturable pulse transformer is saturated deeply and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings is very small. The switch function of the saturable pulse transformer can be realized ideally. Therefore, a 71 kV output voltage pulse is formed on the load. Moreover, the magnetic core of the saturable pulse transformer can be reset automatically.

  5. High power L-band mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yichang; Semaan, Georges; Salhi, Mohamed; Niang, Alioune; Guesmi, Khmaies; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Sanchez, Francois

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a passive mode-locked Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (Bi(2)Se(3)) saturable absorber (TISA). By optimizing the cavity loss and output coupling ratio, the mode-locked fiber laser can operate in L-band with high average output power. With the highest pump power of 5 W, 91st harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches with average output power of 308 mW was obtained. This is the first report that the TISA based erbium-doped fiber laser operating above 1.6 μm and is also the highest output power yet reported in TISA based passive mode-locked fiber laser. PMID:26368409

  6. Surface tension and refractive index of pure and water-saturated tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Data for the refractive index and surface tension of tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium-based ionic liquids are reported. ► Experimental data for both pure and water-saturated ionic liquids are provided. ► The refractive index decreases with the increase on the water content. ► The surface tension decreases or increases as a function of the water content. ► The surface thermodynamic properties and critical temperatures are presented and discussed. - Abstract: Experimental data on the surface tension and refractive index of tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium-based ionic liquids with bromide, chloride, decanoate, methanesulfonate, dicyanimide, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions are reported. The data were obtained for pure and water saturated samples at temperatures from 283 K to 353 K and at atmospheric pressure. The refractive index of the investigated ionic liquids decreases with increasing the water content in the sample. On the other hand, no clearly dependence of the surface tension with the water content up to a weight fraction of 16% was found. The prediction of the refractive index for the studied ionic liquids was also accomplished by a group contribution method and new values for the cation and diverse anions were estimated and proposed. The studied ionic liquids show lower surface tension in comparison with imidazolium-, pyridinium- or pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with a similar anion; also they show higher surface entropy than cyclic nitrogen-based fluids which indicates a lower surface organization. The anion dependence of the surface tension and surface entropy for the investigated ionic liquids is weaker than that for short-chain imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Their critical temperatures evaluated from Eötvos and Guggenheim equations are also lower than those of N-heterocyclic ionic fluids.

  7. Trans-Reflective Color Filters Based on a Phase Compensated Etalon Enabling Adjustable Color Saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Soon; Shrestha, Vivek Raj; Lee, Sang-Shin; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Trans-reflective color filters, which take advantage of a phase compensated etalon (silver-titania-silver-titania) based nano-resonator, have been demonstrated to feature a variable spectral bandwidth at a constant resonant wavelength. Such adjustment of the bandwidth is presumed to translate into flexible control of the color saturation for the transmissive and reflective output colors produced by the filters. The thickness of the metallic mirror is primarily altered to tailor the bandwidth, which however entails a phase shift associated with the etalon. As a result, the resonant wavelength is inevitably displaced. In order to mitigate this issue, we attempted to compensate for the induced phase shift by introducing a dielectric functional layer on top of the etalon. The phase compensation mediated by the functional layer was meticulously investigated in terms of the thickness of the metallic mirror, from the perspective of the resonance condition. The proposed color filters were capable of providing additive colors of blue, green, and red for the transmission mode while exhibiting subtractive colors of yellow, magenta, and cyan for the reflection mode. The corresponding color saturation was estimated to be efficiently adjusted both in transmission and reflection. PMID:27150979

  8. Trans-Reflective Color Filters Based on a Phase Compensated Etalon Enabling Adjustable Color Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Soon; Shrestha, Vivek Raj; Lee, Sang-Shin; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Trans-reflective color filters, which take advantage of a phase compensated etalon (silver-titania-silver-titania) based nano-resonator, have been demonstrated to feature a variable spectral bandwidth at a constant resonant wavelength. Such adjustment of the bandwidth is presumed to translate into flexible control of the color saturation for the transmissive and reflective output colors produced by the filters. The thickness of the metallic mirror is primarily altered to tailor the bandwidth, which however entails a phase shift associated with the etalon. As a result, the resonant wavelength is inevitably displaced. In order to mitigate this issue, we attempted to compensate for the induced phase shift by introducing a dielectric functional layer on top of the etalon. The phase compensation mediated by the functional layer was meticulously investigated in terms of the thickness of the metallic mirror, from the perspective of the resonance condition. The proposed color filters were capable of providing additive colors of blue, green, and red for the transmission mode while exhibiting subtractive colors of yellow, magenta, and cyan for the reflection mode. The corresponding color saturation was estimated to be efficiently adjusted both in transmission and reflection.

  9. Comparative performance of polymer-based fluids invasion into oil saturated formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, R.B.Z.; Bonet, E.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil); Waldmann, A.T.A.; Martins, A.L. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a polymeric solutions injection study. Polymeric solutions were injected into an oil reservoir under differential pressures. Laboratory tests were conducted using solutions based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) or xanthan gum (XC) injected in consolidated sand saturated with oil. Differential pressures and produced/injected mass at 4 points along the displacement direction were analyzed. Monitored variables included injected pressure, environmental temperature, and produced volume. Final displacement images and saturation profile were obtained through the use of X-ray and tomography scanning. Comparative analyses of 12 tests were then used to examine polymer type, injection pressure levels; and rock surface conditions. Results of the analyses showed that it is possible to verify differences in oil displacements, injection pressures, and rock surface conditions. The analysis was validated with similar permo-porosity samples. No additional resistance to the polymeric solution flow was observed for samples subjected to wettability treatments. It was concluded that differential pressure levels play a linear role in injection pressure levels. 13 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs.

  10. Simulation of nonisothermal consolidation of saturated soils based on a thermodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Cheng, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamics, a thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling model for saturated soils is established, including a constitutive model without such concepts as yield surface and flow rule. An elastic potential energy density function is defined to derive a hyperelastic relation among the effective stress, the elastic strain, and the dry density. The classical linear non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory is employed to quantitatively describe the unrecoverable energy processes like the nonelastic deformation development in materials by the concepts of dissipative force and dissipative flow. In particular the granular fluctuation, which represents the kinetic energy fluctuation and elastic potential energy fluctuation at particulate scale caused by the irregular mutual movement between particles, is introduced in the model and described by the concept of granular entropy. Using this model, the nonisothermal consolidation of saturated clays under cyclic thermal loadings is simulated in this paper to validate the model. The results show that the nonisothermal consolidation is heavily OCR dependent and unrecoverable. PMID:23983623

  11. Using Neutron Radiography to Quantify Water Transport and the Degree of Saturation in Entrained Air Cement Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Catherine L.; Bentz, Dale P.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; Weiss, W. Jason

    Air entrainment is commonly added to concrete to help in reducing the potential for freeze thaw damage. It is hypothesized that the entrained air voids remain unsaturated or partially saturated long after the smaller pores fill with water. Small gel and capillary pores in the cement matrix fill quickly on exposure to water, but larger pores (entrapped and entrained air voids) require longer times or other methods to achieve saturation. As such, it is important to quantitatively determine the water content and degree of saturation in air entrained cementitious materials. In order to further investigate properties of cement-based mortar, a model based on Beer's Law has been developed to interpret neutron radiographs. This model is a powerful tool for analyzing images acquired from neutron radiography. A mortar with a known volume of aggregate, water to cement ratio and degree of hydration can be imaged and the degree of saturation can be estimated.

  12. Fiber-based saturable-absorber action based on a focusing Kerr effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Haus, Joseph W.

    2016-05-01

    We report numerical simulations on a fiber compatible, self-focusing, saturable absorber device. Two fiber ends are separated by a bulk, nonlinear medium. An optical beam transmitted from one tapered fiber end, propagates through the nonlinear medium and couples back into the other tapered fiber end. The fiber mode distributions at the ends of the tapered fibers are calculated using a Finite Difference Method (FDM). We apply the beam propagation method to simulate the diffraction and nonlinearity in the nonlinear medium. As a function of initial beam power and the fiber mode design, the coupling efficiency plots are calculated and compared for different nonlinear mediums. Our simulations identify the optimum contrast between low and high input powers.

  13. Maxwell's Law Based Models for Liquid and Gas Phase Diffusivities in Variably-Saturated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken;

    2012-01-01

    soils. In this study, we propose unified, predictive models for D-s,D-g(epsilon) and D-s,D-l(theta) based on modifying and extending the classical Maxwell model at fluid saturation with a fluid-induced reduction term including a percolation threshold (epsilon(th) for D-s,D-g and theta(th) for D...... particles (clay and organic matter), FINESvol. The resulting LIquid and GAs diffusivity and tortuosity (LIGA) models were tested against D-s,D-g and D-s,D-l data for differently-textured soils and performed well against the measured data across soil types. A sensitivity analysis using the new Maxwell's Law...

  14. A New Image Based Approach to Measure Discharge and Soil Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Nils; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Discharge measurements are crucial for most hydrological studies. It is common to monitor discharge by recording water level and calculate the actual discharge using a rating curve that has been previously determined for varying flow conditions. Bubble and float gauges as well as radar based gauges are frequently used to measure water level. Recently particle image velocimetry (PIV) approaches have become more attractive due to continuous improvement of sensors and computing power. Standard cameras can be easily usable and cheap monitoring devices for discharge measurement. The combination of a camera and a staff gauge has been proved to be suitable for hydrological monitoring in several studies and is promoted as redundant backup as well as independent system. Our new image based system offers the possibility to measure water velocity and soil saturation in addition to water level. We use a commercial wildlife camera with sensors in the visible and infrared spectrum, allowing for day and night images. The system can be used for three purposes. (1) Water level measurement with a specifically built gauging plate. (2) A carbon fiber stick installed instream allows water velocity measurements. Water velocity can be derived from the bending of the carbon fiber under water pressure which is proportional to the water velocity and water level. Hence we can derive a rating curve between bending angle of the carbon fiber stick and the water velocity. Therefore we can constantly measure the water velocity and do not depend on traditional rating curves. (3) Soil water saturation is measured by perforated PVC bottles that enable water in- and outflow. Rising water level in the PVC-bottle will lift an integrated floating body that pushes up a detection marker visible for the camera above the ground. The measurement system is tested for monitoring intermittent streams in the Attert basin in Luxemburg linking the dynamics of the stream network extent to the surface connectivity

  15. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes: three population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits;

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately.......We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately....

  16. Mechanism of contact angle saturation and an energy-based model for electrowetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhao; Zhong-Cheng, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Electrowetting, as a well-known approach to increasing droplet wettability on a solid surface by electrical bias, has broad applications. However, it is limited by contact angle saturation at large voltage. Although several debated hypotheses have been proposed to describe it, the physical origin of contact angle saturation still remains obscure. In this work, the physical factors responsible for the onset of contact angle saturation are explored, and the correlated theoretical models are established to characterize electrowetting behavior. Combination of the proper 3-phase system employed succeeds in dropping the saturating contact angle below 25°, and validates that the contact angle saturation is not a result of device-related imperfection. Project supported by the Fund from the Research Center of Optical Communications Engineering & Technology, Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. ZSF0402).

  17. Leveraging nonlinear saturation-based phenomena in an L-shaped vibration energy harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Sun, A.; Wang, K. W.

    2016-02-01

    Trees exploit intriguing mechanisms such as multimodal frequency distributions and nonlinearities to distribute and dampen the aerodynamically-induced vibration energies to which they are subjected. In dynamical systems, these mechanisms are comparable to internal resonance phenomena. In recent years, researchers have harnessed strong nonlinearities, including internal resonance, to induce energetic dynamics that enhance performance of vibration energy harvesting systems. For trees, the internal resonance-like dynamics are evidently useful to dampen swaying motions in spite of the high variation associated with excitation and structural parameters. Yet for dynamic systems, studies show narrow operating regimes which exhibit internal resonance-based behaviors; this additionally suggests that the energetic dynamics may be susceptible to deactivation if stochastic inputs corrupt ideal excitation properties. To address these issues and to investigate whether the underlying motivation of exploiting internal resonance-induced saturation dynamics is truly justified, this research evaluates the opportunities enabled by exploiting nonlinear, multimodal motions in an L-shaped energy harvester platform. The system dynamics are probed analytically, numerically, and experimentally for comprehensive insights on the versatility of internal resonance-based behaviors for energy harvesting. It is found that although activating the high amplitude nonlinear dynamics to enhance power generation is robust to significant additive noise in the harmonic excitations, parameter sensitivities may pose practical challenges in application. Discussion is provided on means to address such concerns and on future strategies that may favorably exploit nonlinearity and multimodal dynamics for robust energy harvesting performance.

  18. Saturation meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  19. Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of Diffuse Gliomas: Effect of Saturation Pulse Length in Parallel Transmission-Based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, Akio; Keupp, Jochen; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yoneyama, Masami; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Sagiyama, Koji; Takahashi, Masaya; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the dependence of saturation pulse length on APT imaging of diffuse gliomas using a parallel transmission-based technique. Twenty-two patients with diffuse gliomas (9 low-grade gliomas, LGGs, and 13 high-grade gliomas, HGGs) were included in the study. APT imaging was conducted at 3T with a 2-channel parallel transmission scheme using three different saturation pulse lengths (0.5 s, 1.0 s, 2.0 s). The 2D fast spin-echo sequence was used for imaging. Z-spectrum was obtained at 25 frequency offsets from -6 to +6 ppm (step 0.5 ppm). A point-by-point B0 correction was performed with a B0 map. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) and ΔMTRasym (contrast between tumor and normal white matter) at 3.5 ppm were compared among different saturation lengths. A significant increase in MTRasym (3.5 ppm) of HGG was found when the length of saturation pulse became longer (3.09 ± 0.54% at 0.5 s, 3.83 ± 0.67% at 1 s, 4.12 ± 0.97% at 2 s), but MTRasym (3.5 ppm) was not different among the saturation lengths in LGG. ΔMTRasym (3.5 ppm) increased with the length of saturation pulse in both LGG (0.48 ± 0.56% at 0.5 s, 1.28 ± 0.56% at 1 s, 1.88 ± 0.56% at 2 s and HGG (1.72 ± 0.54% at 0.5 s, 2.90 ± 0.49% at 1 s, 3.83 ± 0.88% at 2 s). In both LGG and HGG, APT-weighted contrast was enhanced with the use of longer saturation pulses. PMID:27227746

  20. Acid/base front propagation in saturated porous media: 2D laboratory experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyaux-Lawniczak, Stéphanie; Lehmann, François; Ackerer, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    We perform laboratory scale reactive transport experiments involving acid-basic reactions between nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. A two-dimensional experimental setup is designed to provide continuous on-line measurements of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, redox potential (Eh) and electrical conductivity (EC) inside the system under saturated flow through conditions. The electrodes provide reliable values of pH and EC, while sharp fronts associated with redox potential dynamics could not be captured. Care should be taken to properly incorporate within a numerical model the mixing processes occurring inside the electrodes. The available observations are modeled through a numerical code based on the advection-dispersion equation. In this framework, EC is considered as a variable behaving as a conservative tracer and pH and Eh require solving the advection dispersion equation only once. The agreement between the computed and measured pH and EC is good even without recurring to parameters calibration on the basis of the experiments. Our findings suggest that the classical advection-dispersion equation can be used to interpret these kinds of experiments if mixing inside the electrodes is adequately considered.

  1. An interatomic potential for saturated hydrocarbons based on the modified embedded-atom method

    CERN Document Server

    Nouranian, S; Gwaltney, S R; Baskes, M I; Horstemeyer, M F

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed an interatomic potential for saturated hydrocarbons using the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM), a semi-empirical many-body potential based on density functional theory and pair potentials. We parameterized the potential by fitting to a large experimental and first-principles (FP) database consisting of 1) bond distances, bond angles, and atomization energies at 0 K of a homologous series of alkanes and their select isomers from methane to n-octane, 2) the potential energy curves of H2, CH, and C2 diatomics, 3) the potential energy curves of hydrogen, methane, ethane, and propane dimers, i.e., (H2)2, (CH4)2, (C2H6)2, and (C3H8)2, respectively, and 5) pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data of a dense high-pressure methane system with the density of 0.5534 g/cc. We compared the atomization energies and geometries of a range of linear alkanes, cycloalkanes, and free radicals calculated from the MEAM potential to those calculated by other commonly used potentials for hydrocarbons, i....

  2. Modeling non-saturated ferrite-based devices: Application to twin toroid ferrite phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouellec, A.; Vérissimo, G.; Laur, V.; Queffelec, P.; Albert, I.; Girard, T.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a new set of tools developed to improve the conception and modeling of non-saturated ferrite-based devices such as twin toroid phase shifters. These new simulation tools benefit from a generalized permeability tensor model able to describe the permeability tensor of a ferrite sample whatever its magnetization state. This model is coupled to a homemade 3D multi-scale magnetostatic analysis program, which describes the evolution of the magnetization through the definition of a hysteresis loop in every mesh cell. These computed spectra are then integrated into 3D electromagnetic simulation software that retains the spatial variations of the ferrite properties by using freshly developed macro programming functions. This new approach allows the designers to accurately model complex ferrite devices such as twin toroid phase shifters. In particular, we demonstrated a good agreement between simulated and measured phase shifts as a function of applied current values with a predicted maximum phase shift of 0.96 times the measured value.

  3. Computational fragment-based binding site identification by ligand competitive saturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgun Guvench

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based drug discovery using NMR and x-ray crystallographic methods has proven utility but also non-trivial time, materials, and labor costs. Current computational fragment-based approaches circumvent these issues but suffer from limited representations of protein flexibility and solvation effects, leading to difficulties with rigorous ranking of fragment affinities. To overcome these limitations we describe an explicit solvent all-atom molecular dynamics methodology (SILCS: Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation that uses small aliphatic and aromatic molecules plus water molecules to map the affinity pattern of a protein for hydrophobic groups, aromatic groups, hydrogen bond donors, and hydrogen bond acceptors. By simultaneously incorporating ligands representative of all these functionalities, the method is an in silico free energy-based competition assay that generates three-dimensional probability maps of fragment binding (FragMaps indicating favorable fragment:protein interactions. Applied to the two-fold symmetric oncoprotein BCL-6, the SILCS method yields two-fold symmetric FragMaps that recapitulate the crystallographic binding modes of the SMRT and BCOR peptides. These FragMaps account both for important sequence and structure differences in the C-terminal halves of the two peptides and also the high mobility of the BCL-6 His116 sidechain in the peptide-binding groove. Such SILCS FragMaps can be used to qualitatively inform the design of small-molecule inhibitors or as scoring grids for high-throughput in silico docking that incorporate both an atomic-level description of solvation and protein flexibility.

  4. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  5. A Sensitive ANN Based Differential Relay for Transformer Protection with Security against CT Saturation and Tap Changer Operation

    OpenAIRE

    KHORASHADI-ZADEH, Hassan; Li, Zuyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based scheme for fault identification in power transformer protection. The proposed scheme is featured by the application of ANN to identifying system patterns, the unique choice of harmonics of positive sequence differential currents as ANN inputs, the effective handling of current transformer (CT) saturation with an ANN based approach, and the consideration of tap changer position for correcting secondary CT current. Performanc...

  6. Urban Saturated Power Load Analysis Based on a Novel Combined Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of urban saturated power loads is helpful to coordinate urban power grid construction and economic social development. There are two different kinds of forecasting models: the logistic curve model focuses on the growth law of the data itself, while the multi-dimensional forecasting model considers several influencing factors as the input variables. To improve forecasting performance, a novel combined forecasting model for saturated power load analysis was proposed in this paper, which combined the above two models. Meanwhile, the weights of these two models in the combined forecasting model were optimized by employing a fruit fly optimization algorithm. Using Hubei Province as the example, the effectiveness of the proposed combined forecasting model was verified, demonstrating a higher forecasting accuracy. The analysis result shows that the power load of Hubei Province will reach saturation in 2039, and the annual maximum power load will reach about 78,630 MW. The results obtained from this proposed hybrid urban saturated power load analysis model can serve as a reference for sustainable development for urban power grids, regional economies, and society at large.

  7. Liquid water permeability of partially saturated cement paste assessed by dem-based methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, K.; Stroeven, P.; Stroeven, M.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Permeability of virtual cement seems to exceed experimental data by several orders of magnitude. The differences may actually not be that dramatic, since experimental samples are in practice not always fully saturated as generally assumed. This paper demonstrates that this has enormous effects on pe

  8. Saturation-based decision procedures for fixed domain and minimal model validity

    OpenAIRE

    Horbach, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Superposition is an established decision procedure for a variety of first-order logic theories represented by sets of clauses. A satisfiable theory, saturated by superposition, implicitly defines a minimal Herbrand model for the theory. This raises the question in how far superposition calculi can be employed for reasoning about such minimal models. This is indeed often possible when existential properties are considered. However, proving universal properties directly leads to a modification ...

  9. Dynamic Output Feedback Robust MPC with Input Saturation Based on Zonotopic Set-Membership Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xubin Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For quasi-linear parameter varying (quasi-LPV systems with bounded disturbance, a synthesis approach of dynamic output feedback robust model predictive control (OFRMPC with the consideration of input saturation is investigated. The saturated dynamic output feedback controller is represented by a convex hull involving the actual dynamic output controller and an introduced auxiliary controller. By taking both the actual output feedback controller and the auxiliary controller with a parameter-dependent form, the main optimization problem can be formulated as convex optimization. The consideration of input saturation in the main optimization problem reduces the conservatism of dynamic output feedback controller design. The estimation error set and bounded disturbance are represented by zonotopes and refreshed by zonotopic set-membership estimation. Compared with the previous results, the proposed algorithm can not only guarantee the recursive feasibility of the optimization problem, but also improve the control performance at the cost of higher computational burden. A nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. Investigation of passively synchronized dual-wavelength Q-switched lasers based on V:YAG saturable absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of synchronized passive Q-switching of two Nd:YVO4-based solid-state lasers operating at two different wavelengths, is described. A V:YAG saturable absorbing material was used as a passive Q-switch performing the synchroniz......In this paper the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of synchronized passive Q-switching of two Nd:YVO4-based solid-state lasers operating at two different wavelengths, is described. A V:YAG saturable absorbing material was used as a passive Q-switch performing...... the synchronization of the two laser fields. This material provides Q-switching operation at both 1064 and 1342 nm wavelengths simultaneously, saturating the same energy level. By adjusting the pump power of both lasers, it was possible to optimize the overlap of the two pulse trains and to switch between different...... states of synchronization. A theoretical model based on rate equations, which has been developed in order to investigate optical performance of the laser system, is in a good agreement with the experimental results. The principle of synchronized Q-switching can lead to new, pulsed all-solid-state light...

  11. 60 GHz OCS mm-wave generation for ROF system based on saturated parametric amplification effect in HNLF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-jing; SANG Xin-zhu; YUAN Jin-hui; WANG Kui-ru; YU Chong-xiu; XIN Xiang-jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ A novel approach to generate 60 GHz optical carrier suppression(OCS)millimeter-wave(mm-wave)signal based on the saturated optical parametric amplification(OPA)effect in high non-linear fiber(HNLF)is investigated.In the proposed system,the OPA effect occurs when the signal and pump with 30 GHz frequency interval are set into the high non-linear fiber.By controlling the length of HNLF,OPA effect saturates,and the pump power is delivered in a large extent to the signal and idler light,so a 60 GHz OCS ram-wave is generated.The system does not need high-speed external modulator,high-frequency vibration source or narrow-band filter,which greatly reduces the cost and improves the stability of the radio over fiber(ROF)system.Results show that the 10 Gb/s downstream signal can be transmitted with negligible power penalty.

  12. Highly efficient saturated red electrophosphorescence from isoquinoline-based iridium complex containing triphenylamino units in polymer light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengyong; Luo, Cuiping; Wang, Lei; Huang, Fengliang; Zhu, Keming; Wang, Yafei; Zhu, Mei-Xiang; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Cao, Yong

    2007-06-01

    To obtain highly efficient saturated red-emitting polymer light-emitting devices, the opto-physical and electrophosphorescent properties of a novel isoquinoline-based iridium complex containing triphenylamino units were investigated. The devices using this iridium complex as a dopant and a blend of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) and 2- tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole as a host matrix displayed bright saturated red emission at 637 nm with Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage coordinate of (0.64, 0.31). The maximum external quantum efficiency of 10.8% photos/electron and current efficiency of 4.6 cd/A at 1.7 mA/cm 2, and the peak brightness of 5453 cd/m 2 at 228 mA/cm 2 were obtained in the device at 2% dopant concentration.

  13. An information-flow-based model with dissipation, saturation and direction for active pathway inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ling-Yun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological systems process the genetic information and environmental signals through pathways. How to map the pathways systematically and efficiently from high-throughput genomic and proteomic data is a challenging open problem. Previous methods design different heuristics but do not describe explicitly the behaviours of the information flow. Results In this study, we propose new concepts of dissipation, saturation and direction to decipher the information flow behaviours in the pathways and thereby infer the biological pathways from a given source to its target. This model takes into account explicitly the common features of the information transmission and provides a general framework to model the biological pathways. It can incorporate different types of bio-molecular interactions to infer the signal transduction pathways and interpret the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL associations. The model is formulated as a linear programming problem and thus is solved efficiently. Experiments on the real data of yeast indicate that the reproduced pathways are highly consistent with the current knowledge. Conclusions Our model explicitly treats the biological pathways as information flows with dissipation, saturation and direction. The effective applications suggest that the three new concepts may be valid to describe the organization rules of biological pathways. The deduced linear programming should be a promising tool to infer the various biological pathways from the high-throughput data.

  14. Regional Quasi-Three-Dimensional Unsaturated-Saturated Water Flow Model Based on a Vertical-Horizontal Splitting Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high nonlinearity of the three-dimensional (3-D unsaturated-saturated water flow equation, using a fully 3-D numerical model is computationally expensive for large scale applications. A new unsaturated-saturated water flow model is developed in this paper based on the vertical/horizontal splitting (VHS concept to split the 3-D unsaturated-saturated Richards’ equation into a two-dimensional (2-D horizontal equation and a one-dimensional (1-D vertical equation. The horizontal plane of average head gradient in the triangular prism element is derived to split the 3-D equation into the 2-D equation. The lateral flow in the horizontal plane of average head gradient represented by the 2-D equation is then calculated by the water balance method. The 1-D vertical equation is discretized by the finite difference method. The two equations are solved simultaneously by coupling them into a unified nonlinear system with a single matrix. Three synthetic cases are used to evaluate the developed model code by comparing the modeling results with those of Hydrus1D, SWMS2D and FEFLOW. We further apply the model to regional-scale modeling to simulate groundwater table fluctuations for assessing the model applicability in complex conditions. The proposed modeling method is found to be accurate with respect to measurements.

  15. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  16. Distributed Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Ying; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    The Saturation algorithm for symbolic state-space generation, has been a recent break-through in the exhaustive veri cation of complex systems, in particular globally-asyn- chronous/locally-synchronous systems. The algorithm uses a very compact Multiway Decision Diagram (MDD) encoding for states and the fastest symbolic exploration algo- rithm to date. The distributed version of Saturation uses the overall memory available on a network of workstations (NOW) to efficiently spread the memory load during the highly irregular exploration. A crucial factor in limiting the memory consumption during the symbolic state-space generation is the ability to perform garbage collection to free up the memory occupied by dead nodes. However, garbage collection over a NOW requires a nontrivial communication overhead. In addition, operation cache policies become critical while analyzing large-scale systems using the symbolic approach. In this technical report, we develop a garbage collection scheme and several operation cache policies to help on solving extremely complex systems. Experiments show that our schemes improve the performance of the original distributed implementation, SmArTNow, in terms of time and memory efficiency.

  17. 2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Meng; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Xu-Wu; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuang-Chun; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2013-12-15

    We report on the generation of passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) Bi(2)Te(3) saturable absorber (SA). The optical deposition method was employed to fabricate the microfiber-based TISA. By virtue of the excellent nonlinear optical property of the proposed TISA, the fiber laser could operate at the pulse repetition rate of 2.04 GHz under a pump power of 126 mW, corresponding to the 418th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results demonstrate that the microfiber-based TI photonic device can operate as both the high nonlinear optical component and the SA in fiber lasers, and could also find other applications in the related fields of photonics. PMID:24322220

  18. Estimation of Saturation Flow Rate and Start-Up Lost Time for Signal Timing Based on Headway Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to calibrate saturation flow rate (SFR and start-up lost time (SLT when developing signal timing. In current commonly used methods, SFR for one given lane is usually calibrated from many subjective adjustment factors and a fixed result. SLT is calculated based on the fixed SFR, which prevents local applications in China. Considering the importance of traffic behavior (headway in determining SFR and SLT, this study started from headway distribution and attempted to specify the relationships between headway and vehicle position directly. A common intersection in Nanjing, China, was selected to implement field study and data from 920 queues was collected. Headway distribution was explored and the 78th percentile of headway at each position was selected to build model. Based on the developed relationships, SFR and SLT were calibrated. The results showed that SFR and SLT were correlated with queue length. Moreover, the results showed that it was difficult to reach saturated state even with a long queue length. This paper provides a new perspective on calibrating important parameters in signal timing, which will be useful for traffic agencies to complete signal timing by making the process simpler.

  19. Thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by black phosphorus nanoplatelets-based saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Yin, Ke; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    By coupling black phosphorus (BP) nanoplatelets (NPs) with a fiber-taper evanescent light field, a saturable absorber (SA) based on the BP NPs has been successfully fabricated and used in a thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser as the mode locker. The SA had a modulation depth of ∼9.8% measured at 1.93 μm. A stable mode-locking operation at 1898 nm was achieved with a pulse width of 1.58 ps and a fundamental mode-lock repetition rate of 19.2 MHz. By increasing the pump intensity, phenomena of multi-pulsing operations, including harmonic mode-locked states and soliton bunches, were obtained in the experiment, showing that the BP NPs possess an ultrafast optical response time. This work suggests that the BP NPs-based SA is potentially useful for ultrashort, pulsed laser operations in the eye-safe region of 2 μm. PMID:26836690

  20. Passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Hui, Liu; Jin-Rong, Tian; He-Yang, Guoyu; Run-Qin, Xu; Ke-Xuan, Li; Yan-Rong, Song; Xin-Ping, Zhang; Liang-Bi, Su; Jun, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a passively Q-switched Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide (WS2) saturable absorber operating at 1034 nm and 1056 nm simultaneously. The saturable absorbers were fabricated by spin coating method. With low speed, the WS2 nanoplatelets embedded in polyvinyl alcohol could be coated on a BK7 glass substrate coated with high-refractive-index thin polymer. The shortest pulse width of 1.6 μs with a repetition rate of 76.9 kHz is obtained. As the pump power increases to 9 W, the maximum output power is measured to be 250 mW, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 3.25 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain dual-wavelength Q-switched solid-state laser using few-layer WS2 nanoplatelets. Project supported by the National Scientific Research Project of China (Grant No. 61177047), Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1102005), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing University of Technology, China (Grant No. X3006111201501).

  1. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  2. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  3. Observer-based reliable stabilization of uncertain linear systems subject to actuator faults, saturation, and bounded system disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinhua; Zhang, Youmin; Zheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-11-01

    A matrix inequality approach is proposed to reliably stabilize a class of uncertain linear systems subject to actuator faults, saturation, and bounded system disturbances. The system states are assumed immeasurable, and a classical observer is incorporated for observation to enable state-based feedback control. Both the stability and stabilization of the closed-loop system are discussed and the closed-loop domain of attraction is estimated by an ellipsoidal invariant set. The resultant stabilization conditions in the form of matrix inequalities enable simultaneous optimization of both the observer gain and the feedback controller gain, which is realized by converting the non-convex optimization problem to an unconstrained nonlinear programming problem. The effectiveness of proposed design techniques is demonstrated through a linearized model of F-18 HARV around an operating point.

  4. Gamma-irradiation stability of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyanhydrides--ricinoleic acid based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teomim, D; Mäder, K; Bentolila, A; Magora, A; Domb, A J

    2001-01-01

    The effect of terminal sterilization by gamma-irradiation on several ricinoleic acid based polyanhydrides was investigated. The following polymers were used: poly(ricinoleic acid maleate) [P(RAM)], poly(ricinoleic acid succinate) [P(RAS)], poly(hydroxy stearic acid succinate) [P(HSAS)], poly(hydroxy stearic acid maleate) [P(HSAM)], and their copolymers with sebacic acid. The polymers were irradiated with an absorbed dose of 2.5 or 10 Mrad by means of a 60Co source under dry ice or at room temperature. No differences were found between samples irradiated under dry ice and at room temperature. Polymers prepared from monomers containing maleate residues, which contain double bonds adjusted to the anhydride linkage along the polymer chain, decreased in molecular weight, became insoluble, and showed fast hydrolytic degradation. For example, p(RAM), p(HSAM), and their copolymers with sebacic acid decreased in Mw from about 10,000 to about 2000, and from about 30,000 to about 5000, respectively, while polymers based on RAS and HSAS remained stable. This phenomenon was explained by an anhydride interchange-self-depolymerization process of the unsaturated anhydride bonds induced by gamma-irradiation. This explanation was supported by the depolymerization of another class of polymers having an anhydride bond between two double bonds, fumaric acid anhydride polymers. The anhydride bond that lies between two double bonds was found to be more sensitive to gamma-irradiation. This anhydride bond may be cleaved to form two radicals that further react with aliphatic anhydride bonds along the polymer chain to form inter- and/or intracyclization products. PMID:11710004

  5. Wavelength-Dependent Transient Characteristics Caused by Gain Saturation in Highly Nonlinear Fiber-Based Raman Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinobu; Tamaoki; Tetsufumi; Tsuzaki; Motoki; Kakui; Masayuki; Shigematsu

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the transient characteristics of discrete Raman Amplifiers and found that the response time caused by gain saturation is dependent upon the wavelength, which corresponds to the effective length of the pump light.

  6. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  7. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients. PMID:24488648

  8. Radial variations in cation exchange capacity and base saturation rate in the wood of pedunculate oak and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbauts, J.; Penninckx, V.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de genetique et d' ecologie vegetales, Brussels (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Visual observation of pedunculate oak trees and European beech trees in a mixed forest stand in the Belgian Ardennes revealed decreasing cation concentration profiles in wood. In order to determine whether these profiles are attributable to endogenous factors or to decreased availability of cations in the soil, radial profiles of water-soluble, exchangeable and total cations were investigated. Cation exchange capacity of wood was also determined. Results showed wood cation exchange capacity to decrease from pith to bark in European beech and from pith to outer heartwood in pedunculate oak. Decreasing profiles of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in peduncular oak and exchangeable calcium in European beech were found to be strongly constrained by cation exchange capacity, and thus not related to environmental change. Base cation saturation rate showed no consistent radial change in either species. It was concluded that the results did not provide convincing evidence to attribute the decrease in divalent cation concentration in pedunculate oak and European beech in this location to be due to atmospheric pollution. 42 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. A Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique Based on Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer for In Vivo γ-Aminobutyric Acid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gen; Zhang, Tao; Dai, Zhuozhi; Yi, Meizhi; Jia, Yanlong; Nie, Tingting; Zhang, Handi; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We developed a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) for GABA imaging and investigated the concentration-dependent CEST effect ofGABA in a rat model of brain tumor with blood—brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Materials and Methods All MRI studies were performed using a 7.0-T Agilent MRI scanner. Z-spectra for GABA were acquired at 7.0 T, 37°C, and a pH of 7.0 using varying B1 amplitudes. CEST images of phantoms with different concentrations of GABA solutions (pH, 7.0) and other metabolites (glutamine, myoinositol, creatinine, and choline) were collected to investigate the concentration-dependent CEST effect of GABA and the potential contribution from other brain metabolites. CEST maps for GABA in rat brains with tumors were collected at baseline and 50 min, 1.5 h, and 2.0 h after the injection of GABA solution. Results The CEST effect of GABA was observed at approximately 2.75 parts per million(ppm) downfield from bulk water, and this effect increased with an increase in the B1 amplitude and remained steady after the B1 amplitude reached 6.0 μT (255 Hz). The CEST effect of GABA was proportional to the GABA concentration in vitro. CEST imaging of GABA in a rat brain with a tumor and compromised BBB showed a gradual increase in the CEST effect after GABA injection. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility and potential of CEST MRI with the optimal B1 amplitude, which exhibits excellent spatial and temporal resolutions, to map changes in GABA. PMID:27711138

  10. Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting differences in the saturation capacities in cage-type zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Krishna; J.M. van Baten

    2011-01-01

    For zeolites such as CHA, LTA, DDR, ERI, AFX, and TSC that consist of cages separated by narrow windows, the saturation capacities expressed as molecules per cage, Θi,sat, of linear alcohols and alkanes have integer values in a certain range of C numbers. In this range, the Θi,sat decreases in a ste

  11. Fission chambers designer based on Monte Carlo techniques working in current mode and operated in saturation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolínez, Alfonso; Rapisarda, David

    2016-07-01

    Fission chambers have become one of the main devices for the measurement of neutron fluxes in nuclear facilities; including fission reactors, future fusion ones, spallation sources, etc. The main goal of a fission chamber is to estimate the neutron flux inside the facility, as well as instantaneous changes in the irradiation conditions. A Monte Carlo Fission Chamber Designer (MCFCD) has been developed in order to assist engineers in the complete design cycle of the fission chambers. So far MCFCD focuses on the most important neutron reactions taking place in a thermal nuclear reactor. A theoretical model describing the most important outcomes in fission chambers design has been developed, including the expected electrical signals (current intensity and drop in potential) and, current-polarization voltage characteristics (sensitivity and saturation plateau); the saturation plateau is the zone of the saturation curve where the output current is proportional to fission rate; fission chambers work in this region. Data provided by MCFCD are in good agreement with measurements available.

  12. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts of saturated fat. Too much saturated fat in your diet can lead to heart disease and other health problems.

  13. Mechanics of non-saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the different ways to approach the mechanics of non saturated soils, from the physico-chemical aspect to the mechanical aspect, from the experiment to the theoretical modeling, from the laboratory to the workmanship, and from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic one. Content: water and its representation; experimental bases of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; transfer laws in non-saturated environment; energy approach of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; homogenization for the non-saturated soils; plasticity and hysteresis; dams and backfilling; elaborated barriers. (J.S.)

  14. Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Jagiello, Joanna; Kozinski, Rafal; Librant, Krzysztof; Zdrojek, Mariusz; Lipinska, Ludwika; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of linearly polarized pulses from a passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser. The cavity was designed using only polarization maintaining (PM) fibers and components, resulting in linearly polarized output beam with degree of polarization (DOP) at the level of 97.6%. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was used as a saturable absorber for Q-switched operation. The laser was capable of delivering 1.85us pulses with 125nJ pulse energy at 115kHz repetition rate.

  15. MRI nanoprobes based on chemical exchange saturation transfer: LnIII chelates anchored on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauto, Giuseppe; Carniato, Fabio; Tei, Lorenzo; Hu, He; Aime, Silvio; Botta, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The formation of ternary complexes between neutral LnIII-DO3A chelates anchored on MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and silanol groups on the surface allows obtaining highly efficient chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI nanoprobes. These new probes achieve excellent sensitivity in the μM range (per LnIII ion), significantly greater than that of other paramagnetic CEST nanosystems such as dendrimers or micelles and three orders of magnitude higher than that of the corresponding molecular agents.The formation of ternary complexes between neutral LnIII-DO3A chelates anchored on MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and silanol groups on the surface allows obtaining highly efficient chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI nanoprobes. These new probes achieve excellent sensitivity in the μM range (per LnIII ion), significantly greater than that of other paramagnetic CEST nanosystems such as dendrimers or micelles and three orders of magnitude higher than that of the corresponding molecular agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization of the materials; Z- and ST-spectra of all materials; sensitivity threshold for TmDO3A-MCM-41 and EuDO3A-MCM-41 pH and temperature dependence of ST% for TbDO3A-MCM-41. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02753a

  16. Development of Pulse Oxygen Saturation Measurement System Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的脉搏血氧饱和度检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游海峰; 谢勤岚

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is an important parameter to measure human blood oxygen carrying capacity, and also an important physiological indexes in the common clinical diagnosis and family care. Based on the infrared spectrum method in blood oxygen saturation measurement, a pulse oxygen aturation measurement system is designed. The system which consists of the FPGA platform, the RSJ048CAS finger chip pulse oximeter sensor, control and display module, can monitor the oxygen saturation timely, continuously and non-invasively. The experimental results show that in a quiet state the system can realize the measurement of the oxygen saturation not less than 94%.%血氧饱和度是衡量人体血液携带氧能力的重要参数,也是临床诊断和家庭保健中重要的生理指标.根据红外光谱法血氧饱和度测量原理,设计了一种血氧饱和度测量系统.系统以FPGA为开发平台,包括RSJ048CAS指夹式脉搏血氧探头、AD采集模块、信号调理模块、控制显示模块等模块,它可以实时、连续和无创地进行血氧饱和度检测.实验结果表明,在安静状态下,该系统可实现测得的血氧饱和度不低于94%.

  17. A rapid, efficient, and economical inverse polymerase chain reaction-based method for generating a site saturation mutant library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pankaj C; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-03-15

    With the development of deep sequencing methodologies, it has become important to construct site saturation mutant (SSM) libraries in which every nucleotide/codon in a gene is individually randomized. We describe methodologies for the rapid, efficient, and economical construction of such libraries using inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We show that if the degenerate codon is in the middle of the mutagenic primer, there is an inherent PCR bias due to the thermodynamic mismatch penalty, which decreases the proportion of unique mutants. Introducing a nucleotide bias in the primer can alleviate the problem. Alternatively, if the degenerate codon is placed at the 5' end, there is no PCR bias, which results in a higher proportion of unique mutants. This also facilitates detection of deletion mutants resulting from errors during primer synthesis. This method can be used to rapidly generate SSM libraries for any gene or nucleotide sequence, which can subsequently be screened and analyzed by deep sequencing.

  18. Stability Analysis of State Saturation 2D Discrete Time-Delay Systems Based on F-M Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability analysis is investigated for a class of state saturation two-dimensional (2D discrete time-delay systems described by the Fornasini-Marchesini (F-M model. The delay is allowed to be a bounded time-varying function. By constructing the delay-dependent 2D discrete Lyapunov functional and introducing a nonnegative scalar β, a sufficient condition is proposed to guarantee the global asymptotic stability of the addressed systems. Subsequently, the criterion is converted into the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs which can be easily tested by using the standard numerical software. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion.

  19. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  20. Wavelet Adaptive Reduced Order Observer Based Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain Time Delay Nonlinear Systems Subjected to Actuator Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Verma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This Paper investigates the mean to design the reduced order observer and observer based controllers for a class of delayed uncertain nonlinear system subjected to actuator saturation. A new design approach of wavelet based adaptive reduced order observer is proposed. The proposed wavelet adaptive reduced order observer performs the task of identification of unknown system dynamics in addition to the reconstruction of states of the system. Wavelet neural network (WNN is used to approximate the uncertainties present in the system as well as to identify and compensate the nonlinearities introduced in the system due to actuator saturation. Using the feedback control, based on reconstructed states, the behavior of closed loop system is investigated. In addition robust control terms are also designed to attenuate the approximation error due to WNN. Adaptation laws are developed for the online tuning of the wavelet parameters and the stability of the overall systems is assured by using the Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional. A numerical example is provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical development.

  1. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-04-01

    Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

  2. Effect of natural particles on the transport of lindane in saturated porous media: Laboratory experiments and model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueleu, Stéphane K.; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2013-06-01

    Colloidal particles can act as carriers for adsorbing pollutants, such as hydrophobic organic pollutants, and enhance their mobility in the subsurface. In this study, we investigate the influence of colloidal particles on the transport of pesticides through saturated porous media by column experiments. We also investigate the effect of particle size on this transport. The model pesticide is lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), a representative hydrophobic insecticide which has been banned in 2009 but is still used in many developing countries. The breakthrough curves are analyzed with the help of numerical modeling, in which we examine the minimum model complexity needed to simulate such transport. The transport of lindane without particles can be described by advective-dispersive transport coupled to linear three-site sorption, one site being in local equilibrium and the others undergoing first-order kinetic sorption. In the presence of mobile particles, the total concentration of mobile lindane is increased, that is, lindane is transported not only in aqueous solution but also sorbed onto the smallest, mobile particles. The models developed to simulate separate and associated transport of lindane and the particles reproduced the measurements very well and showed that the adsorption/desorption of lindane to the particles could be expressed by a common first-order rate law, regardless whether the particles are mobile, attached, or strained.

  3. Observer-Based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for a Class of Nonlinear Time Delay Systems with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ming Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive iterative learning control scheme for the output tracking of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying delays and input saturation nonlinearity. An observer is presented to estimate the states and linear matrix inequality (LMI method is employed for observer design. The assumption of identical initial condition for ILC is relaxed by introducing boundary layer function. The possible singularity problem is avoided by introducing hyperbolic tangent function. The uncertainties with time-varying delays are compensated for by the combination of appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and Young’s inequality. Both time-varying and time-invariant radial basis function neural networks are employed to deal with system uncertainties. On the basis of a property of hyperbolic tangent function, the system output is proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the desired trajectory by constructing Lyapunov-like composite energy function in two cases, while keeping all the closed-loop signals bounded. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. High power passive mode-locked L-band fiber laser based on microfiber topological insulator saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Georges; Meng, Yichang; Salhi, Mohamed; Niang, Alioune; Guesmi, Khmaies; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Sanchez, Francois

    2016-04-01

    In this communication, we demonstrate a passive mode-locked Er:Yb co-doped double-clad fiber laser using a tapered microfiber topological insulator (Bi2Se3) saturable absorber (TISA). The topological insulator is drop-casted onto the tapered fiber and optically deposited by optical tweezer effect. We use a ring laser setup including the fabricated TISA. By carefully optimizing the cavity losses and output coupling ratio, the mode-locked laser can operate in L-band with a high average output power. At a maximum pump power of 5 W, we obtain the 91st harmonic mode-locking of soliton bunches with a 3dB spectral bandwidth of 1.06nm, a repetition rate of 640.9 MHz and an average output power of 308mW. As far as we know, this is the highest output power yet reported of a mode-locked fiber laser operating with a TISA.

  5. Q-switching and mode-locking pulse generation with graphene oxide paper-based saturable absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Q-switched and mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers (EDFLs are demonstrated by using non-conductive graphene oxide (GO paper as a saturable absorber (SA. A stable and self-starting Q-switched operation was achieved at 1534.4 nm by using a 0.8 m long erbium-doped fibre (EDF as a gain medium. The pulse repetition rate changed from 14.3 to 31.5 kHz, whereas the corresponding pulse width decreased from 32.8 to 13.8 µs as the pump power increased from 22 to 50.5 mW. A narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched EDFL could also be realised by including a photonics crystal fibre and a tunable Bragg filter in the setup. It can operate at a maximum repetition rate of 31 kHz, with a pulse duration of 7.04 µs and pulse energy of 2.8 nJ. Another GOSA was used to realise mode-locked EDFL in a different cavity consisting of a 1.6 m long EDF in conjunction with 1480 nm pumping. The laser generated a soliton pulse train with a repetition rate of 15.62 MHz and pulse width of 870 fs. It is observed that the proposed fibre lasers have a low pulsing threshold pump power as well as a low damage threshold.

  6. Resposta de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em solo de cerrado Response of upland rice, dry bean, corn and soybean to base saturation in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand K. Fageria

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento de campo, quatro anos consecutivos (1995/96 a 1998/99 para avaliar a resposta das culturas de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico (LEd (Oxissolo cultivados em sistema de sucessão. Os valores de saturação por base criados pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56 e 66%. Ocorreu aumento significativo na produção de grãos de feijão, milho e soja com a saturação por base; entretanto, a produção de arroz não foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos. Mas, com base de equação de regressão, as saturações por base adequadas para a produção dos três, foram estabelecidas em 53, 60 e 63% respectivamente, e, para a cultura de arroz, o nível adequado de saturação por base encontrado foi de 40%. A acumulação de nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos e pela idade da planta nas quatro culturas estudadas. Os níveis adequados das propriedades químicas do solo, como pH, teor de Ca, teor de Mg, relações Ca/Mg, Ca/K, Mg/K, saturações por Ca, Mg e K, foram estabelecidos para as culturas de arroz, feijão, milho e soja, cultivados em solo de cerrado.A field experiments was conducted during four consecutive years (1995/96 to 1998/99 to evaluate responses of upland rice, dry bean, corn, and soybean grown in sequence to base saturation on a Dark Red Latosol (Oxisol. Mean base saturation levels determined after harvest of each crop were: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56, and 66%. Grain yield of dry bean, corn, and soybean were significantly affected with base saturation. Upland rice yield, however, was not influenced with base saturation treatments. Based on the quadratic response, optimum base saturation for maximum grain yield of dry bean was 53%, for corn 60% and for soybean 63%. For upland rice the base saturation under no lime treatment was 40%, which is considered

  7. Prediction of the electronic structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties in manganese doped magnesium-based alloys and their saturated hydrides based on density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziying; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Zhishui; He, Liang; Li, Jin

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structures, electronic structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Mg2Ni alloy and its saturated hydride with different Mn-doping contents are investigated using first-principles density functional theory. The lattice parameters for the Mn-doped Mg2Ni alloys and their saturated hydrides decreased with an increasing Mn-doping content because of the smaller atomic size of Mn compared with that of Mg. Analysis of the formation enthalpies and electronic structures reveal that the partial substitution of Mg with Mn reduces the stability of Mg2Ni alloy and its saturated hydride. The calculated elastic constants indicate that, although the partial substitution of Mg with Mn lowers the toughness of the hexagonal Mg2Ni alloy, the charge/discharge cycles are elevated when the Mn-doping content is high enough to form the predicted intermetallic compound Mg3MnNi2.

  8. Analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons migrating from a polyolefin-based hot-melt adhesive into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Martin; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Simat, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt adhesives are widely utilised to glue cardboard boxes used as food packaging material. They have to comply with the requirements of Article 3 of the European Framework Regulation for food contact materials (1935/2004). The hot melt raw materials analysed mainly consisted of paraffinic waxes, hydrocarbon resins and polyolefins. The hydrocarbon resins, functioning as tackifiers, were the predominant source of hydrocarbons of sufficient volatility to migrate into dry foods: the 18 hydrocarbon resins analysed contained 8.2-118 g kg(-1) saturated and up to 59 g kg(-1) aromatic hydrocarbons eluted from GC between n-C16 and n-C24, substantially more than the paraffinic waxes and the polyolefins. These tackfier resins, especially the oligomers ≤ C24, have been characterised structurally by GC×GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Migration into food was estimated using a simulating system with polenta as food simulant, which was verified by the analysis of a commercial risotto rice sample packed in a virgin fibre folding box sealed with a hot melt. About 0.5-1.5% of the potentially migrating substances (between n-C16 and n-C24) of a hot melt were found to be transferred into food under storage conditions, which can result in a food contamination in the order of 1 mg kg(-1) food (depending on the amount of potentially migrating substances from the hot melt, the hot melt surface, amount of food, contact time etc.). Migrates from hot melts are easily mistaken for mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled cardboard.

  9. Acidification of soil-water in low base-saturated sand soils of the superior uplands under acid and normal precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1989-04-01

    Lakes and streams are acidified by direct precipitation and water channeled through nearby soils, but water in low base-saturation soils can produce highly acidic percolate after prolonged contact and subsequent degassing in surface waters. Theories advanced by Reuss (1983), Reuss and Johnson (1985), and Seip and Rustad (1984) suggest that soils with less than 15% base saturation are susceptible to soil-water pH depression of up to 0.4 unit, which is sufficient to cause negative alkalinity in soil solutions. High concentrations of mobile anions (notably sulfate) are responsible for the negative alkalinity and these solutions on CO2 degassing in surface waters can retain acidities equivalent to a pH value of 5.0 or less. This mechanism purports to explain why some lakes acidify when they are surrounded by acid soils and cation leaching is not required.Ambient precipitation set to pH 5.4 and pH 4.2 was applied to columns of low base-saturated, sand, soils, starting in 1985. The columns (15 cm diameter and 150 cm long) were collected from soils with base saturations falling into one of three groups (0-10, 10-20, and 20-40%) from national forests in the Superior Uplands area (includes Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Rainbow Lakes, Sylvania, Moquah Barrens, and other Wilderness and Natural areas). The soils were Haplorthods and Udipsamments mainly from outwash plains.The soil columns were instrumented and reburied around a subterranean structure used to collect leachate water and to maintain natural temperature, air, and light conditions. Three humus treatments were applied to soil column (none, northern hardwood, and jack pine) to measure the effect of natural acidification compared to acidification by acid precipitation. The cores were treated with precipitation buffered to pH 5.4 to simulate natural rain and pH 4.2 to simulate acid rain.Columns were treated in 1985 and 1986 with approximately 200 cm of buffered precipitation each year over the frost-free season. Data is

  10. VERTICAL VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF AXISYMMETRIC SATURATED SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yuan-qiang; XU Chang-jie; ZHENG Zao-feng; WU Da-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Based on Biot's dynamic consolidation equations, by means of Laplace-Hankel transform technology, the integral solutions of stress and displacement in saturated soil with subjacent rock-stratum under axisymmetric arbitrary excitations were derived. Influence of the reflected wave generated by the boundary was revealed. Numerical results indicate that the vibration frequency has some effect on the vertical displacement of saturated soil. The vertical displacement at the surface of saturated soil lags in phase with the load. Furthermore, the dynamic permeability coefficient of saturated soil has significant effect on the vertical displacement at the initial stage of load applied, but when the load becomes stable, the effect is inapparent.

  11. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  12. Identifying new saturation mechanisms hindering the development of plasma-based laser amplifiers utilizing Stimulated Raman Backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, David Pearson

    Stimulated Raman Backscattering (SRBS) has the potential to supplement existing laser amplification technology in order to exceed the maximum intensity that is attainable with modern systems. It utilizes a three wave interaction in plasma in order to transfer the energy from a long, low intensity pumping pulse to a short, counterpropagating seed pulse that undergoes temporal compression as it is amplified and should ultimately be able to reach unfocused intensities up to a relativistic limit about five orders of magnitude larger than conventional systems. If proven viable, it could democratize research conducted with ultraintense laser systems as well as open up new realms of physics. Following theoretical suggestions and previous experimental conclusions, longer and more uniform preformed plasma channels were successfully created by focusing one of the plasma-forming beams to a line using an axicon lens. The beams amplified in those plasma channels were in fact more energetic than those previously reported in the published literature. However, results remained far afield of the theoretical predictions, which prompted an effort to reconcile the analytical work suggesting this scheme can be highly efficient with the experimental results demonstrating saturation. A Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating diagnostic was built in order to obtain greater insight into the amplified pulse shape and frequency distribution, data from which indicated that there was very often a frequency shift that seems to detune the interaction. Several mechanisms appear to be potentially viable sources of this shift. One possibility is that an ion acoustic wave induces wave collapse of the primary Langmuir wave mediating SRBS; this would also increase the damping rate and might even facilitate particle trapping. Additional evidence of this scenario later appeared in the time-integrated spectrometer data. Another possibility is that the amplified seed pulse triggers additional ionization of the

  13. Q-switching of a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser by a graphene-based saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, J. M.; Loiko, P.; Mateos, X.; Jambunathan, V.; Yumashev, K.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-02-01

    The first Ho microchip laser passively Q-switched using a graphene-based saturable absorber is demonstrated based on a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystal cut along the N g-axis. A maximum average output power of 74 mW is extracted from the diode-pumped laser at 2061 nm with a slope efficiency of 4%. Pulses as short as 200 ns with an energy of ~0.2 μJ are obtained at a repetition rate of 340 kHz. The energy transfer (ET), 3F4 (Tm3+) ↔ 5I7 (Ho3+) is studied, yielding ET parameters of P 28  =  1.69 and P 71  =  0.15  ×  10-22 cm3 μs-1, revealing the strong prevalence of direct ET.

  14. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotor, J.; Sobon, G.; Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L.; Abramski, K. M.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (Frep) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest Frep was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  15. Event-based distributed set-membership filtering for a class of time-varying non-linear systems over sensor networks with saturation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guoliang; Liu, Shuai; Wang, Licheng; Wang, Yongxiong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, based on the event-triggered mechanism, the problem of distributed set-membership filtering is concerned for a class of time-varying non-linear systems over sensor networks subject to saturation effects. Different from the traditional periodic sample-data approach, the filter is updated only when the predefined event is satisfied, which the event is defined according to the measurement output. For each node, the proposed novel event-triggered mechanism can reduce the unnecessary information transmission between sensors and filters. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design a series of distributed set-membership filters, for all the admissible unknown but bounded noises, non-linearities and sensor saturation, such that the set of all possible states can be determined. The desired filter parameters are obtained by solving a recursive linear matrix inequality that can be computed recursively using the available MATLAB toolbox. Finally, a simulation example is exploited to show the effectiveness of the proposed design approach in this paper.

  16. Silver nanoparticle-film based saturable absorber for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) in ring cavity configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Ruslan, N. E.; Ismail, M. A.; Ali, Z. A.; Reduan, S. A.; Lee, C. S. J.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-09-01

    We report a passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on silver (Ag) nanoparticle thin-film saturable absorber (SA). The thin film was sandwiched between two fiber ferrules, which offer flexibility and easy integration into the ring cavity. Self-started and stable Q-switching is achieved at a central wavelength of 1558.7 nm within the C-band region. The repetition rate and pulse duration shows a typical Q-switched laser profile as we increase the pump power; the repetition rate increases from 19.471–74.074 kHz while pulse duration decreases from 8.88–3.2 µs. A signal-to-noise ratio value of 35 dB was obtained at 100 mW pump power. By using a balanced twin-detector method, the modulation depth and saturation intensity of the Ag nanoparticle thin film were measured to be 31.6% and 0.54 MW cm‑2 respectively. This result offers another alternative to the existing SA materials.

  17. Multiscale optimization of saturated poroelastic actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    A multiscale method for optimizing the material micro structure in a macroscopically heterogeneous saturated poroelastic media with respect to macro properties is presented. The method is based on topology optimization using the homogenization technique, here applied to the optimization of a bi......-morph saturated poroelastic actuator....

  18. Fault tolerant control of systems with saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture in connec...

  19. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  20. 基于光电容积脉搏波法血氧饱和度测量系统研究%A research of blood oxygen saturation measurement system based on the photoplethysmography method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苌飞霸; 陈维平; 徐力; 尹军

    2015-01-01

    血氧饱和度是人体一项重要的生理参数。目前,血氧饱和度检测方法分为有创血氧饱和度检测和基于光电容积脉搏波法的无创血氧饱和度检测。其中,基于光电容积脉搏波法的无创血氧饱和度研究模型采用人体光电容积脉搏波信号作为信息载体进行无创连续的血氧饱和度的检测。该文综述了基于血液容积波法无创血氧饱和度测量原理及测量系统;重点介绍了反射式血氧饱和度检测系统;并对影响血液容积波法无创血氧饱和度测量系统准确性的相关因素进行了归纳与总结。%The blood oxygen saturation is an important human physiological parameter .Currently, the blood oxygen saturation detection method is divided into the invasive measurement of blood oxygen satura -tion and noninvasive measurement of blood oxygen saturation based on photoplethysmography method .A-mong them , based on photoplethysmography method of noninvasive oxygen saturation research model a-dopts photoelectric volume pulse wave signals of the human body as an information carrier for noninvasive continuous blood oxygen saturation detection .This paper reviews noninvasive oxygen saturation based on photoplethysmography method measurement principle and measurement system , mainly introduces the re-flectance oxygen saturation detection system .And the related factors affecting the accuracy of the nonin-vasive blood oxygen saturation measurement system were concluded and summarized .

  1. Optical interrupter based in the internal total reflection of spatial solitons at nonlinear saturable interfaces; Interruptores opticos basados en reflexion interna total de solitones espaciales en interfaces no lineales saturables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Mendez, E.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Gutierrez-Hernandez, D. A.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Lagunas, R.; Pedraza-Ortega, J. C.; Torres Cisneros, G. E. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sanchez Mondragon, J. J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico); Flores-Alvarado, G. [Preparatoria por Cooperacion Domingo Arenas, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    We study the reflection of one-dimensional spatial soliton at the nonlinear interface between a saturable type medium and linear medium. Our study makes emphasis on determining the physical conditions under which the beam reflected by the interface is still a spatial soliton. Depended the incidence angle we find three critical regions for spatial solitons in the interface. We observed nonlinear Goos- Haechen shift is determined if reflection angle are conserved. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results in SBN61:Ce of the total internal reflection of one dimensional beam. [Spanish] Estudiamos la reflexion de un soliton espacial unidimensional en una interfase formada por un medio no lineal saturable y un medio lineal. Nuestros estudios hacen enfasis en determinar las condiciones fisicas bajo las cuales el haz reflejado por la interfase no lineal sigue siendo soliton. Encontramos tres regiones criticas para un soliton especial en la interfase, dependiendo del valor que tome el angulo de incidencia. Asi mismo observamos corrimiento Goos-Haechen no lineal que es determinante para la conservacion del angulo de reflexion. Finalmente, presentamos resultados preliminares experimentales en SBN61:Ce de la reflexion interna total de un haz unidimensional.

  2. A new distributed rainfall-runoff (DR2) model based on soil saturation and runoff cumulative processes

    OpenAIRE

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Navas Izquierdo, Ana

    2012-01-01

    One important issue in agricultural management and hydrological research is the assessment of water stored during a rainfall event. In this study, a new GIS-based rainfall-runoff model is presented to estimate soil moisture status (SMS) for each month of the year after an average rainfall event with maximum intensity. The new model computes the volume of actual available water (Waa) downwards from divides, taking into account the different configurations of the upslope contributing area, infi...

  3. A computational model of pile vertical vibration in saturated soil based on the radial disturbed zone of pile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Shi, Qian; Wang, Kuihua

    2010-06-01

    In this study, a simplified computational model of pile vertical vibration was developed. The model was based on the inhomogeneous radial disturbed zone of soil in the vicinity of a pile disturbed by pile driving. The model contained two regions: the disturbed zone, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the pile, and the undisturbed region, external to the disturbed zone. In the model, excess pore pressure in the disturbed zone caused by pile driving was assumed to follow a logarithmic distribution. The relationships of stress and strain in the disturbed zone were based on the principle of effective stress under plain strain conditions. The external zone was governed by the poroelastic theory proposed by Biot. With the use of a variable separation method, an analytical solution in the frequency domain was obtained. Furthermore, a semi-analytical solution was attained by employing a numerical convolution method. Numerical results from the frequency and time domain indicated that the equivalent radius of the disturbed zone and the ratio of excess pore pressure had a significant effect on pile dynamic response. However, actual interactions between pile and soil will be weaker due to the presence of the radial disturbed zone, which is caused by pile driving. Consequently, the ideal undisturbed model overestimates the interaction between pile and soil; however, the proposed model reflects the interaction of pile and soil better than the perfect contact model. Numerical results indicate that the model can account for the time effect of pile dynamic tests.

  4. 非饱和状态下TCP/UDP混合流的EDCA模型分析%EDCA Model of TCP/UDP Flows Based on Non-saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张南; 肖扬

    2011-01-01

    IEEE 802. 11e EDCA mechanism permits using CFB (Contention Free Burst) ,which will control the media in a whole TXOP. So it can save some time to occupy the channel and improve the QoS. But few papers think over TXOP in non-saturation. This paper proposed an easy analysis model of TCP/UDP heterogeneous flows appear in non-saturated condition based on IEEE 802. lle EDCA mechanism, the model thinks over CFB, the simulation results indicate that the model is valid on forecasting the EDCA mechanism of mixed flows, and the interaction of the mixed TCP/UDP flows appear when they share the same channel.%IEEE 802.11e EDCA机制允许采用CFB(竞争空闲突发)模式,使站点在整个TXOP中都能对媒体进行控制,进而省去部分竞争信道的时间,提高服务质量,然而很少有文献考虑动态TXOP非饱和状态模型.提出了非饱和状态下TCP/UDP混合流的简单分析模型,该模型考虑了提高服务质量的竞争自由脉冲(CFB)模式.仿真结果表明,该模型能有效地预测混合流的EDCA机制性能,并反映出混合TCP/UDP流共用信道时会产生相互影响.

  5. Thermal decomposition and combustion of saturated hydrocarbon-based solid propellants; Howa tanka suisokei kotai suishinyaku no netsubunkai to nensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Shimoda, M.; Yamaya, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)] Han`ya, Y. [Techno Seven Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)] Iwama, A. [Nippon Koki Co. Ltd., Fukushima (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    At present, in the fuels and binders of composite solid propellants, hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is the mainstream. HTPB/AP/Al propellants consist of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) as oxidizers and aluminium powders as fuel composition, have high combustion properties and combustion reliability, excellent mechanical properties and better processability and so forth. Recently, hydroxyl-terminated polyisoprene displaced the terminal of polyisoprene using as the main composition of natural rubbers to hydroxyl was synthesized by means of the radical polymerization process of isoprene monomer. Further, hydrogenated hydroxyl-terminated polyisoprene (HHTPI) binder added hydrogen atom in a part of the double bond was developed. In this study, new developed HHTPI and the thermal decomposition and the combustion properties were compared with the that of conventional HTPB/AP-based propellants and it was obtained a lot of knowledge. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Combinatorics of saturated secondary structures of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clote, P

    2006-11-01

    Following Zuker (1986), a saturated secondary structure for a given RNA sequence is a secondary structure such that no base pair can be added without violating the definition of secondary structure, e.g., without introducing a pseudoknot. In the Nussinov-Jacobson energy model (Nussinov and Jacobson, 1980), where the energy of a secondary structure is -1 times the number of base pairs, saturated secondary structures are local minima in the energy landscape, hence form kinetic traps during the folding process. Here we present recurrence relations and closed form asymptotic limits for combinatorial problems related to the number of saturated secondary structures. In addition, Python source code to compute the number of saturated secondary structures having k base pairs can be found at the web servers link of bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/.

  7. Saturable absorption and two-photon absorption of 1,2,5-thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline based derivatives with near-infrared fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yabing; Lin, Xiaodong; Jia, Tingjian; Dong, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Organic molecules with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence are extremely interesting for the applications in nonlinear optical devices and bioimaging. However, such kind of materials have been relatively rarely studied. In this work, the nonlinear optical properties of 1,2,5-thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline based derivatives with NIR fluorescence emission have been investigated for the first time. Under the excitation of femtosecond pulses at 532 nm, the chromophore with dithienyl as donor (TQ2) presents saturable absorption (SA) behavior, while no SA has been observed in the derivative with biphenyl (TQ1) as donor. Moreover, TQ2 exhibits much larger two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections with strong NIR fluorescence in the second biological window. The larger nonlinear optical properties of TQ2 is due to the introduction of stronger electron-donating group (dithienyl) and the resultant enhanced intramolecular charge transfer properties. At the end, TPA based optical limiting behaviors of the molecules are demonstrated in THF solutions, thanks to their large solubility and strong TPA.

  8. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence. PMID:26382506

  9. Infinite saturated orders

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhafarov, Damir D

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the notion of saturated order to infinite partial orders and give both a set-theoretic and an algebraic characterization of such orders. We then study the proof theoretic strength of the equivalence of these characterizations in the context of reverse mathematics, showing that depending on one's choice of definitions it is either provable in $\\mathsf{RCA}_0$ or equivalent to $\\mathsf{ACA}_0$.

  10. Capillary saturation and desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, R; Armstrong, R T; Berg, S; Georgiadis, A; Ott, H

    2015-12-01

    Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau saturation in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting saturation defined through the saturation limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment. PMID:26764820

  11. Saturation points on faces of a rational polyhedral cone

    OpenAIRE

    Takemura, Akimichi; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2006-01-01

    Different commutative semigroups may have a common saturation. We consider distinguishing semigroups with a common saturation based on their ``sparsity''. We propose to qualitatively describe sparsity of a semigroup by considering which faces of the corresponding rational polyhedral cone have saturation points. For a commutative semigroup we give a necessary and sufficient condition for determining which faces have saturation points. We also show that we can construct a commutative semigroup ...

  12. All-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with 6 nJ pulse energy based on evanescent field interaction with monoloayer graphene saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Mi Hye; Rotermund, Fabian; Cha, Yong-Ho; Jeong, Do-Young; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate an all-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser with high power by using a monolayer graphene saturable absorber (SA). Large area, uniform monolayer graphene was transferred to the surface of the side-polished fiber (SPF) to realize an in-line graphene SA that operates around 2 μm wavelength. To increase the nonlinear interaction with graphene, we applied an over-cladding onto the SPF, where enhanced optical absorption at monolayer graphene was observed. All-fiber Tm-doped mode-locked laser was built including our in-line graphene SA, which stably delivered the soliton pulses with 773 fs pulse duration. The measured 3-dB spectral bandwidth was 5.14 nm at the wavelength of 1910 nm. We obtained the maximum average output power of 115 mW at a repetition rate of 19.31 MHz. Corresponding pulse energy was estimated to be 6 nJ, which is the highest value among all-fiber Tm-doped soliton oscillators using carbon-material-based SAs. PMID:27410573

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals detailed spatial and temporal distribution of iron-based nanoparticles transported through water-saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Laure; Herrling, Maria Pia; Guthausen, Gisela; Horn, Harald; Delay, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The application of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) such as iron-based ENP in environmental systems or in the human body inevitably raises the question of their mobility. This also includes aspects of product optimization and assessment of their environmental fate. Therefore, the key aim was to investigate the mobility of iron-based ENP in water-saturated porous media. Laboratory-scale transport experiments were conducted using columns packed with quartz sand as model solid phase. Different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) were selected to study the influence of primary particle size (dP = 20 nm and 80 nm) and surface functionalization (plain, -COOH and -NH2 groups) on particle mobility. In particular, the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the transport and retention behaviour of SPION was investigated. In our approach, a combination of conventional breakthrough curve (BTC) analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively and non-destructively visualize the SPION inside the column was applied. Particle surface properties (surface functionalization and resulting zeta potential) had a major influence while their primary particle size turned out to be less relevant. In particular, the mobility of SPION was significantly increased in the presence of NOM due to the sorption of NOM onto the particle surface resulting in a more negative zeta potential. MRI provided detailed spatially resolved information complementary to the quantitative BTC results. The approach can be transferred to other porous systems and contributes to a better understanding of particle transport in environmental porous media and porous media in technical applications.

  14. Inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in CO2-saturated brine using some newly surfactants based on palm oil: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New surfactants from the type of fatty acids derivatives were synthesized based on palm oil and their inhibitive action against the corrosion of carbon steel in CO2-saturated 1% NaCl solution were investigated at 50 °C. The detailed study of surfactants as corrosion inhibitors is given using polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the two employed methods are nearly closed. Results show that, the investigated surfactants are good inhibitors and its inhibition efficiency reaches to 98.95% at 100 ppm for inhibitor V. The high inhibition efficiencies were attributed to the simple blocking effect by adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the steel surface. The surface activity of the synthesized surfactant solutions was determined using surface tension measurements at 25 °C. Adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface was found to obey Langmuir's adsorption isotherm and chemisorption. The correlation between the inhibition efficiencies of the studied surfactants and their molecular structures has been investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The obtained theoretical results have been supported our experimental data. - Graphical abstract: To investigate the relationship between molecular structures of the studied surfactants and their inhibition effect; Quantum chemical molecular calculations were performed. The following quantum chemical indices such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), energy gap ΔE = EHOMO − ELUMO, and dipole moment (μ) were considered. The relation between these parameters and the inhibition efficiencies was explained. The obtained theoretical results have been supported our experimental data. - Highlights: • Effect of surfactants on carbon steel corrosion in CO2-saturted brine was investigated. • The high inhibition efficiency attributed to the adherent adsorption of the investigated

  15. Inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in CO{sub 2}-saturated brine using some newly surfactants based on palm oil: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Lateef, Hany M., E-mail: Hany_shubra@yahoo.co.uk [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Abbasov, V.M.; Aliyeva, L.I.; Qasimov, E.E.; Ismayilov, I.T. [Mamedaliev Institute of Petrochemical Processes, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, AZ1025 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-11-01

    New surfactants from the type of fatty acids derivatives were synthesized based on palm oil and their inhibitive action against the corrosion of carbon steel in CO{sub 2}-saturated 1% NaCl solution were investigated at 50 °C. The detailed study of surfactants as corrosion inhibitors is given using polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the two employed methods are nearly closed. Results show that, the investigated surfactants are good inhibitors and its inhibition efficiency reaches to 98.95% at 100 ppm for inhibitor V. The high inhibition efficiencies were attributed to the simple blocking effect by adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the steel surface. The surface activity of the synthesized surfactant solutions was determined using surface tension measurements at 25 °C. Adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface was found to obey Langmuir's adsorption isotherm and chemisorption. The correlation between the inhibition efficiencies of the studied surfactants and their molecular structures has been investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The obtained theoretical results have been supported our experimental data. - Graphical abstract: To investigate the relationship between molecular structures of the studied surfactants and their inhibition effect; Quantum chemical molecular calculations were performed. The following quantum chemical indices such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), energy gap ΔE = E{sub HOMO} − E{sub LUMO}, and dipole moment (μ) were considered. The relation between these parameters and the inhibition efficiencies was explained. The obtained theoretical results have been supported our experimental data. - Highlights: • Effect of surfactants on carbon steel corrosion in CO{sub 2}-saturted brine was investigated. • The high inhibition efficiency attributed to the adherent adsorption

  16. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A novel time frequency-based 3D Lissajous figure method and its application to the determination of oxygen saturation from the photoplethysmogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S.; Watson, James N.

    2004-11-01

    We present a novel time-frequency method for the measurement of oxygen saturation using the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals from a standard pulse oximeter machine. The method utilizes the time-frequency transformation of the red and infrared PPGs to derive a 3D Lissajous figure. By selecting the optimal Lissajous, the method provides an inherently robust basis for the determination of oxygen saturation as regions of the time-frequency plane where high- and low-frequency signal artefacts are to be found are automatically avoided.

  17. Wave Dispersion and Attenuation in Partially Saturated Sandstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Jian-Xin; YANG Ding-Hui; YANG Hui-Zhu

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate the wave dispersion and attenuation in partially water-saturated sandstones based on the improved Biot/squirt (BISQ) model in which the saturation is introduced. Numerical experiments indicate that the phase velocity of the fast P-wave decreases as the saturation increases in the low-frequency range (102-104 Hz), and reaches the minimum at the full-saturation state. The behaviour of the phase velocity varying with the saturation in the high-frequency range (104-106 Hz), however, is opposite to that in the low-frequency range. The peak value of P-wave attenuation increases with increasing saturation, and is the maximum at the fully saturated state. Numerical models and experiments show that the improved BISQ model is better than the traditional Gassmann-Biot model.

  18. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  19. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  20. The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally investigated the formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like (NL) pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by a new type of saturable absorber: topological insulator. With the increase of pump power, various multi-soliton operation states—ordered, chaotic and bunched multiple-soliton—were subsequently obtained. Once the pump power exceeds 401 mW, an NL pulse state emerged, with a maximum 3 dB bandwidth of about 9.3 nm. This systematic study clearly demonstrated that a topological insulator could be an effective saturable absorber for the formation of various soliton operation states in a fiber laser cavity

  1. The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Man; Tang, Pinghua; Chen, Shuqing; Du, Juan; Jiang, Guobao; Li, Ying; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-05-01

    We experimentally investigated the formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like (NL) pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by a new type of saturable absorber: topological insulator. With the increase of pump power, various multi-soliton operation states—ordered, chaotic and bunched multiple-soliton—were subsequently obtained. Once the pump power exceeds 401 mW, an NL pulse state emerged, with a maximum 3 dB bandwidth of about 9.3 nm. This systematic study clearly demonstrated that a topological insulator could be an effective saturable absorber for the formation of various soliton operation states in a fiber laser cavity.

  2. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85705 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-02-07

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  3. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hader, J.; Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2016-02-01

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  4. Testing Saturation at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C

    2003-01-01

    We extend the saturation models a la Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff to cross-sections of hard processes initiated by virtual-gluon probes separated by large rapidity intervals at hadron colliders. We derive their analytic expressions and apply them to physical examples, such as saturation effects for Mueller-Navelet jets. By comparison to gamma*-gamma* cross-sections we find a more abrupt transition to saturation. We propose to study observables with a potentially clear saturation signal and to use heavy vector and flavored mesons as alternative virtual-gluon probes.

  5. Formation mechanism of cracks in saturated sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lu; Zhemin Zheng; Yongren Wu

    2006-01-01

    The formation mechanism of "water film" (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed theoretically and numerically.The theoretical analysis shows that there will be no stable "water film" in the saturated sand if the strength of the skeleton is zero and no positions are choked.It is shown by numerical simulation that stable water films initiate and grow if the choking state keeps unchanged once the fluid velocities decrease to zero in the liquefied sand column.The developments of "water film" based on the model presented in this paper are compared with experimental results.

  6. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact on ac...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  7. On Exotic Saturated Fusion Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LIAO

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that a product F1 × F2 of saturated fusion systems is exotic if and only if at least one of the factors is exotic. This result provides a method to construct new exotic fusion systems by known exotic fusion systems. We also investigate central products of saturated fusion systems.

  8. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  9. Delay analysis of signalized intersection based on duality saturation degree%基于二元饱和度的信号交叉口延误分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方中奇; 张帅; 王营冠

    2014-01-01

    为提高信号交叉口通行能力,利用二元饱和度方法,对交叉口单相位的车辆做延误分析,推导了适用于任意交通情况的路口延误模型,并对该模型进行算例分析。通过基于传统饱和度与二元饱和度控制约束条件下仿真对比验证,本延误模型计算简单易实现、在较高饱和度下路口车辆排队长度比传统饱和度控制方式短,另外时延也得到一定改善。%In order to improve the traffic capacity of signalized intersections,the delay of single phase vehicles in signa-lized intersections was analysed with the method of duality saturation degree,and then the signalized intersection delay model was established. The analysis of examples for the model was conducted. The results of simulation contrast between both the tradi-tional saturationdegree control method and the duality saturation degree control method show the latter can efficiently decrease in-tersection delay and reduce the queue length of vehicles under high saturation The verification result indicates that the delay model is simple and easy to achieve.

  10. Adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, Éva; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case [Formula: see text], we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism. PMID:26676357

  11. 反射式血氧饱和度测量系统设计%Design of Blood Oxygen Saturation Measure System Based on Reflection Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓峰; 历哲; 凌振宝

    2013-01-01

    To improve the portability of the transmissive oxygen saturation measurement,a reflection type blood oxygen saturation test system is provided,including the sensor unit,signal separation and filtering unit,data acquisition and processing unit,and the display module.The sensing unit consists of a photoelectric sensor,which can transform the biological signal into electrical signal; the electrical signal is processed by the signal separation and filtering unit,which can extract the effective signal from the original signal; the processed signal is converted to digital signal after A/D converter,STC12C5A60S2,and the oxygen saturation value can be calculated through MCU (Micro Control Unit); the oxygen saturation result is displayed on the 1602 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen.The experiment shows that the system can meet the clinical requirements with the measurements accuracy of ± 1%.%针对透射式血氧饱和度测量仪存在携带不便的问题,设计了反射式血氧饱和度测量系统.系统主要由传感单元、信号分离及滤波单元、数据采集和处理单元以及显示模块组成.传感单元主要由光电传感器组成,用于将人体的生物信号转化成电信号.由于传感单元提取的红光和红外光信号混在一起,并有其他干扰信号,需进行信号分离和滤波;处理后的信号经A/D转换器STC12C5A60S2采样转化为数字量,利用单片机计算得到血氧饱和度值,并通过1602液晶显示结果.实验表明,系统测量精度在1%左右,满足临床使用要求.

  12. Passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser via a D-shape-fiber-based MoS2 saturable absorber with a very low nonsaturable loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Na, Duan; Yu-Long, Su; Yong-Gang, Wang; Lu, Li; Xi, Wang; Yi-Shan, Wang

    2016-02-01

    We report on the generation of conventional and dissipative solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers by the evanescent field interaction between the propagating light and a multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film. The MoS2 film is fabricated by depositing the MoS2 water-ethanol mixture on a D-shape-fiber (DF) repetitively. The measured nonsaturable loss, saturable optical intensity, and the modulation depth of this device are 13.3%, 110 MW/cm2, and 3.4% respectively. Owing to the very low nonsaturable loss, the laser threshold of conventional soliton is as low as 4.8 mW. The further increase of net cavity dispersion to normal regime, stable dissipation soliton pulse trains with a spectral bandwidth of 11.7 nm and pulse duration of 116 ps are successfully generated. Our experiment demonstrates that the MoS2-DF device can indeed be used as a high performance saturable absorber for further applications in ultrafast photonics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378024).

  13. Vector Control of Four Switch Three-Phase Inverter Fed Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drive Including Saturation and Iron Losses Effects Based Maximum Torque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Metwally

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effective vector control strategy for four switch three phase (FSTP inverter fed a synchronous reluctance motor with conventional rotor (SynRM drive. The reduction of the number of power switches from six to four improves the cost-effectiveness, volume-compactness and reliability of the three phase inverters. In this paper, a simulation model of the drive system is developed and analyzed in order to verify the effectiveness of the approach. The application of vector control to a SynRM at maximum torque control (MTC operation is presented with emphasis on the effects of saturation and iron losses are briefly considered. A PI controller is used to process the speed error. Two independent hysteresis current controllers with a suitable hysteresis band are utilized for inverter switches signals. A simplified steady-state d-q model including saturation and iron losses is presented. Simulation results show that the drive system provides a fast speed response and good disturbance rejection capability.

  14. ANN BASED ALGORITHM TO SOLVE TRANSFORMING ERROR CAUSED BY CURRENT TRANSFORMER SATURATION%基于ANN的补偿电流互感器饱和对传变电流影响的算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚庆武; 龙志君; 刘韬文; 陈允平

    2001-01-01

    A new algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to eliminate and compensate the current transforming error caused by current transformer saturation. The essential idea is that, when the current transformer is saturated, the current of primary side can be calculated through the current of secondary side using the non-linear mapping ability of ANN. Thus the influence by the saturation of current transformer will be eliminated. Comparison between the proposed algorithm based on ANN and the algorithm based on differential equation is also given in this paper. The result shows that ANN based algorithm is better than differential equation based algorithm.%提出一种基于人工神经网络(ANN)的消除和补偿电流互感器饱和对传变一次电流影响的算法。算法的基本思想为:当电流互感器饱和时,利用人工神经网络极强的非线性映射能力,由电流互感器的二次电流准确计算出一次电流,从而有效地消除和补偿了电流互感器饱和对传变一次电流的影响。与传统的基于微分方程的补偿算法进行了比较,结果表明基于ANN的算法能够获得比采用传统的微分方程算法更好的结果。

  15. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wolfsberg; P. Reimus

    2001-12-18

    and interpretation from the C-wells reactive tracer testing complex in the saturated zone of Yucca Mountain. As no data regarding colloid transport have been developed by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) for the alluvial system, a theoretical analysis based on studies performed in other alluvial systems is developed. The parameters derived in this AMR are developed in a manner consistent with the PA methodology and can be readily integrated into that analysis.

  16. Generation of "gigantic" ultra-short microwave pulses based on passive mode-locking effect in electron oscillators with saturable absorber in the feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Vilkov, M. N.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    A periodic train of powerful ultrashort microwave pulses can be generated in electron oscillators with a non-linear saturable absorber installed in the feedback loop. This method of pulse formation resembles the passive mode-locking widely used in laser physics. Nevertheless, there is a specific feature in the mechanism of pulse amplification when consecutive energy extraction from different fractions of a stationary electron beam takes place due to pulse slippage over the beam caused by the difference between the wave group velocity and the electron axial velocity. As a result, the peak power of generated "gigantic" pulses can exceed not only the level of steady-state generation but also, in the optimal case, the power of the driving electron beam.

  17. Electromagnetically-enhanced saturable absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae; Spiller, Timothy P

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) exploits quantum coherence to burn subnatural linewidth holes within a spectral line. It is typically discussed in the context of a pump-probe configuration in a three-level L system, where the pump is often significantly stronger than the probe. Here we remove such restrictions on the relative intensities of pump and probe fields, and furthermore show that the absorptive properties associated with EIT can be of benefit in absorptive nonlinear processes, especially saturable absorption. We show that in a three-level medium near the EIT condition, we can generate saturable absorption qualitatively similar to two-state saturable absorption. The difference is that we can explore saturable absorption against the ground-state dephasing, rather than spontaneous emission. This has the advantages of significantly more controllability, and more importantly, different intensity scalings in the absorption. Such effects could prove useful for signal regeneration at very low ...

  18. 980-nm all-fiber mode-locked Yb-doped phosphate fiber oscillator based on semiconductor saturable absorber mirror and its amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping-Xue; Yao, Yi-Fei; Chi, Jun-Jie; Hu, Hao-Wei; Zhang, Guang-Ju; Liang, Bo-Xing; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Ma, Chun-Mei; Su, Ning

    2016-08-01

    A 980-nm semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode-locked Yb-doped phosphate fiber laser is demonstrated by using an all-fiber linear cavity configuration. Two different kinds of cavity lengths are introduced into the oscillator to obtain a robust and stable mode-locked seed source. When the cavity length is chosen to be 6 m, the oscillator generates an average output power of 3.5 mW and a pulse width of 76.27 ps with a repetition rate of 17.08 MHz. As the cavity length is optimized to short, 4.4-mW maximum output power and 61.15-ps pulse width are produced at a repetition rate of 20.96 MHz. The output spectrum is centered at 980 nm with a narrow spectral bandwidth of 0.13 nm. In the experiment, no undesired amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) nor harmful oscillation around 1030 nm is observed. Moreover, through a two-stage all-fiber-integrated amplifier, an output power of 740 mW is generated with a pulse width of 200 ps. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205047).

  19. Segmentation and intensity estimation for microarray images with saturated pixels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray image analysis processes scanned digital images of hybridized arrays to produce the input spot-level data for downstream analysis, so it can have a potentially large impact on those and subsequent analysis. Signal saturation is an optical effect that occurs when some pixel values for highly expressed genes or peptides exceed the upper detection threshold of the scanner software (216 - 1 = 65, 535 for 16-bit images. In practice, spots with a sizable number of saturated pixels are often flagged and discarded. Alternatively, the saturated values are used without adjustments for estimating spot intensities. The resulting expression data tend to be biased downwards and can distort high-level analysis that relies on these data. Hence, it is crucial to effectively correct for signal saturation. Results We developed a flexible mixture model-based segmentation and spot intensity estimation procedure that accounts for saturated pixels by incorporating a censored component in the mixture model. As demonstrated with biological data and simulation, our method extends the dynamic range of expression data beyond the saturation threshold and is effective in correcting saturation-induced bias when the lost information is not tremendous. We further illustrate the impact of image processing on downstream classification, showing that the proposed method can increase diagnostic accuracy using data from a lymphoma cancer diagnosis study. Conclusions The presented method adjusts for signal saturation at the segmentation stage that identifies a pixel as part of the foreground, background or other. The cluster membership of a pixel can be altered versus treating saturated values as truly observed. Thus, the resulting spot intensity estimates may be more accurate than those obtained from existing methods that correct for saturation based on already segmented data. As a model-based segmentation method, our procedure is able to identify inner

  20. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Marini, A; de Abajo, F J Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Saturable absorption is a non-perturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a non-perturbative single-particle approach, describing conduction-electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics non-perturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. The results are in excellent agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations including high...

  1. HyspIRI High-Temperature Saturation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V.; Hook, S.; Foote, M.; Csiszar, I.; Dennison, P.; Giglio, L.; Ramsey, M.; Vaughan, R.G.; Wooster, M.; Wright, R.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the precursor activities for the HyspIRI mission, a small team was assembled to determine the optimum saturation level for the mid-infrared (4-?m) channel, which is dedicated to the measurement of hot targets. Examples of hot targets include wildland fires and active lava flows. This determination took into account both the temperature expected for the natural phenomena and the expected performance of the mid-infrared channel as well as its overlap with the other channels in the thermal infrared (7.5-12 ?m) designed to measure the temperature of lower temperature targets. Based on this work, the hot target saturation group recommends a saturation temperature of 1200 K for the mid-infrared channel. The saturation temperature of 1200 K represents a good compromise between the prevention of saturation and sensitivity to ambient temperature.

  2. Predicting Transitions in Oxygen Saturation Using Phone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Juen, Joshua; Hsu-Lumetta, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Widespread availability of mobile devices is revolutionizing health monitoring. Smartphones are ubiquitous, but it is unknown what vital signs can be monitored with medical quality. Oxygen saturation is a standard measure of health status. We have shown phone sensors can accurately measure walking patterns. Subjects and Methods: Twenty cardiopulmonary patients performed 6-min walk tests in pulmonary rehabilitation at a regional hospital. They wore pulse oximeters and carried smartphones running our MoveSense software, which continuously recorded saturation and motion. Continuous saturation defined categories corresponding to status levels, including transitions. Continuous motion was used to compute spatiotemporal gait parameters from sensor data. Our existing gait model was then trained with these data and used to predict transitions in oxygen saturation. For walking variation, 10-s windows are units for classifying into status categories. Results: Oxygen saturation clustered into three categories, corresponding to pulmonary function Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 and GOLD 2, with a Transition category where saturation varied around the mean rather than remaining steady with low standard deviation. This category indicates patients who are not clinically stable. The gait model predicted status during each measured window of free walking, with 100% accuracy for the 20 subjects, based on majority voting. Conclusions: Continuous recording of oxygen saturation can predict cardiopulmonary status, including patients in transition between status levels. Gait models using phone sensors can accurately predict these saturation categories from walking motion. This suggests medical devices for predicting clinical stability from passive monitoring using carried smartphones.

  3. Design of Oxygen Saturation Detection System Based on Reflectance and AC/DC Signal Separation%基于交直流分离的反射式血氧饱和度测量系统的设计∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦颖; 张晶; 蔡靖; 戴强

    2015-01-01

    Liver reserve function is an important parameter for evaluation of the normal physiological activities of liv-er,oxygen saturation is an important intermediate variable of the liver reserve function measurement. This paper process a design for measuring the oxygen saturation based on reflectance method and AC/DC separation for the purpose of continuous measurement of blood oxygen saturation in non-invasive detection method. By measuring the reflective photoplethysmography( PPG) of the finger tip or ear tip,separating AC/DC signal to reduce the system noise and motion interference,aiming to optimize oxygen saturation measurement results;In contrast with clinical test and calibration,system measurement error meet the requirement.%肝储备功能是评价肝脏正常生理活动的重要依据,动脉血氧饱和度是肝储备功能测量的重要中间变量,针对长时间连续无创血氧饱和度测量的要求,提出基于交直流分离的反射式血氧测量系统的设计方案。通过测量手指、耳尖等皮肤薄弱部位的反射式光电容积脉搏波,利用交直流信号分离处理技术,基于动脉血氧饱和度经验测量公式,实现长时间无创动脉血氧饱和度测量。交直流分离技术的使用能够有效的降低系统干扰和噪声的影响,优化血氧饱和度测量结果;经临床医疗对比实验检测,证明系统误差符合实际测量要求。

  4. Understanding NMR relaxometry of partially water-saturated rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mohnke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR relaxometry measurements are commonly used to characterize the storage and transport properties of water-saturated rocks. These assessments are based on the proportionality of NMR signal amplitude and relaxation time to porosity (water content and pore size, respectively. The relationship between pore size and NMR relaxation time depends on pore shape, which is usually assumed to be spherical or cylindrical. However, the NMR response at partial water saturation for natural sediments and rocks differs strongly from the response calculated for spherical or cylindrical pores, because these pore shapes cannot account for water menisci remaining in the corners of de-saturated angular pores. Therefore, we consider a bundle of pores with triangular cross-sections. We introduce analytical solutions of the NMR equations at partial saturation of these pores, which account for water menisci of de-saturated pores. After developing equations that describe the water distribution inside the pores, we calculate the NMR response at partial saturation for imbibition and drainage based on the deduced water distributions. For this pore model, NMR amplitude and NMR relaxation time at partial water saturation strongly depend on pore shape even so the NMR relaxation time at full saturation only depends on the surface to volume ratio of the pore. The pore-shape-dependence at partial saturation arises from the pore shape and capillary pressure dependent water distribution in pores with triangular cross-sections. Moreover, we show the qualitative agreement of the saturation dependent relaxation time distributions of our model with those observed for rocks and soils.

  5. 1-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-3-(4-nitropshenyl) prop-2-en-1-one: A reverse saturable absorption based optical limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra, Subrayachar, E-mail: raghuphotonics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalore, 574199 (India); Chidankumar, Chandraju Sadolalu [X-ray Crystallography Unit, School of Physics, 11800 USM, Universiti Sains Malaysia Penang (Malaysia); Jayarama, Arasalike [Department of Physics, Sadguru Swami Nithyananda Institute of Technology (SSNIT), Kanhangad, 671315 (India); Dharmaprakash, Sampyady Medappa [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalore, 574199 (India)

    2015-01-15

    An organic nonlinear optical material “1-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-3-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one” (4MPNP) has been synthesized by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and crystallized by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The functional groups present in 4MPNP molecule were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. TGA-DSC analysis in the temperature range 30{sup o}C–650 °C showed absence of phase transition before melting point. The crystal structure of 4MPNP was determined using X-ray single crystal diffraction technique. UV–Vis absorption studies were carried out in the wavelength range 190–800 nm. Beyond the cut off wavelength 4MPNP is optically transparent in the entire visible region of the spectrum. Open aperture Z-Scan experimental curve showed that the 4MPNP molecule exhibits minimum transmittance at the focus and maximum nonlinear absorptionat532 nm wavelength. The variation of normalized transmittance with laser power density indicates good optical limiting behavior of the molecule. Nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β), excited state absorption cross-section (σ{sub ex}) and ground state absorption cross-section (σ{sub g}) are estimated and found to be 4.5 cm/GW, 5.17 × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2} and 5.68 × 10{sup −21} cm{sup 2} respectively. The values σ{sub ex}>>σ{sub g} indicate that 4MPNP crystal has the property of reverse saturable absorption. The studies recommend that 4MPNPcan be considered as a potential material for third order nonlinear optical device applications such as optical limiters. - Highlights: • Beyond the cut off wavelength 4MPNP is transparent in entire visible region. • Potential material for nonlinear optical device applications such as optical limiters. • TGA curve indicates that 4MPNP is almost stable up to melting point. • Band gap of 4MPNP is found to be 3.06 eV.

  6. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  7. Application of the logistic model based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm in saturated load forecasting%基于改进PSO算法的Logistic模型在饱和负荷预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林勇; 邹品晶; 左郑敏; 欧阳旭; 朱向前; 姚建刚

    2015-01-01

    将改进的粒子群(PSO)算法应用到饱和电力负荷预测中,通过与Logistic时间序列预测模型相结合,对Logistic曲线函数进行优化参数求解。建立了基于该优化算法的Logistic时间序列饱和负荷预测模型,利用某地区电网历史数据进行Logistic时间序列分析。仿真结果表明,该改进算法收敛速度快,全局寻优能力强,克服了传统PSO算法局部搜索能力较差、容易陷入局部最优的缺点。利用它得到的Logistic拟合曲线,相对于传统PSO算法和Marquardt迭代算法的拟合结果,精度有明显的提高,说明该模型能够很好地反映电力负荷整体变化趋势。另外,运用该模型和人均用电量法分别对某地区电网饱和全社会用电量进行预测,结果显示两者预测结果较为接近,而人均用电量法在饱和电力负荷预测中运用已较为成熟,因此可以证明该模型应用到饱和电力负荷预测中是可行的。%Improved PSO algorithm is applied to the saturated power load forecasting, combining with logistic time series forecasting model, used for optimizing the parameters in Logistic curve function. Lo⁃gistic saturated load time series forecasting model is established based on the optimization algorithm. The logistic time series analysis is carried out on the basis of the historical data of a region power grid. Simulation re⁃sults show that the improved algorithm has faster convergence speed and stronger global optimization ability, overcoming the traditional PSO algo⁃rithm’s drawbacks of poor local search ability and being easy to fall into locally optimal point. The Logistic fitting curve based on the improved al⁃gorithm, compared with the fitting result of traditional PSO algorithm and Marquardt iteration algorithm, is more accurate obviously. It shows that the model can reflect the whole developing trend of power load well. In addition, the model and per⁃person electricity

  8. Modeling of synchronous machines with magnetic saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehaoulia, H. [Universite de Tunis-Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques de Tunis (Unite de Recherche CSSS), 5 Avenue Taha Hussein Tunis 10008 (Tunisia); Henao, H.; Capolino, G.A. [Universite de Picardie Jules Vernes-Centre de Robotique, d' Electrotechnique et d' Automatique (UPRES-EA3299), 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France)

    2007-04-15

    This paper deals with a method to derive multiple models of saturated round rotor synchronous machines, based on different selections of state-space variables. By considering the machine currents and fluxes as space vectors, possible d-q models are discussed and adequately numbered. As a result several novel models are found and presented. It is shown that the total number of d-q models for a synchronous machine, with basic dampers, is 64 and therefore much higher than known. Found models are classified into three families: current, flux and mixed models. These latter, the mixed ones, constitute the major part (52) and hence offer a large choice. Regarding magnetic saturation, the paper also presents a method to account for whatever the choice of state-space variables. The approach consists of just elaborating the saturation model with winding currents as main variables and deriving all the other models from it, by ordinary mathematical manipulations. The paper emphasizes the ability of the proposed approach to develop any existing model without exception. An application to prove the validity of the method and the equivalence between all developed models is reported. (author)

  9. The Reverse Saturation Absorption Property of Indanthrone and Its Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dajun; DUAN Qian; HE Xingquan; ZOU Ying

    2005-01-01

    The syntheses of three nonlinear reverse saturation absorption compounds-Indanthrone and its two derivatives are discussed. The properties of nonlinear reverse saturable absorption of the compounds were studied by using the Z- scanning technique, and the influences of its conjugated structure on the absorption threshold value and the absorbable light density were discussed based on the reverse saturation absorption principle. The results shows that when the structure' s conjugation property of Indanthrone and its derivatives becomes more powerful , its absorption threshold reduces, the light lowest transmittance increases.

  10. Análise de crescimento de girassol em Latossolo com diferentes níveis de saturação por bases no Cerrado Growth analysis of sunflower in a Cerrado Oxisol with different levels of basis saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de cinco cultivares de girassol em um Latossolo Vermelho argiloso, foram realizados quatro ensaios sob quatro níveis de saturação por bases (18%, 35%, 56% e 77% obtidos com aplicação de calcário dolomítico. Os dados semanais de crescimento foram ajustados pelas funções logística, Weibull de três parâmetros e a logística generalizada de quatro parâmetros empregando-se o procedimento NLIN do SAS, bem como os processos interativos do método DUD. A função logística forneceu os melhores ajustes aos dados de crescimento. As cultivares foram categorizadas de acordo com o porte das plantas e tendências de crescimento a partir da análise de agrupamentos (cluster analysis, usando o método das ligações completas e a métrica da distância euclidiana. Todas as cultivares tiveram o crescimento reduzido quando o nível de saturação de bases foi de 18%. A cultivar M734 apresentou bom desempenho no nível de 35% de saturação por bases. Nos demais casos, os melhores resultados foram obtidos nos níveis de saturação por bases entre 56% e 77%. As cultivares EMBRAPA 122 e M738 tiveram redução de crescimento quando a saturação foi elevada para 77%. 'EMBRAPA 122' apresentou maior crescimento inicial e menor altura ao final do ciclo vegetativo.In order to study the growth cycle of five sunflower cultivars, four experiments were carried out under four levels of basis saturation (18%, 35%, 56% and 77%, obtained with the application of dolomitic limestone in an acidic Red Latosol, clay texture (Tipic Haplusthox. Weekly growth data were fitted using the Logistic, three parameters Weibull and four parameters Generalized Logistic (a special case of Richards function functions. Among the models used, the Logistic function obtained was the best growth data fitting. The NLIN procedure of SAS statistical package was used for fitting the data through the interactive process of DUD method. Cultivars were

  11. Helium Saturation of Liquid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Moran, Clifford M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is in three areas which are: (1) techniques were devised for achieving the required levels of helium (He) saturation in liquid propellants (limited to monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)); (2) the values were evaluated for equilibrium solubilities of He in liquid propellants as currently used in the industry; and (3) the He dissolved in liquid propellants were accurately measured. Conclusions drawn from these studies include: (1) Techniques for dissolving He in liquid propellants depending upon the capabilities of the testing facility (Verification of the quantity of gas dissolved is essential); (2) Until greater accuracy is obtained, the equilibrium solubility values of He in MMH and NTO as cited in the Air Force Propellant Handbooks should be accepted as standard (There are still enough uncertainties in the He saturation values to warrant further basic experimental studies); and (3) The manometric measurement of gas volume from a frozen sample of propellant should be the accepted method for gas analysis.

  12. Saturation of Photoassociation in Cs Magneto-optical Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jie; WANG Li-Rong; JI Wei-Bang; XIAO Lian-Tuan; JIA Suo-Tang

    2007-01-01

    An ultrahigh resolution photoassociation spectrum of caesium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is presented. Hyperfine structure of the excited state molecule is obtained by using the lock-in method based on modulated cold atoms in this spectrum. Amplitude of resonant lines related to the rotational levels increases with photoassociation laser intensity, and saturation effect of photoassociation of cold atoms is observed in our experiment. The saturation intensity of photoassociation is deduced by fitting the experimental data to a saturation model based on scattering theory. Differences among saturation intensities of different rotational progressions in the v = 55vibrational state of the caesium molecular long-range O-g state have been found.

  13. SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  14. 759  fs pulse generation with Nd3+-doped CNGS ordered crystal based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Tong; He, Jing-Liang; Guo, Shiyi; Ning, Jian; Lou, Fei; Zhao, Ruwei; Su, Xian-Cui; Hou, Jia; Zhang, Bai-Tao

    2016-07-10

    A diode-pumped passively continuous wave mode-locked laser at 1064.2 nm based on an ordered Nd:CNGS crystal has been experimentally investigated (for the first time, to our knowledge). Stable mode-locked pulses with a duration of 759 fs were produced at a repetition rate of 43.2 MHz. It is the shortest pulse generation of mode-locked lasers based on Nd3+-doped ordered crystal, as far as we know. A maximum average mode-locked output power of 133 mW was obtained at the absorbed pumped power of 6.7 W, and corresponding single-pulse energy and peak power were determined to be 3.1 nJ and 4.1 kW, respectively. The results indicate that the Nd:CNGS as an ordered crystal is indeed a potential candidate as a femtosecond laser gain medium. PMID:27409324

  15. Two-beam interaction in saturable media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Schmidt, Michel R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1998-01-01

    is equal to a certain critical velocity. For initial velocities below and above this critical velocity the solitons merge and separate, respectively. The analytical calculations are based on the assumption of a large separation distance, and under this assumption numerical simulations confirm the main......The dynamics of two coupled soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a saturable nonlinearity is investigated It is shown by means of a variational method and by direct numerical calculations that two well-separated solitons can orbit around each other, if their initial velocity...

  16. Saturation of repeated quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Erkka; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kuramochi, Yui

    2016-08-01

    We study sequential measurement scenarios where the system is repeatedly subjected to the same measurement process. We first provide examples of such repeated measurements where further repetitions of the measurement do not increase our knowledge on the system after some finite number of measurement steps. We also prove, however, that repeating the Lüders measurement of an unsharp two-outcome observable never saturates in this sense, and we characterize the observable measured in the limit of infinitely many repetitions. Our result implies that a repeated measurement can be used to correct the inherent noise of an unsharp observable.

  17. Promoter analysis by saturation mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliga Nitin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression and regulation are mediated by DNA sequences, in most instances, directly upstream to the coding sequences by recruiting transcription factors, regulators, and a RNA polymerase in a spatially defined fashion. Few nucleotides within a promoter make contact with the bound proteins. The minimal set of nucleotides that can recruit a protein factor is called a cis-acting element. This article addresses a powerful mutagenesis strategy that can be employed to define cis-acting elements at a molecular level. Technical details including primer design, saturation mutagenesis, construction of promoter libraries, phenotypic analysis, data analysis, and interpretation are discussed.

  18. Law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays and radial consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It was derived that micro-scale amount level of average pore radius of clay changed from 0.01 to 0.1 micron by an equivalent concept of flow in porous media. There is good agreement between the derived results and test ones. Results of experiments show that flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays follows law of nonlinear flow. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that an interaction of solid-liquid interfaces varies inversely with permeability or porous radius. The interaction is an important reason why nonlinear flow in saturated clays occurs. An exact mathematical model was presented for nonlinear flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays. Dimension and physical meanings of parameters of it are definite. A new law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays was established. It can describe characteristics of flow curve of the whole process of the nonlinear flow from low hydraulic gradient to high one. Darcy law is a special case of the new law. A mathematical model was presented for consolidation of nonlinear flow in radius direction in saturated clays with constant rate based on the new law of nonlinear flow. Equations of average mass conservation and moving boundary, and formula of excess pore pressure distribution and average degree of consolidation for nonlinear flow in saturated clay were derived by using an idea of viscous boundary layer, a method of steady state in stead of transient state and a method of integral of an equation. Laws of excess pore pressure distribution and changes of average degree of consolidation with time were obtained. Results show that velocity of moving boundary decreases because of the nonlinear flow in saturated clay. The results can provide geology engineering and geotechnical engineering of saturated clay with new scientific bases. Calculations of average degree of consolidation of the Darcy flow are a special case of that of the nonlinear flow.

  19. Development of a numerical workflow based on μ-CT imaging for the determination of capillary pressure-saturation-specific interfacial area relationship in 2-phase flow pore-scale porous-media systems: a case study on Heletz sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Halisch, Matthias; Bogdan Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this case study, we present the implementation of a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical pore-scale model that is able to track and quantify the propagating fluid-fluid interfacial area on highly complex micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)-obtained geometries. Special focus is drawn to the relationship between reservoir-specific capillary pressure (pc), wetting phase saturation (Sw) and interfacial area (awn). The basis of this approach is high-resolution μ-CT images representing the geometrical characteristics of a georeservoir sample. The successfully validated 2-phase flow model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, including the surface tension force, in order to consider capillary effects for the computation of flow and the phase-field method for the emulation of a sharp fluid-fluid interface. In combination with specialized software packages, a complex high-resolution modelling domain can be obtained. A numerical workflow based on representative elementary volume (REV)-scale pore-size distributions is introduced. This workflow aims at the successive modification of model and model set-up for simulating, such as a type of 2-phase problem on asymmetric μ-CT-based model domains. The geometrical complexity is gradually increased, starting from idealized pore geometries until complex μ-CT-based pore network domains, whereas all domains represent geostatistics of the REV-scale core sample pore-size distribution. Finally, the model can be applied to a complex μ-CT-based model domain and the pc-Sw-awn relationship can be computed.

  20. Detection system of pulse blood oxygen saturation based on AFE4400%基于 AFE4400的脉搏血氧饱和度检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐盼盼; 徐冰俏; 徐文龙

    2015-01-01

    系统设计中介绍了一种基于 TI(Texas Instruments)AFE4400集成芯片的血氧模拟采集电路,并以 TivaTM Cortex-M4为处理器的脉搏血氧饱和度检测系统的设计方案。采用 AFE4400简化了电路设计、降低了系统功耗、减小了电路尺寸,从而降低系统成本、提高便携性,同时可以提高系统定标一致性。TivaTM Cortex-M4具有足够的处理能力和存储空间,便于信号处理算法的实现和数据存储。系统设计过程中对比了几种基于小波变换的滤波算法去噪效果,充分利用 TivaTM Cortex-M4处理能力,在系统中完成了对血氧信号较优地去噪处理。系统原型样机经调试后,实现了脉搏血氧饱和度检测的功能。%A detection system of blood oxygen saturation was developed.Based on Texas Instruments (TI)AFE4400 chip,the acquisition circuit of blood oxygen simulation was designed,and TivaTM Cortex -M4 was used as the proces-sor and the control core.AFE4400 can simplify the circuit design,reduce the power consumption and decrease the size of the circuit,which lowers the cost,improves portability and improves the consistency of system calibration. TivaTM Cortex -M4 has enough processing abilities and storage space to realize signal processing and data storage. In the process of design,the denoising effects of several filter algorithms based on wavelet were compared,and the sys-tem achieved the optimal filter algorithm by making full use of TivaTM Cortex -M4′s processing capacity.After debug-ging and calibrating the system,the system realizes the function of blood oxygen saturation detection.

  1. Preliminary Saturated-Zone Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-10

    This milestone consists of an updated fully 3D model of ground-water flow within the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. All electronic files pertaining to this deliverable have been transferred via ftp transmission to Steve Bodnar (M and O) and the technical data base. The model was developed using a flow and transport simulator, FEHMN, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and represents a collaborative effort between staff from the US Geological Survey and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model contained in this deliverable is minimally calibrated and represents work in progress. The flow model developed for this milestone is designed to feed subsequent transport modeling studies at Los Alamos which also use the FEHMN software. In addition, a general-application parameter estimation routine, PEST, was used in conjunction with FEHMN to reduce the difference between observed and simulated values of hydraulic head through the adjustment of model variables. This deliverable in large part consists of the electronic files for Yucca Mountain Site saturated-zone flow model as it existed as of 6/6/97, including the executable version of FEHMN (accession no. MOL.19970610.0204) used to run the code on a Sun Ultrasparc I workstation. It is expected that users of the contents of this deliverable be knowledgeable about the oration of FEHMN.

  2. Holographic Pomeron: Saturation and DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Stoffers, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We briefly review the approach to dipole-dipole scattering in holographic QCD developed in ARXIV:1202.0831. The Pomeron is modeled by exchanging closed strings between the dipoles and yields Regge behavior for the elastic amplitude. We calculate curvature corrections to this amplitude in both a conformal and confining background, identifying the holographic direction with the virtuality of the dipoles. The it wee-dipole density is related to the string tachyon diffusion in both virtuality and the transverse directions. We give an explicit derivation of the dipole saturation momentum both in the conformal and confining metric. Our holographic result for the dipole-dipole cross section and the it wee-dipole density in the conformal limit are shown to be identical in form to the BFKL pomeron result when the non-critical string transverse dimension is $D_\\perp=3$. The total dipole-dipole cross section is compared to DIS data from HERA.

  3. Leaching from solidified waste forms under saturated and unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching behavior of nitrate ion from a cement based waste form containing low-level radioactive waste was shown to be identical under saturated and unsaturated soil conditions. Only in soils containing less than 2 wt %water did the leach rate decrease. The observation of identical leach rates under saturated and unsaturated conditions is explained by diffusion through the waste form being the limiting step. Diffusion through the soil decreases in very dry soil and the limiting step changes. These laboratory tests were verified by measurements on similar, Portland cement based waste form in a field lysimeter

  4. Measuring tissue oxygen saturation using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, Aslinur; Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat

    2014-05-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) is known quite useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to diagnose pathologic tissues due to lack of normal blood circulation by measuring tissue oxygen saturation. In the study, human blood samples with different level of oxygen saturations have been prepared and spectra were taken using an optical fiber probe to investigate correlation between the oxygen saturations and the spectra. The experimental set up for the spectroscopic measurements was consists of a miniature NIR light spectrometer, an optical fiber probe, a halogen-tungsten light source and a laptop. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation of the blood samples and the ratio of the light of wavelengths 660 nm to 790 nm has been found from the spectra. Then, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements within an error of 2.9%. Furthermore, it has been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Tissue oxygen saturation has been estimated from the spectroscopic measurements were taken from the fingers of healthy volunteers using the correlation between the spectra and blood oxygen saturation. The tissue StO2 measured was 80% as expected. The technique developed to measure tissue oxygen saturation has potential to diagnose premalignant tissues, follow up prognosis of cancerous tissues, and evaluation of ischemia reperfusion tissues.

  5. RESEARCH METHODS OF SATURATED VAPOR PRESSURE AND EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko P. M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The static method is the most common, because it is applicable for measuring SVP of substances in wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The essence of the method consists in measuring of vapor pressure in equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. Dynamic method is based on measurement of the boiling point of the liquid at a certain pressure. Saturation method of moving gas used in the case when the SVP does not exceed a few mm Hg. The method consists the following: the liquid is passed through the inert gas and saturated with vapor of liquids and then it flows into a cooler where the absorbed vapors are condensed. Knowing the amount of absorbed liquid and gas, as well as their molecular weight, allow us calculate saturated vapor pressure of the liquid. Knudsen effusion method is applicable for the measurement of very low pressures (up to 100 Pa. This method consists in researching of depending between the pressure and volume of saturated steam at a constant temperature. At the point of saturation an isotherm should have a break and turn into a straight line. Chromatographic method is based on complete chromatographic analysis of liquid and calculating the sum of partial pressures of all mixture components. Also, the article has a description of existing experimental installation for these researches and their advantages and disadvantages compared with each other

  6. Power flow control using distributed saturable reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D.

    2016-02-13

    A magnetic amplifier includes a saturable core having a plurality of legs. Control windings wound around separate legs are spaced apart from each other and connected in series in an anti-symmetric relation. The control windings are configured in such a way that a biasing magnetic flux arising from a control current flowing through one of the plurality of control windings is substantially equal to the biasing magnetic flux flowing into a second of the plurality of control windings. The flow of the control current through each of the plurality of control windings changes the reactance of the saturable core reactor by driving those portions of the saturable core that convey the biasing magnetic flux in the saturable core into saturation. The phasing of the control winding limits a voltage induced in the plurality of control windings caused by a magnetic flux passing around a portion of the saturable core.

  7. Water Proportion of Gas Chromatogram of Saturated Hydrocarbon Based on C#%基于C#的饱和烃气相色谱含水指数的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丙坤; 岳茂兴; 宋兆云

    2012-01-01

    在录井分析技术中,利用饱和烃气相色谱来评价含油岩样的含水性,并手动绘制光滑外凸闭合曲线以确定含油岩样的含水性指数.人工绘制图版工作量较大,需要大量人力物力,而且误差较大,因此有必要开发相应的软件以提高效率.以录井分析技术的实践经验为基础,将实际困难和需求进行理论分析,利用凸壳、三次B样条曲线以及插值等算法从理论上提出解决方案,并开发基于C#语言编程计算饱和烃气相色谱含水性评价指数的软件系统.节约人力资源并提高含水性评价指数的精确性.%In logging analysis,the gas chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbon is used to evaluate the aquosity of oil rock sample. And a slippy,convex and closed curve is drawn manually to determine the water proportion of oil rock sample. It needs larger workload to draw plates manually, and it has larger error. So it is necessary to develop a software to improve efficiency. To logging analysis based on practical experience,theory is analyzed and verified from practical difficulties and needs. The solution is proposed theoretically by using some algorithms like convex hull algorithm and cubic b-spline curve. A software is developed to calculate the water proportion based on C# programming language. It saves human resources and improves the water proportion precision.

  8. Anti-saturation block adaptive quantization algorithm for SAR raw data compression over the whole set of saturation degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiming Qi; Weidong Yu

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of block adaptive quantization (BAQ) when the output of the analog to digital converter (ADC)is saturated, this paper proposes an anti-saturation BAQ algorithm. First, the concept of the standard deviation of the output signal (SDOS) of the ADC is proposed. Also, unlike traditional normalization processing, SDOS is used and the mapping between SDOS and the average signal magnitude is deduced. Second, the saturation term is introduced to the Lloyd-Max quantizer and an optimal non-uniform scalar quantizer for saturated SAR raw data quantization is proposed. After this, the implementation scheme for the pro-posed algorithm using an FPGA is analyzed in detail. Third, the relationships among the saturation degree of the signal, the peak-to-peak value of the ADC, standard deviation of the input and output signal of the ADC and the average signal magnitude are deduced.Based on these relationships, a power compensation decoder is designed for encoding. Numerical experiment results based on ERS-1 and the simulated data show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of BAQ.

  9. 3-D DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SATURATED SOILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-gang; HUANG Yi

    2005-01-01

    A study on dynamic response of transversely isotropic saturated poroelastic media under a circular non-axisymmetrical harmonic source has been presented by Huang Yi et al.using the technique of Fourier expansion and Hankel transform. However, the method may not always be valid. The work is extended to the general case being in the rectangular coordinate. The purpose is to study the 3-d dynamic response of transversely isotropic saturated soils under a general source distributing in arbitrary rectangular zoon on the medium surface. Based on Biot's theory for fluid-saturated porous media, the 3-d wave motion equations in rectangular coordinate for transversely isotropic saturated poroelastic media were transformed into the two uncoupling governing differential equations of 6-order and 2-order respectively by means of the displacement functions. Then, using the technique of double Fourier transform, the governing differential equations were easily solved. Integral solutions of soil skeleton displacements and pore pressure as well as the total stresses for poroelastic media were obtained. Furthermore, a systematic study on half-space problem in saturated soils was performed. Integral solutions for surface displacements under the general harmonic source distributing on arbitrary surface zone,considering both case of drained surface and undrained surface,were presented.

  10. Does deformation saturate seismic anisotropy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, D. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Butler, R. W.; Casey, M.

    2006-12-01

    The progressive simple shear deformation that characterizes ductile fault zones in the crust involves both rotation and intensification of the strain ellipsoid. These mathematic predictions have been confirmed repeatedly by finite strain determinations in outcrop studies of natural shear zones and used to test geodynamic models of mountain belts. Seismic anisotropy (SA) methods offer the opportunity to pursue these approaches in situ. First however, we must calibrate the magnitude and orientation of the SA ellipsoid against naturally deformed tectonites of known strain state and microstructure. Here we present data from a field analogue of mafic ductile crust in an amphibolite-facies shear zone developed in a deformed mafic dyke embedded within the Lewisian Gneiss (Badcall, NW Scotland). Deflection of pre-existing linear and planar elements and attenuation of the dyke into the shear zone are used to determine the strain gradient. Specimens collected along this gradient were used to establish the geometric fabric intensity defined by different minerals (hornblende grain alignment and ellipticity of plagioclase clots). Finally, petrophysical properties were calculated for the specimens using the SEM-EBSD measured populations of lattice preferred orientations (LPO) for all mineral phases. It is the hornblende-plagioclase LPO, combined in their modal proportions and modulated by the individual mineral single crystal elastic properties, which define the SA profile across the shear zone. Hornblende develops a strong preferred dimensional orientation and hence LPO at shear strains of about 2, whereas the plagioclase LPO remains close to random regardless of bulk strain. The modelled SA of the samples is dominated therefore by the amphibole LPO. Although the values of bulk shear strain vary across the shear zone (0 at the margins to greater than 12 in the centre), the calculated intensity of SA saturates at a shear strain of about 2. These results, if typical of large

  11. Saturated Steam Power Generation Control Model Based on Fuzzy-PID%基于模糊自适应 PID 的饱和蒸汽发电控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 吴青柏; 张立杰

    2013-01-01

      饱和蒸汽发电项目中汽轮机是一个典型的工业过程控制对象,具有时变、非线性和滞后等显著特点。基于汽轮机发电机运行过程的控制要求,提出了一种自适应模糊PID控制方法。结合汽轮机发电机运行和模糊PID控制解决非线性、滞后性及时变等问题的特点,基于从发电站现场采集到的数据,建立了控制模型,并利用MATLAB/Simulink对系统进行了仿真,从而验证了该方案的可行性,为发电机控制提出了一种新的方案。%The steam turbine in saturated steam power generation project is a typical industrial process control object ,with the features such as time‐varying ,nonlinear and hysteresis .Based on the control requirement of steam turbine generator operation ,this paper put forward a kind of adaptive fuzzy PID control method .Combining the features of the steam turbine generator operation and fuzzy PID controller ,the paper analyzed the data collected from power station ,established a control model ,and carried out the simulation study by MATLAB/Simulink .The simulation results verify the feasibility of this scheme and lay a good foundation for the control scheme’s application in generator operation process .

  12. Adaptive control for an uncertain robotic manipulator with input saturations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trong-Toan TRAN; Shuzhi Sam GE; Wei HE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the control problem of an uncertain robotic manipulator with input saturations, unknown input scalings and disturbances. For this purpose, a model reference adaptive control like (MRAC-like) is used to handle the input saturations. The model reference is input to state stable (ISS) and driven by the errors between the required control signals and input saturations. The uncertain parameters are dealt with by using linear-in-the-parameters property of robotic dynamics, while unknown input scalings and disturbances are handled by non-regressor based approach. Our design ensures that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded, and the tracking error converges to the compact set which depends on the predetermined bounds of the control inputs. Simulation on a planar elbow manipulator with two joints is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  13. Modified Richardson Number in Non-Uniform Saturated Moist Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuai; GAO Shou-Ting

    2006-01-01

    @@ As a useful index, I.e. The Richardson number Ri, is modified in non-uniform saturated moist flow, based on the fact that liquid water is partially dropped out in parcel air. This is more realistic in real moist atmosphere,especially in the rainfall process. The modified Ri presents adequately the influence of numerator, I.e. Brunt-Vaisala frequency (BVF), on instability. Compared to several former formulae generalized by Durran and Klemp,the modified Ri evidently decreases the stability in rainy regions. In theory, the modified BVF and Ri fix the discontinuity of latent heat release in the transition areas between saturated and unsaturated air by introducing the condensation probability function. Furthermore, the diagnostic analysis of the modilied Ri validates the rationality of its application in the non-uniform saturated moist process.

  14. Dynamic Tensile Strength of Coal under Dry and Saturated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yixin; Liu, Shimin; Jiang, Yaodong; Wang, Kai; Huang, Yaqiong

    2016-05-01

    The tensile failure characterization of dry and saturated coals under different impact loading conditions was experimentally investigated using a Split Hopkinson pressure bar. Indirect dynamic Brazilian disc tension tests for coals were carried out. The indirect tensile strengths for different bedding angles under different impact velocities, strain rates and loading rates are analyzed and discussed. A high-speed high-resolution digital camera was employed to capture and record the dynamic failure process of coal specimens. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the saturated specimens have stronger loading rate dependence than the dry specimens. The bedding angle has a smaller effect on the dynamic indirect tensile strength compared to the impact velocity. Both shear and tensile failures were observed in the tested coal specimens. Saturated coal specimens have higher indirect tensile strength than dry ones.

  15. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  16. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  17. Saturated poroelastic actuators generated by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the fluid-structure interaction problem of a saturated porous media is considered. The pressure coupling properties of porous saturated materials change with the microstructure and this is utilized in the design of an actuator using a topology optimized porous material. By maximizin...

  18. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9...... In the combined studies, odds ratios in those with transferrin saturation =50% vs....

  19. Saturation and geometrical scaling in small systems

    CERN Document Server

    Praszalowicz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Saturation and geometrical scaling (GS) of gluon distributions are a consequence of the non-linear evolution equations of QCD. We argue that in pp GS holds for the inelastic cross-section rather than for the multiplicity distributions. We also discuss possible fluctuations of the proton saturation scale in pA collisions at the LHC.

  20. Saturation process of nonlinear standing waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大猷; 刘克

    1996-01-01

    The sound pressure of the nonlinear standing waves is distorted as expected, but also tends to saturate as being found in standing-wave tube experiments with increasing sinusoidal excitation. Saturation conditions were not actually reached, owing to limited excitation power, but the evidence of tendency to saturation is without question. It is the purpose of this investigation to find the law of saturation from the existing experimental data. The results of curve fitting indicate that negative feedback limits the growth of sound pressure with increasing excitation, the growth of the fundamental and the second harmonic by the negative feedback of their sound pressures, and the growth of the third and higher harmonics, however, by their energies (sound pressures squared). The growth functions of all the harmonics are derived, which are confirmed by the experiments. The saturation pressures and their properties are found.

  1. Zircon Saturation Re-Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, P.; Trail, D.; Schmitt, A. K.; Watson, E. B.; Harrison, M.

    2011-12-01

    Zircon saturation in silicate melts has been utilized for magma thermometry and predicting the survival of zircon xenocrysts in crustal melts for nearly 30 years. The original calibration, which assumed only compositional (M = [2Ca+Na+K]/[AlxSi]) and temperature controls, was bolstered by subsequent experimental investigations and thermometry of volcanic rocks and glasses. These latter studies, while confirming the general predictions of the model, suggested that other environmental parameters (e.g., pressure, H 2O, halogens, [Fe], oxygen fugacity, etc.) might have second-order effects. Given the tremendous advances in micro-analytical capabilities over the intervening three decades, we have returned to this question with a view to obtaining a refined zircon solubility calibration as a function of P, T, [H2O] and FM (= [Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)]/[AlxSi]). Detailed SEM imaging of the original low-temperature crystallization experiments (1.2-2.1 kbar) revealed limitations of this approach and we chose instead to use a new experimental design in which shattered Mud Tank zircon is infiltrated by melts of selected composition and water contents. 10 kbar hydrothermal experiments (925o and 850oC) were run for sufficiently long durations (2 to 3 days) to ensure microscale diffusive equilibration of Zr released by zircon dissolution into the intercrystalline melt pools. Sectioned run products were analyzed by SIMS ion imaging of selected areas where glass is exposed in close proximity to or surrounded by Mud Tank zircon fragments. Ion imaging has the advantage of permitting high spatial resolution (3 μm) analysis of the glasses allowing assessment of Zr equilibration. Using synthetic glass standards, we found [Zr] in anhydrous glasses to be enhanced by ca. 20% relative to hydrous (at 6 wt.% H2O). Our new experiments and re-analysis of the earlier glasses broadly reproduce the original calibration, albeit with substantially enhanced (factor of five) precision compared to the

  2. Groundwater: Saturated and Unsaturated Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interpretation of isotope hydrological data is not straightforward. Many field studies lead to a conclusion that the origin of groundwater and the chemical and isotopic processes in groundwater systems can only be studied successfully, if a composition of isotopic, chemical, geological and hydrogeological data is available for interpretation. Following the previous volumes on isotopic principles, precipitation and surface waters, this volume is dealing with the application of isotope hydrological methods in groundwater studies. It conveys basic knowledge in geohydraulics and hydrogeology required for a consistent interpretation of isotope hydrological data. This volume starts with a brief discussion of the characteristics and behaviour of groundwater as a medium of mass transport for gases, dissolved constituents and colloids. The geohydraulic aspects of groundwater flow under steady-state conditions are described in combination with an explanation of the most important terms related to isotope hydrology (e.g. transit time, turn-over time, mean residence time, water age). Non-steady state flow conditions caused by palaeoclimatic variations and anthropogenic activities such as overexploitation or groundwater mining seriously affect the interpretation of isotope hydrological data. Also water-rock interactions may modify the isotope composition of a carbonate rock environment, especially in high-temperature systems. Environmental isotope techniques are pre-eminently suitable for studying the unsaturated and saturated zone, the latter particularly concerning the stable and radioactive natural isotopes. Stable isotope data preferentially yield information on the origin of groundwater. Radioactive isotopes allow groundwater to be 'dated' in support of geohydraulic investigations. In undisturbed high-temperature systems isotopic geothermometry, i.e. the study of the temperature effect of stable isotopic abundances, is applied for gaining information on water mixing as

  3. The source vector and static displacement field by elastic dislocation on the two-phase saturated medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Biot's theory about two-phase saturated medium, according to the character of d function, the Green function on two-phase saturated medium by the point source under concentrated force can be derived. By the Betti's theorem for the two-phase saturated medium field, the source vector and static displacement field by elastic dislocation on the two-phase saturated medium were comprehensively discussed.

  4. The effect of saturation path on three-phase relative permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianinejad, Amir; Chen, Xiongyu; DiCarlo, David A.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation and fluid flow prediction of many petroleum-enhanced oil recovery methods as well as environmental processes such as carbon dioxide (CO2) geological storage or underground water resources remediation requires accurate modeling and determination of relative permeability under different saturation histories. Based on this critical need, several three-phase relative permeability models were developed to predict relative permeability; however, for practical purposes most of them require a variety of parameters introducing undesired complexity to the models. In this work, we attempt to find out if there is a simpler way to express this functionality. To do so, we experimentally measure three-phase, water/oil/gas, relative permeability in a 1 m long water-wet sand pack, under several saturation flow paths to cover the entire three-phase saturation space. We obtain the in situ saturations along the sand pack using a CT scanner and then determine the relative permeabilities of liquid phases directly from the measured in situ saturations using an unsteady state method. The measured data show that at a specific saturation, the oil relative permeability varies significantly (up to two orders of magnitude), depending on the path through saturation space. The three-phase relative permeability data are modeled using standard relative permeability models, Corey-type, and Saturation Weighted Interpolation (SWI). Our measured data suggest that three-phase oil relative permeability in water-wet media is only a function of its own saturation if the residual oil saturation is treated as a function of two saturations. We determine that residual saturation is the key parameter in modeling three-phase relative permeability (effect of saturation history).

  5. Implications of carbon saturation model structure for simulated nitrogen mineralization dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. White

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C saturation theory suggests that soils have a~limited capacity to stabilize organic C and that this capacity may be regulated by intrinsic soil properties such as clay content and mineralogy. While C saturation theory has advanced our ability to predict soil C stabilization, we only have a weak understanding of how C saturation affects N cycling. In biogeochemical models, C and N cycling are tightly coupled, with C decomposition and respiration driving N mineralization. Thus, changing model structures from non-saturation to C saturation dynamics can change simulated N dynamics. Carbon saturation models proposed in the literature calculate a theoretical maximum C storage capacity of saturating pools based on intrinsic soil properties, such as clay content. The extent to which current C stocks fill the storage capacity of the pool is termed the C saturation ratio, and this ratio is used to regulate either the efficiency or the rate of C transfer from donor to receiving pools. In this study, we evaluated how the method of implementing C saturation and the number of pools in a model affected net N mineralization from decomposing plant residues. In models that use the C saturation ratio to regulate transfer efficiency, C saturation affected N mineralization, while in those in which the C saturation ratio regulates transfer rates, N mineralization was independent of C saturation. When C saturation ratio regulates transfer efficiency, as the saturation ratio increases, the threshold C : N ratio at which positive net N mineralization occurs also increases because more of the C in the residue is respired. In a single-pool model where C saturation ratio regulated the transfer efficiency, predictions of N mineralization from residue inputs were unrealistically high, missing the cycle of N immobilization and mineralization typically seen after the addition of high C : N inputs to soils. A more realistic simulation of N mineralization was achieved

  6. Impact of Saturable Gain/Loss on Bistability of Nonlinear Parity-Time Bragg Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Phang, Sendy; Susanto, Hadi; Benson, Trevor M; Sewell, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We report on the impact of realistic gain and loss models on the bistable operation of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings. In our model we include both dispersive and saturable gain and show that levels of gain/loss saturation can have significant impact on the bistable operation of a nonlinear PT Bragg grating based on GaAs material. The hysteresis of the nonlinear PT Bragg grating is analyzed for different levels of gain and loss and different saturation levels. We show that high saturation levels can improve the nonlinear operation by reducing the intensity at which the bistability occurs. However when the saturation intensity is low, saturation inhibits PT phenomena in a nonlinear PT Bragg grating.

  7. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Jeffrey F.; Urban, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated.

  8. Saturation Physics on the Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavsky, David

    2015-01-01

    Saturation physics is expected to be relevant at sufficiently small parton momentum fractions $x$ in high-energy proton- (or deuteron-)ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. Accordingly, these collisions provide the best available testing ground for the saturation model. However, producing precise numerical predictions from the model is a complicated task; the state of the art in this area involves next-to-leading order QCD calculations, which are difficult to do numerically. Here I'll review recent progress in extracting numerical predictions from saturation models and matching them to experimental results.

  9. SATURATION BIOPSY OF THE PROSTATE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sadchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate biopsy is the principal method of diagnois of prostate cancer, allowing to start the adequate treatment. The tactics of the patients, which have negative initial biopsy, is a subject of discussion. Saturation biopsy is a “gold standard„ of diagnostics of PCA with repeat biopsy. Saturation biopsy of the prostate is not a primary procedure, usually apply in patients with negative biopsies in anamnesis, patients with multifocal PIN and ASAP. Saturation biopsy allows to more precisely predict the volume and degree of malignancy of PCA, that can be used for planning tactics of active surveillance and focal therapy.

  10. Saturation and beaming in astrophysical masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, C.; Ross, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    A 'four-stream' model system of equations that are closely analogous to the equations of radiative transfer in a maser spectral line and are amenable to numerical solution are constructed. This model is used to investigate radiative transfer in asymmetric maser clouds. Competition between different beams of radiation for available pump photons is important in both unsaturated and saturated masers. Consequently, the radiation from a typical cloud will be highly beamed, even if the maser is saturated, because the shape of a typical cloud is not symmetric. In addition, it is shown that analysis of maser emission lines formed in expanding envelopes does not reveal the degree of saturation of the maser.

  11. Inferring immobile and in-situ water saturation from laboratory and field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belen, Rodolfo P., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    Analysis of experimental data and numerical simulation results of dynamic boiling experiments revealed that there is an apparent correlation between the immobile water saturation and the shape of the steam saturation profile. An elbow in the steam saturation profile indicates the sudden drop in steam saturation that marks the transition from steam to two-phase conditions inside the core during boiling. The immobile water saturation can be inferred from this elbow in the steam saturation profile. Based on experimental results obtained by Satik (1997), the inferred immobile water saturation of Berea sandstone was found to be about 0.25, which is consistent with results of relative permeability experiments reported by Mahiya (1999). However, this technique may not be useful in inferring the immobile water saturation of less permeable geothermal rocks because the elbow in the steam saturation profile is less prominent. Models of vapor and liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs that were developed based on Darcy's law and material and energy conservation equations proved to be useful in inferring the in-situ and immobile water saturations from field measurements of cumulative mass production, discharge enthalpy, and downhole temperature. Knowing rock and fluid properties, and the difference between the stable initial, T{sub o}, and dry-out, T{sub d}, downhole temperatures, the in-situ and immobile water saturations of vapor-dominated reservoirs can be estimated. On the other hand, the in-situ and immobile water saturations, and the change in mobile water content of liquid-dominated reservoirs can be inferred from the cumulative mass production, {Delta}m, and enthalpy, h{prime}, data. Comparison with two-phase, radial flow, numerical simulation results confirmed the validity and usefulness of these models.

  12. 电感饱和效应对S RM位置估计的影响及改进%Influence and Improvement of SRM Position Estimation Based on Inductance Saturation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金洋; 汤锐智; 孙建坡

    2015-01-01

    开关磁阻电机(SRM)的相电感形状随饱和情况的不同发生明显的变化。研究了忽略三次以上谐波电感模型系数随电流变化关系,提出了复平面电感模型的无位置传感器控制策略。在SRM处于低速驱动运行状态时,首先往空闲相注入高频电压脉冲获取非导通相电感值,再利用三相电感之间的函数关系间接的估算出导通相电感值。提出了低速大电流运行状态时电感饱和效应对转子角度估计的影响,并采取了三项系数补偿措施以消除影响。最终通过仿真和实验表明,在低速重载情况下,该方法能保证较高的位置估算精度和很好的实用价值。%The phase inductance of switch reluctance motor is seriously nonlinear.This paper researched the relationship between inductance model coefficient that ignored more than three times harmonic and current, and proposed an estimation method of rotor position based on complex plane inductance model.The method obtained information of the conduction phase inductance by injecting a suitable sequence of voltage pulses in-to free phase and using the function relationship.The influence of the inductance saturation effect on rotor angle estimation at low-speed drive operating states was analyzed.And the paper took compensatory measure of three coefficientsto eliminate the impact. The simulation and experiments results indicate that the proposed method estimates rotor position accurately and good practical value at low-speed drive operating states.

  13. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  14. Saturation of biphoton generation near atomic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; Qian Jun; Hu Zheng-Feng; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the biphoton generation rate as a function of several parameters in the spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atoms.It has been found that the biphoton generation rate can easily reach saturation with the intensity of the coupling laser increasing.The saturation intensity is mainly dependent on the dephasing rate of the ground states,unrelated to the pumping laser.It implies that though the biphoton waveform can be manipulated by the coupling laser,the generation rate of the biphoton cannot increase markedly after the saturation.The saturation effect also suggests that there is an optimal coupling laser for obtaining the largest biphoton generation rate with a sufficiently long coherence time.

  15. Plane Cremona maps: saturation, regularity and fat ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanzadeh, Seyed Hamid

    2011-01-01

    One studies plane Cremona maps from the point of view of the underlying base ideal, focusing on the algebraic and homological properties of the latter. The {\\em leitmotiv} driving a substantial portion of the work is the relation between the base ideal and its saturation. As a preliminary one deals with the homological features of arbitrary codimension 2 homogeneous ideals in a polynomial ring in three variables over a field which are generated by three forms of the same degree. The results become sharp when the saturation is not generated in low degrees, a condition to be given a precise meaning. A good deal of the content relates the base ideal of a rational map to a few additional "companion" ideals, such as the integral closure, the $\\boldsymbol\\mu$-fat ideal and a seemingly novel ideal defined in terms of valuations. The overall goal is a homological classification of low degree plane Cremona maps according to the respective homaloidal types.

  16. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  17. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  18. Saturator analysis for an evaporative gas turbine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Joao O.S.; Traverso, Alberto; Massardo, Aristide F. [Universita di Genova, Thermo-Chemical Power Group (TPG), Genova (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a thermodynamic assessment and a preliminary cost evaluation are given for an evaporative gas turbine (EvGT) cycle packed humidifier. Both background theory and simulation results are included. Two different approaches were used for the humidifier system modelling: the full integration of the mass-energy balance and mass transfer equations (called SAT model), and an atmospheric cooling tower-based model (called CT model). Both approaches were used to perform component thermodynamic analyses and to determine the humidifier packing design. Within these approaches, two simulation cases are discussed: a test case, with experimental results from the pilot-plant of the University of Lund, and a case study of the saturators for the optimised HAT (humid air turbine) cycles of a plant with a 50 MW power output. The two cases presented consider two different operating conditions for the saturator: the first being a 'non-optimised' saturator, and the second the 'optimal' configuration with reduced exergetic losses. For the case study, the saturator design and cost evaluation are also included. (Author)

  19. Sensorless position estimation and control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors using a saturation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem Jebai, Al; Malrait, François; Martin, Philippe; Rouchon, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Sensorless control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors at low velocity remains a challenging task. A now well-established method consists of injecting a high-frequency signal and using the rotor saliency, both geometric and magnetic-saturation induced. This paper proposes a clear and original analysis based on second-order averaging of how to recover the position information from signal injection; this analysis blends well with a general model of magnetic saturation. It also proposes a simple parametric model of the saturated motor, based on an energy function which simply encompasses saturation and cross-saturation effects. Experimental results on a surface-mounted motor and an interior magnet motor illustrate the relevance of the approach.

  20. Impact of magnetic saturation on the input-output linearising tracking control of an induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearization with magnetic saturation included. Magnetic saturation is represented by the nonlinear magnetizing curve of the iron core and is used in the control design, the observer of state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances of the drive. It is based on the mixed ”stator current - rotor flux linkage” induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with the included saturation behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  1. Consolidation of elastic porous media saturated by two immiscible fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Kağan; Çorapçıoğlu, M. Yavuz

    1996-01-01

    A theory is presented to simulate the consolidation of elastic porous media saturated by two immiscible Newtonian fluids. The macroscopic equations, including mass and momentum balance equations and constitutive relations, are obtained by volume averaging the microscale equations. The theory is based on the small deformation assumption. In the microscale, the grains are assumed to be linearly elastic and the fluids are Newtonian. The bulk and shear moduli of the solid matrix are introduced to...

  2. Saturation and energy-conversion efficiency of auroral kilometric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. S.; Tsai, S. T.; Xu, M. J.; Shen, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-linear theory is used to study the saturation level of the auroral kilometric radiation. The investigation is based on the assumption that the emission is due to a cyclotron maser instability as suggested by Wu and Lee and Lee et al. The thermodynamic bound on the radiation energy is also estimated separately. The energy-conversion efficiency of the radiation process is discussed. The results are consistent with observations.

  3. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  4. Saturable inductor and transformer structures for magnetic pulse compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    Saturable inductor and transformer for magnetic compression of an electronic pulse, using a continuous electrical conductor looped several times around a tightly packed core of saturable inductor material.

  5. Lipid order, saturation and surface property relationships: a study of human meibum saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Duran, Diana; Cox, Gregory W; Smith, Ryan J; Bhola, Rahul; Dennis, Gary R; Whitehall, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33 °C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear break up to occur. In this study, meibum from a pool of adult donors was saturated catalytically. The influence of saturation on meibum hydrocarbon chain order was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Meibum is in an anhydrous state in the meibomian glands and on the surface of the eyelid. The influence of saturation on the surface properties of meibum was determined using Langmuir trough technology. Saturation of native human meibum did not change the minimum or maximum values of hydrocarbon chain order so at temperatures far above or below the phase transition of human meibum, saturation does not play a role in ordering or disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains. Saturation did increase the phase transition temperature in human meibum by over 20 °C, a relatively high amount. Surface pressure-area studies showing the late take off and higher maximum surface pressure of saturated meibum compared to native meibum suggest that the saturated meibum film is quite molecularly ordered (stiff molecular arrangement) and elastic (molecules are able to rearrange during compression and expansion) compared with native meibum films which are more fluid agreeing with the infrared spectroscopic results of this study. In saturated meibum, the formation of compacted ordered islands of lipids above the surfactant layer would be expected to decrease the rate of evaporation compared to fluid and more loosely packed native meibum. Higher surface pressure observed with films of saturated meibum compared to native meibum

  6. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2015-01-01

    on saturated fat had been suggested by two expert committees and was introduced with a majority in parliament, as a part of a larger economic reform package. Many actors, including representatives from the food industry and nutrition researchers, opposed the tax both before and after its introduction, claiming......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Health promoters have repeatedly proposed using economic policy tools, taxes and subsidies, as a means of changing consumer behaviour. As the first country in the world, Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in 2011. It was repealed in 2012. In this paper, we present......, research was published showing that consumption of saturated fat had declined in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis indicates that the Danish tax on fat was introduced mainly to increase public revenue. As the tax had no strong proponents and many influential adversaries, it was repealed. New research...

  7. A Eukaryotic Sensor for Membrane Lipid Saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Roberto; Ballweg, Stephanie; Stordeur, Claudius; Michaelis, Jonas B; Puth, Kristina; Wernig, Florian; Bahrami, Amir; Ernst, Andreas M; Hummer, Gerhard; Ernst, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Maintaining a fluid bilayer is essential for cell signaling and survival. Lipid saturation is a key factor determining lipid packing and membrane fluidity, and it must be tightly controlled to guarantee organelle function and identity. A dedicated eukaryotic mechanism of lipid saturation sensing, however, remains elusive. Here we show that Mga2, a transcription factor conserved among fungi, acts as a lipid-packing sensor in the ER membrane to control the production of unsaturated fatty acids. Systematic mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulations, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy identify a pivotal role of the oligomeric transmembrane helix (TMH) of Mga2 for intra-membrane sensing, and they show that the lipid environment controls the proteolytic activation of Mga2 by stabilizing alternative rotational orientations of the TMH region. This work establishes a eukaryotic strategy of lipid saturation sensing that differs significantly from the analogous bacterial mechanism relying on hydrophobic thickness. PMID:27320200

  8. Dilatant hardening of fluid-saturated sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnenko, Roman Y.; Labuz, Joseph F.

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pore fluid in rock affects both the elastic and inelastic deformation processes, yet laboratory testing is typically performed on dry material even though in situ the rock is often saturated. Techniques were developed for testing fluid-saturated porous rock under the limiting conditions of drained, undrained, and unjacketed response. Confined compression experiments, both conventional triaxial and plane strain, were performed on water-saturated Berea sandstone to investigate poroelastic and inelastic behavior. Measured drained response was used to calibrate an elasto-plastic constitutive model that predicts undrained inelastic deformation. The experimental data show good agreement with the model: dilatant hardening in undrained triaxial and plane strain compression tests under constant mean stress was predicted and observed.

  9. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective observational controlled study. Setting: Nonacademic university-affiliated teac

  10. Oxygen Saturation Targeting and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Brian A; Morley, Colin J

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen saturation targeting is widely used in neonatal intensive care, but the optimal target range in very preterm infants has been uncertain and is the subject of recent debate and research. This review briefly discusses the technology of oxygen monitoring and the role of oxygen toxicity in preterm infants. The background to the recent trials of oxygen saturation targeting in acute and continuing care of very preterm infants is reviewed, and the findings and implications of the recent trials, particularly with respect to bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are discussed. PMID:26593080

  11. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca

  12. On the saturation of astrophysical dynamos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil; Archontis, Vasilis

    2004-01-01

    In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate in the li......In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate...

  13. Beyond nonlinear saturation of backward Raman amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Ido; Toroker, Zeev; Balakin, Alexey A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-06-01

    Backward Raman amplification is limited by relativistic nonlinear dephasing resulting in saturation of the leading spike of the amplified pulse. Pump detuning is employed to mitigate the relativistic phase mismatch and to overcome the associated saturation. The amplified pulse can then be reshaped into a monospike pulse with little precursory power ahead of it, with the maximum intensity increasing by a factor of two. This detuning can be employed advantageously both in regimes where the group velocity dispersion is unimportant and where the dispersion is important but small.

  14. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Compounds on the Oxidation Stability of Saturate Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYasong; LINShixiong

    2002-01-01

    A custom built dynamic oxygen uptake tester was used to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the oxidation characteristics of the saturate fractions from mineral base oils. Expermental results indicate that nitrogen compounds,especially quinoline and indole,take part in the oxidation of saturates.It is also found that indole is more active than quinoline. The latter can be oxidized partly into ketoimine,and the former is more rapidly oxidized into acylamide.The oxidation products, ketoimine or acylamide, could inhibit the oxidation of the saturates by decomposing hydroperoxide.The influences of indole and quinoline on oxidation of saturates are more complex.For lower nitrogen content, the oxidation processes were accelerated.However, at high nitrogen content, the oxidation induction peroids were increased. The oxidation characteristics of saturates were also dependent on the type of catalysts presented.

  16. Geomorphological control on variably saturated hillslope hydrology and slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Formetta; Simoni, Silvia; Godt, Jonathan W.; Lu, Ning; Rigon, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    In steep topography, the processes governing variably saturated subsurface hydrologic response and the interparticle stresses leading to shallow landslide initiation are physically linked. However, these processes are usually analyzed separately. Here, we take a combined approach, simultaneously analyzing the influence of topography on both hillslope hydrology and the effective stress fields within the hillslope itself. Clearly, runoff and saturated groundwater flow are dominated by gravity and, ultimately, by topography. Less clear is how landscape morphology influences flows in the vadose zone, where transient fluxes are usually taken to be vertical. We aim to assess and quantify the impact of topography on both saturated and unsaturated hillslope hydrology and its effects on shallow slope stability. Three real hillslope morphologies (concave, convex, and planar) are analyzed using a 3-D, physically based, distributed model coupled with a module for computation of the probability of failure, based on the infinite slope assumption. The results of the analyses, which included parameter uncertainty analysis of the results themselves, show that convex and planar slopes are more stable than concave slopes. Specifically, under the same initial, boundary, and infiltration conditions, the percentage of unstable areas ranges from 1.3% for the planar hillslope, 21% for convex, to a maximum value of 33% for the concave morphology. The results are supported by a sensitivity analysis carried out to examine the effect of initial conditions and rainfall intensity.

  17. Geomorphological control on variably saturated hillslope hydrology and slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Formetta; Simoni, Silvia; Godt, Jonathan W.; Lu, Ning; Rigon, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    In steep topography, the processes governing variably saturated subsurface hydrologic response and the interparticle stresses leading to shallow landslide initiation are physically linked. However, these processes are usually analyzed separately. Here, we take a combined approach, simultaneously analyzing the influence of topography on both hillslope hydrology and the effective stress fields within the hillslope itself. Clearly, runoff and saturated groundwater flow are dominated by gravity and, ultimately, by topography. Less clear is how landscape morphology influences flows in the vadose zone, where transient fluxes are usually taken to be vertical. We aim to assess and quantify the impact of topography on both saturated and unsaturated hillslope hydrology and its effects on shallow slope stability. Three real hillslope morphologies (concave, convex, and planar) are analyzed using a 3-D, physically based, distributed model coupled with a module for computation of the probability of failure, based on the infinite slope assumption. The results of the analyses, which included parameter uncertainty analysis of the results themselves, show that convex and planar slopes are more stable than concave slopes. Specifically, under the same initial, boundary, and infiltration conditions, the percentage of unstable areas ranges from 1.3% for the planar hillslope, 21% for convex, to a maximum value of 33% for the concave morphology. The results are supported by a sensitivity analysis carried out to examine the effect of initial conditions and rainfall intensity.

  18. Numerical experiments for the conductive properties of saturated rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The reservoir evaluation as a key technology in oil exploration and production is based on the electrical transport property (ETP) of saturated rock that is described in a mathematical form with Arhcie’s equa-tion. But there have been increasing cases observed in many researches indicating that the ETP is non-Archie especially for the complex reservoir with low porosity and permeability. In this paper,the numerical experiments based on the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) have been employed to study the effect of porous structure and fluids on the ETP for revealing the nature of non-Archie phenomenon in micro-scale. The results of numerical experiments have proved that the saturation exponent n is a function of water saturation and porosity instead of being a constant in Archie’s equation. And then,a new formula has been developed for the EPT through combining the result of numerical simulation with that of laboratory measurements. The calculations from the new formula show very good agreement with laboratory measurements to demonstrate the efficiency of the new formula over the conventional methods in non-Archie rock.

  19. Laboratory measurements of seismic attenuation in partially saturated rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Samuel; Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of seismic attenuation and transient pore fluid pressure are performed on partially saturated Berea sandstone and synthetic borosilicate samples. Various degrees of water (liquid) and nitrogen (gas) saturation are considered. These measurements are carried out at room temperature and under confining pressures varying from ambient conditions up to 25 MPa. The cylindrical samples are 25 cm long and have a diameter of 7.6 cm. In the context of the experimental setup, the solid frames of both the Berea sandstone and the borosilicate samples can be considered homogenous, which in turn allows for isolating and exploring the effects of partial saturation on seismic attenuation. We employ the sub-resonance method, which is based on the application of a time-harmonic vertical stress to the top of the sample and the measurement of the thus resulting strain. For any given frequency, the attenuation is then inferred as the tangent of the phase shift between the applied stress and the observed strain. Using five equally spaced sensors along the central axis of the cylindrical sample, we measure the transient fluid pressure induced by the application of a step-function-type vertical stress to the top of the sample. Both the sensors and the sample are sealed off with the regard to the confining environment. Together with the numerical results from corresponding compressibility tests based on the quasi-static poroelastic equations, these transient fluid pressure measurements are then used to assist the interpretation of the seismic attenuation measurements.

  20. LIQUEFACTION AND DISPLACEMENT OF SATURATED SAND UNDER VERTICAL VIBRATION LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiaobing; TAN Qingming; CHENG C.M.; YU Shanbing; CUI Peng

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the vertical vibration loading on the liquefaction of saturated sand, one dimensional model for the saturated sand with a vertical vibration is presented based on the two phase continuous media theory. The development of the liquefaction and the liquefaction region are analyzed. It is shown that the vertical vibration loading could induce liquefaction.The rate of the liquefaction increases with the increase of the initial limit strain or initial porosity or amplitude and frequency of loading, and increases with the decrease of the permeability or initial modulus. It is shown also that there is a phase lag in the sand column. When the sand permeability distribution is non-uniform, the pore pressure and the strain will rise sharply where the permeability is the smallest, and fracture might be induced. With the development of liquefaction, the strength of the soil foundation becomes smaller and smaller. In the limiting case, landslides or debris flows could occur.

  1. Saturable absorber theory with a modulated pump beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, S.; Acebal, P.; Carretero, L.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the time delay of a signal in a saturable absorber can be equally analysed by a temporal variation of the absorption or the phase (group velocity reduction). In this work, we perform the study of time advancement and delay of transmitted pulses in bacteriorhodopsin films by using a time modulated pump beam at the same frequency of modulation as the reference beam. Thus, based on a saturable absorber theory, analytical expressions of the time delay/advancement and the transmitted pulse have been obtained. As a result, it is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, that by means of the phase difference between the pump and reference beams a temporal advancement or delay of the sinusoidal transmitted pulses can be obtained.

  2. Saturation effects on the joint elastic-dielectric properties of carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tongcheng; Clennell, Michael Ben; Pervukhina, Marina; Josh, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    We used a common microstructural model to investigate the cross-property relations between elastic wave velocities and dielectric permittivity in carbonate rocks. A unified model based on validated self-consistent effective medium theory was used to quantify the effects of porosity and water saturation on both elastic properties (compressional and shear wave velocities) and electromagnetic properties (dielectric permittivity). The results of the forward models are presented as a series of cross-plots covering a wide range of porosities and water saturations and for microstructures that correspond to different predominant aspect ratios. It was found that dielectric permittivity correlated approximately linearly with elastic wave velocity at each saturation stage, with slopes varying gradually from positive at low saturation conditions to negative at higher saturations. The differing sensitivities of the elastic and dielectric rock properties to changes in porosity, pore morphology and water saturation can be used to reduce uncertainty in subsurface fluid saturation estimation when co-located sonic and dielectric surveys are available. The joint approach is useful for cross-validation of rock physics models for analysing pore structure and saturation effects on elastic and dielectric responses.

  3. Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the shenhu area, south china sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Lee, M.; Guo, Y.; Yang, S.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range from 0 to 43% of the pore space. The higher gas hydrate saturations were present in the depth from 152 to 177 m at site SH7 and from 190 to 225 m at site SH2, respectively. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity using Archie equation have similar trends to those from chloride concentrations. To examine the variability of gas hydrate saturations away from the wells, acoustic impedances calculated from the 3 D seismic data using constrained sparse inversion method were used. Well logs acquired at site SH7 were incorporated into the inversion by establishing a relation between the water-filled porosity, calculated using gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, and the acoustic impedance, calculated from density and velocity logs. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from acoustic impedance of seismic data are ???10-23% of the pore space and are comparable to those estimated from the well logs. The uncertainties in estimated gas hydrate saturations from seismic acoustic impedances were mainly from uncertainties associated with inverted acoustic impedance, the empirical relation between the water-filled porosities and acoustic impedances, and assumed background resistivity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Void fraction prediction in saturated flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco J Collado [Dpto de Ingenieria Mecanica-Motores Termicos, CPS-B, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    vertical and horizontal saturated flow boiling at several pressures of industrial interest. The first result is that the measured specific linear heat is not at all equal to the mixture enthalpy gradient based on the true quality, the difference being a factor quite close to the classic value of the slip ratio, suggesting that this parameter should be included in the thermodynamic heat balance. Furthermore it has been possible to predict this slip factor from the process parameters namely, inlet pressure and velocity, and heat flux. Hence allowing the accurate prediction of the true mass quality from the modified heat balance and so, from classic thermodynamic relationships, to derive accurate values of the void fraction that compares quite well with the measured ones in the Cambridge project. (author)

  5. Defining probability of saturation with indicator kriging on hard and soft data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Lembo, Arthur J.; Walter, M. Todd; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2006-02-01

    In humid, well-vegetated areas, such as in the northeastern US, runoff is most commonly generated from relatively small portions of the landscape becoming completely saturated, however, little is known about the spatial and temporal behavior of these saturated regions. Indicator kriging provides a way to use traditional water table data to quantify probability of saturation to evaluate predicted spatial distributions of runoff generation risk, especially for the new generation of water quality models incorporating saturation excess runoff theory. When spatial measurements of a variable are transformed to binary indicators (i.e., 1 if above a given threshold value and 0 if below) and the resulting indicator semivariogram is modeled, indicator kriging produces the probability of the measured variable to exceed the threshold value. Indicator kriging gives quantified probability of saturation or, consistent with saturation excess runoff theory, runoff generation risk with depth to water table as the variable and the threshold set near the soil surface. The probability of saturation for a 120 m × 180 m hillslope based upon 43 measurements of depth to water table is investigated with indicator semivariograms for six storm events. The indicator semivariograms show high spatial structure in saturated regions with large antecedent rainfall conditions. The temporal structure of the data is used to generate interpolated (soft) data to supplement measured (hard) data. This improved the spatial structure of the indicator semivariograms for lower antecedent rainfall conditions. Probability of saturation was evaluated through indicator kriging incorporating soft data showing, based on this preliminary study, highly connected regions of saturation as expected for the wet season (April through May) in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State. Supplementation of hard data with soft data incorporates physical hydrology of the hillslope to capture significant patterns not

  6. Phase field modeling of partially saturated deformable porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    A poromechanical model of partially saturated deformable porous media is proposed based on a phase field approach at modeling the behavior of the mixture of liquid water and wet air, which saturates the pore space, the phase field being the saturation (ratio). While the standard retention curve is expected still^ to provide the intrinsic retention properties of the porous skeleton, depending on the porous texture, an enhanced description of surface tension between the wetting (liquid water) and the non-wetting (wet air) fluid, occupying the pore space, is stated considering a regularization of the phase field model based on an additional contribution to the overall free energy depending on the saturation gradient. The aim is to provide a more refined description of surface tension interactions. An enhanced constitutive relation for the capillary pressure is established together with a suitable generalization of Darcy's law, in which the gradient of the capillary pressure is replaced by the gradient of the so-called generalized chemical potential, which also accounts for the "force", associated to the local free energy of the phase field model. A micro-scale heuristic interpretation of the novel constitutive law of capillary pressure is proposed, in order to compare the envisaged model with that one endowed with the concept of average interfacial area. The considered poromechanical model is formulated within the framework of strain gradient theory in order to account for possible effects, at laboratory scale, of the micro-scale hydro-mechanical couplings between highly localized flows (fingering) and localized deformations of the skeleton (fracturing).

  7. Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables, and in ......The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances. It is based on the mixed 'stator current - rotor flux linkage' induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with saturation included behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  8. Radiation Chemistry of Organic Liquids: Saturated Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Trifunac, A D

    2004-01-01

    In this review (124 refs), several problems in radiolysis of saturated hydrocarbons are examined. Special attention is paid to the chemistry of radical cations, high-mobility holes, excited state and spur dynamics, magnetic field and spin effects, and optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  9. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in obs

  10. Electric pulse generator with a saturable inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power supply of induction accelerators is obtained with a pulse generator comprising a coaxial line shaping the pulses and magnetic compression means feeding this line with a capacitor and a saturable inductance, inside the line. A conductor is connected to the end of the inductance and to the median part of the internal electrode and a magnetic commutator discharging the line

  11. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H

    1990-01-01

    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...

  12. Dependence of mountain moisture retention on downstream saturation

    CERN Document Server

    November, L J

    2007-01-01

    We derive 1D steady equilibria for partially saturated downslope flow as a solution to the reposed vadose-zone problem. The equilibria are determined by two free parameters: a mean flow and a downstream saturation. Where there is no downstream saturation, a uniform outflow of constant saturation is obtained, but if an isolated zone of excess downstream saturation exists, the upstream flow speed is reduced and saturation increased. The saturated zone produces a capillary head jump that blocks the downward percolation. With a fully saturated downstream zone in medium clay mixtures, flow backs up more than 20 km projected vertically, but with 90% downstream saturation, the back up is reduced to less than a km. The drying of downstream saturated zones with the increased rate of mountain moisture outflow gives a viable quantitative explanation for the mysterious 56% unaccounted drop seen in the output of the southern NM La Luz / Fresnal Watershed at Alamogordo's upstream spring-box diversions.

  13. Using X-ray computed tomography to evaluate the initial saturation resulting from different saturation procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun; Wildenschild, D; Jensen, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    One of the parameters needed for characterizing soil hydraulic properties is the saturated water content. In the past, different techniques have been employed to obtain an initially fully saturated sample, but it is uncertain how successful the different techniques actually are in achieving full...... the sample was scanned in 1 mm intervals over the height of the 3.5 cm tall sample, providing detailed information on the performance of the different procedures. Five different combinations of the above mentioned saturation procedures were applied to a disturbed silica sand sample. The sample was drained...

  14. Looking for quark saturation in proton and nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu,Wei; Wang, Rong; Ruan, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The quark saturation behavior at low $Q^2$ is shown in numeric solution of the DGLAP equation with parton recombination corrections, which resembles the widely discussed JIMWLK saturation of gluons. Our calculation suggests that the partonic saturation can be interpreted as a dynamical balance between the splitting and the fusion processes of partons, without any condensation mechanisms added. The nuclear shadowing saturation at small $x$ resulted from the proposed quark saturation is also di...

  15. Avalanches in dry and saturated disordered media at fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Enrico; Yılmaz, Okan; Molinari, Jean-François; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes fracturing in inhomogeneous media under dry and fully saturated conditions. We adopt a central force model with continuous damage to study avalanche behavior in a two-dimensional truss lattice undergoing dilation. Multiple fractures can develop at once and a power-law distribution of the avalanche size is observed. The values for the power-law exponent are compared with the ones found in the literature and scale-free behavior is suggested. The fracture evolves intermittently in time because only some avalanches correspond to fracture advancement. A fully saturated model with continuous damage based on the extended Biot's theory is developed and avalanche behavior is studied in the presence of fluid, varying the fluid boundary conditions. We show that power-law behavior is destroyed when the fluid flux governs the problem. Fluid pressure behavior during intermittent crack tip advancement is studied for the continuous-damage fully saturated model. It is found that when mechanical loading prevails, the pressure rises when the crack advances, while when fluid loading prevails, the pressure drops when the crack advances.

  16. Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow, the grout tests were carried out at 0 cm/s and 100 cm/s for the flow speed and 10 L/min for the grout injection speed after installing a flow injection opening on the lower part of the chamber. Based on the results of the grout tests, the injection of each grout in the saturated riprap layers was examined to find out the most effective grout.

  17. Avalanches in dry and saturated disordered media at fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Enrico; Yılmaz, Okan; Molinari, Jean-François; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes fracturing in inhomogeneous media under dry and fully saturated conditions. We adopt a central force model with continuous damage to study avalanche behavior in a two-dimensional truss lattice undergoing dilation. Multiple fractures can develop at once and a power-law distribution of the avalanche size is observed. The values for the power-law exponent are compared with the ones found in the literature and scale-free behavior is suggested. The fracture evolves intermittently in time because only some avalanches correspond to fracture advancement. A fully saturated model with continuous damage based on the extended Biot's theory is developed and avalanche behavior is studied in the presence of fluid, varying the fluid boundary conditions. We show that power-law behavior is destroyed when the fluid flux governs the problem. Fluid pressure behavior during intermittent crack tip advancement is studied for the continuous-damage fully saturated model. It is found that when mechanical loading prevails, the pressure rises when the crack advances, while when fluid loading prevails, the pressure drops when the crack advances. PMID:27176380

  18. A Mechanistic Assessment of a Near-stream Saturated Area Dynamics in a Headwater Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentress, J.; Pfister, L.; McDonnell, J.

    2015-12-01

    Saturation excess overland flow generated in near-stream saturated areas is a mixture of rainfall and exfiltrating sub-surface water that can be quickly transported to the stream network during rainfall events. While many isotope hydrograph separation studies have demonstrated generally the dominance of pre-event water in the channel hydrograph, the mixing processes within the saturated area itself are poorly understood. Here, we isolated and measured discharge generated within a 100-m2 saturated area of a headwater reach of the 45-ha Weierbach catchment (Luxembourg). We quantified surface saturation using ground-based thermal infrared imagery and in-site piezometers throughout a series of rainfall events. This, combined with isotope and geochemical tracing enabled us to assess the role of surface saturation dynamics on mixing and storm hydrograph response. Surprisingly, our detailed analysis showed that surface saturation dynamics were weakly correlated to discharge and precipitation; cumulative rainfall on near-stream saturated areas alone was unable to explain the flow generated within this reach. Streamflow isotopic response was essentially unchanging within the 5-week monitoring period (-55 to -58 δ2D and -8.5 to -9 for δ18O ‰) suggesting that well-mixed streamflow sources that were little affected by rainfall sources. While Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ show slight flushing and dilution responses, riparian and streamflow sources responded differently across the event. Overall, groundwater exfiltration within the saturated area appeared to generate streamflow throughout the reach, effectively erasing any rainfall onto saturated area signal.

  19. Correlação entre a resposta do algodoeiro à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases em vários tipos de solos do Estado de São Paulo Correlation between cotton responses to fertilizers and percentage of base saturation in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Geraldo Fuzatto

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available É discutido um aspecto da relação entre o efeito da adubação no algodoeiro e a análise química do solo, nas condições do Estado de São Paulo. Correlação entre a resposta à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases no solo, foi verificada no estudo de 126 experimentos, conduzidos em vários tipos de solo. Uma equação polinomial de 2.° grau, descreve a correlação obtida, com um coeficiente R = 0,676xx.In this paper, the correlation between cotton responses to fertilization, and percentage of base saturation in soils, in the State of São Paulo, is discussed. A second degree polynomial, based on data collected from 126 experiments, was found to fit the data satisfactorily, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.676xx. The results indicate the possibility of estimating the effects due to fertilization in cotton crops, by use of the mentioned chemical characteristic of soils.

  20. Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System%基于Android智能手机的血氧饱和度、心率、呼吸频率监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明善; 曾碧新

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroler and transmitted by Bluetooth module.%该文设计了一种通过MSP430单片机采集血氧饱和度、呼吸信号,通过蓝牙芯片发送信号到Android智能手机,实现了基于Android智能手机的血氧饱和度、心率、呼吸频率监测系统.

  1. Medium-induced gluon radiation in hard forward parton scattering in the saturation formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Munier, Stéphane; Petreska, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We derive the medium-induced, coherent gluon radiation spectrum associated with the hard forward scattering of an energetic parton off a nucleus, in the saturation formalism and within the Gaussian approximation for the relevant correlators of Wilson lines. The calculation reproduces the simple expression for the spectrum previously obtained in the opacity expansion formalism, and rigorously specifies its validity range. The connection between the calculations in the opacity expansion and saturation formalisms is made apparent. This study may serve as a first step in order to implement consistently induced coherent energy loss and gluon shadowing in `saturation-based models' of hadron nuclear suppression in proton-nucleus collisions.

  2. A Data Treatment Method of Carbon Saturated Solubility in Fe-C-Cr Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the current situation of studying the thermodynamic property of Fe-C-Cr melt using the carbon saturated solubility, an experimental data treatment method of the carbon saturated solubility was put forward. With this method a linear relationship expression of the carbon saturated solubility in Fe-C-Cr melt was obtained, which intercept is dependent on temperature and independent of third component [Cr], but which slope is dependent on third component [Cr] and independent of temperature. Through this expression activity interaction coefficients at different temperatures were calculated and the relationship between activity interaction coefficients and temperature is also obtained.

  3. The Role of Saturated Hydrocarbon in Enrichment of Cu, Pb, Znin Kupferschiefer, Southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the role of organic matter in the enrichment of base metal, 10 samples of the PermianKupferschiefer from southwestern Poland were analyzed by using microscopic and geochemical methods. The re-suts indicate that the solvent extracts have been depleted in the samples with high Cu, Pb, Zn contents. This de-pletion occurred preferably in saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons served as hydrogen donor for ther-mochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The GC traces of saturated hydrocarbon show that the depletion occurredmainly in long-chain n-alkanes.

  4. Influence of water saturation on propagation of elastic waves in transversely isotropic nearly saturated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保忠; 蔡袁强

    2003-01-01

    Biot's two-phase theory for fluid-saturated porous media was applied in a study carried out to investigate the influence of water saturation on propagation of elastic wave in transversely isotropic nearly saturated soil. The characteristic equations for wave propagation were derived and solved analytically. The results showed that there are four waves: the first and second quasi-longitudinal waves (QP1 and QP2), the quasi-transverse wave (QSV) and the anti-plane transverse wave (SH). Numerical results are given to illustrate the influence of saturation on the velocity, dispersion and attenuation of the four body waves. Some typical numerical results are discussed and plotted. The results can be meaningful for soil dynamics and earthquake engineering.

  5. Influence of water saturation on propagation of elastic waves in transversely isotropic nearly saturated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保忠; 蔡袁强

    2003-01-01

    Biot' s two-phase theory for fluid-saturated porous media was applied in a study carried out to investigate the influence of water saturation on propagation of elastic wave in transversely isotropic nearly saturated soil. The characteristic equations for wave propagation were derived and solved analytically. The results showed that there are four waves: the first and second quasi-longitudinal waves (QP1 and QP2), the quasitransverse wave (QSV) and the anti-plane transverse wave (SH) . Numerical results are given to illustrate theinfluence of saturation on the velocity, dispersion and attenuation of the four body waves. Some typical numerical results are discussed and plotted. The results can be meaningful for soil dynamics and earthquake engineering.

  6. Controls on Highly Siderophile Element Concentrations in Martian Basalt: Sulfide Saturation and Under-Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au and the platinum group elements) in shergottites exhibit a wide range from very high, similar to the terrestrial mantle, to very low, similar to sulfide saturated mid ocean ridge basalt (e.g., [1]). This large range has been difficult to explain without good constraints on sulfide saturation or under-saturation [2]. A new model for prediction of sulfide saturation places new constraints on this problem [3]. Shergottite data: For primitive shergottites, pressure and temperature estimates are between 1.2-1.5 GPa, and 1350-1470 C [4]. The range of oxygen fugacities is from FMQ-2 to IW, where the amount of Fe2O3 is low and thus does not have a significant effect on the S saturation values. Finally, the bulk compositions of shergottites have been reported in many recent studies (e.g., [5]). All of this information will be used to test whether shergottites are sulfide saturated [3]. Modeling values and results: The database for HSE partition coefficients has been growing with many new data for silicates and oxides [6-8] to complement a large sulfide database [9- 11]. Combining these data with simple batch melting models allows HSE contents of mantle melts to be estimated for sulfide-bearing vs. sulfide-free mantle. Combining such models with fractional crystallization modeling (e.g., [12]) allows HSE contents of more evolved liquids to be modeled. Most primitive shergottites have high HSE contents (and low S contents) that can be explained by sulfide under-saturated melting of the mantle. An exception is Dhofar 019 which has high S contents and very low HSE contents suggesting sulfide saturation. Most evolved basaltic shergottites have lower S contents than saturation, and intermediate HSE contents that can be explained by olivine, pyroxene, and chromite fractionation. An exception is EET A79001 lithology B, which has very low HSE contents and S contents higher than sulfide saturation values . evidence for sulfide saturation

  7. Comparison of pulseoximetry oxygen saturation and arterial oxygen saturation in open heart intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mahoori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulseoximetry is widely used in the critical care setting, currently used to guide therapeutic interventions. Few studies have evaluated the accuracy of SPO2 (puls-eoximetry oxygen saturation in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to compare pulseoximetry with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 during clinical routine in such patients, and to examine the effect of mild acidosis on this relationship.Methods: In an observational prospective study 80 patients were evaluated in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. SPO2 was recorded and compared with SaO2 obtained by blood gas analysis. One or serial arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs were performed via a radial artery line while a reliable pulseoximeter signal was present. One hundred thirty seven samples were collected and for each blood gas analyses, SaO2 and SPO2 we recorded.Results: O2 saturation as a marker of peripheral perfusion was measured by Pulseoxim-etry (SPO2. The mean difference between arterial oxygen saturation and pulseoximetry oxygen saturation was 0.12%±1.6%. A total of 137 paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.754; P<0.0001 between changes in SPO2 and those in SaO2 in samples with normal hemoglobin. Also in forty seven samples with mild acidosis, paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.799; P<0.0001 and the mean difference between SaO2 and SPO2 was 0.05%±1.5%.Conclusion: Data showed that in patients with stable hemodynamic and good signal quality, changes in pulseoximetry oxygen saturation reliably predict equivalent changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Mild acidosis doesn’t alter the relation between SPO2 and SaO2 to any clinically important extent. In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with stable hemodynamic.

  8. Saturation dynamics and working limits of saturated absorption cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiek, Ibrahim; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2016-08-17

    Cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) in the linear absorption regime is a well-established method for sensitive trace gas detection, but only a few studies have addressed quantitative measurements in the presence of a saturated sample. In fact, saturation is usually avoided in order to escape from the required complex modeling of the saturation process that depends on the characteristics of the absorbing species, its interaction with the surrounding gas as well as on the temporal and spectral characteristics of the cavity excitation. Conversely, the novel saturated-absorption cavity ringdown spectroscopy approach (SCAR/Sat-CRDS) takes advantage of sample saturation in order to allow one to extract both the gas absorption and the empty cavity loss rates from a single ringdown event. Using a new continuous-wave infrared CRD spectrometer equipped with a tunable narrow-bandwidth high-power OPO laser system and a 18 bit digitizer, the transient dynamics of absorption saturation and the working limits of the Sat-CRDS approach in terms of its ability to extract reliable trace gas concentrations have been experimentally studied in this work. Using a strong methane transition as a test case, the excitation power P0 and saturation power PS have been systematically varied to explore a wide range of saturation regimes. At pressures 5 μbar γc, a pronounced coupling between the two parameters has been observed. Finally, a standard error analysis was performed revealing that the Sat-CRDS approach holds its advantages over conventional CRDS implementations in particular when the attainable ultimate detection sensitivity is limited by uncertainties in the empty cavity ringdown constant. PMID:27488884

  9. Space Charge Saturated Sheath Regime and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Smirnov; N.J. Fisch

    2005-03-16

    Secondary electron emission in Hall thrusters is predicted to lead to space charge saturated wall sheaths resulting in enhanced power losses in the thruster channel. Analysis of experimentally obtained electron-wall collision frequency suggests that the electron temperature saturation, which occurs at high discharge voltages, appears to be caused by a decrease of the Joule heating rather than by the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission.

  10. Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Biot ’s theory for wave propagation in saturated porous solid is modified to study the propagation of thermoelastic waves in poroelastic medium. Propagation of plane harmonic waves is considered in isotropic poroelastic medium. Relations are derived among the wave-induced temperature in the medium and the displacements of fluid and solid particles. Christoffel equations obtained are modified with the thermal as well as thermoelastic coupling parameters. These equations explain the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are attenuating longitudinal waves and one is a non-attenuating transverse wave. Thermal properties of the medium have no effect on the transverse wave. The velocities and attenuation of the longitudinal waves are computed for a numerical model of liquid-saturated sandstone. Their variations with thermal as well as poroelastic parameters are exhibited through numerical examples.

  11. Cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yongfu; XU; Jiyao

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes horizontal velocity measurements observed from 19 chaff rockets and nearly simultaneous temperature measurements collected from 19 falling sphere rockets to study the cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation. Results suggest that strong horizontal velocity shears larger than 0.04 s-1 are observed to be present at various heights near the winter mesopause. On one single chaff rocket flight, an extremely strong horizontal velocity shear as high as 0.33 s-1 is observed at 87.4 km and is believed to be the strongest value ever measured in the mesosphere. These strong horizontal velocity shears, together with Brunt-V(a)is(a)l(a) frequency squared obtained from the temperature profile, act collectively to yield two dynamical instability regions of Richardson number smaller than 1/4, suggesting that the saturated gravity wave spectrum observed by the chaff rockets in winter is a result of dynamical instability.

  12. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  13. The saturation of SASI by parasitic instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Guilet, Jerome; Foglizzo, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    The Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI) is commonly believed to be responsible for large amplitude dipolar oscillations of the stalled shock during core collapse, potentially leading to an asymmetric supernovae explosion. The degree of asymmetry depends on the amplitude of SASI, which nonlinear saturation mechanism has never been elucidated. We investigate the role of parasitic instabilities as a possible cause of nonlinear SASI saturation. As the shock oscillations create both vorticity and entropy gradients, we show that both Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor types of instabilities are able to grow on a SASI mode if its amplitude is large enough. We obtain simple estimates of their growth rates, taking into account the effects of advection and entropy stratification. In the context of the advective-acoustic cycle, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate how the acoustic feedback can be decreased if a parasitic instability distorts the advected structure. The amplitude of the shock deformation...

  14. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... and oils. This assessment was done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2009 until December 2011.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax...

  15. The coordination chemistry of saturated molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Bercaw, John E.; Labinger, Jay A.

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of bonding in transition metal complexes, as well as our ability to use that understanding in the synthesis and application of new species, has evolved over the last 100 years; and in some sense this special feature on the coordination chemistry of saturated molecules may be considered to represent its culmination. The nature of complexes between transition metal ions and neutral molecules such as ammonia was first correctly described by Werner around the beginning of the 20...

  16. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  17. Stabilization of Neutral Systems with Saturating Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. El Haoussi

    2012-01-01

    to determine stabilizing state-feedback controllers with large domain of attraction, expressed as linear matrix inequalities, readily implementable using available numerical tools and with tuning parameters that make possible to select the most adequate solution. These conditions are derived by using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional on the vertices of the polytopic description of the actuator saturations. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-01-01

    There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebra...

  19. Saturation effects in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lloyd M.; Shen, Guoqing; Ball, David A.

    2005-03-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) could provide a more useful tool for intracellular studies and biological sample characterization if measurement times could be reduced. While an increase in laser power can enable an autocorrelation function (ACF) with adequate signal-to-noise to be acquired within a shorter measurement time, excitation saturation then leads to distortion of the ACF and systematic errors in the measurement results. An empirical method for achieving reduced systematic errors by employing a fitting function with an additional adjustable parameter has been previously introduced for two-photon FCS. Here we provide a unified physical explanation of excitation saturation effects for the three cases of continuous-wave, pulsed one-photon excitation, and two-photon excitation FCS. When the time between laser pulses is longer than the fluorescence lifetime, the signal rate at which excitation saturation occurs is lower for pulsed excitation than for cw excitation, and due to the disparate timescales of the photophysical processes following excitation, it is lower still for two-photon excitation. We use a single-molecule description of FCS to obtain improved analytical ACF fitting functions for the three cases. The fitting functions more accurately account for saturation effects than those previously employed without the need for an additional empirical parameter. Use of these fitting functions removes systematic errors and enables measurements to be acquired more quickly by use of higher laser powers. Increase of background, triplet photophysics, and the cases of scanning FCS and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy are also discussed. Experimental results acquired with a custom built apparatus are presented.

  20. Complex steel saturation with niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on determining possibility of niobium and vanadium alloying with carbides were conducted. Possibility of simultaneous saturation of carbon steels with niobium and vanadium was established. Diffusion layers coated on surfaces of 45, U8A and U10A steels under different conditions. It is shown that increase of coating density by means of alloying favours the increase of its corrosion resistance in water and aqueous solutions of salt and soda 2 times, wear resistance -1.6-5 times

  1. Flux saturation length of sediment transport

    OpenAIRE

    Pähtz, T.; Kok, JF; Parteli, EJR; Herrmann, HJ

    2013-01-01

    Sediment transport along the surface drives geophysical phenomena as diverse as wind erosion and dune formation. The main length-scale controlling the dynamics of sediment erosion and deposition is the saturation length $L_\\mathrm{s}$, which characterizes the flux response to a change in transport conditions. Here we derive, for the first time, an expression predicting $L_\\mathrm{s}$ as a function of the average sediment velocity under different physical environments. Our expression accounts ...

  2. Saturation and Critical Phenomena in DIS

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that the expected turn-down in $x- Q^2$ of the cross sections (structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$), assumed to result from the saturation of parton densities in the nucleon, is related to a phase transition from the (almost) ideal partonic gas, obeying Bjorken scaling, to a partonic "liquid". This can be quantified in the framework of statistical models, percolation and other approaches to collective phenomena of the strongly interacting matter. Similarities and differences between...

  3. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  4. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  5. Seismic attenuation in partially saturated Berea sandstone submitted to a range of confining pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Samuel; Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Using the forced oscillation method, we measure the extensional-mode attenuation and Young's modulus of a Berea sandstone sample at seismic frequencies (0.5-50 Hz) for varying levels of water saturation (~0-100%) and confining pressures (2-25 MPa). Attenuation is negligible for dry conditions and saturation levels <80%. For saturation levels between ~91% and ~100%, attenuation is significant and frequency dependent in the form of distinct bell-shaped curves having their maxima between 1 and 20 Hz. Increasing saturation causes an increase of the overall attenuation magnitude and a shift of its peak to lower frequencies. On the other hand, increasing the confining pressure causes a reduction in the attenuation magnitude and a shift of its peak to higher frequencies. For saturation levels above ~98%, the fluid pressure increases with increasing confining pressure. When the fluid pressure is high enough to ensure full water saturation of the sample, attenuation becomes negligible. A second series of comparable experiments reproduces these results satisfactorily. Based on a qualitative analysis of the data, the frequency-dependent attenuation meets the theoretical predictions of mesoscopic wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) in response to a heterogeneous water distribution in the pore space, so-called patchy saturation. These results show that mesoscopic WIFF can be an important source of seismic attenuation at reservoir conditions.

  6. A Case Study of Nitrogen Saturation in Western U.S. Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Fenn, Mark E.; Mark A. Poth

    2001-01-01

    Virtually complete nitrification of the available ammonium in soil and nitrification activity in the forest floor are important factors predisposing forests in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California to nitrogen (N) saturation. As a result, inorganic N in the soil solution is dominated by nitrate. High nitrification rates also generate elevated nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soil. High-base cation saturation of these soils means that soil calcium depletion or effects associated ...

  7. State-Feedback Control for Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a state-feedback control method for fractional-order nonlinear systems subject to input saturation. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the asymptotical stability of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. Then based on Gronwall-Bellman lemma and a sector bounded condition of the saturation function, a linear state-feed back controller is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed method.

  8. Locally Controlled Deeply Saturated Fiber Optic Parametric Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Ron Reuven

    A new class of highly efficient Optical Parametric Amplifiers (OPA) is explored in this dissertation, which have the potential to reduce the power requirement on the pump and enable new functionalities. This originates from the simple notion that figure of merit (FoM) of an OPA is proportional to the product of the pump power and amplifier's length and nonlinearity. Silica fibers have been developed for over five decades and offer unparalleled transparency. By merely extending the fiber, i.e. the amplifier's length, a high FoM amplifier can be formed while keeping the pump at a moderate, sub-Watt power level. Unfortunately, optical fibers are inherently non-uniform. Their core size fluctuates along the fiber on a nanometer scale which is on the order of the fiber's molecular constituents. It is currently established that the performance of a fiber-based OPA (FOPA) is dictated by its stochastic nature. In fact, given a moderate pump power level, the highly efficient OPA will be required to maintain a strict phase matching condition across hundreds of meters. Facing this challenge, this dissertation focuses on a locally-controlled, high FoM FOPA. A high FoM FOPA operates in the deeply saturated regime in which a weak signal saturates the amplifier and depletes the pump power, effectively generating an inverse response of the pump output power to the signal input power. Given FOPAs' inhomogeneous nature, the performance limit of deeply saturated FOPAs is studied. So far, FOPAs have been commonly treated as a uniform entity; however, this study discovers unique features of the system which originate from and are strongly influenced by the fiber's inhomogeneous nature. One major example is the non-reciprocal response of deeply saturated FOPAs. It was found that deeply saturated FOPAs perform very highly, as the pump can respond to a rapidly varying (sub-THz) weak (sub-muW) signal. This is a novel method which obtained orders of magnitude improvement over current

  9. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  10. 基于流固耦合两相介质动力模型的饱和土体-地下结构体系地震反应研究%Study on the Seismic Response of Saturated Soil:Underground Structure Based on Dynamic Model of Fluid-solid Coupling Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相宝; 李亮; 崔智谋; 吴丽华

    2014-01-01

    In China,various transportation facilities have been built on a large scale.Sea-crossing tunnel projects are constructed in many coastal cities,and many underground structures are built on the soft soil foundation in the south region.These are all underground structures on saturated soil,and China lies in the Pacific Ring of Fire,with many cities located in the high-intensity earthquake zone,so the seismic security of underground structures such as tunnels and subway stations is an important subject.The key is to make an accurate calculation of the dynamic re-sponse of the underground structure to the earthquake load.The dynamic response of an under-ground structure in a saturated soil site is very different from that in other types of soil sites. Therefore,the seismic response of underground structure in the saturated soil should be studied with the right calculation model and analyzing method. At present,one widely used method is numerical simulation and calculation.Depending on the soil calculation model it employs,the analytic method can be classified into three types:the total stress method,simplified effective stress method,and fluid-solid coupling dynamic model method.The fluid-solid coupling model,which takes into account the coupling of fluid-solid dy-namic response,is a theoretically complete calculation model.Therefore,the method based on the fluid-solid coupling dynamic model is theoretically sound and more accurate.In general,the dynamic response of an underground structure in a saturated soil site needs further study.In this paper,the seismic response of an underground structure in saturated soil is studied based on the fluid-solid coupling dynamic model and ABAQUS in order to get a complete view of the character-istics and rules of the seismic response. We conduct a simulated calculation of the seismic response of an underground structure in saturated soil,with the site soil simulated by the pore pressure element deduced from the fluid-solid coupling

  11. Thermal saturation in dielectric four-terminal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Zhong, Wei-Rong; He, Yafeng; Hu, Bambi

    2010-05-01

    We propose a theoretical model to investigate the nonlinear thermal properties in dielectric four-terminal nanostructures at low temperatures. In this model, the gate temperature effect on the thermal flow from source to drain is built based on mesoscopic ballistic-phonon transport. Thermal flow versus temperature difference between source and drain is calculated for the fixed gate temperature. Saturation of thermal flow is showed with increasing the temperature difference. A reasonable explanation for the phenomenon is given by the nonlinear variation in temperature dependence of propagating phonon modes in source and drain terminals. The research results suggest the possibility of the nanothermal transistor fabrication.

  12. Vibrating Liquefaction Experiment and Mechanism Study in Saturated Granular Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianhua; Xu Ming; Ju Haiyan; Zhao Jiangqian; Huang Hongyuan; Sun Yezhi

    2006-01-01

    By the vibrating liquefaction experiment of tailings and fine-ores of iron, it is observed and noted that the change of pore water pressure when the vibrating liquefaction takes place. Based on relevant suppositions, the equation of wave propagation in saturated granular media is obtained. This paper postulates the potential vector equation and the velocity expression of three kinds of body waves under normal conditions.Utilizing the wave theory and the experimental results, the influence of three body waves on pore water pressure and granules has been analyzed in detail. This revealed the rapid increment mechanism of pore water pressure and the wave mechanism of vibrating liquefaction.

  13. Temperature Distribution and Heat Saturating Time of Regenerative Heat Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li JIA; Ying MAO; Lixin YANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, heat transfer of the ceramic honeycomb regenerator was numerically simulated based on the computational fluid dynamics numerical analysis software CFX5. The longitudinal temperature distribution of regenerator and gas were obtained. The variation of temperature with time was discussed. In addition, the effects of some parameters such as switching time, gas temperature at the inlet of regenerator, height of regenerator and specific heat of the regenerative materials on heat saturating time were discussed. It provided primarily theoretic basis for further study of regenerative heat transfer mechanism.

  14. Conductance saturation in a series of highly transmitting molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, T.; Korytár, R.; Sukenik, N.; Vardimon, R.; Kumar, B.; Nuckolls, C.; Evers, F.; Tal, O.

    2016-04-01

    Revealing the mechanisms of electronic transport through metal-molecule interfaces is of central importance for a variety of molecule-based devices. A key method for understanding these mechanisms is based on the study of conductance versus molecule length in molecular junctions. However, previous works focused on transport governed either by coherent tunnelling or hopping, both at low conductance. Here, we study the upper limit of conductance across metal-molecule-metal interfaces. Using highly conducting single-molecule junctions based on oligoacenes with increasing length, we find that the conductance saturates at an upper limit where it is independent of molecule length. With the aid of two prototype systems, in which the molecules are contacted by either Ag or Pt electrodes, we find two different possible origins for conductance saturation. The results are explained by an intuitive model, backed by ab initio calculations. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms that constrain the conductance of metal-molecule interfaces at the high-transmission limit.

  15. Investigating coronal saturation and super-saturation in fast-rotating M-dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffries, R D; Briggs, K R; Evans, P A; Pye, J P

    2010-01-01

    At fast rotation rates the coronal activity of G- and K-type stars has been observed to "saturate" and then decline again at even faster rotation rates -- a phenomenon dubbed "super-saturation". In this paper we investigate coronal activity in fast-rotating M-dwarfs using deep XMM-Newton observations of 97 low-mass stars of known rotation period in the young open cluster NGC 2547, and combine these with published X-ray surveys of low-mass field and cluster stars of known rotation period. Like G- and K-dwarfs, we find that M-dwarfs exhibit increasing coronal activity with decreasing Rossby number N_R, the ratio of period to convective turnover time, and that activity saturates at L_x/L_bol ~ 10^-3 for log N_R < -0.8. However, super-saturation is not convincingly displayed by M-dwarfs, despite the presence of many objects in our sample with log N_R < -1.8, where super-saturation is observed to occur in higher mass stars. Instead, it appears that a short rotation period is the primary predictor of super-sa...

  16. PLD-grown thin film saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellkamp, Friedjof

    2012-11-01

    The subject of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of thin films made of oxidic dielectrics which may find their application as saturable absorber in passively Q-switched lasers. The solely process applied for fabrication of the thin films was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which stands out against other processes by its flexibility considering the composition of the systems to be investigated. Within the scope of this thesis the applied saturable absorbers can be divided into two fundamentally different kinds of functional principles: On the one hand, saturable absorption can be achieved by ions embedded in a host medium. Most commonly applied bulk crystals are certain garnets like YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) or the spinel forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), in each case with chromium as dopant. Either of these media was investigated in terms of their behavior as PLD-grown saturable absorber. Moreover, experiments with Mg{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and further garnets like YSAG or GSGG took place. The absorption coefficients of the grown films of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG were determined by spectroscopic investigations to be one to two orders of magnitude higher compared to commercially available saturable absorbers. For the first time, passive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with Cr{sup 4+}:YAG thin films could be realized as well as with Cr:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. On the other hand, the desirable effect of saturable absorption can also be generated by quantum well structures. For this purpose, several layer system like YAG/LuAG, Cu{sub 2}O/MgO, and ZnO/corumdum were investigated. It turned out that layer systems with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) did not only grew in an excellent way but also showed up a behavior regarding their photo luminescence which cannot be explained by classical considerations. The observed luminescence at roughly 3 eV (410 nm) was assumed to be of excitonic nature and its

  17. Pseudo Rayleigh wave in a partially saturated non-dissipative porous solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Propagation of surface waves is studied at the pervious boundary of a porous solid saturated with a mixture of two immiscible fluids. An approach, based on continuum mixture theory, is used to derive a secular equation for the propagation of harmonic waves at the stress-free plane surface of this non-dissipative medium. Numerical analysis shows that this secular equation may not represent the propagation of true surface wave in the porous aggregate. Then, this equation is solved numerically for the propagation of pseudo Rayleigh wave or the leaky surface waves. To ensure the existence of pseudo Rayleigh wave, capillary effect between two (wetting and non-wetting) pore-fluids is related to the partial saturation. Effects of porosity and partial saturation coupled with capillary effect are observed on the phase velocity of pseudo Rayleigh waves in sandstone saturated with water-CO2 mixture.

  18. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  19. Hole-hole propagation and saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladder contributions to the effective interaction are calculated with inclusion of hole-hole (hh) propagation to all orders. For a correct calculation of the self-energy resulting from the ladder-summed effective interaction, ΓL, dispersion relations are used numerically. The single-particle (sp) energy is calculated self-consistently from the real on-shell self-energy. The contribution of the hh terms leads to a repulsive contribution to the energy per particle which increases with density. This saturation mechanism has not been identified previously and results are presented for the ν2 homework potential. (orig.)

  20. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. The Energy Dependence of the Saturation Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, M

    2006-01-01

    At low $x \\cong Q^2/W^2 << 1$, in deep inelastic scattering, the photon fluctuates into a $q \\bar q$ vector state that interacts via two gluons with the proton. The energy dependence is determined by the saturation scale, in our approach given by $\\Lambda^2_{sat} (W^2) \\sim (W^2)^{C_2}$. Imposing DGLAP evolution, we find $C_2^{theory} = 0.27$ in agreement with the model-independent analysis of the HERA data. Different values of the exponent $C_2$ are correlated with different ratios of the longitudinal to transverse structure function. This stresses the need for experiments to separate longitudinal and transverse contributions in deep inelastic scattering.

  2. Current saturation in submillimeter wave varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollberg, Erik L.; Tolmunen, T. J.; Frerking, Margaret A.; East, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    In semiconductor devices the speed of electrons cannot exceed certain limits. This phenomenon will affect varactor multipliers as well as other high frequency devices where the RF current through the active part of the device is primarily displacement current. Hence, 'saturation' of the varactor output power is expected at some point. This phenomenon is discussed in some detail and shown to severely deteriorate the multiplier performance at higher frequencies. Single barrier varactors should have an advantage over GaAs Schottky diode varactors because they can be fabricated on InAs and stacked in a series array, allowing for lower current densities and higher power handling.

  3. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils...

  4. Saturation point structure of marine stratocumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Reinout; Betts, Alan K.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of the microstructure of a Pacific stratocumulus capped boundary layer is presented. A complex structure of three branches, identified using conserved variable diagrams, is found to correspond well to a conceptual model for the unstable, radiatively cooled cloud topped boundary layer. A simple conditional sampling method was used to identify saturation point pairs for ascending and descending branches of the internal boundary layer circulation. Results indicate a primary circulation scale of 5 km and provide a reasonable cloud top entrainment rate of 1 cm/s.

  5. LABORATORY STUDY ON CRACKS IN SATURATED SANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Fujiao; Tan Qingming; Che-Min Cheng

    2000-01-01

    It has been reported[1]that when a loosely packed column of saturated sand in a vertical cylindrical container is shock loaded axially by dropping to the floor,large horizontal cracks initiate,grow and eventually fade away in the sand as it settles under gravity.This paper shows that a similar phenomenon can also be observed when shock loading is replaced by forcing water to percolate upward through the sand column.It is believed that our result sheds further light on the physics of formation of these cracks.

  6. Gas transport through saturated bentonite and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The aim of this investigation was the determination of the gas transport properties of saturated compacted bentonite and its interfaces. The bentonite used was the Spanish FEBEX bentonite, which is mainly composed of montmorillonite (more than 90%). For a dry density of 1.6 g/cm3 the saturated permeability of the bentonite is about 5.10-14 m/s, with deionised water used as percolating fluid. The saturated swelling pressure for the same dry density has a value of about 6 MPa. To perform the gas breakthrough tests a series of stainless steel cells were designed and manufactured. The cells consisted of a body, in which the cylindrical sample was inserted, pistons with o-rings at both ends of the samples and threaded caps. The samples, of 3.8 and 5.0 cm in diameter and 2.5 or 5.0 in height, were obtained by uniaxial compaction of the bentonite with its hygroscopic water content directly inside the cell body. Saturation with deionised water was accomplished by applying injection pressures of between 2 and 10 bar. The water content of the bentonite after saturation was higher than 27% for all the dry densities. Once the samples saturated, the filters on top and bottom of the samples were replaced by dry ones, the cells were again closed, and they were connected to a setup specially designed to measure breakthrough pressure. It consisted of two stainless steel deposits connected to the ends of the cell. One of the deposits was pressurised with nitrogen at 2 bar, whereas vacuum was applied to the other one. The pressures were measured by means of pressure transmitters. If no changes in pressure were recorded during 24 h, the injection pressure in the upstream deposit was increased by 2 bar and kept constant for 24 h. The process was repeated until gas started to flow through the sample. The time required for the completion of a particular experiment was determined by the conditions of the sample being studied. Although

  7. Numerical simulation of non-Archie electrophysical property of saturated rock with lattice Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wenzheng; Tao Guo; Liu Dongming; Yang Wendu

    2009-01-01

    The electrophysical property of saturated rocks is very important for reservoir identification and evaluation. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to study the electrophysical property of rock saturated with fluid because of its advantages over conventional numerical approaches in handling complex pore geometry and boundary conditions. The digital core model was constructed through the accumulation of matrix grains based on their radius distribution obtained by the measurements of core samples. The flow of electrical current through the core model saturated with oil and water was simulated on the mesoscopic scale to reveal the non-Archie relationship between resistivity index and water saturation (Ⅰ-Sw). The results from LBM simulation and laboratory measurements demonstrated that the Ⅰ-Sw relation in the range of low water saturation was generally not a straight line in the log-log coordinates as described by the Archie equation. We thus developed a new equation based on numerical simulation and physical experiments. This new equation was used to fit the data from laboratory core measurements and previously published data. Determination of fluid saturation and reservoir evaluation could be significantly improved by using the new equation.

  8. Phase Noise Monitor and Reduction by Parametric Saturation Approach in Phase Modulation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; ZHOU Zhen; PU Xiao; JI Jian-Hua; YANG Shu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) is investigated theoretically and numerically to be mitigated by parametric saturation approach in DPSK systems.The nonlinear propagation equation that incorporates the phase of linear and nonlinear is analyzed with parametric saturation processing (PSP).The NLPN is picked and monitored with the power change factors in the DPSK system.This process can be realized by an optical PSP limiter and a novel apparatus with feedback MZI.The monitor range of phase noise is 0°-90°, which may be reduced to 0°-45°if the monitor factor is about the Stockes wave but not an anti-Stockes wave.It is shown that DPSK signal performance can be improved based on the parametric saturation approach.%@@ Nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) is investigated theoretically and numerically to be mitigated by parametric saturation approach in DPSK systems.The nonlinear propagation equation that incorporates the phase of linear and nonlinear is analyzed with parametric saturation processing (PSP).The NLPN is picked and monitored with the power change factors in the DPSK system.This process can be realized by an optical PSP limiter and a novel apparatus with feedback MZI.The monitor range of phase noise is 0°-90°, which may be reduced to 0°-45° if the monitor factor is about the Stockes wave but not an anti-Stockes wave.It is shown that DPSK signal performance can be improved based on the parametric saturation approach.

  9. LNA aptamer based multi-modal, Fe3O4-saturated lactoferrin (Fe3O4-bLf) nanocarriers for triple positive (EpCAM, CD133, CD44) colon tumor targeting and NIR, MRI and CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2015-12-01

    This is the first ever attempt to combine anti-cancer therapeutic effects of emerging anticancer biodrug bovine lactoferrin (bLf), and multimodal imaging efficacy of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) together, as a saturated Fe3O4-bLf. For cancer stem cell specific uptake of nanocapsules/nanocarriers (NCs), Fe3O4-bLf was encapsulated in alginate enclosed chitosan coated calcium phosphate (AEC-CP) NCs targeted (Tar) with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified aptamers against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nucleolin markers. The nanoformulation was fed orally to mice injected with triple positive (EpCAM, CD133, CD44) sorted colon cancer stem cells in the xenograft cancer stem cell mice model. The complete regression of tumor was observed in 70% of mice fed on non-targeted (NT) NCs, with 30% mice showing tumor recurrence after 30 days, while only 10% mice fed with Tar NCs showed tumor recurrence indicating a significantly higher survival rate. From tumor tissue analyses of 35 apoptotic markers, 55 angiogenesis markers, 40 cytokines, 15 stem cell markers and gene expression studies of important signaling molecules, it was revealed that the anti-cancer mechanism of Fe3O4-bLf was intervened through TRAIL, Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) mediated phosphorylation of p53, to induce activation of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC)/DIABLO (inhibiting survivin) and mitochondrial depolarization leading to release of cytochrome C. Induction of apoptosis was observed by inhibition of the Akt pathway and activation of cytokines released from monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells (interleukin (IL) 27, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)). On the other hand, the recurrence of tumor in AEC-CP-Fe3O4-bLf NCs fed mice mainly occurred due to activation of alternative pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and Wnt signaling leading to an increase in expression of survivin

  10. Saturation in two-hard-scale processes at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C; Marquet, Cyrille

    2004-01-01

    A study of saturation effects in two-hard-scale hadronic processes such as Mueller-Navelet jets is presented. The cross-sections are expressed in the dipole framework while saturation is implemented via an extention of the Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff model. The transition to saturation is found to be more abrupt than in gamma*-gamma* cross-sections. Observables with a potentially clear saturation signal are proposed.

  11. Extended Reconstruction Approaches for Saturation Measurements Using Reserved Quantization Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peng; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a reserved quantization indices method for saturated measurements in compressed sensing. The existing approaches tailored for saturation effect do not provide a way to identify saturated measurements, which is mandatory in practical implementations.We introduce a method using...

  12. Theoretical analysis of cavity saturation spectroscopy of weak molecular absorbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Wei-Guang; Dong Lei; Yin Wang-Bao; Jia Suo-Tang

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of sub-Doppler molecular saturation spectroscopy by use of a confocal Fabry-Perot (CFP)cavity is presented. The effects of gas pressure, cavity length and mirror reflectivity on the saturation dip amplitude are analysed. Such a treatment can provide the optimum conditions and a guidance for the experiment of saturating the weak molecular absorption lines.

  13. Test of Scintillometer Saturation Correction Methods Using Field Experimental Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleissl, J.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Gomez, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Saturation of large aperture scintillometer (LAS) signals can result in sensible heat flux measurements that are biased low. A field study with LASs of different aperture sizes and path lengths was performed to investigate the onset of, and corrections for, signal saturation. Saturation already occu

  14. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    Liquefaction is loss of shear strength in fully saturated loose sands caused by build-up of excess pore water pressure, during moderate to large earthquakes, leading to catastrophic failures of structures. Currently used liquefaction mitigation measures are often costly and cannot be applied at sites with existing structures. An innovative, practical, and cost effective liquefaction mitigation technique titled "Induced Partial Saturation" (IPS) was developed by researchers at Northeastern University. The IPS technique is based on injection of sodium percarbonate solution into fully saturated liquefaction susceptible sand. Sodium percarbonate dissolves in water and breaks down into sodium and carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide which generates oxygen gas bubbles. Oxygen gas bubbles become trapped in sand pores and therefore decrease the degree of saturation of the sand, increase the compressibility of the soil, thus reduce its potential for liquefaction. The implementation of IPS required the development and validation of a monitoring and evaluation technique that would help ensure that the sands are indeed partially saturated. This dissertation focuses on this aspect of the IPS research. The monitoring system developed was based on using electric conductivity fundamentals and probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, calculate degree of saturation of sand, and determine the final zone of partial saturation created by IPS. To understand the fundamentals of electric conductivity, laboratory bench-top tests were conducted using electric conductivity probes and small specimens of Ottawa sand. Bench-top tests were used to study rate of generation of gas bubbles due to reaction of sodium percarbonate solution in sand, and to confirm a theory based on which degree of saturation were calculated. In addition to bench-top tests, electric conductivity probes were used in a relatively large sand specimen prepared in a specially manufactured glass tank. IPS was

  15. MECHANICAL BEHAVIORS OF SATURATED SAND UNDER COMPLICATED LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoShengjun

    2004-01-01

    The different physical states of saturated sand, including shear elasticity, positive dilatancy, and negative dilatancy (preliminary negative dilatancy, secondary negative dilatancy and reversal negative dilatancy) are revealed based on the pore water pressure response of saturated sand in undrained dynamic torsional tests of thin cylinder samples and also checked by the drained cyclic triaxial tests under a given mean effective normal stress. According to the effective stress path of different physical states under the undrained cyclic torsional tests the physical state transformation surface, stress history boundary and yield surface are determined, and the state boundary surface is also determined by the range of effective frictional stress state movement.Based on the moving yield surface without rotation, and the expanding stress history boundary surface relevant to the stress path variations under different physical states in 3D stress space,a physical state model is proposed to provide a new approach to calculating the transient pore water pressure under the undrained condition,and the volume strain of dilatation under drained condition in this paper.

  16. Effect of solution saturation state and temperature on diopside dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, S; Carroll, S A

    2007-03-23

    Steady-state dissolution rates of diopside are measured as a function of solution saturation state using a titanium flow-through reactor at pH 7.5 and temperature ranging from 125 to 175 C. Diopside dissolved stoichiometrically under all experimental conditions and rates were not dependent on sample history. At each temperature, rates continuously decreased by two orders of magnitude as equilibrium was approached and did not exhibit a dissolution plateau of constant rates at high degrees of undersaturation. The variation of diopside dissolution rates with solution saturation can be described equally well with a ion exchange model based on transition state theory or pit nucleation model based on crystal growth/dissolution theory from 125 to 175 C. At 175 C, both models over predict dissolution rates by two orders of magnitude indicating that a secondary phase precipitated in the experiments. The ion exchange model assumes the formation of a Si-rich, Mg-deficient precursor complex. Lack of dependence of rates on steady-state aqueous calcium concentration supports the formation of such a complex, which is formed by exchange of protons for magnesium ions at the surface.

  17. Saturable and Reverse Saturable Absorption in Nanocomposite Films of Naphthol Green B Dye-polymer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S. Maya; Sreeja, S.; Frobel, P. G. Louie; Suresh, S. R.; Muneera, C. I.

    2011-10-01

    Naphthol Green B dye-polyvinyl alcohol composite films were fabricated and their nonlinear absorption properties were investigated using the Z-scan technique under excitation with 5ns laser light pulses at 532 nm. The samples displayed a switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption with increase in either intensity or concentration. The measured values of β and IS were found to be of the order of 10-7 cm/W and 109 W/cm2 respectively. The atomic force microscopic analysis of the composite films revealed homogeneous distribution of aggregated nanoclusters marked by a low average surface roughness ≈1.8 nm.

  18. Investigating coronal saturation and super-saturation in fast-rotating M-dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffries, R. D.; Jackson, R J; Briggs, K. R.; Evans, P A; Pye, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    At fast rotation rates the coronal activity of G- and K-type stars has been observed to "saturate" and then decline again at even faster rotation rates -- a phenomenon dubbed "super-saturation". In this paper we investigate coronal activity in fast-rotating M-dwarfs using deep XMM-Newton observations of 97 low-mass stars of known rotation period in the young open cluster NGC 2547, and combine these with published X-ray surveys of low-mass field and cluster stars of known rotation period. Like...

  19. Failure of geomaterials in variably saturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X.; Borja, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    The first law of thermodynamics suggests an energy-conjugate relationship among degree of saturation, suction stress, and density of an unsaturated porous material. Experimental evidence affirms that this constitutive relationship exists, and that the water retention curves are dependent on the specific volume or density of the material. This constitutive feature must be incorporated into the mathematical formulation of boundary-value problems involving finite deformation. We present a fully coupled hydromechanical formulation in the finite deformation range that incorporates the variation of degree of saturation with the Kirchhoff suction stress and the Jacobian determinant of the solid-phase motion. A numerical simulation of solid deformation-fluid flow in unsaturated soil with a random microstructure demonstrates an intricate but well-established coupling of the hydromechanical processes. As deformation localizes into a persistent shear band, we show that bifurcation of the hydromechanical response manifests itself not only in the form of a softening behavior but also through bifurcation of the state paths on the water-retention surface.

  20. Pressure drop in saturated flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A new mass balance for flow boiling have been recently suggested by the author following a quite simple idea: if the phases have different velocities, they can not cover the same distance -the control volume length for a 1-d system- in the same time. Thus, the time scales of the phases have to be different, and we should scale the time dependent magnitudes of one phase to the other one before combining them. Furthermore, it is reasonable to think that conservation equations should have to include in some manner this evident physical fact. In complete coherence with the former mass balance, a new energy balance, which does include the slip ratio has been also stated. This work, whilst reviews these new fundamentals for saturated flow boiling, stresses those aspects related with the prediction of the pressure drop in saturated flow boiling. The new correlations found for the data carefully measured by Thom during the Cambridge project would confirm the new two-phase flowapproach.

  1. Saturation Phenomena in LIF Measurements, Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Optical saturation is the phenomenon in which the laser-induced rates of absorption and spontaneous emission between two levels, induced by a laser, become comparable to or greater than the spontaneous emission and collision rates connecting these levels. This results in the excited state population N(u) acquiring a value of similar magnitude to that of the ground state, N(e). Under these conditions the observed fluorescence signal, which is proportional to N(u), is no longer linearly dependent on laser intensity I, but increases at a slower rate, and in principle ultimately becomes independent of I. A conceptual picture of optical saturation using a two-level picture is described. This is, however, inadequate for the description of a real experiment involving a molecule, such as OH, for several reasons, which will be explained briefly; these are the multi-level nature of the electronic states and energy transfer among them and effects due to spatial, spectral, and temporal fluctuations in the laser pulse.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of Original Water Saturation and Mobile Water Saturation in Low Permeability Sandstone Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shu-Sheng; YE Li-You; XIONG Wei; GUO He-Kun; HU Zhi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ We use nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR)and centrifugation to measure the original water saturation and mobile water saturation of cores from the Xujiahe low permeability sandstone gas reservoir,and compare the NMR results with the corresponding field data.It is shown that the NMR water saturation after 300 psi centrifugation effectively represents the original water saturation measured by weighing fresh cores.There is a good correlation between mobile water saturation and the water production performance of the corresponding gas wells.The critical mobile water saturation whether reservoir produces water of the Xujiahe low permeability sandstone gas is 6%.The higher the mobile water saturation,the greater the water production rate of gas well.This indicates that well's water production performance can be forecasted by mobile water saturation of cores.

  3. Effects of Target and Distractor Saturations on the Cognitive Performance of an Integrated Display Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chengqi; LI Jing; WANG Haiyan; NIU Yafeng

    2015-01-01

    Color coding is often used to enhance decision quality in complex man-machine interfaces of integrated display systems. However, people are easily distracted by irrelevant colors and by the numerous data points and complex structures in the interface. Although an increasing number of studies are seriously focusing on the problem of achieving efficient color coding, few are able to determine the effects of target and distractor saturations on cognitive performance. To study the performances of target colors among distractors, a systematic experiment is conducted to assess the influence of high and low saturated targets on cognitive performance, and the affecting extent of different saturated distractors of homogeneous colors on targets. According to the analysis of the reaction time through the non-parametric statistical method, a calculation method of the cognitive performance of each color is proposed. Based on the calculation of the color differences and the accumulation of the reaction times, it is shown that with the different saturated distractors of homogeneous colors, the high saturated yellow targets perform better than the low saturated ones, and the green and blue targets have moderate performances. When searching for a singleton target placed on a black background, the color difference between the target and the distractor should be more than 20ΔE*ab units in the yellow saturation coding, whereas the color difference should be more than 40ΔE*ab units in the blue and green saturation coding. In addition, as regards saturation coding, the influence of the color difference between the target and the background on cognitive performance is greater than that of the color difference between the target and the distractor. Seemingly, the hue attribute determines whether the saturation difference between the target and the distractor affects the cognitive performance. Based on the experimental results, the simulation design of the instrument dials in a flight

  4. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. KELLER

    2004-11-03

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical

  5. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  6. Interação de chumbo, da saturação por bases do solo e de micorriza arbuscular no crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja Interaction between lead, soil base saturation rate, and mycorrhiza on soybean development and mineral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. L. Andrade

    2003-10-01

    environmental/abiotic factors. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of AMF inoculation (Glomus macrocarpum, and soil base saturation (SBS on growth, nutrition and Pb uptake of soybean grown on a Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, an Oxisol. Plots were treated with or without AMF inoculation, raising of the soil base saturation to 63 and 82 % by two lime doses, and five Pb doses (0; 7.5; 37.5; 150; 300 mg dm-3 with Pb(NO32 as source. AMF inoculation improved the dry matter yield, P concentration, as well as P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zn shoot contents. Increasing Pb doses in the soil reduced the inoculated soybean plants' growth at both base saturation levels. At 63 % SBS, the application of the maximum Pb dose caused a decrease in the mycorrhizal colonization of 40 %; the Pb concentration of the inoculated was 30 % lower than that of the not inoculated soybean plants, and the plants presented a five times higher Pb uptake than those grown at a SBS of 82 %. Pb addition thus affected both establishment and functionality, of the symbiosis, decreasing plant growth. At the lowest SBS, the AMF played a relevant role in the decrease of shoot Pb concentration and confirmed the plant tolerance at excessive Pb concentrations in soil.

  7. Energy dependent saturable and reverse saturable absorption in cube-like polyaniline/polymethyl methacrylate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekkayil, Remyamol [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Gopinath, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India)

    2014-08-01

    Solid films of cube-like polyaniline synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization method have been fabricated in a transparent PMMA host by an in situ free radical polymerization technique, and are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties are studied by open aperture Z-scan technique employing 5 ns (532 nm) and 100 fs (800 nm) laser pulses. At the relatively lower laser pulse energy of 5 μJ, the film shows saturable absorption both in the nanosecond and femtosecond excitation domains. An interesting switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed at 532 nm when the energy of the nanosecond laser pulses is increased. The nonlinear absorption coefficient increases with increase in polyaniline concentration, with low optical limiting threshold, as required for a good optical limiter. - Highlights: • Synthesized cube-like polyaniline nanostructures. • Fabricated polyaniline/PMMA nanocomposite films. • At 5 μJ energy, saturable absorption is observed both at ns and fs regime. • Switchover from SA to RSA is observed as energy of laser beam increases. • Film (0.1 wt % polyaniline) shows high β{sub eff} (230 cm GW{sup −1}) and low limiting threshold at 150 μJ.

  8. Saturated Fat Controversy: Importance of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, Hania; Szajewski, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In adults, worldwide, the number one cause of death is coronary heart disease. Current guidelines generally recommend reduced consumption of saturated fat to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, some evidence suggests that consumption of saturated fat does not increase that risk. Recently, to address the saturated fat controversy, i.e., whether or not saturated fat intake is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses were performed. This paper aims to provide tools for understanding both. It starts with an overview of the basic principles of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then, it provides examples of current evidence from systematic reviews on the relationship between saturated fat intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Finally, based on an example from one recent systematic review, it explains how to read a meta-analysis. Continuous updating of existing reviews, as well as the development of new systematic reviews, is needed in areas in which the role of saturated fat remains unclear. PMID:25764080

  9. A model of local distribution of saturation in a fractured layer, and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuichi Niibori; Tadashi Chida

    1994-01-20

    This paper describes a model of local distribution of liquid water (or steam) saturation in a fractured layer. The model, based on the Bernoulli trials as a probability density function of saturation, gives the following relation between the average value of the relative permeability for the water phase, k{sub rwa}, and the arithmetical mean of saturation, S{sub wa}: k{sub rwa}=S{sub wa}{sup m} where m is an index representing the non-uniformity of saturation (1<=m<=4). When m=4, the saturation is distributed uniformly. The proposed model also gives the average value for the relative permeability of the steam phase, k{sub rga}, as follows: k{sub rga}=1-S{sub wa}{sup m}-2S{sub wa}+2S{sub wa}{sup (2m+1)/3} These relations are applied to analysis of some experimental data already reported by the authors. Also, this presentation shows the validity of the Bernoulli trials as a density probability function of saturation in comparison with other kinds of such functions: the normal distribution, the triangle distribution and the beta distribution.

  10. Seismic reflection and transmission coefficients at an air-water interface of saturated porous soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin-min; XIA Tang-dai; XU Ping; ZOU Zhen-xuan

    2006-01-01

    Based on the modified Biot's theory of two-phase porous media, a study was presented on seismic reflection and transmission coefficients at an air-water interface of saturated porous soil media. The major differences between air-saturated soils and water-saturated soils were theoretically discussed, and the theoretical formulas of reflection and transmission coefficients at an air-water interface were derived. The characteristics of propagation and attenuation of elastic waves in air-saturated soils were given and the relations among the frequency, the angle of incidence and the reflection, transmission coefficients were analyzed by using numerical methods. Numerical results show that the propagation characteristic of the wave in air-saturated soils is great different from that in water-saturated soils. The frequency and the angle of incidence can have great influences on the reflection and transmission coefficients at interface. Some new cognition about the wave propagation is obtained and the study suggests that we may carefully pay attention to the influence of air on the dynamic analysis of seismic wave.

  11. Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain

    2016-07-01

    We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.

  12. Lamb's integral formulas of two-phase saturated medium for soil dynamic with drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yang DING; Gai-hong DANG; Jin-hua YUAN

    2010-01-01

    When dynamic force is applied to a saturated porous soil,drainage is common.In this paper,the saturated porous soil with a two-phase saturated medium is simulated,and Lamb's integral formulas with drainage and stress formulas for a two-phase saturated medium are given based on Biot's equation and Betti's theorem(the reciprocal theorem).According to the basic solution to Biot's equation,Green's function Gij and three terms of Green's function G4i,Gi4,and G44 of a two-phase saturated medium subject to a concentrated force on a spherical coordinate are presented.The displacement field with drainage,the magnitude of drainage,and the pore pressure of the center explosion source are obtained in computation.The results of the classical Sharpe's solutions and the solutions of the two-phase saturated medium that decays to a single-phase medium are compared.Good agreement is observed.

  13. A steady-state saturation model to determine the subsurface travel time (STT in complex hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sabzevari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The travel time of subsurface flow in complex hillslopes (hillslopes with different plan shape and profile curvature is an important parameter in predicting the subsurface flow in catchments. This time depends on the hillslopes geometry (plan shape and profile curvature, soil properties and climate conditions. The saturation capacity of hillslopes affect the travel time of subsurface flow. The saturation capacity, and subsurface travel time of compound hillslopes depend on parameters such as soil depth, porosity, soil hydraulic conductivity, plan shape (convergent, parallel or divergent, hillslope length, profile curvature (concave, straight or convex and recharge rate to the groundwater table. An equation for calculating subsurface travel time for all complex hillslopes was presented. This equation is a function of the saturation zone length (SZL on the surface. Saturation zone length of the complex hillslopes was calculated numerically by using the hillslope-storage kinematic wave equation for subsurface flow, so an analytical equation was presented for calculating the saturation zone length of the straight hillslopes and all plan shapes geometries. Based on our results, the convergent hillslopes become saturated very soon and they showed longer SZL with shorter travel time compared to the parallel and divergent ones. The subsurface average flow rate in convergent hillslopes is much less than the divergent ones in the steady state conditions. Concerning to subsurface travel time, convex hillslopes have more travel time in comparison to straight and concave hillslopes. The convex hillslopes exhibit more average flow rate than concave hillslopes and their saturation capacity is very low. Finally, the effects of recharge rate variations, average bedrock slope and soil depth on saturation zone extension were investigated.

  14. New concept of spray saturation tower for micro Humid Air Turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 2-Phase flow models were used to design a saturation tower for mHAT application. • Pressure drop and total saturator volume were set as design parameters. • Conventional saturator with packing was used as reference case. • Droplet diameter was identified as most crucial parameter for evaporation process. • We proposed a cross-current spray tower as saturator for the Turbec T100 mGT. - Abstract: The micro Humid Air Turbine (mHAT) has proven to have the highest potential of all mixed air/water micro Gas Turbines (mGTs). Turning a mGT into a mHAT however requires the installation of a saturation tower. Most common saturation towers use packing material to increase the contact area between compressed air and water. The packing material however causes a pressure drop, which has a severe negative effect on the mGT performance. To limit this pressure drop, we have developed a spray tower without packing that uses nozzles to inject water in the compressed air. In this paper, we propose a design for the spray tower based on 2-phase flow simulations. The two major constraints during the design were minimal pressure loss and tower size. A sensitivity analysis was performed in order to indicate the key parameters to obtain fully saturated air from the tower. Results of simulations showed that using a spray tower reduces the pressure losses when compared to a classic saturation tower. Sensitivity analysis showed that droplet diameter and injected water mass flow rate have the largest effect on the final size of the spray tower. Finally, a cross-current spray tower design was proposed for a Turbec T100 mGT because the sensitivity analysis showed that cross-current droplets injection meets the design constraints best

  15. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  16. A Model for the Saturation of the Turbulent Dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2015-01-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e. on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e. the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present the first scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover timescale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales...

  17. Flow and fracture in water-saturated, unconstrained granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán eVaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The injection of gas in a liquid-saturated granular bed gives rise to a wide variety of invasion patterns. Many studies have focused on constrained porous media, in which the grains are fixed in the bed and only the interstitial fluid flows when the gas invades the system. With a free upper boundary, however, the grains can be entrained by the ascending gas or fluid motion, and the competition between the upward motion of grains and sedimentation leads to new patterns. We propose a brief review of the experimental investigation of the dynamics of air rising through a water-saturated, unconstrained granular bed, in both two and three dimensions. After describing the invasion pattern at short and long time, a tentative regime-diagram is proposed. We report original results showing a dependence of the fluidized zone shape, at long times, on the injection flow rate and grain size. A method based on image analysis makes it possible to detect not only the fluidized zone profile in the stationary regime, but also to follow the transient dynamics of its formation. Finally, we describe the degassing dynamics inside the fluidized zone, in the stationary regime. Depending on the experimental conditions, regular bubbling, continuous degassing, intermittent regime or even spontaneous flow-to-fracture transition are observed.

  18. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  19. From QCD to nuclear matter saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Magda [Universite de Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]|[Theory division, CERN, CH-12111 Geneva (Switzerland); Chanfray, Guy [Universite de Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-03-15

    We discuss a relativistic chiral theory of nuclear matter with {sigma} and {omega} exchange using a formulation of the {sigma} model in which all the chiral constraints are automatically fulfilled. We establish a relation between the nuclear response to the scalar field and the QCD one which includes the nucleonic parts. It allows a comparison between nuclear and QCD information. Going beyond the mean field approach we introduce the effects of the pion loops supplemented by the short-range interaction. The corresponding Landau-Migdal parameters are taken from spin-isospin physics results. The parameters linked to the scalar meson exchange are extracted from lattice QCD results. These inputs lead to a reasonable description of the saturation properties, illustrating the link between QCD and nuclear physics. We also derive from the corresponding equation of state the density dependence of the quark condensate and of the QCD susceptibilities. (authors)

  20. Asymmetric Wave Propagation Through Saturable Nonlinear Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Law

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we consider nonlinear dimers and trimers (more generally, oligomers embedded within a linear Schrödinger lattice where the nonlinear sites are of saturable type. We examine the stationary states of such chains in the form of plane waves, and analytically compute their reflection and transmission coefficients through the nonlinear oligomer, as well as the corresponding rectification factors which clearly illustrate the asymmetry between left and right propagation in such systems. We examine not only the existence but also the dynamical stability of the plane wave states. Lastly, we generalize our numerical considerations to the more physically relevant case of Gaussian initial wavepackets and confirm that the asymmetry in the transmission properties also persists in the case of such wavepackets.

  1. Gamma irradiation in a saturated tuff environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma irradiation on the reaction of actinide doped SRL 165 and PNL 76-68 glasses in a saturated tuff environment has been studied in a series of tests lasting up to 56 days. The reaction, and subsequent actinide release, of both glasses depends on the dynamic interaction between radiolysis effects which cause the solution pH to become more acidic and glass reaction which drives the pH more basic. The use of large gamma irradiation dose rates to accelerate reactions that would occur in an actual repository radiation field may affect this dynamic balance by unduly influencing the mechanism of the glass-water reaction. Comparisons are made between the present results and data obtained by reacting the same or similar glasses using MCC-1 and NNWSI rock cup procedures. 11 references, 3 figures

  2. Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq approximation with velocity divergence taken as zero. It has been shown that the stream function is asymmetrical in vertical direction contrary to the dry and moist unsaturated air convection. It has been demonstrated that the convection in moist atmosphere strongly depends on the vapor mass fraction gradient.

  3. Stochastic resonance for nonlinear sensors with saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, David; Rojas Varela, Julio; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2003-02-01

    We analyze the transmission of a noisy signal by sensor devices which are linear for small inputs and saturate at large inputs. Large information-carrying signals are thus distorted in their transmission. We demonstrate conditions where addition of noise to such large input signals can reduce the distortion that they undergo in the transmission. This is established for periodic, as well as aperiodic, and random information-carrying signals. Various measures characterizing the transmission, such as signal-to-noise ratio, input-output cross correlation, and mutual information, are shown improvable by addition of noise. These results constitute another instance of the nonlinear phenomenon of stochastic resonance where addition of noise enhances the signal.

  4. Equatorial trench at the magnetopause under saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, A; 10.1029/2012JA017834

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic data from GOES geosynchronous satellites were applied for statistical study of the low-latitude dayside magnetopause under a strong interplanetary magnetic field of southward orientation when the reconnection at the magnetopause was saturated. From minimum variance analysis, we determined the magnetopause orientation and compared it with predictions of a reference model. The magnetopause shape was found to be substantially distorted by a duskward shifting such that the nose region appeared in the postnoon sector. At equatorial latitudes, the shape of magnetopause was characterized by a prominent bluntness and by a trench formed in the postnoon sector. The origin of distortions was regarded in the context of the storm-time magnetospheric currents and the large-scale quasi-state reconnection at the dayside magnetopause.

  5. Core saturation in a moving medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Ulmschneider, P.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical technique for solving the line transfer equation of a two-level atom in static equilibrium is presented. Complete redistribution of emitted photons is assumed, as is saturation at the line core. Emission intensity is calculated either by a generalized Eddington-Barber relation, a first-order differential equation for the specific intensity, or by a formal transfer integral. Sample calculations are performed of the line transfer equation in a semi-infinite atmosphere with a constant Planck function of the collision parameter and for the Mg II resonance line in a model solar atmosphere experiencing shocks. Attention is focused on the line wings in the latter problem. The first order differential equation approach yields the best intensity values and temperature structure.

  6. Terahertz Saturable Absorption in Superconducting Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, George R; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    We present a superconducting metamaterial saturable absorber at terahertz frequencies. The absorber consists of an array of split ring resonators (SRRs) etched from a 100nm YBaCu3O7 (YBCO) film. A polyimide spacer layer and gold ground plane are deposited above the SRRs, creating a reflecting perfect absorber. Increasing either the temperature or incident electric field (E) decreases the superconducting condensate density and corresponding kinetic inductance of the SRRs. This alters the impedance matching in the metamaterial, reducing the peak absorption. At low electric fields, the absorption was optimized near 80% at T=10K and decreased to 20% at T=70K. For E=40kV/cm and T=10K, the peak absorption was 70% decreasing to 40% at 200kV/cm, corresponding to a modulation of 43%.

  7. Passively Q-switched EDFL using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xuekun; Xu, Luxi; Huang, Sujuan; Wang, Tingyun; Pu, Shengli; Zeng, Xianglong

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) operation by using a saturable absorber based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FONP) in magnetic fluid (MF). As a kind of transition metal oxide, the FONP has a large nonlinear optical response with a fast response time for saturable absorber. By depositing MF at the end of optical fiber ferrule, we fabricated a FONP-based saturable absorber, which enables a strong light-matter interaction owing to the confined transmitted optical field within the single mode fiber. Because of large third-order optical nonlinearities of FONP-based saturable absorber, large modulation depth of 8.2% and non saturable absorption of 56.6% are demonstrated. As a result, stable passively Q-switched EDFL pulses with maximum output pulse energy of 23.76 nJ, repetition rate of 33.3 kHz, and pulse width of 3.2 {\\mu}s are achieved when the input pump power is 110 mW at the wavelength of 980 nm. The laser features a low threshold pump power of ~15 mW.

  8. A cationic vaccine adjuvant based on a saturated quaternary ammonium lipid have different in vivo distribution kinetics and display a distinct CD4 T cell-inducing capacity compared to its unsaturated analog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis; Henriksen-Lacey, Malou; Kamath, Arun T;

    2012-01-01

    , dimethyldioctadecylammonium) or highly fluid (DODA, dimethyldioleoylammonium) at physiological temperature. We show that these delivery systems are remarkably different in their ability to prime a Th1-directed immune response with the rigid DDA-based liposomes inducing a response more than 100 times higher compared...

  9. Extension of semi-analytical Erbium-doped fiber amplifier model to self-saturation regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissov, Morten

    1997-01-01

    We show in this paper that the analytical erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) model presented by Jopson and Saleh in 1991 can be extended to the self-saturation regime, making it capable of simulating all practical EDFAs. We show that an Intel Pentium 66 based computer can calculate gain and noise...... figure for a counterdirectionally pumped self-saturated amplifier in ... demonstrate very good agreement between measurements and simulations based on measured fiber data for both high-gain EDFAs (small-signal gain of 35 dB) and isolator EDFAs (small-signal gain of 43 dB) with deviations

  10. 基于非线性运动硬化模型的饱和黏土桩基础竖向循环弱化数值分析%Numerical analysis of axial cyclic degradation of a single pile in saturated soft soil based on nonlinear kinematic hardening constitutive model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄茂松; 刘莹

    2014-01-01

    针对饱和黏土的循环弱化特性,在商用有限元软件的基础上,建立了基于非线性运动硬化准则的饱和黏土循环弱化模型,在各向同性的硬化准则中引入了以等效塑性变形为变量的弱化规律,采用非线性运动硬化准则描述土体的循环滞回特性,同时考虑土体刚度的弱化。通过与饱和黏土单向循环三轴试验结果对比,验证了该模型的有效性。应用本模型,对竖向循环荷载作用下的单桩进行了二维有限元数值模拟,研究了不同循环荷载水平、不同循环次数、在不同土体刚度指数的地基中单桩竖向承载力的弱化情况。最后通过对有关文献模型试验的模拟对比验证了该数值方法的有效性。%According to the cyclic degradation behavior of saturated clay, a nonlinear kinematic hardening constitutive model considering cyclic degradation for saturated clay is developed in commercial finite element software. A degradation law with the equivalent plastic strain as a variable is introduced in the isotropic hardening rule. The nonlinear kinematic hardening law is adopted to describe the cyclic hysteretic characteristics of clay. Degradation of soil stiffness is considered as well. The model is validated against the test results of saturated clay under one-way cyclic loading. Based on this model, 2D numerical simulations of a single pile under two-way axial cyclic loading by FEM are conducted. The degradation of axial bearing capacity of a single pile under different cyclic loading levels, cyclic loading numbers and stiffness indices of soil are studied. Finally, this numerical method is validated by simulating the results of model tests in the literatures.

  11. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  12. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  13. Activities of liquid Fe-As and Fe-Sb alloys saturated with carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leandro Voisin; Kimio Itagaki

    2006-01-01

    A solid iron base alloy of the so-called furnace residue is often formed as a by-product in reduction smelting of lead sinter and scraps with high contents of arsenic and antimony. The use of phase separation into a liquid iron-rich alloy and a liquid lead-rich alloy in lead-iron-arsenic and lead-iron-antimony systems saturated with carbon at relatively low temperatures of about 1200℃ was proposed in a new process for treating the furnace residue to recover valuable elements into the lead-rich alloy and fix toxic arsenic into the iron-rich alloy. As a fundamental study for the proposed process, the activity coefficients and interaction parameters of the Fe-As and Fe-Sb systems saturated with carbon at 1200℃ were derived in this study, based on the determined phase relations in the Fe-Pb-As and Fe-Pb-Sb systems saturated with carbon.

  14. Tracking Controller for Intrinsic Output Saturated Systems in Presence of Amplitude and Rate Input Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, E.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling plants that are subject to multiple saturation constraints. Especially, we are interested in linear systems whose input is subject to amplitude and rate constraints of saturation type. Furthermore, the considered systems output is also subject to an intrinsic......-loop control system is analyzed using input-output stability tools. Thus, conditions guaranteeing l2-tracking performances are formally defined. Interestingly, the proposed controller is shown to ensure perfect output-reference tracking in presence of varying with l2-vanishing rate inputs. On the other hand......, in the case of arbitrary inputs, the proposed controller guarantees that the less changing the inputs are the better the output-reference tracking....

  15. Accuracy of the cylinder approximation for susceptometric measurement of intravascular oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Langham, Michael C; Epstein, Charles L; Magland, Jeremy F; Wu, Jue; Gee, James; Wehrli, Felix W

    2012-03-01

    Susceptometry-based MR oximetry has previously been shown suitable for quantifying hemoglobin oxygen saturation in large vessels for studying vascular reactivity and quantification of global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization. A key assumption underlying this method is that large vessels can be modeled as long paramagnetic cylinders. However, bifurcations, tapering, noncircular cross-section, and curvature of these vessels produce substantial deviations from cylindrical geometry, which may lead to errors in hemoglobin oxygen saturation quantification. Here, the accuracy of the "long cylinder" approximation is evaluated via numerical computation of the induced magnetic field from 3D segmented renditions of three veins of interest (superior sagittal sinus, femoral and jugular vein). At a typical venous oxygen saturation of 65%, the absolute error in hemoglobin oxygen saturation estimated via a closed-form cylinder approximation was 2.6% hemoglobin oxygen saturation averaged over three locations in the three veins studied and did not exceed 5% for vessel tilt angles cylinder approximation underlying MR susceptometry-based oximetry of large vessels. PMID:21858859

  16. Evaluation of oxygen saturation by pulse-oximetry in mouth breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Chalipa, Javad; Taghipoor, Elahe

    2010-01-01

    Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman's correlation coefficient tests. 34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%). Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic. A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4%) and gingival hyperplasia (29.2%) were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  17. Evaluation of Oxygen Saturation by Pulse-Oximetry in Mouth Breathing Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Akhavan Niaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation coefficient tests.  34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%. Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic.  A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4% and gingival hyperplasia (29.2% were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  18. Saturated phosphatidic acids mediate saturated fatty acid–induced vascular calcification and lipotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Masashi; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Audrey L Keenan; Okamura, Kayo; Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel; Offermanns, Stefan; James M. Ntambi; Kuro-o, Makoto; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acid–induced (SFA-induced) lipotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie SFA-induced lipotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we have shown that repression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzymes, which regulate the intracellular balance of SFAs and unsaturated FAs, and the subsequent accumulation of SFAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), are characteristic...

  19. Statistical fluctuations in a saturation laser model with correlated noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shi-Bo; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of correlations between quantum and pump noises on fluctuations of the laser intensity in a saturation laser model. An approximative Fokker-Planck equation and analytic expressions of the steady-state probability distribution function (SPD) of the laser system are derived. Based on the SPD, the normalized mean, the normalized variance, and the normalized skewness of the steady-state laser intensity are calculated numerically. The results indicate that (i) the correlation strength λ of correlated noises always enhances the fluctuation of laser intensity;(ii) the correlation time τ of correlated noises strengthens the fluctuation of laser intensity for the below-threshold case but τ weakens it for the above-threshold case.

  20. Standing torsional waves in a fully saturated, porous, circular cylinder

    CERN Document Server

    Solorza, S; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02198.x

    2004-01-01

    For dynamic measurement of the elastic moduli of a porous material saturated with viscous fluid using the resonance-bar technique, one also observes attenuation. In this article we have carried out the solution of the boundary-value problem associated with standing torsional oscillations of a finite, poroelastic, circular cylinder cast in the framework of volume-averaged theory of poroelasticity. Analysing this solution by eigenvalue perturbation approach we are able to develop expressions for torsional resonance and temporal attenuation frequencies in which the dependence upon the material properties are transparent. It shows how the attenuation is controlled by the permeability and the fluid properties, and how the resonance frequency drops over its value for the dry solid-frame due to the drag effect of fluid mass. Based upon this work we have a firm basis to determine solid-frame shear modulus, permeability, and tortuosity factor from torsional oscillation experiments.

  1. Robust Control for Uncertain Linear System Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust control scheme using composite nonlinear feedback (CNF technology is proposed to improve tracking control performance for the uncertain linear system with input saturation and unknown external disturbances. A disturbance observer is presented to estimate the unknown disturbance generated by a linear exogenous system. The designed gain matrix of the disturbance observer is determined by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Based on the output of the designed disturbance observer, a robust CNF controller including a linear feedback control item and a nonlinear item is developed to follow the desired tracking signals. The linear feedback controller is designed using LMIs and the stability of the closed-loop system is proved via rigorous Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the extensive simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. Open ended-coaxial Cable Measurements of Saturated Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Godio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of electromagnetic methods in the radar and micro-wave frequency band allows the fluid content of soils to be estimated; the heuristic or physically-based models permit to relate the observed electrical permittivity of the soils with the porosity and fluid saturation. The role of the effect of the free water and bound water in the overall electromagnetic behaviour of soils is discussed. The measurements of the complex electrical permittivity of samples with different fluid content were carried out using an open ended coaxial cable in the frequency range between 0.2 and 6 GHz. The data processing permitted to estimate the water content with good accuracy; the slight overestimate of the values with respect to the standard laboratory measures of the fluid content is due to the propagation of the experimental uncertainties and to the effect of the bound water.

  3. Does saturation cratering exist in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1984-01-01

    A number of researchers have concluded that saturation equilibrium cratering exists nowhere in the solar system, and therefore that diameter distributions in even the most heavily cratered provinces reveal initial production functions related to impacting bodies. Based on this premise, different populations of impactors are identified in different epochs and regions of the solar system. These hypotheses are clearly crucial to interpreting planetary history and need further independent examination. The production function in the outer solar system may differ from that in the inner solar system, but it is also possible that viscous relaxation of ice craters or immediate flooding of craters that penetrate through an ice lithosphere into watery substrate may explain the greater deficiency of large craters on icy moons. This problem is controversial and needs more study.

  4. Advanced Takagi‒Sugeno fuzzy systems delay and saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    This monograph puts the reader in touch with a decade’s worth of new developments in the field of fuzzy control specifically those of the popular Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) type. New techniques for stabilizing control analysis and design based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), are proposed. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures and a rich bibliography is provided for further investigation. Control saturations are taken into account within the fuzzy model. The concept of positive invariance is used to obtain sufficient asymptotic stability conditions for the fuzzy system with constrained control inside a subset of the state space. The authors also consider the non-negativity of the states. This is of practical importance in many chemical, physical and biological processes that involve quantities that have intrinsically constant and non-negative sign: concentration of substances, level of liquids, etc. Results for linear systems are then extended to l...

  5. A discrete element model for simulating saturated granular soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahan Lamei; Ali Asghar Mirghasemi

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate saturated granular soil,based on the discrete element method.Soil particles are represented by Lagrangian discrete elements,and pore fluid,by appropriate discrete elements which represent alternately Lagrangian mass of water and Eulerian volume of space.Macroscale behavior of the model is verified by simulating undrained biaxial compression tests.Micro-scale behavior is compared to previous literature through pore pressure pattern visualization during shear tests,it is demonstrated that dynamic pore pressure patterns are generated by superposed stress waves.These pore-pressure patterns travel much faster than average drainage rate of the pore fluid and may initiate soil fabric change,ultimately leading to liquefaction in loose sands.Thus,this work demonstrates a tool to roughly link dynamic stress wave patterns to initiation of liquefaction phenomena.

  6. Non-Hermitian engineering of synthetic saturable absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Teimourpour, M H; Srinivasan, K; El-Ganainy, R

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of synthetic saturable absorbers based on quantum inspired photonic arrays whose linear light transport characteristics can be derived via bosonic algebra. We demonstrate that the interplay between optical Kerr nonlinearity, interference effects and non-Hermiticity through radiation loss leads to a nonlinear optical filtering response with two distinct regimes of small and large optical transmissions. More interestingly, we show that the boundary between these two regimes can be very sharp. The threshold optical intensity that marks this abrupt "phase transition" and its steepness can be engineered by varying the number of the guiding elements. The practical feasibility of these structures as well as their potential applications in laser systems and optical signal processing are also discussed.

  7. The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain. Importantly, though, people eat foods, not isolated fatty acids. Some food sources of SFAs may pose no risk for CHD or possibly even be protective. Advice to reduce saturated fat in the diet without regard to nuances about LDL, SFAs, or dietary sources could actually increase people's risk of CHD. When saturated fats are replaced with refined carbohydrates, and specifically with added sugars (like sucrose or high fructose corn syrup), the end result is not favorable for heart health. Such replacement leads to changes in LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides that may increase the risk of CHD. Additionally, diets high in sugar may induce many other abnormalities associated with elevated CHD risk, including elevated levels of glucose, insulin, and uric acid, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin and leptin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and altered platelet function. A diet high in added sugars has been found to cause a 3-fold increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, but sugars, like saturated fats, are a diverse class of compounds. The monosaccharide, fructose, and fructose-containing sweeteners (e.g., sucrose) produce greater degrees of metabolic abnormalities than does glucose (either isolated as a monomer, or in chains as starch

  8. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders;

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...... that strong saturation gradients exist in chalk core samples after core floods, due to capillary effects. The method is useful in analysis of corefloods, e.g., for determination of capillary pressure functions...

  9. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displace...

  10. Magnetic Field Saturation in the Riga Dynamo Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gailitis, A; Platacis, E; Dementev, S; Cifersons, A; Gerbeth, G; Gundrum, T; Stefani, F; Christen, M; Will, G; Gailitis, Agris; Lielausis, Olgerts; Platacis, Ernests; Dement'ev, Sergej; Cifersons, Arnis; Gerbeth, Gunter; Gundrum, Thomas; Stefani, Frank; Christen, Michael; Will, Gotthard

    2001-01-01

    After the dynamo experiment in November 1999 had shown magnetic field self-excitation in a spiraling liquid metal flow, in a second series of experiments emphasis was placed on the magnetic field saturation regime as the next principal step in the dynamo process. The dependence of the strength of the magnetic field on the rotation rate is studied. Various features of the saturated magnetic field are outlined and possible saturation mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Saturation non-linearities for Virtual Analog filters

    OpenAIRE

    Timoney, Joseph; Lazzarini, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In the digital modeling of analog synthesizer filters using standard digital elements, a saturation element is usually included in the structure. This paper discusses some of the options available for soft clipping saturation elements. It then presents three different filter configurations that include saturation. A review of perceptual techniques for assessing distortion is made to select a suitable evaluation criterion: Timbral warmth being found as the most relevant. Experiments are car...

  12. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  13. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ

  14. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  15. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Nilsen, J; Hunter, J R; Li, Y; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A; Shlyaptsev, N

    2000-12-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {micro}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d {yields} 4p transition at 147 {angstrom} with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output.

  16. Cyclic Shearing Deformation Behavior of Saturated Clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The apparatus for static and dynamic universal triaxial and torsional shear soil testing is employed to perform stress-controlled cyclic single-direction torsional shear tests and two-direction coupled shear tests under unconsolidated-undrained conditions. Through a series of tests on saturated clay, the effects of initial shear stress and stress reversal on the clay's strain-stress behavior are examined, and the behavior of pore water pressure is studied. The experimental results indicate that the patterns of stress-strain relations are distinctly influenced by the initial shear stress in the cyclic single-direction shear tests. When the initial shear stress is large and no stress reversal occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by an accumulative effect. When the initial shear stress is zero and symmetrical cyclic stress occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by a cyclic effect. The pore water pressure fluctuates around the confining pressure with the increase of cycle number. It seems that the fluctuating amplitude increases with the increase of the cyclic stress. But a buildup of pore water pressure does not occur. The deformations of clay samples under the complex initial and the cyclic coupled stress conditions include the normal deviatoric deformation and horizontal shear deformation, the average deformation and cyclic deformation. A general strain failure criterion taking into account these deformations is recommended and is proved more stable and suitable compared to the strain failure criteria currently used.

  17. Saturation effects in degenerate phase sensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Kakande J.; Parmigiani F.; Slavik R.; Gruner-Nielsen L.; Jakobsen D.; Herstrom S.; Petropoulos P.; Richardson D.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study saturation effects in degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers, revealing and explaining a gain regime suitable for all-optical signal processing functions such as phase regeneration.

  18. The role of meson dynamics in nuclear matter saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the saturation of nuclea matter in the non-relativistic limit of the model proposed by J.D. Walecka is studied. In the original context nuclear matter saturation is obtained as a direct consequence of relativistic effects and both scalar and vector mesons are treated statically. In the present work we investigate the effect of the meson dynamics for the saturation using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the ground state. An upper limit for the saturation curve of nuclear matter and are able to decide now essential is the relativistic treatment of the nucleons for this problem, is obtained. (author)

  19. Heat Saturation Time of Solid Spherical Regenerator of HTAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to control the heat saturation time, the temperature field of the regenerators of high temperature air combustion (HTAC) technology after reheating furnace was studied. A one-dimensional unsteady mathematical model was established and discretized through finite difference method. The relationship between the heat saturation time and some factors was determined through the calculation of a program developed by language C. The heat saturation time decreases with the increase of heat convection coefficient, however, the increase of heat capacity,density and radius of regenerator all increase the heat saturation time approximately linearly.

  20. 主成分分析法确定饱和指数模型阈值%Threshold Determination of Improved Saturation Index Model Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华东; 郭张军; 韩耀铭; 杨文曦

    2011-01-01

    Piezometers are the main instruments for seepage observation of dams. Based on the long-term engineering experiments, the embedment methods of the piezometers are relatively mature. But there are some factors to be easily neglected, such as elevation correction in embedding piezometers, fixing methods of sensors and cables, choice of the initial value, wiring details and utilization of supporting materials. They will cause the low survival rate of the embedment. Here taking the vibrating wire piezometers as an example, the causes of the above problems are analyzed, and the corresponding solutions are put forward for discussion.%依据主成分分析法和化学热力学的基本理论,编写了基于FORTRAN语言的程序,优化了模型阈值的确定方法,根据计算目的不同,分别选取不同的目标离子作为控制模型循环的阈值.结合某工程实例,与传统算法进行了比较,证明该模型的算法在坝址区的计算具有更好的稳定性和计算精度.

  1. MIXED ROBUST/ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF ROBOT MANIPULATORS BASED ON A CLASS OF SATURATION FUNCTIONS%基于一类饱和函数的机器人混合鲁棒/自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代颖; 谢明江

    2000-01-01

    提出一类不需要线性PD反馈的混合鲁棒/自适应控制策略,用于不确定性机器人的轨迹跟踪.其控制结构由一个补偿参数不确定性的自适应控制器和补偿非参数不确定性的鲁棒控制器构成.其主要特点是基于一类饱和型函数,提出了一类新颖的鲁棒控制器和非线性滑动变量的设计方法.基于Lyapunov方法的理论分析和计算机仿真,均保证设计的控制策略能够消除系统所有的不确定性影响,并达到全局的渐近稳定.%This paper proposes a class of mixed robust/addaptive control schemes without linear PDfeedback for trajectory tracking of robots with uncertainties. The control structure consists of a adaptivecontroller used to compensate for the parametric uncertainty and a nonlinear robust controller used tocompensate for the unparametric uncertainty. The main feature of the control approach is that a new class otnonlinear sliding variables and continuous nonlinear robust controllers are developed based on a class ofsaturation-type functions to simplify the controller design. It is shown by Lyapunov's theorem andsimulations that uncertain effects such as frictions and external disturbances are eliminated, and also theglobal asymptotic stability can be warranted.

  2. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin-coating films containing benzo[α]phenoxazinium: from reverse saturated to saturated absorptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical films based on poly(4-vinylphenol) and benzo[α]phenoxazinium dye with a long alkyl chain were obtained by spin-coating, and their optical properties are reported in this paper. UV–vis absorptions of the optical films showed that the absorption maxima were shifted about 40 nm by the influence of dye aggregation with increasing dye ratio. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of films were tested by Z-scan technique with a picosecond laser beam at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities and second hyperpolarizabilities were up to 10−10 and 10−32 esu respectively. Meanwhile, the third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye in doped films. The result of aggregation induced adjustable third-order nonlinear absorption can be confirmed from their TEM images. - Highlights: • Benzo[α]phenoxazinium containing optical films with poly(4-vinylphenol). • Optical property was influenced by dye aggregation. • The third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye

  3. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin-coating films containing benzo[α]phenoxazinium: from reverse saturated to saturated absorptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Fang, Yu [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Ru; Guo, Xiao-Zhi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Ying-Lin [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ge, Jian-Feng, E-mail: ge_jianfeng@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Medical Optics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China)

    2015-08-31

    The optical films based on poly(4-vinylphenol) and benzo[α]phenoxazinium dye with a long alkyl chain were obtained by spin-coating, and their optical properties are reported in this paper. UV–vis absorptions of the optical films showed that the absorption maxima were shifted about 40 nm by the influence of dye aggregation with increasing dye ratio. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of films were tested by Z-scan technique with a picosecond laser beam at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities and second hyperpolarizabilities were up to 10{sup −10} and 10{sup −32} esu respectively. Meanwhile, the third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye in doped films. The result of aggregation induced adjustable third-order nonlinear absorption can be confirmed from their TEM images. - Highlights: • Benzo[α]phenoxazinium containing optical films with poly(4-vinylphenol). • Optical property was influenced by dye aggregation. • The third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye.

  4. Vertical vibrations of elastic foundation resting on saturated half-space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the dynamic response of an elastic foundation of finite height bounded to the surface of a saturated half-space.The foundation is subjected to time-harmonic vertical loadings.First, the transform solutions for the governing equations of the saturated media are obtained.Then, based on the assumption that the contact between the foundation and the half-space is fully relaxed and the half-space is completely pervious or impervious, this dynamic mixed boundary-value problem can lead to dual integral equations, which can be further reduced to the Fredholm integral equations of the second kind and solved by numerical procedures.In the numerical examplea, the dynamic compliances, displacements and pore pressure are developed for a wide range of frequencies and material/geometrical properties of the saturated soil-foundation system.In most of the cases, the dynamic behavior of an elastic foundation resting on the saturated media significantly differs from that of a rigid disc on the saturated half-space.The solutions obtained can be used to study a variety of wave propagation problems and dynamic soil-structure interactions.

  5. Measuring hemoglobin amount and oxygen saturation of skin with advancing age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Midori; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ogawa-Ochiai, Keiko; Akiba, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    We measured the oxygen saturation of skin at various ages using our previously proposed method that can rapidly simulate skin spectral reflectance with high accuracy. Oxygen saturation is commonly measured by a pulse oximeter to evaluate oxygen delivery for monitoring the functions of heart and lungs at a specific time. On the other hand, oxygen saturation of skin is expected to assess peripheral conditions. Our previously proposed method, the optical path-length matrix method (OPLM), is based on a Monte Carlo for multi-layered media (MCML), but can simulate skin spectral reflectance 27,000 times faster than MCML. In this study, we implemented an iterative simulation of OPLM with a nonlinear optimization technique such that this method can also be used for estimating hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation from the measured skin spectral reflectance. In the experiments, the skin reflectance spectra of 72 outpatients aged between 20 and 86 years were measured by a spectrophotometer. Three points were measured for each subject: the forearm, the thenar eminence, and the intermediate phalanx. The result showed that the oxygen saturation of skin remained constant at each point as the age varied.

  6. The 3-D non-axisymmetrical Lamb's problem in transversely isotropic saturated poroelastic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; WANG Xiaogang

    2004-01-01

    Based on Biot's theory on fluid-saturated porous media, the displacement functions are adopted to convert the 3-D Biot's wave equations in the cylindrical coordinate for transversely isotropic saturated poroelastic media into two--one 6-order and one 2-order--uncoupling differential governing equations. Then, the differential equations are solved by the Fourier expanding and Hankel integral transform method.Integral solutions of soil skeleton displacements and pore pressure as well as the total stresses for poroelastic media are obtained. Furthermore, the systematic study on Lamb's problems for the transversely isotropic saturated poroelastic media is performed. Integral solutions for surface radial, vertical and circumferential displacements are obtained in both cases of drained surface and undrained surface under the vertical and horizontal harmonic excitation force. In the end of this paper, the numerical examples are presented.The calculation results indicate that the difference between the model of isotropic saturated poroelastic media and that of transversely isotropic saturated poroelastic media is obvious.

  7. Over Saturation in SiPMs: The Difference Between Signal Charge and Signal Amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, Max Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    A recent report on the over saturation in SiPMs is puzzling. The measurements, using a variety of SiPMs, show an excess in signal far beyond the physical limit of the number of SiPM microcells without indication of an ultimate saturation. In this work I propose a solution to this problem. Different measurements and theoretical models of avalanche propagation indicate that multiple simultaneous primary avalanches produce an ever narrower and faster signal. This is because of a speed-up of effective avalanche propagation processes. It means that SiPMs, operated at their saturation regime, should become faster the more light they detect. Therefore, signal extraction methods that use the amplitude of the signal should see an over saturation effect. Measurements with a commercial SiPM illuminated with bright picosecond pulses in the saturation regime demonstrate that indeed the rising edge of the SiPM signal gets faster as the light pulses get brighter. A signal extractor based on the amplitude shows a nonlinear b...

  8. Nonlinear kT factorization for Forward Dijets in DIS off Nuclei in the Saturation Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, N N; Zakharov, B G; Zoller, V R

    2003-01-01

    We develop the QCD description of the breakup of photons into forward dijets in small-x deep inelastic scattering off nuclei in the saturation regime. Based on the color dipole approach, we derive a multiple scattering expansion for intranuclear distortions of the jet-jet transverse momentum spectrum. A special attention is paid to the non-Abelian aspects of the propagation of color dipoles in a nuclear medium. We report a nonlinear $k_{\\perp}$-factorization formula for the breakup of photons into dijets in terms of the collective Weizs\\"acker-Williams (WW) glue of nuclei as defined in ref. \\cite{Saturation,NSSdijet}. For hard dijets with the transverse momenta above the saturation scale the azimuthal decorrelation (acoplanarity) momentum is of the order of the nuclear saturation momentum QA. For minijets with the transverse momentum below the saturation scale the nonlinear kT-factorization predicts a complete disappearance of the jet-jet correlation. We comment on a possible relevance of the nuclear decorrel...

  9. Saturated and Unsaturated Flow due to Tidal Fluctuation and Rainfall in a Coastal Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hund-Der; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Chang, Chia-Hao

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of groundwater level fluctuations due to tidal waves propagation and localized recharge in coastal aquifers is important for the development and management of water resources in coastal areas. Most of the past models for the recharge problem consider either saturated flow or unsaturated flow in the aquifers. However, it is expected that the recharge sources infiltrating from the ground surface have significant impact on the hydraulic heads in saturated and unsaturated zones of an unconfined aquifer in reality. The objective of this study is to derive a closed-form analytical expression for predicting tidal responses in a coastal aquifer system with considering rainfall recharge as well as coupled saturated and unsaturated flow. The model is composed of a linearized Richards equation for unsaturated flow coupled with the saturated groundwater flow equation. The top boundary at the ground surface is represented by the flux condition with a source term denoting the recharge in the coastal aquifer system. The solution of the model is developed in Cartesian coordinates based on the methods of Laplace transform and double-integral transform. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head fluctuations induced by the joint effect of rainfall and oceanic tides is examined in saturated and unsaturated zones of the aquifer. In addition, the influences of the unsaturated flow on the water table movement are also investigated and discussed. Key words: analytical solution, unsaturated flow, coastal aquifer.

  10. The decision optimization of product development by considering the customer demand saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-song Xing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of over meeting customer demands on the product development process, which is on the basis of the quantitative model of customer demands, development cost and time. Then propose the corresponding product development optimization decision. Design/methodology/approach: First of all, investigate to obtain the customer demand information, and then quantify customer demands weights by using variation coefficient method. Secondly, analyses the relationship between customer demands and product development time and cost based on the quality function deployment and establish corresponding mathematical model. On this basis, put forward the concept of customer demand saturation and optimization decision method of product development, and then apply it in the notebook development process of a company. Finally, when customer demand is saturated, it also needs to prove the consistency of strengthening satisfies customer demands and high attention degree customer demands, and the stability of customer demand saturation under different parameters. Findings: The development cost and the time will rise sharply when over meeting the customer demand. On the basis of considering the customer demand saturation, the relationship between customer demand and development time cost is quantified and balanced. And also there is basically consistent between the sequence of meeting customer demands and customer demands survey results. Originality/value: The paper proposes a model of customer demand saturation. It proves the correctness and effectiveness on the product development decision method.

  11. Utilization of Methyl Proton Resonances in Cross-Saturation Measurement for Determining the Interfaces of Large Protein-Protein Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-saturation experiments allow the identification of the contact residues of large protein complexes (MW>50 K) more rigorously than conventional NMR approaches which involve chemical shift perturbations and hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments [Takahashi et al. (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol., 7, 220-223]. In the amide proton-based cross-saturation experiment, the combined use of high deuteration levels for non-exchangeable protons of the ligand protein and a solvent with a low concentration of 1H2Ogreatly enhanced the selectivity of the intermolecular cross-saturation phenomenon. Unfortunately, experimental limitations caused losses in sensitivity. Furthermore, since main chain amide protons are not generally exposed to solvent, the efficiency of the saturation transfer directed to the main chain amide protons is not very high. Here we propose an alternative cross-saturation experiment which utilizes the methyl protons of the side chains of the ligand protein. Owing to the fast internal rotation along the methyl axis, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the enhanced efficiency of this approach. The methyl-utilizing cross-saturation experiment has clear advantages in sensitivity and saturation transfer efficiency over the amide proton-based approach

  12. Review of study on mineralization, saturation and cycle of Nitrogen in forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-yan; FAN Jing

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important elements that can limit plant growth in forest ecosystems. Studies of nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen saturation and nitrogen cycle in forest ecosystems is very necessary for understanding the productivity of stand, nutrient cycle and turnover of nitrogen of forest ecosystems. Based on comparison and analysis of domestic and international academic references related to studies on nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen saturation and nitrogen cycle in recent 10 years, the current situation and development of the study on these aspects, and the problems existed in current researches were reviewed. At last, some advices were given for future researches.

  13. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Uncertain Fractional-Order Financial Chaotic Systems Subjected to Input Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenhui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, control of uncertain fractional-order financial chaotic system with input saturation and external disturbance is investigated. The unknown part of the input saturation as well as the system’s unknown nonlinear function is approximated by a fuzzy logic system. To handle the fuzzy approximation error and the estimation error of the unknown upper bound of the external disturbance, fractional-order adaptation laws are constructed. Based on fractional Lyapunov stability theorem, an adaptive fuzzy controller is designed, and the asymptotical stability can be guaranteed. Finally, simulation studies are given to indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27783648

  14. Detecting Location Shifts during Model Selection by Step-Indicator Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Castle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To capture location shifts in the context of model selection, we propose selecting significant step indicators from a saturating set added to the union of all of the candidate variables. The null retention frequency and approximate non-centrality of a selection test are derived using a ‘split-half’ analysis, the simplest specialization of a multiple-path block-search algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations, extended to sequential reduction, confirm the accuracy of nominal significance levels under the null and show retentions when location shifts occur, improving the non-null retention frequency compared to the corresponding impulse-indicator saturation (IIS-based method and the lasso.

  15. Model parameter identification and parameter self-tunning of PID controller based on saturation relay feedback%基于饱和继电反馈的模型参数辨识及PID控制器参数自整定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海; 王储栋; 严怀诚; 孙京诰

    2012-01-01

    FID control and model-based advanced control strategy is widely used in industrial process. To design PID controller or model-based advanced controller and achieve good performance, accurate ultimate parameter and model parameter is needed. In this paper, relay feedback method is employed. Relay signal is used to the industrial plant which can be approximated as first order plus dead time model. Model parameters and ultimate parameter can be identified from the oscillating curve of the plant. The model parameter identification formula is improved under mathematical derivation and lots of simulation experiment. Compared with ideal relay feedback, simulation results show that ultimate information can be identified more accurate through saturation relay feedback. Under accurate ultimate information and modified model parameter identification formula, model parameter can be identified accurately through saturation relay feedback. The exactly identification parameters provide a quantitative reference to design PID controller or model-based advanced controller.%PID控制和基于模型的先进控制广泛应用于工业过程中,为了很好的设计PID控制器或基于模型的先进控制器,确保取得较好的控制效果,需要准确的获取被控过程的临界信息及模型参数.本文采用继电反馈方法,对可以近似为一阶惯性纯滞后环节的工业对象施加继电激励信号,根据对象的振荡输出曲线,进行模型参数和临界信息的辨识.依据数学推理和大量仿真实验观察,本文改进了模型参数的辨识公式.仿真数据表明,相比理想继电反馈,饱和继电反馈对临界信息的辨识精度更高:在临界信息精确的情况下,依据改进的模型参数辨识公式,饱和继电反馈能够很好的辨识出被控对象的模型参数,从而为PID控制器或基于模型的先进控制器的设计提供了一个定量的参考依据.

  16. Unique Prediction for High-Energy J/\\psi Photoproduction: Color Transparency and Saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Schildknecht, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Based on the color-dipole picture, we present a successful parameter-free prediction for the recent high-energy $J/\\psi$ photoproduction data from the Large Hadron Collider. The experimental data provide empirical evidence for the transition from color transparency to saturation.

  17. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  18. Non-equilibrium Models for Two Phase Flow in Porous Media: the Occurence of Saturation Overshoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, C.J. van; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Pop, I.S.; Zegeling, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Several experiments have evidenced the occurrence of saturation overshoots for flows in homogeneous porous media. Such phenomena are ruled out by standard mathematical models, which are based on equilibrium assumptions. In this presentation we discuss nonequilibrium models, in particular including d

  19. Determination of Oxygen Saturation and Photoplethysmogram from Near Infrared Scattering Images

    CERN Document Server

    Ri, Yong-U; Sin, Kye-Ryong

    2016-01-01

    The near infrared scattering images of human muscle include some information on bloodstream and hemoglobin concentration according to skin depth and time. This paper addressed a method of determining oxygen saturation and photoplethysmogram from the near infrared (NIR) scattering images of muscle. Depending on the modified Beer-Lambert Law and the diffuse scattering model of muscular tissue, we determined an extinction coefficient matrix of hemoglobin from the near infrared scattering images and analyzed distribution of oxygen saturation of muscle with a depth from the extinction coefficient matrix. And we determined a dynamic attenuation variation curve with respect to fragmentary image frames sensitive to bloodstream from scattering image frames of muscle with time and then obtained the photoplethysmogram and heart rate by Fourier transformation and inverse transformation. This method based on the NIR scattering images can be applied in measurement of an average oxygen saturation and photoplethysmogram even...

  20. Classification of minimal 1-saturating sets in $PG(2,q)$, $q\\leq 23$

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoli, Daniele; Pambianco, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Minimal 1-saturating sets in the projective plane $PG(2,q)$ are considered. They correspond to covering codes which can be applied to many branches of combinatorics and information theory, as data compression, compression with distortion, broadcasting in interconnection network, write-once memory or steganography (see \\cite{Coh} and \\cite{BF2008}). The full classification of all the minimal 1-saturating sets in PG(2,9) and PG(2,11) and the classification of minimal 1-saturating sets of smallest size in PG(2,q), $16\\leq q\\leq 23$ are given. These results have been found using a computer-based exhaustive search that exploits projective equivalence properties.

  1. An empirical method to correct the saturation seen in the SOHOIMDI magnetograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhendong Gao; Yong-Heng Zhao; Yang Liu

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of the umbrae is sometimes found to be saturated in the magnetograms taken by the Michelson Doppler Imager(MDI)onboard the Solar and Heliospberic Observatory(SOHO).It is suggested that the combination of the low intensity of sunspot umbrae and the limitation of the 15-bit onboard numerical data acquisition leads to this saturation.In this paper,we propose to use the MDI's intensity data to correct this saturation.This method is based on the well-established relationship between the continuum intensity and the magnetic field(the so-called I-B relationship).A comparison between the corrected magnetic field and the data taken by the Stokes-Polarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope(SOT/SP)onboard Hinode shows a reasonable agreement,suggesting that this correction is effective.

  2. Theoretical analysis of saturable absorbtion in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidin, A; Shtyrina, O V; Yarutkina, I A; Fedoruk, M P

    2016-07-25

    We propose a general analytical method for estimation of the saturable absorber output energy as a function of the input energy. The method is based on a representation of the saturable absorber output energy as a series of powers of the recovery time. We also derive a simplified expression of the saturable absorber output energy that gives a good approximation for large input energies. The analytical results are verified by the numerical simulation. The results have been applied to the particular cases of an input function that include the Gaussian input pulse and the hyperbolic secant input pulse. We show that the analytical results can improve the prediction of the output energy in the fiber lasers. PMID:27464194

  3. Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

  4. Two-Level Optical Coherence Tomography Scheme for Suppressing Spectral Saturation Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Ting Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a novel method for reducing saturation artifacts in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT systems. This method is based on a two-level SD-OCT system with a dual-line charge-coupled device (CCD camera. We compensate the saturated signal detected by the first line using the unsaturated signal detected by the second line. The Fourier transform of the compensated spectrum shows effective suppression of saturation artifacts. This method was also successfully performed on phantom material and skin on a human finger. Our method causes neither back-scattering power loss nor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR degradation. The only difference between the traditional system and our two-level system is our utilization of the dual-line CCD camera; no additional devices or complex designs are needed.

  5. A reduced-order method for estimating the stability region of power systems with saturated controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN; DeQiang; XIN; HuanHai; QIU; JiaJu; HAN; ZhenXiang

    2007-01-01

    In a modern power system, there is often large difference in the decay speeds of transients. This could lead to numerical problems such as heavy simulation burden and singularity when the traditional methods are used to estimate the stability region of such a dynamic system with saturation nonlinearities. To overcome these problems, a reduced-order method, based on the singular perturbation theory, is suggested to estimate the stability region of a singular system with saturation nonlinearities. In the reduced-order method, a low-order linear dynamic system with saturation nonlinearities is constructed to estimate the stability region of the primary high-order system so that the singularity is eliminated and the estimation process is simplified. In addition, the analytical foundation of the reduction method is proven and the method is validated using a test power system with 3 buses and 5 machines.

  6. Driver behavior and accident frequency in school zones: Assessing the impact of sign saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawderman, Lesley; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Huang, Yunchen; Nandi, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    Based on the models of human information processing, if a driver observes too many of the same signs, he or she may no longer pay attention to those signs. In the case of school zones, this expected effect may lead to non-compliance to posted speeds, negatively impacting safety around nearby schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of the number of nearby school zones on driver behavior (vehicle speed and compliance) and accident frequency. As a measure of the density of school zones, this study introduced and defined a new term sign saturation and presented a methodology to calculate sign saturation for school zones. Results found a significant effect of sign saturation on vehicle speed, compliance, and accident frequency. This study also examined the speeding behavior in school zones for different time of the day and day of the week. Results found that speeding was more prevalent in the early mornings and during the weekends. PMID:26070018

  7. Numerical modelling of unsaturated-saturated flow under centrifugation with no outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Kacur, J; Kison, P

    2010-01-01

    A novel centrifuge set-up for the study of unsaturated flow characteristics in porous media is examined. In this set-up, simple boundary conditions can be used, but a free moving boundary between unsaturated-saturated flow arises. A precise and numerically efficient approximation is presented for the mathematical model based on Richards' nonlinear and degenerate equation expressed in terms of effective saturation using the Van Genuchten-Mualem ansatz for the soil parameters in the unsaturated zone. Sensitivity of the measurable quantities (rotational moment, center of gravity and time period to achieve quasi steady state) on the soil parameters is investigated in several numerical experiments. They show that the set-up is suitable for the determination of the soil parameters via the solution of an inverse problem in an iterative way, excluding the saturated hydraulic conductivity. For this parameter, an existing simple centrifuge set-up is repeated and augmented with transient measurements.

  8. Modelling critical degrees of saturation of porous building materials subjected to freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1996-01-01

    Frost resistance of porous materials can be characterized by the critical degree of saturation, SCR, and the actual degree of saturation, SACT. An experimental determination of SCR is very laborious and therefore only seldom used when testing frost resistance. A theoretical model for prediction.......The model has been tested on various concretes without air-entrainment and on brick tiles with different porosities. Results agree qualitatively with values of the critical degree of saturation determined by measuring resonance frequencies and length change of sealed specimens during freezing...... to describe the development of stresses and the pore structure, because a mathematical description of the physical theories explaining the process of freezing of water in porous materials is lacking.Calculations are based on porosity, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength, and parameters characterizing...

  9. Simulation of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin solution, RBC suspension and hemosome by a neural network system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, P; Chen, W K; Lee, C J

    1996-03-01

    Hemoglobin-based artificial blood substitutes as oxygen carrier is advantageous over current plasma expander. In this study, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin solution, red blood cell suspension and artificial blood substitute under various conditions were measured by yeast-consuming-oxygen experiments instead of spectrophotometer. The empirical results were assigned into training feedforward back-propagation neural network system in order to simulate the oxygen saturation model modulated by those factors such as pH, [Cl-], [2,3-DPG], pO2 and pCO2. Consequently, this neural network is able to simulate accurately the oxygen saturation of Hb solution. The prediction of hemosome is not agreed well possible because of the resistance of transport of oxygen. However, the results showed neural net can offer a simple and convenient way in comparison with the conventional methods, especially in dealing with complex and ambiguous problem.

  10. Solution of a rigid disk on saturated soil considering consolidation and rheology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shao-wu; WANG Jian-hua; ZHOU Xiang-lian

    2005-01-01

    The problem of a rigid disk acting with normal force on saturated soil was studied using Biot consolidation theory and integral equation method and the Merchant model to describe the saturated soil rheology. Using integral transform techniques,general solutions of Biot consolidation functions and the dual integral equations of a rigid disk on saturated soil were established based on the boundary conditions. These equations can be simplified using Laplace-Hankel and Abel transform methods. The numerical solutions of the integral equations, and the corresponding inversion transform were used to obtain the settlement and contact stresses of the rigid disk. Numerical examples showed that the soil settlement is small if only consolidation is considered,so the soil rheology must be taken into account to calculate the soil settlement. Numerical solution of Hankel inverse transform is also given in this paper.

  11. Approximate optimal control for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with saturating actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we solve the approximate optimal control problem for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with saturating actu- ators via greedy iterative Heuristic Dynamic Programming (GI-HDP) algorithm. In order to deal with the saturating problem of actu- ators, a novel nonquadratic functional is developed. Based on the nonquadratic functional, the GI-HDP algorithm is introduced to obtain the optimal saturated controller with a rigorous convergence analysis. For facilitating the implementation of the iterative algo- rithm, three neural networks are used to approximate the value function, compute the optimal control policy and model the unknown plant, respectively. An example is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optimal control scheme.

  12. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion

  13. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  14. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...

  15. Stability and stabilization of linear systems with saturating actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbouriech, Sophie; Gomes da Silva Jr, João Manoel; Queinnec, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Gives the reader an in-depth understanding of the phenomena caused by the more-or-less ubiquitous problem of actuator saturation. Proposes methods and algorithms designed to avoid, manage or overcome the effects of actuator saturation. Uses a state-space approach to ensure local and global stability of the systems considered. Compilation of fifteen years' worth of research results.

  16. Nonmonotone Saturation Profiles for Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Homogeneous Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilfer, R.; Doster, F.; Zegeling, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Nonmonotonic saturation profiles (saturation overshoot) occur as travelling waves in gravity driven fingering. They seem important for preferential flow mechanisms and have found much attention recently. Here, we predict them even for hydrostatic equilibrium when all velocities vanish. We suggest th

  17. 40 CFR Table 33 to Subpart G of... - Saturation Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saturation Factors 33 Table 33 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Table 33 to Subpart G of Part 63—Saturation Factors Cargo carrier Mode of operation S factor Tank...

  18. Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny;

    2008-01-01

    In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....

  19. Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with systemic hypoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven;

    2011-01-01

    To assess spectrophotometric oximetry across a broad range of arterial saturation levels and to study the effect of chronic systemic hypoxemia on retinal oxygen extraction.......To assess spectrophotometric oximetry across a broad range of arterial saturation levels and to study the effect of chronic systemic hypoxemia on retinal oxygen extraction....

  20. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobi...

  1. Saturation and beaming in astrophysical masers. II - The fully saturated limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, C.; Ross, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radiative transfer in fully saturated maser clouds has been investigated using the 'four-stream' model equations of Alcock and Ross (1985). It is shown that a modest elongation of the maser cloud produces a substantial asymmetry in the maser output. The ratio of output fluxes in different directions is a strong function of the ratio of the corresponding chord lengths across the cloud. Arguments are presented that the asymmetries reported here for the 'four-stream' models closely mimic the asymmetries that should be expected in a real master cloud.

  2. The Extended Oxygen Window Concept for Programming Saturation Decompressions Using Air and Nitrox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kot

    Full Text Available Saturation decompression is a physiological process of transition from one steady state, full saturation with inert gas at pressure, to another one: standard conditions at surface. It is defined by the borderline condition for time spent at a particular depth (pressure and inert gas in the breathing mixture (nitrogen, helium. It is a delicate and long lasting process during which single milliliters of inert gas are eliminated every minute, and any disturbance can lead to the creation of gas bubbles leading to decompression sickness (DCS. Most operational procedures rely on experimentally found parameters describing a continuous slow decompression rate. In Poland, the system for programming of continuous decompression after saturation with compressed air and nitrox has been developed as based on the concept of the Extended Oxygen Window (EOW. EOW mainly depends on the physiology of the metabolic oxygen window--also called inherent unsaturation or partial pressure vacancy--but also on metabolism of carbon dioxide, the existence of water vapor, as well as tissue tension. Initially, ambient pressure can be reduced at a higher rate allowing the elimination of inert gas from faster compartments using the EOW concept, and maximum outflow of nitrogen. Then, keeping a driving force for long decompression not exceeding the EOW allows optimal elimination of nitrogen from the limiting compartment with half-time of 360 min. The model has been theoretically verified through its application for estimation of risk of decompression sickness in published systems of air and nitrox saturation decompressions, where DCS cases were observed. Clear dose-reaction relation exists, and this confirms that any supersaturation over the EOW creates a risk for DCS. Using the concept of the EOW, 76 man-decompressions were conducted after air and nitrox saturations in depth range between 18 and 45 meters with no single case of DCS. In summary, the EOW concept describes

  3. Numerical method for computing flow through partially saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, R. R.

    This paper discusses the development of the finite element computer code SAGUARO which calculates the two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially-saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. The code capabilities are demonstrated through the presentation of a sample problem involving the one dimensional calculation of simultaneous energy transfer and water infiltration into partially saturated hard rock.

  4. Local effects of gravity wave propagation and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, gravity waves were recognized to play a major role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Perhaps the major effect of such motions are the reversal of the vertical shear of the mean zonal wind and the occurrence of a large turbulent diffusivity in the mesosphere due to gravity wave saturation. Yet, despite the importance of these gravity wave effects, the processes and the consequences of gravity wave propagation and saturation are only beginning to be understood in detail. The linear saturation theory predicts drag and turbulent diffusion due to saturating wave motion. This theory, however, fails to address a number of issues that are certain to be important for gravity wave propagation and saturation in the middle atmosphere. These issues, including wave transience, wave superposition, local convective adjustment, and nonlinearity, are discussed.

  5. Evidence for a saturated spectrum of atmospheric gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven A.; Fritts, David C.; Vanzandt, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    The slope and power spectral density of atmospheric velocity fluctuations versus vertical wavenumber at large wavenumbers are observed to be nearly independent of altitude. It is suggested that such a universality is due to saturation of short vertical-scale fluctuations. A brief review of linear gravity wave saturation theory indicates a physical basis for such spectra. It is demonstrated that observed saturation spectra are not solely due to individually saturated waves but most likely result from amplitude limiting instabilities arising from wave superposition. It is also shown that, while the spectrum is saturated at large wavenumbers, the total kinetic energy per unit mass and the characteristic vertical wavelength increase with altitude. Both of these predictions are consistent with observations.

  6. Dynamo Saturation in Rapidly Rotating Solar-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchatinov, L L

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic activity of solar-type stars generally increases with stellar rotation rate. The increase, however, saturates for fast rotation. The Babcock-Leighton mechanism of stellar dynamos saturates as well when the mean tilt-angle of active regions approaches ninety degrees. Saturation of magnetic activity may be a consequence of this property of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism. Stellar dynamo models with a tilt-angle proportional to the rotation rate are constructed to probe this idea. Two versions of the model - treating the tilt-angles globally and using Joy's law for its latitude dependence - are considered. Both models show a saturation of dynamo-generated magnetic flux at high rotation rates. The model with latitude-dependent tilt-angles shows also a change in dynamo regime in the saturation region. The new regime combines a cyclic dynamo at low latitudes with an (almost) steady polar dynamo.

  7. Dynamo saturation in rapidly rotating solar-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchatinov, Leonid L.; Olemskoy, Serge V.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic activity of solar-type stars generally increases with stellar rotation rate. The increase, however, saturates for fast rotation. The Babcock-Leighton mechanism of stellar dynamos saturates as well when the mean tilt angle of active regions approaches ninety degrees. Saturation of magnetic activity may be a consequence of this property of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism. Stellar dynamo models with a tilt angle proportional to the rotation rate are constructed to probe this idea. Two versions of the model - treating the tilt angles globally and using Joy's law for its latitude dependence - are considered. Both models show a saturation of dynamo-generated magnetic flux at high rotation rates. The model with latitude-dependent tilt angles also shows a change in dynamo regime in the saturation region. The new regime combines a cyclic dynamo at low latitudes with an (almost) steady polar dynamo.

  8. Input saturation in nonlinear multivariable processes resolved by nonlinear decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for the resolution of the problem of input saturation in nonlinear multivariable process control by means of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END. Input saturation can have serious consequences particularly in multivariable control because it may lead to very undesirable system behaviour and quite often system instability. Many authors have searched for systematic techniques for designing multivariable control systems in which saturation may occur in any of the control variables (inputs, manipulated variables. No generally accepted method seems to have been presented so far which gives a solution in closed form. The method of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END can be applied directly to the case of saturation control variables by deriving as many control strategies as there are combinations of saturating control variables. The method is demonstrated by the multivariable control of a simulated Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC with very convincing results.

  9. (I Can’t Get No) Saturation: A Simulation and Guidelines for Minimum Sample Sizes in Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Frank van Rijnsoever

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the sample size in qualitative research that is required to reach theoretical saturation. I conceptualize a population as consisting of sub-populations that contain different types of information sources that hold a number of codes. Theoretical saturation is reached after all the codes in the population have been observed once in the sample. I delineate three different scenarios to sample information sources: “random chance,” which is based on probability sampling, “minima...

  10. Effects of initial saturation on properties modification and displacement of tetrachloroethene with aqueous isobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Glen R; Ocampo-Gómez, Ana M; Li, Minghua; Husserl, Johana

    2006-11-20

    Packed column experiments were conducted to study effects of initial saturation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) in the range of 1.0-14% pore volume (PV) on mobilization and downward migration of the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) product upon contact with aqueous isobutanol ( approximately 10 vol.%). This study focused on the consequences of swelling beyond residual saturation. Columns were packed with mixtures of neat PCE, water and glass beads and waterflooded to establish a desired homogeneous residual saturation, and then flooded with aqueous isobutanol under controlled hydraulic conditions. Results showed a critical saturation of approximately 8% PV for these packed column experimental conditions. At low initial PCE saturations (8% PV), results showed NAPL-product mobilization and downward migration which was attributed to interfacial tension (IFT) reduction, swelling of the NAPL-product, and reduced density modification. Packed column results were compared with good agreement to theoretical predictions of NAPL-product mobilization using the total trapping number, N(T). In addition to the packed column study, preliminary batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of PCE volumetric fraction in the range of 0.5-20% on density, viscosity, and IFT modification as a function of time following contact with aqueous isobutanol ( approximately 10 vol.%). Modified NAPL-product fluid properties approached equilibrium within approximately 2 h of contact for density and viscosity. IFT reduction occurred immediately as expected. Measured fluid properties were compared with good agreement to theoretical equilibrium predictions based on UNIQUAC. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of initial DNAPL saturation, and the associated risk of downward NAPL-product migration, in applying alcohol flooding for remediation of DNAPL contaminated ground water sites.

  11. Elastic velocities of partially gas-saturated unconsolidated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid in sediments significantly affects elastic properties of sediments and gas in the pore space can be identified by a marked reduction of P-wave velocity or a decrease of Poisson's ratio. The elastic properties of gas-saturated sediments can be predicted by the classical Biot-Gassmann theory (BGT). However, parameters for the BGT such as the Biot coefficient or moduli of dry frame of unconsolidated and high porosity sediments are not readily available. Dependence of velocities on differential pressure or porosity for partially gas-saturated sediments is formulated using properties derived from velocities of water-saturated sediments. Laboratory samples for unconsolidated and consolidated sediments and well log data acquired for unconsolidated marine sediments agree well with the predictions. However, because the P-wave velocity depends highly on how the gas is saturated in the pore space such as uniform or patch, the amounts of gas estimated from the P-wave velocity contains high uncertainty. The modeled Vp/Vs ratio of partially gas-saturated sediment using the patch distribution is usually greater than 1.6, whereas the ratio modeled assuming a uniform distribution is about 1.6. Thus, Poisson's ratio or Vp/Vs ratio may be used to differentiate patch from uniform saturation, but differences between various models of patch saturation cannot be easily identified. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the propagation of a coupled saturation and pressure front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Using an asymptotic technique, valid for a medium with smoothly varying heterogeneity, I derive an expression for the velocity of a propagating, coupled saturation and pressure front. Due to the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the velocity of the propagating front depends upon the magnitude of the saturation and pressure changes across the front in addition to the properties of the medium. Thus, the expression must be evaluated in conjunction with numerical reservoir simulation. The propagation of the two-phase front is governed by the background saturation distribution, the saturation-dependent component of the fluid mobility, the porosity, the permeability, the capillary pressure function, the medium compressibility, and the ratio of the slopes of the relative permeability curves. Numerical simulation of water injection into a porous layer saturated with a nonaqueous phase liquid indicates that two modes of propagation are important. The fastest mode of propagation is a pressure-dominated disturbance that travels through the saturated layer. This is followed, much later, by a coupled mode with a large saturation change. These two modes are also observed in a simulation using a heterogeneous porous layer. A comparison between the propagation times estimated from the results of the numerical simulation and predictions from the asymptotic expression indicates overall agreement.

  13. Calculation and analysis of elasto-plastic dynamic response of fluid-saturated porous media based on explicit finite element method%基于显式有限元方法的两相介质弹塑性动力反应计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 杜修力; 赵成刚; 翟威

    2011-01-01

    针对增量形式的流体饱和两相多孔介质弹塑性波动方程组,运用基于显式逐步积分格式的时域显式有限元方法对该波动方程组进行求解,并应用基于SMP破坏准则的弹塑性动力本构模型描述两相介质的动力反应性质,对两相介质在输入地震波作用下的弹塑性动力反应进行计算和分析,将计算结果与相应的弹性动力反应的计算结果进行对比;对本文应用的弹塑性动力本构模型进行参数研究,揭示模型参数的取值对两相介质弹塑性动力反应计算结果的影响。计算结果表明:两相介质弹塑性位移反应与相应的弹性位移反应具有较为显著的差别,表现为二者的峰值与反应时程的波形均有比较明显的差异;本文应用的弹塑性本构模型中的塑性势参数的取值对于两相介质弹塑性位移反应的计算结果具有显著的影响,而初始加载和卸载与重新加载阶段的硬化参数的比值仅影响动力反应结束后的塑性变形的幅值。本文工作表明,时域显式有限元方法是进行流体饱和两相多孔介质弹塑性动力反应计算分析的一种有效的方法。%In this paper, the incremental elasto-plastic wave equations of fluid-saturated porous media are solved by the time-domain explicit finite element method based on explicit step-by-step integral format. The elasto-plastic dynamic constitutive model baesd on SMP failure criterion is adopted to describe the dynamic property of fluid-saturated porous media. Then, the elasto-plastic dynamic response of fluid-saturated porous media under input earthquake wave is calculated and analyzed with the method and constitutive model mentioned above, and calculating results are compared with the corresponding results of elastic dynamic response. At last, the effect of constitutive model parameter value on the calculating results of elasto-plastic dynamic response of fluid-saturated porous media

  14. Exp erimental studies of multiple pulses in a passively ytterbium-dop ed fib er laser based on graphene-oxide saturable absorb er%氧化石墨烯被动锁模掺镱光纤激光器多脉冲现象的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诗盛; 王勇刚; 李会权; 林荣勇; 闫培光

    2014-01-01

    The different multiple pulse phenomena are experimentally studied in a passively mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene-oxide saturable absorber (GOSA) with net normal dispersion cavity. At the same pump power with different polarization orientations, we observe the multiple pulse phenomena, including harmonic mode-locking of rectangular pulses, dissipative solitons, quasi-harmonic mode-locking, periodical peak modulation, multipulse bunches, multipulse cluster, and chaotic multipulse. The inserted 2 nm narrow bandwidth filter is important for limiting the gain bandwidth and shaping pulses. Adjusting the polarization controller is equivalent to changing the gain in the laser cavity, which is the main reason for the formation of different multiple pulses states. This is the first time that different multiple pulses states have been observed in an-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser with graphene-oxide saturable absorber. These results could extend the understanding of multiple pulse dynamics in GOSA mode-locked fiber lasers.%利用氧化石墨烯作为可饱和吸收体,在被动锁模全正常色散掺镱光纤激光器中研究了多脉冲的现象。在同一抽运功率不同偏振态下,实验获得了矩形脉冲谐波锁模、耗散孤子谐波锁模、准谐波锁模,脉冲峰值周期性调制,脉冲簇、脉冲束、混沌多重脉冲的多脉冲现象。插入激光腔内的2 nm窄带滤波器具有限制增益带宽、对脉冲塑形、诱导多脉冲产生的作用。调节偏振控制器相当于改变腔内增益,是实现不同类型多脉冲现象的主要原因。本实验研究有利于加深对多脉冲动力学行为在正常色散区域氧化石墨烯锁模掺镱光纤激光器中的理解。

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of AB-copolymers with saturating bonds

    CERN Document Server

    Chertovich, A V; Khokhlov, A R; Bohr, J

    2003-01-01

    Structural transitions in a single AB-copolymer chain where saturating bonds can be formed between A-and B-units are studied by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations using the bond fluctuation model. Three transitions are found, coil-globule, coil-hairpin and globule-hairpin, depending on the nature of a particular AB-sequence: statistical random sequence, diblock sequence and 'random-complementary' sequence (one-half of such an AB-sequence is random with Bernoulli statistics while the other half is complementary to the first one). The properties of random-complementary sequences are closer to those of diblock sequences than to the properties of random sequences. The model (although quite rough) is expected to represent some basic features of real RNA molecules, i.e. the formation of secondary structure of RNA due to hydrogen bonding of corresponding bases and stacking interactions of the base pairs in helixes. We introduce the notation of RNA-like copolymers and discuss in what sense the sequences studie...

  16. 基于光纤光栅外腔半导体激光器增益饱和效应的全光波长转换实验研究%Experimental Study on All-optical Wavelength Conversion Based on Gain Saturation Effect in a Fiber Bragg Grating External Cavity LD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军山; 耿健新; 瞿荣辉; 陈高庭; 方祖捷

    2001-01-01

    The performance of all-optical wavelength converter based on the gain saturation effect in fiber grating external cavity LD is investigated. In order to eliminated the influence of the returned light and converted output light on the input signal source, and to increase coupling efficiency of input signal and output signal, a new optical scheme of converter using optical circulator are proposed. The experiment results show that wavelength conversion range is over 30 nm, and both up- and down-conversion are realized. Dynamic wavelength conversion for 155 Mbit/s NRZ input signal is presented.%对基于光纤光栅外腔半导体激光器增益饱和效应的全光波长转换器的静态与动态特性进行了实验研究.为消除反馈光与转换信号输出光对光源的不利影响及提高光输入、输出信号耦合效率,提出了采用环形器进行信号耦合的光学结构.实验结果表明,转换器件具有高于30 nm的波长转换间隔,并可实现波长上、下转换.进行了155 Mbit/s伪随机码调制信号的动态波长转换实验.

  17. Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

  18. DYNAMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN ELASTIC THICK CIRCULAR PLATE AND TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SATURATED SOIL GROUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; WANG Xiao-gang

    2005-01-01

    A study of the dynamic interaction between foundation and the underlying soil has been presented in a recent paper based on the assumption of saturated ground and elastic circular plate excited by the axisymmetrical harmonic source. However, the assumption may not always be valid. The work is extended to the case of a circular plate resting on transversely isotropic saturated soil and subjected to a non-axisymmetrical harmonic force. The analysis is based on the theory of elastic wave in transversely isotropic saturated poroelastic media established. By the technique of Fourier expansion and Hankel transform, the governing difference equations for transversely isotropic saturated soil are easily solved and the cooresponding Hankel transformed stress and displacement solutions are obtained. Then, under the contact conditions, the problem leads to a pair of dual integral equations which describe the mixed boundary-value problem. Furthermore, the dual integral equations can be reduced to the Fredholm integral equations of the second kind solved by numerical procedure. At the end, a numerical result is presented which indicates that on a certain frequency range, the displacement amplitude of the surface of the foundation increases with the increase of the frequency of the exciting force, and decreases in vibration form with the increase of the distance.

  19. Cerebral oxygen saturation: graded response to carbon dioxide with isoxia and graded response to oxygen with isocapnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring cerebral saturation is increasingly seen as an aid to management of patients in the operating room and in neurocritical care. How best to manipulate cerebral saturation is not fully known. We examined cerebral saturation with graded changes in carbon dioxide tension while isoxic and with graded changes in oxygen tension while isocapnic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the University Health Network at the University of Toronto. Thirteen studies were undertaken in healthy adults with cerebral oximetry by near infrared spectroscopy. End-tidal gas concentrations were manipulated using a model-based prospective end-tidal targeting device. End-tidal carbon dioxide was altered ±15 mmHg from baseline in 5 mmHg increments with isoxia (clamped at 110±4 mmHg. End-tidal oxygen was changed to 300, 400, 500, 80, 60 and 50 mmHg under isocapnia (37±2 mmHg. Twelve studies were completed. The end-tidal carbon dioxide versus cerebral saturation fit a linear relationship (R(2 = 0.92±0.06. The end-tidal oxygen versus cerebral saturation followed log-linear behaviour and best fit a hyperbolic relationship (R(2 = 0.85±0.10. Cerebral saturation was maximized in isoxia at end-tidal carbon dioxide of baseline +15 mmHg (77±3 percent. Cerebral saturation was minimal in isocapnia at an end-tidal oxygen tension of 50 mmHg (61±3 percent. The cerebral saturation during normoxic hypocapnia was equivalent to normocapnic hypoxia of 60 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hypocapnia reduces cerebral saturation to an extent equivalent to moderate hypoxia.

  20. Bunch-Crossing Identification for saturated calorimeter signals

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Ullrich

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm, which will be implemented in the Preprocessor ASIC of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter trigger. Its purpose is to identify the corresponding Bunch-Crossing in time for saturated trigger tower signals from the calorimeters (saturated BCID). Results presented here are combined from simulations with a PSPICE model of the Liquid Argon trigger tower electronics and the digital signal processing inside the Preprocessor. The PSPICE model describes saturation of analogue pulses in a realistic way. The digital processing allows to investigate noise effects and shifts of the digitization strobe of the FADC against the pulse position.

  1. Prediction of saturated liquid enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; CHEN JianXin; HU Peng

    2007-01-01

    New corresponding temperature and corresponding enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures were defined. The relationship between saturated liquid corresponding enthalpy and corresponding temperature of refrigerant mixtures accorded with that of pure components. The characteristic parameters of saturated liquid enthalpy difference of refrigerant mixtures were calculated by three methods according to the different application conditions. The generalized equation of saturated liquid enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures was presented. The calculated values were compared with the values in literature for five ternary and binary refrigerant mixtures, namely R404A, R407A, R407B, R32/R134a, and R410A. The overall average absolute deviation was less than 1.0%.

  2. Saturable absorption in multi-core fiber couplers

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemosadat, Elham

    2013-01-01

    The saturable absorption characteristics of two-, three-, and five-core one-dimensional fiber coupler arrays and the seven-core hexagonal fiber coupler array are investigated. It is shown that the performance of all these saturable absorbers are comparable and not much is gained, if anything, by going from a two-core nonlinear coupler geometry to a higher number of cores. This observation is supported by the similarity of the saturable absorption curves, as well as comparable pulse characteristics obtained from the simulation of a generic mode-locked fiber laser cavity.

  3. THE AXISYMMETRIC MIXED BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEM OF THE VERTICAL VIBRATION OF A RIGID FOUNDATION ON SATURATED LAYERED SOIL SUBGRADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜立; 陈龙珠

    2002-01-01

    Based on the theory of elastic wave propagation in saturated soil subgrade established by the author of this paper, the axisvmmetric vertical vibration of a rigid circular foundation resting on partially saturated soil subgrade which is composed of a dry elastic layer and a saturated substratum is studied. The analysis relied on the use of integral transform techniques and a pair of dual integral equations governing the vertical vibration of the rigid foundation is listed under the consideration of mixed boundary-value condition.The results are reduced to the case for saturated half-space. The set of dual integral equations are reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind and solved by numericad procedures. Numerical examples are given at the end of the paper and plots of the dynamic compliance coefficient Cv versus the dimensionless frequency ao are presented.

  4. Principle of effective stress in variably saturated porous media (editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, N.; Khalili, N.; Nikooee, E.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial highlights the motivations, historic perspectives, future prospects, and some details of the technical contents of the special issue on Principle of Effective Stress in Variably Saturated Porous Media.

  5. Saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 472 (Arnold and others, 2009). This data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer within Colorado....

  6. Observations of gravity wave scales, fluxes, and saturation during MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, I. M.

    1989-01-01

    During the MAP/MAC period, considerable improvements in instrumentation and experimental technique have occurred, and many hitherto unavailable parameters relating to gravity waves have become available. Studies of individual wave events and simultaneous observations made with a variety of techniques have provided insight into wave saturation mechanisms. In addition, long data sets of upper middle atmosphere winds were collected at a number of widely spaced sites, allowing climatological investigations of gravity wave amplitudes, wave number spectra, polarization, mean flow acceleration, and other saturation effects to be undertaken. Observations of gravity wave scales, momentum fluxes, saturation and saturation effects obtained during MAP/MAC, made on both a statistical and case study basis are reviewed.

  7. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    The hydraulic properties near saturation can change dramatically due to the presence of macropores that are usually difficult to handle in traditional pore size models. The purpose of this study is to establish a data set on hydraulic conductivity near saturation, test the predictive capability...... of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences...

  8. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.

  9. Saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills area, South Dakota. The...

  10. Saturated thickness of the Madison aquifer, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the saturated thickness of the Madison aquifer, which includes the entire thickness of the...

  11. Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Shur, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Spectral power distribution of trichromatic clusters of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was optimized for rendering the highest number of colors with a perceptually noticeable gain in chroma (color saturation) out of 1269 Munsell samples. The basic tradeoffs of the number of colors rendered with increased saturation with the number of colors rendered with high fidelity and with luminous efficacy of radiation were established. High-saturation RGB clusters composed of commercially available AlGaInP and InGaN LEDs were modeled for a standard set of correlated color temperatures and the stability of the color saturation ability of the clusters against the drift of peak wavelengths was investigated. PMID:20174057

  12. Pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate bearing sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shicai; LIU Changling; YE Yuguang; LIU Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between the pore capillary pressure and hydrate saturation in sedi-ments, a new method was proposed. First, the phase equilibria of methane hydrate in fine-grained silica sands were measured. As to the equilibrium data, the pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate were calculated. The results showed that the phase equilibria of methane hydrates in fine-grained silica sands changed due to the depressed activity of pore water caused by the surface group and negatively charged characteristic of silica particles as well as the capillary pressure in small pores together. The capil-lary pressure increased with the increase of methane hydrate saturation due to the decrease of the available pore space. However, the capillary-saturation relationship could not yet be described quantitatively because of the stochastic habit of hydrate growth.

  13. A new system for estimating human splanchnic oxygen saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Crerar-Gilbert, A; Langford, R. M.; Jones, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate splanchnic oxygen saturation (SpO2) is essential for maintaining organ viability during and after surgery. There is a need for reliable continuous monitoring of organ oxygen saturation. A new photoplethysmographic (PPG) probe and signal processing system were developed. PPG signals from abdominal organs (bowel, liver, kidney) and the finger were obtained from 12 anaesthetised patients. The amplitudes of the abdominal organ PPGs were, on average, approximately the same as those obtain...

  14. Characterization of an 800 nm SASE FEL at saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Aaron M; Ben-Zvi, I; Bertolini, L R; Carr, R; Cornacchia, M; Frigola, P; Hill, J M; Johnson, E; Klaisner, L; Le Sage, G P; Libkind, M; Malone, R; Murokh, A; Nuhn, H D; Pellegrini, C; Rakowsky, G; Reiche, S; Rosenzweig, J; Ruland, R; Skaritka, J; Toor, A; Van Bibber, K A; Wang, X J

    2002-01-01

    Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier is a free electron laser (FEL) designed to saturate at a radiation wavelength of 800 nm within a 4 m long, strong focusing undulator. Large gain is achieved by driving the FEL with 72 MeV, high brightness beam of BNL's accelerator test facility. We present measurements that demonstrate saturation in addition to the frequency spectrum of the FEL radiation. Energy, gain length and spectral characteristics are compared and shown to agree with simulation and theoretical predictions.

  15. Design of saturated controllers for linear singular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ruliang; Liu Yongqing

    2005-01-01

    A designing method is presented to find stabilizing saturated linear controllers for linear continuous time and discrete time singular systems with control constraints. The idea is as follows: The system is first stabilized by a low-gain linear state feedback control. A general Lyapunov function is found, on the basis of which another linear state feedback control is computed.The second step is very similar to a relay control design. The two controls are added and saturated.

  16. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  17. Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....

  18. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  19. Simulation of Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated.......In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated....

  20. Elevated gas hydrate saturation within silt and silty clay sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Wu, S.; Yang, S.; Guo, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate saturations were estimated using five different methods in silt and silty clay foraminiferous sediments from drill hole SH2 in the South China Sea. Gas hydrate saturations derived from observed pore water chloride values in core samples range from 10 to 45% of the pore space at 190-221 m below seafloor (mbsf). Gas hydrate saturations estimated from resistivity (Rt) using wireline logging results are similar and range from 10 to 40.5% in the pore space. Gas hydrate saturations were also estimated by P wave velocity obtained during wireline logging by using a simplified three-phase equation (STPE) and effective medium theory (EMT) models. Gas hydrate saturations obtained from the STPE velocity model (41.0% maximum) are slightly higher than those calculated with the EMT velocity model (38.5% maximum). Methane analysis from a 69 cm long depressurized core from the hydrate-bearing sediment zone indicates that gas hydrate saturation is about 27.08% of the pore space at 197.5 mbsf. Results from the five methods show similar values and nearly identical trends in gas hydrate saturations above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at depths of 190 to 221 mbsf. Gas hydrate occurs within units of clayey slit and silt containing abundant calcareous nannofossils and foraminifer, which increase the porosities of the fine-grained sediments and provide space for enhanced gas hydrate formation. In addition, gas chimneys, faults, and fractures identified from three-dimensional (3-D) and high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) seismic data provide pathways for fluids migrating into the gas hydrate stability zone which transport methane for the formation of gas hydrate. Sedimentation and local canyon migration may contribute to higher gas hydrate saturations near the base of the stability zone. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  2. Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Juan; Liu, Kan; Kang, Zhimin; Cai, Jianmei; Liu, Wenwu; Xu, Weigang; Li, Runping; Tao, Hengyi; Zhang, John H; Sun, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to high oxygen concentrations leads to acute lung injury, including lung tissue and alveolar edema formation, congestion, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, as well as endothelial and epithelial cell apoptosis or necrosis. Several studies have reported that molecular hydrogen is an efficient antioxidant by gaseous rapid diffusion into tissues and cells. Moreover, consumption of water with dissolved molecular hydrogen to a saturated level (hydrogen water) prevents stress-induced cognitive decline in mice and superoxide formation in mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on pulmonary injury-induced exposure to >98% oxygen at 2.5 ATA for five hours. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, saline group and saturated hydrogen saline group. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to examine histological changes. The lung wet to dry (W/D) weight ratio was calculated. The concentration of protein and total cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and BALF were measured by spectrophotometer. The light microscope findings showed that saturated hydrogen saline reduced the impairment when compared with the saline group: Saturated hydrogen saline decreased lung edema, reduced LDH activity in BALF and serum, and decreased total cells and protein concentration in BALF. These results demonstrated that saturated hydrogen saline alleviated hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury, which was partly responsible for the inhibition of oxidative damage. PMID:20568549

  3. Prevalence of Sensor Saturation in Wheelchair Seat Interface Pressure Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Michael; Crane, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Pressure mapping is a frequently used tool with great power to provide information about the forces between a patient and a wheelchair seat. One widely recognized limitation to this paradigm is the possibility of data loss due to sensor saturation. In this study, we seek to quantify and describe the saturation observed in the measurement of interface pressures of wheelchair users. We recorded approximately two minutes of interface pressure data from 22 elderly wheelchair users (11M/11F, 80 ± 10 years) and found that 4.7% of data frames had 1 saturated sensor, and 9.0% had more than one saturated sensor, for a total of 13.7% of all frames of data. Data from three of the 22 subjects (13.6%) were substantially affected by the persistent presence of saturated sensors. We conclude that for this population of elderly wheelchair users, sensor saturation may be a concern and should be factored properly into study design a priori.

  4. Interaction of Airy–Gaussian beams in saturable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiling; Peng, Yulian; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Xi; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-08-01

    Based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the interactions of the two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence are analyzed in saturable media, under the circumstances of the same amplitude and different amplitudes, respectively. It is found that the interaction can be both attractive and repulsive depending on the relative phase. The smaller the interval between two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence is, the stronger the intensity of the interaction. However, with the equal amplitude, the symmetry is shown and the change of quasi-breathers is opposite in the in-phase case and out-of-phase case. As the distribution factor is increased, the phenomena of the quasi-breather and the self-accelerating of the two Airy–Gaussian components are weakened. When the amplitude is not equal, the image does not have symmetry. The obvious phenomenon of the interaction always arises on the side of larger input power in the incidence. The maximum intensity image is also simulated. Many of the characteristics which are contained within other images can also be concluded in this figure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108 and 10904041), the Foundation for the Author of Guangdong Province Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (Grant No. SYBZZXM201227), and the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars (“Thousand, Hundred, Ten” Program) of Guangdong Province, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China.

  5. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Agents: Quantum Chemistry and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jikun; Feng, Xinxin; Zhu, Wei; Oskolkov, Nikita; Zhou, Tianhui; Kim, Boo Kyung; Baig, Noman; McMahon, Michael T; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents offer an alternative to Gd(3+) -based contrast agents for MRI. They are characterized by containing protons that can rapidly exchange with water and it is advantageous to have these protons resonate in a spectral window that is far removed from water. Herein, we report the first results of DFT calculations of the (1) H nuclear magnetic shieldings in 41 CEST agents, finding that the experimental shifts can be well predicted (R(2) =0.882). We tested a subset of compounds with the best MRI properties for toxicity and for activity as uncouplers, then obtained mice kidney CEST MRI images for three of the most promising leads finding 16 (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) to be one of the most promising CEST MRI contrast agents to date. Overall, the results are of interest since they show that (1) H NMR shifts for CEST agents-charged species-can be well predicted, and that several leads have low toxicity and yield good in vivo MR images.

  6. Archaeol: An Indicator of Methanogenesis in Water-Saturated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. H. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxic soils typically are a sink for methane due to the presence of high-affinity methanotrophic Bacteria capable of oxidising methane. However, soils experiencing water saturation are able to host significant methanogenic archaeal communities, potentially affecting the capacity of the soil to act as a methane sink. In order to provide insight into methanogenic populations in such soils, the distribution of archaeol in free and conjugated forms was investigated as an indicator of fossilised and living methanogenic biomass using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Of three soils studied, only one organic matter-rich site contained archaeol in quantifiable amounts. Assessment of the subsurface profile revealed a dominance of archaeol bound by glycosidic headgroups over phospholipids implying derivation from fossilised biomass. Moisture content, through control of organic carbon and anoxia, seemed to govern trends in methanogen biomass. Archaeol and crenarchaeol profiles differed, implying the former was not of thaumarcheotal origin. Based on these results, we propose the use of intact archaeol as a useful biomarker for methanogen biomass in soil and to track changes in moisture status and aeration related to climate change.

  7. Large, non-saturating magnetoresistance in WTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mazhar N.; Xiong, Jun; Flynn, Steven; Tao, Jing; Gibson, Quinn D.; Schoop, Leslie M.; Liang, Tian; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Hirschberger, Max; Ong, N. P.; Cava, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetoresistance is the change in a material's electrical resistance in response to an applied magnetic field. Materials with large magnetoresistance have found use as magnetic sensors, in magnetic memory, and in hard drives at room temperature, and their rarity has motivated many fundamental studies in materials physics at low temperatures. Here we report the observation of an extremely large positive magnetoresistance at low temperatures in the non-magnetic layered transition-metal dichalcogenide WTe2: 452,700 per cent at 4.5 kelvins in a magnetic field of 14.7 teslas, and 13 million per cent at 0.53 kelvins in a magnetic field of 60 teslas. In contrast with other materials, there is no saturation of the magnetoresistance value even at very high applied fields. Determination of the origin and consequences of this effect, and the fabrication of thin films, nanostructures and devices based on the extremely large positive magnetoresistance of WTe2, will represent a significant new direction in the study of magnetoresistivity.

  8. Simulation of gas hydrogen diffusion through partially water saturated mono-modal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the disposal of nuclear wastes, it is important to design concrete envelopes with pore networks that allow the diffusion of hydrogen towards the outside. This work documents the relationship between geo-polymers, which are materials with a quasi mono-modal pore network, and their gaseous diffusivity capacities. Using a mono-modal material allows studying a specific pore size contribution to gaseous diffusion. The pore network is characterized by mercury porosimetry. These experimental results are used as data in a model named MOHYCAN. The modeling work consists of creating a virtual pore network. Then, water layers are deposited in this network to simulate variable water saturation levels. Finally hydrogen is transported through the virtual network using a combination of ordinary diffusion and Knudsen diffusion. MOHYCAN calculates the hydrogen diffusion coefficient for water saturation degree from 0% to 100%. The impacts of the pore network arrangement or the pore network discretization have been studied. The results are, for a quasi mono-modal material: -) the diffusion coefficient is not sensitive to different virtual pore network arrangement; -) the diffusion coefficient values have a sharp drop at specific water saturation (this is due to the water saturation of the main and unique pore family); -) a 2 pores family based model is sufficient to represent the pore network. Theses observations will not be valid if we consider a material with a large pore size distribution, like cementitious materials

  9. Analysis of Maisotsenko open gas turbine power cycle with a detailed air saturator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Developed an accurate air saturator model. • Performed sensitivity analysis for Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC). • Performed comparative analysis for MGTC and simple gas turbine with reheat (SGTR) and humid air turbine (HAT). • MGTC has higher efficiency and specific work output with at high compressor pressure ratio. • Optimum air saturator water mass flow rate is calculated. - Abstract: With ever increasing cost of fossil fuels and natural gas, the improvement in gas turbine power cycle efficiency is needed due to the tremendous savings in fuel consumption. Water/steam injection is considered as one of the most popular power augmentation techniques because of its significant impact on the gas turbine performance. One of the recently suggested evaporative gas turbine cycles is the Maisotsenko open cycle for gas turbine power generation. In this paper, detailed thermodynamic analysis of this cycle is investigated with a thorough air saturator model. A comparative analysis is carried out to signify the advantages and disadvantages of Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC) as compared with humid air gas turbine cycles. MGTC performance is evaluated based on a simple recuperated gas turbine cycle. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of different operating parameters on the overall cycle performance. Finally, integrating an air saturator instead of a conventional heat exchanger in recuperated gas turbine cycles enhances the power plant performance such that an efficiency enhancement of 7% points and net specific work output augmentation of 44.4% are obtained

  10. Sedimentological control on saturation distribution in Arctic gas-hydrate-bearing sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behseresht, Javad; Bryant, Steven L.

    2012-08-01

    A mechanistic model is proposed to predict/explain hydrate saturation distribution in “converted free gas” hydrate reservoirs in sub-permafrost formations in the Arctic. This 1-D model assumes that a gas column accumulates and subsequently is converted to hydrate. The processes considered are the volume change during hydrate formation and consequent fluid phase transport within the column, the descent of the base of gas hydrate stability zone through the column, and sedimentological variations with depth. Crucially, the latter enable disconnection of the gas column during hydrate formation, which leads to substantial variation in hydrate saturation distribution. One form of variation observed in Arctic hydrate reservoirs is that zones of very low hydrate saturations are interspersed abruptly between zones of large hydrate saturations. The model was applied to data from Mount Elbert well, a gas hydrate stratigraphic test well drilled in the Milne Point area of the Alaska North Slope. The model is consistent with observations from the well log and interpretations of seismic anomalies in the area. The model also predicts that a considerable amount of fluid (of order one pore volume of gaseous and/or aqueous phases) must migrate within or into the gas column during hydrate formation. This paper offers the first explanatory model of its kind that addresses “converted free gas reservoirs” from a new angle: the effect of volume change during hydrate formation combined with capillary entry pressure variation versus depth.

  11. A Case Study of Nitrogen Saturation in Western U.S. Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Fenn

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtually complete nitrification of the available ammonium in soil and nitrification activity in the forest floor are important factors predisposing forests in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California to nitrogen (N saturation. As a result, inorganic N in the soil solution is dominated by nitrate. High nitrification rates also generate elevated nitric oxide (NO emissions from soil. High-base cation saturation of these soils means that soil calcium depletion or effects associated with soil acidification are not an immediate risk for forest health as has been postulated for mesic forests in the eastern U.S. Physiological disturbance (e.g., altered carbon [C] cycling, reduced fine root biomass, premature needle abscission of ozone-sensitive ponderosa pine trees exposed to high N deposition and high ozone levels appear to be the greater threat to forest sustainability. However, N deposition appears to offset the aboveground growth depression effects of ozone exposure. High nitrification activity reported for many western ecosystems suggests that with chronic N inputs these systems are prone to N saturation and hydrologic and gaseous losses of N. High runoff during the winter wet season in California forests under a Mediterranean climate may further predispose these watersheds to high nitrate leachate losses. After 4 years of N fertilization at a severely N saturated site in the San Bernardino Mountains, bole growth unexpectedly increased. Reduced C allocation below- ground at this site, presumably in response to ozone or N or both pollutants, may enhance the bole growth response to added N.

  12. Non-axisymmetrical vibration of elastic circular plate on layered transversely isotropic saturated ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The non-axisymmetrical vibration of elastic circular plate resting on a layered transversely isotropic saturated ground was studied. First, the 3-d dynamic equations in cylindrical coordinate for transversely isotropic saturated soils were transformed into a group of governing differential equations with 1-order by the technique of Fourier expanding with respect to azimuth, and the state equation is established by Hankel integral transform method, furthermore the transfer matrixes within layered media are derived based on the solutions of the state equation. Secondly, by the transfer matrixes, the general solutions of dynamic response for layered transversely isotropic saturated ground excited by an arbitrary harmonic force were established under the boundary conditions,drainage conditions on the surface of ground as well as the contact conditions. Thirdly, the problem was led to a pair of dual integral equations describing the mixed boundaryvalue problem which can be reduced to the Fredholm integral equations of the second kind solved by numerical procedure easily. At the end of this paper, a numerical result concerning vertical and radical displacements both the surface of saturated ground and plate is evaluated.

  13. DIS structure functions from the saturation model

    OpenAIRE

    Golec-Biernat, K.

    2000-01-01

    We present a description of inclusive and diffractive structure functions in DIS at small $x$, using a model based on high energy factorization. In this model the two processes have physical interpretation in terms of the virtual photon wave function and the dipole cross section. We postulate the dipole cross section form in a way in which unitarity is taken into account. A good description of data (including DIS diffraction) is obtained after determining three parameters of the dipole cross ...

  14. Cátions trocáveis, capacidade de troca de cátions e saturação por bases em solos brasileiros adubados com composto de lixo urbano Exchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity and base saturation in Brazilian soils amended with urban waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Hamilton Abreu Jr.

    2001-12-01

    +, and Na+, on cation exchangeable capacity (CEC, and on base saturation (BS% of 21 acid and 5 alkaline soils. The organic compost (collected at the São Matheus Plant Treatment, São Paulo, Brazil was applied with or without dolomitic lime and mineral fertilizers. For alkaline soils, lime was substituted by gypsum. The experiment was carried out on a split-plot, completely randomized block design with three replicates. The compost application increased the exchangeable content of potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium on average of 195%, 200%, 86%, and 1200%, respectively, and elevated the CEC by 42% in acid soils. Consequently the BS% was increased 39%. A lower, but significant, increase on CEC was observed in alkaline soils in response to the compost application. Average CEC and BS% increases were of 8.4% and 2%, respectively. The highest effects on the evaluated soil properties were verified for compost + fertilizer + lime and compost + fertilizer + gypsum applications in acid and alkaline soils, respectively. It is concluded that the use of urban waste compost in agricultural lands is viable only if its effects on chemical properties are properly monitored.

  15. Numerical modelling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics at residual saturation in a saturated subsurface system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Vasudevan; G Suresh Kumar; Indumathi M Nambi

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of aquifers contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons is limited by the use of dissolution mass transfer correlations developed for single compounds without considering the effects of the mass transfer limitations in presence of other components. A one-dimensional implicit numerical model is developed for the coupled mass transfer and transport processes and the results are analysed using existing mass transfer correlations for better understanding of the single and multicomponent dissolution processes. Themass transfer coefficient in the multicomponent system is found to be more nonlinear and extending with changing slope, unlike the exponential reduction for single compound system. During the initial phase, the dissolution rate of a soluble compound is very high due to the high concentration gradient, and as dissolution progresses, its effective solubility decreases with change in mole fraction. At higher pore volumes, the mole fractions of lower solubility fractions increase which can result in higher effective solubility. The kinetics of interphase mass transfer by dissolution and sorption is favoured by coupled biodegradation. However, mass transfer limitation for more soluble compounds under the conditions of low residual saturation and low mole fraction is observed to be due to low dissolution rate coefficient rather than decreasing concentration gradient.

  16. Adaptive periodic event-triggered consensus for multi-agent systems subject to input saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuxia; Yue, Dong; Hu, Songlin

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the distributed adaptive event-triggered consensus control for a class of nonlinear agents. Each agent is subject to input saturation. Two kinds of distributed event-triggered control scheme are introduced, one is continuous-time-based event-triggered scheme and the other is sampled-data-based event-triggered scheme. Compared with the traditional event-triggered schemes in the existing literatures, the parameters of the event-triggered schemes in this paper are adaptively adjusted by using some event-error-dependent adaptive laws. The problem of simultaneously deriving the controller gain matrix and the event-triggering parameter matrix, and tackling the saturation nonlinearity is cast into standard linear matrix inequalities problem. A convincing simulation example is given to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  17. A general model for estimating actual evaporation from non-saturated surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on energy balance equation and mass transfer equation, a general model to estimateactual evaporation from non-saturated surfaces was derived. Making use of two concepts, "relativeevaporation" and "relative drying power", a relationship was established to account for the departurefrom saturated conditions. Using this model, the actual evaporation (evapotranspiration) can becalculated without the need of potential evaporation estimation. Furthermore, the model requires onlya few meteorological parameters that are readily and routinely obtainable at standard weather stations.Based on nearly 30 years data of 432 meteorological stations and 512 hydrological stations in China,in combined with GIS, nine typical river basins were selected. Using the data of the selected riverbasins, the model was tested. The results show that the actual evaporation rate can be estimated withan error of less than 10% in most areas of China, except few years in the Yellow River Basin.

  18. INSTABILITY AND DISPERSIVITY OF WAVE PROPAGATION IN INELASTIC SATURATED/UNSATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锡夔; 张俊波; 张洪武

    2002-01-01

    A model based on the Biot theory for simulating coupled hydro-dynamic behavior in saturated-unsaturated porous media was utilized with integration of the inertial coupling effect between the solid-fluid phases of the media into the model. Stationary instability and dispersivity of wave propagation in the media in one-dimensional problem were analyzed.The effects of the following factors on stationary instability and dispersivity were discussed.They are the viscous and inertial couplings between the solid and the fluid phases,compressibility of the mixture composed of solid grains and pore fluid, the degree of saturation, visco-plastic (rate dependent inelastic ) constitutive behavior of the solid skeleton under high strain rate. The results and conclusion obtained by the present work will provide some bases or clues for overcoming the difficulties in numerical modelling of wave propagation in the media subjected to strong and shock loading.

  19. STATIONARY DISCONTINUITY AND FLUTTER INSTABILITY OF WAVE PROPAGATION IN ELASTO-PLASTIC SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锡夔; 张俊波; 张洪武

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a model based on the Biot theory for simulating coupled hydrodynamic behavior in saturated porous media is utilized with integration of the inertial coupling effect between the solid-fluid phases of the media into the model. The non-associated Drucker-Prager criterion to describe nonlinear constitutive behavior of pressure dependent elasto-plasticity for the media is particularly considered. With no consideration of compressibility of solid grains and the pore fluid, the discontinuity and instability of the wave propagation in saturated porous media are analyzed for the plane strain problems in detail. The critical conditions of stationary discontinuity and flutter instability in the wave propagation are given.The results and conclusions obtained by the present work will provide some bases or clues for overcoming the difficulties in numerical modeling of wave propagation in the media subjected to dynamic loading.

  20. Comparison of the effects of the CHESS sequence and the SPAIR sequence for fat saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kweon, Dae-Cheol; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the abilities of the chemical-shift selective saturation(CHESS) and the spectrally-adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR) fat-saturation techniques to resolve the recent problems in fat saturation caused by areas of changing volume such as the head and the neck and by metal artifacts when T1 fat-saturation techniques representing the anatomical images and T2 fat-saturation techniques representing pathological images are used. To compare the abilities of CHESS and SPAIR, we acquired images of the head and the neck and of the pelvis, and we compared the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the signals from the flexed body parts. Images were taken of the abdomens, heads and necks, and pelvises of 15 men and 15 women (30 in total). In all scanning techniques, the SNRs and the CNRs were calculated based on a quantitative analysis method with a view to obtaining uniform data. According to the study results, the CNRs of the SPAIR and the CHESS techniques for the pelvis in the T1-weighted image were 55.10 and 67.23, respectively. The SNRs of the SPAIR technique were70.61 for muscle and 15.50 for fat whereas the SNRs of the CHESS technique were 79.23 for muscle and 12.00 for fat. For the pelvis in the T2-weighted image, the CNRs of the SPAIR and the CHESS technique were 12.50 and 16.66, respectively. The SNRs of the SPAIR technique were 16.98 for muscle and 5.14 for fat. In contrast, the SNRs of the CHESS technique were 27.90 for muscle and 11.23 for fat. Consequently, the signal intensity was higher in the CHESS than in the SPAIR technique. Nevertheless, with regard to the clinical usefulness, the image quality was higher in the SPAIR technique than in the CHESS technique.

  1. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine t...

  2. Poroelasticity of a micro-heterogeneous material saturated by two immiscible fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Ghabezloo, Siavash; Hemmati, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    International audience The anisotropic poroelasticity framework presented by Aichi and Tokunaga (Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 48(4) (2011) 580-584) for a porous material saturated by two immiscible fluids is generalized for micro-heterogeneous materials by introducing one additional poroelastic parameter. This framework is based on Coussy's thermodynamic framework, but is re-written using material parameters that are easier to evaluate experimentally. The presented generalization permits u...

  3. The lubrication of DLC coatings with mineral and biodegradable oils having different polar and saturation characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, J.; Vižintin, Jože; Vercammen, K.; Arnšek, Aleš; Kalin, Mitjan

    2015-01-01

    Due to improved performance over the last decade, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are more frequently used in highly loaded mechanical components that sometimes need to operate under boundary- or mixed-lubrication conditions. However, DLC coatings are considered as "inert" coatings with a low surface energy and their lubrication ability according to conventional metal-lubrication mechanisms is therefore questionable. In order to investigate whether the base oil polarity and saturation char...

  4. Accuracy of the Cylinder Approximation for Susceptometric Measurement of Intravascular Oxygen Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cheng; Langham, Michael C; Epstein, Charles L.; Magland, Jeremy F; Wu, Jue; Gee, James,; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2011-01-01

    Susceptometry-based MR oximetry has previously been shown suitable for quantifying hemoglobin oxygen saturation in large vessels for studying vascular reactivity and quantification of global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization. A key assumption underlying this method is that large vessels can be modeled as long paramagnetic cylinders. However, bifurcations, tapering, noncircular cross-section, and curvature of these vessels produce substantial deviations from cylindrical geometry, w...

  5. Size-Induced Enhancement of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Contrast in Liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jason M.; Har-el, Yah-el; McMahon, Michael T.; Zhou, Jinyuan; Sherry, A. Dean; Sgouros, George; Bulte, Jeff W. M.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Liposome-based chemical exchange saturation transfer (lipoCEST) agents have shown great sensitivity and potential for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we demonstrate that the size of liposomes can be exploited to enhance the lipoCEST contrast. A concise analytical model is developed to describe the contrast dependence on size for an ensemble of liposomes. The model attributes the increased lipoCEST contrast in smaller liposomes to their larger surface-to-volume ratio, causing ...

  6. Experimental Study of Optical Nonlinearities in a Broadband Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Qi-Rong; MAO Fang-Lin; LANG Li-Ying; WANG Zhuan; WANG Kai; LI Shu-Xin; CHAI Lu; ZHANG Zhi-Gang; WANG Qing-Yue

    2005-01-01

    The negative nonlinear index of a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) was investigated by using the reflection Z-scan technique. This is an experimental demonstration, for the first time to our knowledge, thatthe SESAM possesses comparable negative nonlinear index n2 = -2.35 × 10-10 esu, which may have importantimplications in design and alignment of Kerr-lens mode-locking based on the self-focusing effect.

  7. Solute transport in nearly saturated porous media under landfill clay liners: A finite deformation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H. J.; Jeng, Dong-Sheng; Barry, David Andrew; Seymour, Brian R.; Li, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For solute transport in a deformable clay liner, the importance of consolidation in the presence of sorption and consolidation-induced advection are well known. Here a one-dimensional coupled consolidation and solute transport model for a partially saturated porous medium, including the new features of finite strain and geometric and material nonlinearity, is proposed. A new boundary condition at the compacted clay liner base is also introduced. A comprehensive comparison demonstrates the sig...

  8. Transport of engineered nanoparticles in partially saturated sand columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yecheskel, Yinon; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2016-07-01

    The vadose zone is a critical region controlling fate and transport of contaminants in soils and, ultimately, groundwater. It is therefore important to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in this zone, as a potential group of emerging contaminants. Soil is a significant sink for ENPs; however, only a few studies have considered the fate and transport of ENPs in partially saturated systems, representative of the vadose zone. Here, transport behavior of three commonly used ENPs - gold (Au-NPs), silver (Ag-NPs) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs) - is investigated in partially saturated sand columns. High mobilities of Au-NPs and Ag-NPs under different water saturation levels and concentrations were observed. The presence of CaCl2 reduces Ag-NP mobility through chemical interactions, similar to behavior reported in saturated systems. Furthermore, transformation of Ag-NPs in the environment may influence their mobility; aging of Ag-NPs following sulfidation was investigated. The silver sulfide (Ag2S-NPs) remained stable in aqueous suspension, and mobile in the partially saturated sand column. In contrast, the positively-charged ZnO-NPs were completely immobilized in the sand column. Significantly, though, addition of humic acid (HA) to the ZnO-NP suspension reverses particle surface charge and thus increases their mobility. Moreover, remobilization of entrapped ZnO-NPs by HA was demonstrated. PMID:26995325

  9. Oxygen saturation limits and evidence supporting the targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Katherine M

    2014-12-01

    Supplemental oxygen use in the preterm infant is required for survival. Evidence supports a narrow therapeutic window between the helpful and harmful effects of supplemental oxygen in this vulnerable population. The clinical question was-what are the recommended oxygen saturation targets for the preterm infant and the preterm infant corrected to term? Multiple databases were searched for published research in English from 2008 to 2014 using key search terms. A total of 18 articles met inclusion criteria. Early neonatal research linked high levels of supplemental oxygen with retinopathy of prematurity and blindness. Years later, correlations between high arterial oxygen levels and oxidative stress leading to pulmonary and/or neurologic insults were established. Three large multicentered, international studies have recently been published (BOOST II, COT, and SUPPORT), which support oxygen saturation target ranges of 87% to 94% until vascular maturation of the retina is achieved. Two of the 3 studies reported a significant correlation between low saturation limits (85%-89%) and death in the extremely preterm population. Identified best care strategies to prevent states of hypoxia and/or hyperoxia include establishing clear target saturation limits according to recommendations, which are supported by the multidisciplinary team, adequate nurse to patient ratio, improve knowledge deficits, improve bedside compliance, and finally visual cues to remind caregivers of target saturation ranges. PMID:25422926

  10. Saturated and trans fats and dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Bunner, Anne E; Agarwal, Ulka

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive disorders of later life are potentially devastating. To estimate the relationship between saturated and trans fat intake and risk of cognitive disorders. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies reporting saturated or trans fat intake and incident dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or cognitive decline. Only observational studies met the inclusion criteria: 4 for AD or other dementias, 4 for MCI, and 4 for cognitive decline. Saturated fat intake was positively associated with AD risk in 3 of 4 studies, whereas the fourth suggested an inverse relationship. Saturated fat intake was also positively associated with total dementia in 1 of 2 studies, with MCI in 1 of 4 studies, and with cognitive decline in 2 of 4 studies. Relationships between trans fat intake and dementia were examined in 3 reports with mixed results. Several, although not all, prospective studies indicate relationships between saturated and trans fat intake and risk of cognitive disorders.

  11. Oxygen Saturation and RR Intervals Feature Selection for Sleep Apnea Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Ravelo-García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic system for sleep apnea based on oxygen saturation and RR intervals obtained from the EKG (electrocardiogram is proposed with the goal to detect and quantify minute long segments of sleep with breathing pauses. We measured the discriminative capacity of combinations of features obtained from RR series and oximetry to evaluate improvements of the performance compared to oximetry-based features alone. Time and frequency domain variables derived from oxygen saturation (SpO2 as well as linear and non-linear variables describing the RR series have been explored in recordings from 70 patients with suspected sleep apnea. We applied forward feature selection in order to select a minimal set of variables that are able to locate patterns indicating respiratory pauses. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA was used to classify the presence of apnea during specific segments. The system will finally provide a global score indicating the presence of clinically significant apnea integrating the segment based apnea detection. LDA results in an accuracy of 87%; sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91% (AUC = 0.90 with a global classification of 97% when only oxygen saturation is used. In case of additionally including features from the RR series; the system performance improves to an accuracy of 87%; sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 92% (AUC = 0.92, with a global classification rate of 100%.

  12. Direct reconstruction of T1 from k-space using a radial saturation-recovery sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyong; DiBella, Edward V. R.

    2011-03-01

    Contrast agent concentration ([CA]) must be known accurately to quantify dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging. Accurate concentrations can be obtained if the longitudinal relaxation rate constant T1 is known both pre- and post-contrast injection. Post-contrast signal intensity in the images is often saturated and an approximation to T1 can be difficult to obtain. One method that has been proposed for accurate T1 estimation effectively acquires multiple images with different effective saturation recovery times (eSRTs) and fits the images to the equation for T1 recovery to obtain T1 values. This was done with a radial saturation-recovery sequence for 2D imaging of myocardial perfusion with DCE MRI. This multi-SRT method assumes that the signal intensity is constant for different readouts in each image. Here this assumption is not necessary as a model-based reconstruction method is proposed that directly reconstructs an image of T1 values from k-space. The magnetization for each ray at each readout pulse is modeled in the reconstruction with Bloch equations. Computer simulations based on a 72 ray cardiac DCE MRI acquisition were used to test the method. The direct model-based reconstruction gave accurate T1 values and was slightly more accurate than the multi-SRT method that used three sub-images.

  13. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the “inter-aggregate” and “intra-aggregate” pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates

  14. A new through-tubing oil-saturation measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on carbon-oxygen logging which is used primarily to estimate oil saturation in cased-hole conditions when the formation water is fresh or unknown. The drawbacks of current techniques are: slow logging speed, large tool diameter, and excessive sensitivity to borehole fluid composition. A new, slim, neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy logging system has been developed to overcome some of these limitations. The new logging service is called the Reservoir Saturation (RST) Tool. Initial field tests are being carried out in the Middle East. The RST tool uses multiple detectors to separate the signal contributions from the borehole and the formation. Therefore, even when the borehole fluid composition is unknown, oil saturation can be determined in addition to the borehole oil fraction. This presents the possibility of logging flowing wells, which ensures that reinvasion and crossflow will not affect the results, and eliminates the costs of well preparation

  15. Mutual boosting of the saturation scales in colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z., E-mail: bzk@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pirner, H.J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Potashnikova, I.K.; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-03-14

    Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. The DGLAP driven gluon distribution turns out to be suppressed at large x, but significantly enhanced at x<<1. This is a high twist effect. In the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons on both sides get enriched in gluon density at small x, which leads to a further boosting of the saturation scale. We derive reciprocity equations for the saturation scales corresponding to a collision of two nuclei. The solution of these equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  16. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2009-09-27

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  17. Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Saraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

  18. Prediction of saturated liquid enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    New corresponding temperature and corresponding enthalpy of refrigerant mix- tures were defined. The relationship between saturated liquid corresponding en- thalpy and corresponding temperature of refrigerant mixtures accorded with that of pure components. The characteristic parameters of saturated liquid enthalpy dif- ference of refrigerant mixtures were calculated by three methods according to the different application conditions. The generalized equation of saturated liquid en- thalpy of refrigerant mixtures was presented. The calculated values were compared with the values in literature for five ternary and binary refrigerant mixtures, namely R404A, R407A, R407B, R32/R134a, and R410A. The overall average absolute devia- tion was less than 1.0%.

  19. Finite amplitude gravity waves: Harmonics, advective steepening, breaking and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple theory is presented which determines details of the breaking and saturation of a gravity wave as it propagates upward in the atmosphere. Breaking and saturation are here due to nonlinear advection analogous to the breaching of a surface wave and to the breaking of a planetary wave. Much simplification is obtained by the assumption that in a wave packet consisting of a primary wave and its harmonics, the primary wave remains dominant. This assumption, referred to a quasi-monochromatic approximation, is suggested by observations. Determined by this approximate theory are: a detailed picture of the waveform as it steepens and breaks; harmonics of the wave; the turbulence generation; and an underlying relationship between superadiabatic lapse rate and saturation by wave-wave interactions.

  20. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation. PMID:26907016

  1. Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and logarithmically saturable nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczynski, Pawel

    2012-08-01

    The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media of cylindrical symmetry. PCGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, PCGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media as compared to the numerical and analytical methods of nonlinear optics. The power of PCGO method is presented on the example of Gaussian beam evolution in logarithmically saturable medium with either focusing and defocusing refractive profile. Besides, the influence of initial curvature of the wave front on GB evolution in nonlinear saturable medium is discussed in this paper.

  2. Nonlinear acoustics of water-saturated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1976-01-01

    Interest in the acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments has increased considerably during recent years. The use of sources of high-intensity sound in oil propsecting, in geophysical and geological studies of bottom and subbottom materials and profiles and recently in marine...... archaeology has emphasized the need of information about the nonlinear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments. While the acoustic experiments and theoretical investigations hitherto performed have concentrated on a determination of the linear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine...... sediments, their parameters of nonlinear acoustics are still unexplored. The strong absorption, increasing about linearly with frequency, found in most marine sediments and the occurrence of velocity dispersion by some marine sediments restrict the number of nonlinear acoustic test methods traditionally...

  3. Saturation scale fluctuations and multi-particle rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale on event-by-event rapidity distributions. Saturation scale fluctuations generate an asymmetry in the single particle rapidity distribution in each event resulting in genuine n-particle correlations having a component linear in the rapidities of the produced particles, $y_1\\cdots y_n$. We introduce a color domain model that naturally explains the centrality dependence of the two-particle rapidity correlations recently measured by ATLAS while constraining the probability distribution of saturation scale fluctuations in the proton. Predictions for n = 4, 6 and 8 particle correlations find that the four and eight-particle cumulant change sign at an intermediate multiplicity, a signature which could be tested experimentally.

  4. Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Finding strongly connected components (SCCs) in the state-space of discrete-state models is a critical task in formal verification of LTL and fair CTL properties, but the potentially huge number of reachable states and SCCs constitutes a formidable challenge. This paper is concerned with computing the sets of states in SCCs or terminal SCCs of asynchronous systems. Because of its advantages in many applications, we employ saturation on two previously proposed approaches: the Xie-Beerel algorithm and transitive closure. First, saturation speeds up state-space exploration when computing each SCC in the Xie-Beerel algorithm. Then, our main contribution is a novel algorithm to compute the transitive closure using saturation. Experimental results indicate that our improved algorithms achieve a clear speedup over previous algorithms in some cases. With the help of the new transitive closure computation algorithm, up to 10(exp 150) SCCs can be explored within a few seconds.

  5. Saturation dependence of the streaming potential during drainage and imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, J.; Leinov, E.; Jackson, M.

    2012-12-01

    The rock pore space in many subsurface settings is saturated with water and one or more immiscible fluid phases; examples include NAPLs in contaminated aquifers, supercritical CO2 during sequestration in deep saline aquifers, the vadose zone, and hydrocarbon reservoirs. To interpret spontaneous potential measurements for groundwater flow and hydraulic properties in these settings requires an understanding of the saturation dependence of the streaming potential. Vinogradov and Jackson [2011] recently reported measurements of the streaming potential during drainage and, for the first time, imbibition in sandstone plugs saturated with water and either undecane or nitrogen. However, they reported effective values of the streaming potential coupling coefficient (C) at partial saturation (Sw), because Sw in the plugs was not uniform during drainage or imbibition. The aim of this study is to determine the true value of C as a function of Sw. We use a three-step approach in which hydraulic and electrical parameters are determined using numerical simulation and either Nelder-Mead simplex unconstrained optimisation or Active-set constrained optimisation algorithm. In the first step, we determine the saturation dependence of the relative permeability and capillary pressure, assuming these are simple exponential functions of Sw (Corey-type) and using an objective function which is a weighted average of the measured (i) pressure drop across the plug, (ii) liquid rate flowing out of the plug, and (iii) fraction of water flowing out of the plug. In the second, we determine the saturation dependence of the electrical conductivity, using the measured conductivity of the plug as the objective function. In the final step, we determine the saturation dependence of the streaming potential, using the measured streaming potential across the plug as the objective function. We obtain a good match between simulated and measured values of C, and find that it (i) exhibits hysteresis, (ii) can

  6. Surface Modification of Long Afterglow Phosphors by Different Saturated Fatty Acid Based Al -Zr Coupling Agent%不同碳链长度饱和脂肪酸基铝锆偶联剂对夜光粉的表面修饰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭斌; 徐杰; 唐皞; 曹绪芝; 李本刚; 郭福全; 高勇

    2011-01-01

    为扩展夜光粉的应用领域,以不同碳链长度的饱和脂肪酸(辛酸、月桂酸、硬脂酸)为有机功能配体制备了3种新型铝锆偶联剂(CA),并对夜光粉( SrMgAl4O8∶Eu2+、Dy3+)进行了表面修饰,用ATR -FTIR和接触角表征了样品表面性质,用水中pH和电导率的变化测定其耐水性,用TG表征了不同CA、原样及改性样的热失质量行为,并以此首次提出计算不同CA在夜光粉表面包覆量的方法及其结构模型.结果表明:随着CA中饱和脂肪酸碳链长度的增加(由辛酸到硬脂酸),夜光粉表面包覆量由13.41%降为6.53%,月桂酸基铝锆CA改性样具有最佳的耐水性和相容性.%To expand the application of the long afterglow phosphors, three saturated fatty acid ( capryl-ic, lauric and stearic acid) based Al -Zr coupling agent( CA) were synthesized, which were used to modify the phosphors SrMgAl4O8 ;Eu2+ , Dy3+. ATR - FTIR and contact angle were used to characterize their surface behavior. The pH value and electric conductivity in water were determined to evaluate their water resistance. TG Analysis was performed to characterize the thermal weight loss behaviors of CA, oringinal and modified samples. And with the TG data, the method to calculate the coated amount on phosphors and their structure model were proposed. Results showed that the coated amount on phosphors decreased from 13. 41% to 6. 53% with the increasing of carbon chain length of fatty acid. The better water resistant and compatibility with organic resin can be obtained by lauric based Al - Zr CA.

  7. Microbial Penetration through Nutrient-Saturated Berea Sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenneman, G E; McInerney, M J; Knapp, R M

    1985-08-01

    Penetration times and penetration rates for a motile Bacillus strain growing in nutrient-saturated Berea sandstone cores were determined. The rate of penetration was essentially independent of permeabilities above 100 mdarcys and rapidly declined for permeabilities below 100 mdarcys. It was found that these penetration rates could be grouped into two statistically distinct classes consisting of rates for permeabilities above 100 mdarcys and rates for those below 100 mdarcys. Instantaneous penetration rates were found to be zero order with respect to core length for cores with permeabilities above 100 mdarcys and first order with respect to core length for cores with permeabilities below 100 mdarcys. The maximum observed penetration rate was 0.47 cm . h, and the slowest was 0.06 cm . h; however, these rates may be underestimates of the true penetration rate, since the observed rates included the time required for growth in the flask as well as the core. The relationship of penetration time to the square of the length of the core suggested that cells penetrated high-permeability cores as a band and low-permeability cores in a diffuse fashion. The motile Enterobacter aerogenes strain penetrated Berea sandstone cores three to eight times faster than did the nonmotile Klebsiella pneumoniae strain when cores of comparable length and permeability were used. A penetration mechanism based entirely on motility predicted penetration times that were in agreement with the observed penetration times for motile strains. The fact that nonmotile strains penetrated the cores suggested that filamentous or unrestricted growth, or both, may also be important.

  8. An XFEM Model for Hydraulic Fracturing in Partially Saturated Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimzadeh Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a complex multi-physics phenomenon. Numerous analytical and numerical models of hydraulic fracturing processes have been proposed. Analytical solutions commonly are able to model the growth of a single hydraulic fracture into an initially intact, homogeneous rock mass. Numerical models are able to analyse complex problems such as multiple hydraulic fractures and fracturing in heterogeneous media. However, majority of available models are restricted to single-phase flow through fracture and permeable porous rock. This is not compatible with actual field conditions where the injected fluid does not have similar properties as the host fluid. In this study we present a fully coupled hydro-poroelastic model which incorporates two fluids i.e. fracturing fluid and host fluid. Flow through fracture is defined based on lubrication assumption, while flow through matrix is defined as Darcy flow. The fracture discontinuity in the mechanical model is captured using eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM while the fracture propagation criterion is defined through cohesive fracture model. The discontinuous matrix fluid velocity across fracture is modelled using leak-off loading which couples fracture flow and matrix flow. The proposed model has been discretised using standard Galerkin method, implemented in Matlab and verified against several published solutions. Multiple hydraulic fracturing simulations are performed to show the model robustness and to illustrate how problem parameters such as injection rate and rock permeability affect the hydraulic fracturing variables i.e. injection pressure, fracture aperture and fracture length. The results show the impact of partial saturation on leak-off and the fact that single-phase models may underestimate the leak-off.

  9. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  10. Sudakov resummation in the small-x saturation formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A H; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2013-02-22

    Through an explicit calculation of massive scalar particle (e.g., Higgs boson) production in high energy pA collisions up to one-loop order, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the Sudakov-type logarithms in hard processes in the small-x saturation formalism can be systematically separated from the small-x logarithms. The generic feature of the Sudakov logarithms and all order resummation is derived. This calculation shall provide us deep insights into the understanding of factorizations in the saturation formalism. We further comment on the phenomenological implications in the LHC energy regime and extension to other hard processes in small-x calculations.

  11. Stability study of saturated red polymer light-emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei; PENG JunBiao; XU YunHua; WANG Jian; HUANG Zhe; NIU QiaoLi; CAO Yong

    2007-01-01

    Saturated red polymer light-emitting diodes have been fabricated with a single emitting polymer blend layer of poly[2-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene](MEH-PPV)and poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-4,7-di-2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole](PFO-DBT15).Saturated red emission with the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage(CIE)coordinates of(0.67,0.33)was obtained.The device stability was investigated.The results showed that energy transfer occurred from MEH-PPV to PFO-DBT15,and MEH-PPV improved the hole injection and transportation.

  12. Bistability By Self-Reflection In A Saturable Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Franco, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Propagation of laser light through a saturable absorber is theoretically studied. Computed steady state solutions of the Maxwell equations describing the unidimensional propagation of a plane monochromatic wave without introducing the slowly-varying envelope approximation are presented showing how saturation effects can influence the absorption of the field. At a certain range of refractive index and extintion coefficients, computed solutions display a very susprising behaviour, and a self-reflected wave appears inside the absorber. This can be useful for a new kind of biestable device, similar to a standard bistable cavity but with the back mirror self-induced by the light.

  13. Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap

    OpenAIRE

    Daehyeon Kim; Sinkyu Jung; Kyungsub Cha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow), the gro...

  14. Compensation of pulse-distortion in saturated laser amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Damian N; Ruchert, Clemens; Nodop, Dirk; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Salin, Francois

    2008-10-27

    We derive an expression describing pre-compensation of pulse-distortion due to saturation effects in short pulse laser-amplifiers. The analytical solution determines the optimum input pulse-shape required to obtain any arbitrary target pulse-shape at the output of the saturated laser-amplifier. The relation is experimentally verified using an all-fiber amplifier chain that is seeded by a directly modulated laser-diode. The method will prove useful in applications of high power, high energy laser-amplifier systems that need particular pulse-shapes to be efficient, e.g. micromachining and scientific laser-matter-interactions. PMID:18958044

  15. On guaranteed cost control of linear systems with input saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Min-yue

    2007-01-01

    This work studies the problem of control design for linear systems with input saturation. It is well known that integral quadratic constraints (IQC) can be used to describe input saturation and that the use of IQC in analysis can lead to less conservative performance bound and larger domain of attraction. In this work, it is shown that a class of commonly used IQCs may not help in control synthesis. That is, the use of these IQCs does not enlarge the guaranteed domain of performance for synthesis.

  16. Porosity and size gradation of saturated gravel with percolated fines

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez González, Francisco; Martín Vide, Juan Pedro; Kleinhans Maarten, G.

    2016-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: [Núñez-González, F., Martín-Vide, J. P., Kleinhans, M. G. (2016), Porosity and size gradation of saturated gravel with percolated fines. Sedimentology, 63: 1209–1232. doi: 10.1111/sed.12257], which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sed.12257/abstract Fine particles may infiltrate through coarse alluvial beds and eventually saturate the subsurface pore space. It is essential to understand the...

  17. Saturation in inclusive production beyond leading logarithm accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Stasto, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress on the calculations on the inclusive forward hadron production within the saturation formalism. After introducing the concept of perturbative parton saturation and nonlinear evolution we discuss the formalism for the forward hadron production at high energy in the leading and next-to-leading order. Numerical results are presented and compared with the experimental data on forward hadron production in $dA$ and $pA$. We discuss the problem of the negativity of the NLO cross section at high transverse momenta, study its origin in detail and present possible improvements which include the corrected kinematics and the suitable choice of the rapidity cutoff.

  18. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. Résumé De nombreuses études ont été réalisées pour évaluer le degré de pollution des aquifères par les pesticides aux États-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les résultats des études concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet

  19. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. Résumé De nombreuses études ont été réalisées pour évaluer le degré de pollution des aquifères par les pesticides aux États-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les résultats des études concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet

  20. PHT3D-UZF: A reactive transport model for variably-saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming Zhi; Post, Vincent E. A.; Salmon, S. Ursula; Morway, Eric; Prommer, H.

    2016-01-01

    A modified version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS-based reactive transport model PHT3D was developed to extend current reactive transport capabilities to the variably-saturated component of the subsurface system and incorporate diffusive reactive transport of gaseous species. Referred to as PHT3D-UZF, this code incorporates flux terms calculated by MODFLOW's unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package. A volume-averaged approach similar to the method used in UZF-MT3DMS was adopted. The PHREEQC-based computation of chemical processes within PHT3D-UZF in combination with the analytical solution method of UZF1 allows for comprehensive reactive transport investigations (i.e., biogeochemical transformations) that jointly involve saturated and unsaturated zone processes. Intended for regional-scale applications, UZF1 simulates downward-only flux within the unsaturated zone. The model was tested by comparing simulation results with those of existing numerical models. The comparison was performed for several benchmark problems that cover a range of important hydrological and reactive transport processes. A 2D simulation scenario was defined to illustrate the geochemical evolution following dewatering in a sandy acid sulfate soil environment. Other potential applications include the simulation of biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated systems that track the transport and fate of agricultural pollutants, nutrients, natural and xenobiotic organic compounds and micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, as well as the evolution of isotope patterns.