WorldWideScience

Sample records for base saturation

  1. Saturation Detection-Based Blocking Scheme for Transformer Differential Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Eun Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a current differential relay for transformer protection that operates in conjunction with a core saturation detection-based blocking algorithm. The differential current for the magnetic inrush or over-excitation has a point of inflection at the start and end of each saturation period of the transformer core. At these instants, discontinuities arise in the first-difference function of the differential current. The second- and third-difference functions convert the points of inflection into pulses, the magnitudes of which are large enough to detect core saturation. The blocking signal is activated if the third-difference of the differential current is larger than the threshold and is maintained for one cycle. In addition, a method to discriminate between transformer saturation and current transformer (CT saturation is included. The performance of the proposed blocking scheme was compared with that of a conventional harmonic blocking method. The test results indicate that the proposed scheme successfully discriminates internal faults even with CT saturation from the magnetic inrush, over-excitation, and external faults with CT saturation, and can significantly reduce the operating time delay of the relay.

  2. Determination of saturation functions and wettability for chalk based on measured fluid saturations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.; Bech, N.; Moeller Nielsen, C.

    1998-08-01

    The end effect of displacement experiments on low permeable porous media is used for determination of relative permeability functions and capillary pressure functions. Saturation functions for a drainage process are determined from a primary drainage experiment. A reversal of the flooding direction creates an intrinsic imbibition process in the sample, which enables determination if imbibition saturation functions. The saturation functions are determined by a parameter estimation technique. Scanning effects are modelled by the method of Killough. Saturation profiles are determined by NMR. (au)

  3. Repulsion-based model for contact angle saturation in electrowetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan Abdelmoumen Abdellah; Mohamed, Hany Ahmed; Abdelgawad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new model for contact angle saturation phenomenon in electrowetting on dielectric systems. This new model attributes contact angle saturation to repulsion between trapped charges on the cap and base surfaces of the droplet in the vicinity of the three-phase contact line, which prevents these surfaces from converging during contact angle reduction. This repulsion-based saturation is similar to repulsion between charges accumulated on the surfaces of conducting droplets which causes the well known Coulombic fission and Taylor cone formation phenomena. In our model, both the droplet and dielectric coating were treated as lossy dielectric media (i.e., having finite electrical conductivities and permittivities) contrary to the more common assumption of a perfectly conducting droplet and perfectly insulating dielectric. We used theoretical analysis and numerical simulations to find actual charge distribution on droplet surface, calculate repulsion energy, and minimize energy of the total system as a function of droplet contact angle. Resulting saturation curves were in good agreement with previously reported experimental results. We used this proposed model to predict effect of changing liquid properties, such as electrical conductivity, and system parameters, such as thickness of the dielectric layer, on the saturation angle, which also matched experimental results.

  4. Hysteresis modeling based on saturation operator without constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.W.; Seok, Y.T.; Park, H.J.; Chung, J.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple way to model complex hysteresis in a magnetostrictive actuator by employing the saturation operators without constraints. Having no constraints causes a singularity problem, i.e. the inverse matrix cannot be obtained during calculating the weights. To overcome it, a pseudoinverse concept is introduced. Simulation results are compared with the experimental data, based on a Terfenol-D actuator. It is clear that the proposed model is much closer to the experimental data than the modified PI model. The relative error is calculated as 12% and less than 1% with the modified PI Model and proposed model, respectively

  5. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-05

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

  6. Nanographene-Based Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hui Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of femtosecond pulse laser in the erbium-doped fiber laser system is presented by integrating of the nanographene-based saturable absorbers (SAs. A simplified method of dispersed nanographene-based SAs side-polished fiber device with controllable polished length and depth was also developed. The dependence of geometry of a graphene-deposited side-polished fiber device on optical nonlinear characteristics and on the performance of the MLFL was screened. We found that the 10 mm polished length with 1.68 dB insertion loss had the highest modulation depth (MD of 1.2%. A stable MLFL with graphene-based SAs employing the optimized side-polished fiber device showed a pulse width, a 3 dB bandwidth, a time-bandwidth product (TBP, a repetition rate, and pulse energy of 523 fs, 5.4 nm, 0.347, 16.7 MHz, and 0.18 nJ, respectively, at fundamental soliton-like operation. The femtosecond pulse laser is achieved by evanescent field coupling through graphene-deposited side-polished fiber devices in the laser cavity. This study demonstrates that the polished depth is the key fabrication geometric parameter affecting the overall optical performance and better results exist within the certain polished range.

  7. Saturated virtual fluorescence emission difference microscopy based on detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaocong; Sun, Shiyi; Kuang, Cuifang; Ge, Baoliang; Wang, Wensheng; Liu, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Virtual fluorescence emission difference microscopy (vFED) has been proposed recently to enhance the lateral resolution of confocal microscopy with a detector array, implemented by scanning a doughnut-shaped pattern. Theoretically, the resolution can be enhanced by around 1.3-fold compared with that in confocal microscopy. For further improvement of the resolving ability of vFED, a novel method is presented utilizing fluorescence saturation for super-resolution imaging, which we called saturated virtual fluorescence emission difference microscopy (svFED). With a point detector array, matched solid and hollow point spread functions (PSF) can be obtained by photon reassignment, and the difference results between them can be used to boost the transverse resolution. Results show that the diffraction barrier can be surpassed by at least 34% compared with that in vFED and the resolution is around 2-fold higher than that in confocal microscopy.

  8. Experimental study on distributed optical fiber-based approach monitoring saturation line in levee engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Kang, Yeyuan; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    Seepage is one of key factors which affect the levee engineering safety. The seepage danger without timely detection and rapid response may likely lead to severe accidents such as seepage failure, slope instability, and even levee break. More than 90 percent of levee break events are caused by the seepage. It is very important for seepage behavior identification to determine accurately saturation line in levee engineering. Furthermore, the location of saturation line has a major impact on slope stability in levee engineering. Considering the structure characteristics and service condition of levee engineering, the distributed optical fiber sensing technology is introduced to implement the real-time observation of saturation line in levee engineering. The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system (DTS)-based monitoring principle of saturation line in levee engineering is investigated. An experimental platform, which consists of DTS, heating system, water-supply system, auxiliary analysis system and levee model, is designed and constructed. The monitoring experiment of saturation line in levee model is implemented on this platform. According to the experimental results, the numerical relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity in porous medium is identified. A line heat source-based distributed optical fiber method obtaining the thermal conductivity in porous medium is developed. A DTS-based approach is proposed to monitor the saturation line in levee engineering. The embedment pattern of optical fiber for monitoring saturation line is presented.

  9. Saturation flow mathematical model based on multiple combinations of lane groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    The ideal value of the traffic stream that can pass through an intersection is known as the saturation flow rate per hour on vehicle green time. The saturation flow is important in the understanding of the traffic light cycle and from there the understanding the Level of Service. The paper wishes to evaluate through a series of applied mathematical methods the effect of different lane grouping and critical lane group concept on the saturation flow rate. The importance of this method is that it creates a base for a signalized intersections timing plan. (Author)

  10. Low-loss saturable absorbers based on tapered fibers embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Amos; Al Araimi, Mohammed; Dmitriev, Artemiy; Lutsyk, Petro; Li, Shen; Mou, Chengbo; Rozhin, Alexey; Sumetsky, Misha; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of low-dimensional materials has opened new opportunities in the fabrication of compact nonlinear photonic devices. Single-walled carbon nanotubes were among the first of those materials to attract the attention of the photonics community owing to their high third order susceptibility, broadband operation, and ultrafast response. Saturable absorption, in particular, has become a widespread application for nanotubes in the mode-locking of a fiber laser where they are used as nonlinear passive amplitude modulators to initiate pulsed operation. Numerous approaches have been proposed for the integration of nanotubes in fiber systems; these can be divided into those that rely on direct interaction (where the nanotubes are sandwiched between fiber connectors) and those that rely on lateral interaction with the evanescence field of the propagating wave. Tapered fibers, in particular, offer excellent flexibility to adjust the nonlinearity of nanotube-based devices but suffer from high losses (typically exceeding 50%) and poor saturable to non-saturable absorption ratios (typically above 1:5). In this paper, we propose a method to fabricate carbon nanotube saturable absorbers with controllable saturation power, low-losses (as low as 15%), and large saturable to non-saturable loss ratios approaching 1:1. This is achieved by optimizing the procedure of embedding tapered fibers in low-refractive index polymers. In addition, this study sheds light in the operation of these devices, highlighting a trade-off between losses and saturation power and providing guidelines for the design of saturable absorbers according to their application.

  11. Low-loss saturable absorbers based on tapered fibers embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Martinez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of low-dimensional materials has opened new opportunities in the fabrication of compact nonlinear photonic devices. Single-walled carbon nanotubes were among the first of those materials to attract the attention of the photonics community owing to their high third order susceptibility, broadband operation, and ultrafast response. Saturable absorption, in particular, has become a widespread application for nanotubes in the mode-locking of a fiber laser where they are used as nonlinear passive amplitude modulators to initiate pulsed operation. Numerous approaches have been proposed for the integration of nanotubes in fiber systems; these can be divided into those that rely on direct interaction (where the nanotubes are sandwiched between fiber connectors and those that rely on lateral interaction with the evanescence field of the propagating wave. Tapered fibers, in particular, offer excellent flexibility to adjust the nonlinearity of nanotube-based devices but suffer from high losses (typically exceeding 50% and poor saturable to non-saturable absorption ratios (typically above 1:5. In this paper, we propose a method to fabricate carbon nanotube saturable absorbers with controllable saturation power, low-losses (as low as 15%, and large saturable to non-saturable loss ratios approaching 1:1. This is achieved by optimizing the procedure of embedding tapered fibers in low-refractive index polymers. In addition, this study sheds light in the operation of these devices, highlighting a trade-off between losses and saturation power and providing guidelines for the design of saturable absorbers according to their application.

  12. Densities, Viscosities and Derived Thermophysical Properties of Water-Saturated Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mónia A R; Neves, Catarina M S S; Kurnia, Kiki A; Carvalho, Pedro J; Rocha, Marisa A A; Santos, Luís M N B F; Pinho, Simão P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-01-15

    In order to evaluate the impact of the alkyl side chain length and symmetry of the cation on the thermophysical properties of water-saturated ionic liquids (ILs), densities and viscosities as a function of temperature were measured at atmospheric pressure and in the (298.15 to 363.15) K temperature range, for systems containing two series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-based compounds: the symmetric [C n C n im][NTf 2 ] (with n = 1-8 and 10) and asymmetric [C n C 1 im][NTf 2 ] (with n = 2-5, 7, 9 and 11) ILs. For water-saturated ILs, the density decreases with the increase of the alkyl side chain length while the viscosity increases with the size of the aliphatic tails. The saturation water solubility in each IL was further estimated with a reasonable agreement based on the densities of water-saturated ILs, further confirming that for the ILs investigated the volumetric mixing properties of ILs and water follow a near ideal behaviour. The water-saturated symmetric ILs generally present lower densities and viscosities than their asymmetric counterparts. From the experimental data, the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and energy barrier were also estimated. A close correlation between the difference in the energy barrier values between the water-saturated and pure ILs and the water content in each IL was found, supporting that the decrease in the viscosity of ILs in presence of water is directly related with the decrease of the energy barrier.

  13. PRO-QUEST: a rapid assessment method based on progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times in CEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Eleni; Tachrount, Mohamed; Zaiss, Moritz; Shmueli, Karin; Golay, Xavier

    2018-03-05

    To develop a new MRI technique to rapidly measure exchange rates in CEST MRI. A novel pulse sequence for measuring chemical exchange rates through a progressive saturation recovery process, called PRO-QUEST (progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times), has been developed. Using this method, the water magnetization is sampled under non-steady-state conditions, and off-resonance saturation is interleaved with the acquisition of images obtained through a Look-Locker type of acquisition. A complete theoretical framework has been set up, and simple equations to obtain the exchange rates have been derived. A reduction of scan time from 58 to 16 minutes has been obtained using PRO-QUEST versus the standard QUEST. Maps of both T 1 of water and B 1 can simply be obtained by repetition of the sequence without off-resonance saturation pulses. Simulations and calculated exchange rates from experimental data using amino acids such as glutamate, glutamine, taurine, and alanine were compared and found to be in good agreement. The PRO-QUEST sequence was also applied on healthy and infarcted rats after 24 hours, and revealed that imaging specificity to ischemic acidification during stroke was substantially increased relative to standard amide proton transfer-weighted imaging. Because of the reduced scan time and insensitivity to nonchemical exchange factors such as direct water saturation, PRO-QUEST can serve as an excellent alternative for researchers and clinicians interested to map pH changes in vivo. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Generation of Polar Semi-Saturated Bicyclic Pyrazoles for Fragment-Based Drug Discovery Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luise, Nicola; Wyatt, Paul

    2018-05-07

    Synthesising polar semi-saturated bicyclic heterocycles can lead to better starting points for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) programs. This communication highlights the application of diverse chemistry to construct bicyclic systems from a common intermediate, where pyrazole, a privileged heteroaromatic able to bind effectively to biological targets, is fused to diverse saturated counterparts. The generated fragments can be further developed either after confirmation of their binding pose or early in the process, as their synthetic intermediates. Essential quality control (QC) for selection of small molecules to add to a fragment library is discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Observer-Based Robust Control for Spacecraft Rendezvous with Thrust Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an observer-based robust guaranteed cost control method for thrust-limited rendezvous in near-circular orbits. Treating the noncircularity of the target orbit as a parametric uncertainty, a linearized motion model derived from the two-body problem is adopted as the controlled plant. Based on this model, a robust guaranteed cost observer-controller is synthesized with a less conservative saturation control law, and sufficient condition for the existence of this observer-based rendezvous controller is derived. Finally, an illustrative example with immeasurable velocity states is presented to demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of the control scheme.

  16. A technique for measuring oxygen saturation in biological tissues based on diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnin, Mikhail; Orlova, Anna; Kirillin, Mikhail; Golubiatnikov, German; Turchin, Ilya

    2017-07-01

    A new approach to optical measuring blood oxygen saturation was developed and implemented. This technique is based on an original three-stage algorithm for reconstructing the relative concentration of biological chromophores (hemoglobin, water, lipids) from the measured spectra of diffusely scattered light at different distances from the probing radiation source. The numerical experiments and approbation of the proposed technique on a biological phantom have shown the high reconstruction accuracy and the possibility of correct calculation of hemoglobin oxygenation in the presence of additive noise and calibration errors. The obtained results of animal studies have agreed with the previously published results of other research groups and demonstrated the possibility to apply the developed technique to monitor oxygen saturation in tumor tissue.

  17. Q-Switched Operation with Carbon-Based Saturable Absorbers in a Nd:YLF Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weigand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have numerically studied the influence of the absorption modulation depth of carbon-based saturable absorbers (graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs on the Q-switched regime of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser. A short-length cavity was used with an end mirror on which CNTs or mono- or bi-layer graphene were deposited, forming a saturable absorber mirror (SAM. Using a standard model, the generated energy per pulse was calculated, as well as the pulse duration and repetition rate. The results show that absorbers with higher modulation depths, i.e., graphene, deliver higher energy pulses at lower repetition rates. However, the pulse duration did not have a monotonic behavior and reaches a minimum for a given low value of the modulation depth typical of CNTs.

  18. Design of pulse oximetry signal based on personal computer for detection oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Salamah; Margi Sasono

    2015-01-01

    The lack or excess of oxygen in the blood will cause healthy and body system disorder. At certain level, the disease can lead to death. For that reason, the information about oxygen saturation in blood becomes important to be identified. One of the devices used to monitor the blood oxygen saturation is pulse oximetry. This research attempt to designed Pulse Oximetry based on personal computer using red LED and infrared as its light source, while the light sensor using photodiode. The designed Pulse Oximetry is a non-invasive instrumentation which LED drivers is placed on the fingertips. The LED light goes through the finger will be a signal that is fed to the photodiode and will be converted into digital signals by ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and will be processed further by a personal computer to display the pulse oximetry graphics. This study uses Delphi 7, Microsoft Excel, and Mt Lab as its software.This designed pulse oximetry has been tested in two peoples: sample A, male 38 years; and sample B, a woman 23 years old. Oxygen saturation of sample A is 80.75, while the sample B is 90.75. (author)

  19. A 70 kV solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2014-02-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in many fields. In recent years, solid-state and operating at repetitive mode are the most important developing trends of high voltage pulse generators. A solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. The proposed generator is consisted of three parts. They are charging system, triggering system, and the major loop. Saturable pulse transformer is the key component of the whole generator, which acts as a step-up transformer and main switch during working process of this generator. The circuit and working principles of the proposed pulse generator are introduced first in this paper, and the saturable pulse transformer used in this generator is introduced in detail. Circuit of the major loop is simulated to verify the design of the system. Demonstration experiments are carried out, and the results show that when the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to a high voltage, such as 2.5 kV, a voltage with amplitude of 86 kV can be achieved on the secondary winding. The magnetic core of saturable pulse transformer is saturated deeply and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings is very small. The switch function of the saturable pulse transformer can be realized ideally. Therefore, a 71 kV output voltage pulse is formed on the load. Moreover, the magnetic core of the saturable pulse transformer can be reset automatically.

  20. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  1. Dynamic failure of dry and fully saturated limestone samples based on incubation time concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Petrov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the results of experimental study of the dynamic rock failure based on the comparison of dry and saturated limestone samples obtained during the dynamic compression and split tests. The tests were performed using the Kolsky method and its modifications for dynamic splitting. The mechanical data (e.g. strength, time and energy characteristics of this material at high strain rates are obtained. It is shown that these characteristics are sensitive to the strain rate. A unified interpretation of these rate effects, based on the structural–temporal approach, is hereby presented. It is demonstrated that the temporal dependence of the dynamic compressive and split tensile strengths of dry and saturated limestone samples can be predicted by the incubation time criterion. Previously discovered possibilities to optimize (minimize the energy input for the failure process is discussed in connection with industrial rock failure processes. It is shown that the optimal energy input value associated with critical load, which is required to initialize failure in the rock media, strongly depends on the incubation time and the impact duration. The optimal load shapes, which minimize the momentum for a single failure impact, are demonstrated. Through this investigation, a possible approach to reduce the specific energy required for rock cutting by means of high-frequency vibrations is also discussed.

  2. Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu-De [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China); Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Hao; Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping, E-mail: luoaiping@scnu.edu.cn; Xu, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: xuwch@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-10-20

    We reported on the femtosecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using microfiber-based gold nanorods (GNRs) as saturable absorber (SA). By virtue of the geometric characteristic of microfiber-based GNRs, the optical damage threshold of GNRs-SA could be greatly enhanced. The microfiber-based GNRs-SA shows a modulation depth of 4.9% and a nonsaturable loss of 21.1%. With the proposed GNRs-SA, the fiber laser emitted a mode-locked pulse train with duration of ∼887 fs. The obtained results demonstrated that the GNRs deposited microfiber could indeed serve as a high-performance SA towards the practical applications in the field of ultrafast photonics.

  3. Lipid Based Formulations of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS Class II Drugs: Strategy, Formulations, Methods and Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltýsová I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

  4. A sampling-based Bayesian model for gas saturation estimationusing seismic AVA and marine CSEM data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jinsong; Hoversten, Michael; Vasco, Don; Rubin, Yoram; Hou,Zhangshuan

    2006-04-04

    We develop a sampling-based Bayesian model to jointly invertseismic amplitude versus angles (AVA) and marine controlled-sourceelectromagnetic (CSEM) data for layered reservoir models. The porosityand fluid saturation in each layer of the reservoir, the seismic P- andS-wave velocity and density in the layers below and above the reservoir,and the electrical conductivity of the overburden are considered asrandom variables. Pre-stack seismic AVA data in a selected time windowand real and quadrature components of the recorded electrical field areconsidered as data. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplingmethods to obtain a large number of samples from the joint posteriordistribution function. Using those samples, we obtain not only estimatesof each unknown variable, but also its uncertainty information. Thedeveloped method is applied to both synthetic and field data to explorethe combined use of seismic AVA and EM data for gas saturationestimation. Results show that the developed method is effective for jointinversion, and the incorporation of CSEM data reduces uncertainty influid saturation estimation, when compared to results from inversion ofAVA data only.

  5. Compact gain saturated plasma based X-ray lasers down to 6.9nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Jorge; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.; Rockwood, A.; Berrill, M.; Shlyaptsev, V.

    2017-10-01

    Plasma based soft x-ray amplifiers allow many experiments requiring bright, high energy soft x-ray laser pulses to be conducted in compact facilities. We have extended the wavelength of compact gain saturated x-ray lasers to 6.89 nm in a Ni-like Gd plasma generated by a Ti:Sa laser. Gain saturated laser operation was also obtained at 7.36 nm in Ni-like Sm. Isolectronic scaling and optimization of laser pre-pulse duration allowed us to also observe strong lasing at 6.6 nm and 6.1 nm in Ni-like Tb, and amplification at 6.4 nm and 5.89 nm in Ni-like Dy. The results were obtained by transient laser heating of solid targets with traveling wave excitation at progressively increased gracing incidence angles. We show that the optimum pump angle of incidence for collisional Ni-like lasers increases linearly with atomic number from Z =42 to Z =66, reaching 43 degrees for Ni-like Dy, in good agreement with hydrodynamic/atomic physics simulations. These results will enable single-shot nano-scale imaging and other application of sub-7 nm lasers to be performed at compact facilities. Work supported by Grant DE-FG02-4ER15592 of the Department of Energy, Office of Science, and by the National Science Foundation Grant ECCS 1509925.

  6. Diffusion under water-saturated conditions in PFA/OPC-based structural concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.; Nickerson, A.K.

    1990-05-01

    A substantial proportion of the volume of the UK radioactive waste repository is likely to be composed of materials based on hydraulic cements. This includes the structural components, which are likely to be manufactured from concrete. The mass transport characteristics of dissolved species for a typical structural concrete, based on a mixture of pulverised fuel ash and ordinary Portland cement, have been measured in a water-saturated condition. Both the water permeability and the diffusion parameters (for caesium, strontium and iodide ion and tritiated water diffusion) are low compared to values obtained for other structural concretes. The intrinsic diffusion coefficients for iodide and caesium ions are in the range 2-5x10 -14 m 2 s -1 . There is no evidence of significant sorption of any of the diffusants studied. (author)

  7. Neural network-based distributed attitude coordination control for spacecraft formation flying with input saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An-Min; Kumar, Krishna Dev

    2012-07-01

    This brief considers the attitude coordination control problem for spacecraft formation flying when only a subset of the group members has access to the common reference attitude. A quaternion-based distributed attitude coordination control scheme is proposed with consideration of the input saturation and with the aid of the sliding-mode observer, separation principle theorem, Chebyshev neural networks, smooth projection algorithm, and robust control technique. Using graph theory and a Lyapunov-based approach, it is shown that the distributed controller can guarantee the attitude of all spacecraft to converge to a common time-varying reference attitude when the reference attitude is available only to a portion of the group of spacecraft. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed distributed controller.

  8. Using Neutron Radiography to Quantify Water Transport and the Degree of Saturation in Entrained Air Cement Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Catherine L.; Bentz, Dale P.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; Weiss, W. Jason

    Air entrainment is commonly added to concrete to help in reducing the potential for freeze thaw damage. It is hypothesized that the entrained air voids remain unsaturated or partially saturated long after the smaller pores fill with water. Small gel and capillary pores in the cement matrix fill quickly on exposure to water, but larger pores (entrapped and entrained air voids) require longer times or other methods to achieve saturation. As such, it is important to quantitatively determine the water content and degree of saturation in air entrained cementitious materials. In order to further investigate properties of cement-based mortar, a model based on Beer's Law has been developed to interpret neutron radiographs. This model is a powerful tool for analyzing images acquired from neutron radiography. A mortar with a known volume of aggregate, water to cement ratio and degree of hydration can be imaged and the degree of saturation can be estimated.

  9. A Bézier-Spline-based Model for the Simulation of Hysteresis in Variably Saturated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Peche, Aaron; Thiele, Luisa-Bianca; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Most transient variably saturated flow models neglect hysteresis in the p_c-S-relationship (Beven, 2012). Such models tend to inadequately represent matrix potential and saturation distribution. Thereby, when simulating flow and transport processes, fluid and solute fluxes might be overestimated (Russo et al., 1989). In this study, we present a simple, computationally efficient and easily applicable model that enables to adequately describe hysteresis in the p_c-S-relationship for variably saturated flow. This model can be seen as an extension to the existing play-type model (Beliaev and Hassanizadeh, 2001), where scanning curves are simplified as vertical lines between main imbibition and main drainage curve. In our model, we use continuous linear and Bézier-Spline-based functions. We show the successful validation of the model by numerically reproducing a physical experiment by Gillham, Klute and Heermann (1976) describing primary drainage and imbibition in a vertical soil column. With a deviation of 3%, the simple Bézier-Spline-based model performs significantly better that the play-type approach, which deviates by 30% from the experimental results. Finally, we discuss the realization of physical experiments in order to extend the model to secondary scanning curves and in order to determine scanning curve steepness. {Literature} Beven, K.J. (2012). Rainfall-Runoff-Modelling: The Primer. John Wiley and Sons. Russo, D., Jury, W. A., & Butters, G. L. (1989). Numerical analysis of solute transport during transient irrigation: 1. The effect of hysteresis and profile heterogeneity. Water Resources Research, 25(10), 2109-2118. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR025i010p02109. Beliaev, A.Y. & Hassanizadeh, S.M. (2001). A Theoretical Model of Hysteresis and Dynamic Effects in the Capillary Relation for Two-phase Flow in Porous Media. Transport in Porous Media 43: 487. doi:10.1023/A:1010736108256. Gillham, R., Klute, A., & Heermann, D. (1976). Hydraulic properties of a porous

  10. L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J; Zhang, S M; Li, H F; Meng, Y C; Li, X L; Hao, Y P

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated an L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber (SA). By adjusting the pump power and the polarization controller, we have experimentally observed L-band fundamental and harmonic mode-locked optical pulses. The fundamental optical pulse has the duration of 1.3 ps, and the maximum average output power of 13.16 mW at the incident pump power of 98.8 mW. The order of the harmonic mode-locked optical pulses can be changed over the range from the second to the fourth. From the experimental results, we deduced that the likely origin of the harmonic mode-locked self-stabilization was the result of global and local soliton interactions induced by the unstability continuous wave (CW) components

  11. All-polarization maintaining erbium fiber laser based on carbon nanowalls saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Shintaro; Izawa, Jun; Kawaguchi, Norihito

    2018-02-01

    We report a soliton mode locked femtosecond oscillation with all-polarization maintaining erbuim doped fiber laser based on Carbon Nanowalls saturable absorber (CNWs SA). To improve the stability and the capability of the oscillator, the all-polarization maintaining(all-PM) fiber is generally used since PM fiber is tolerant of stretches and bends. The saturable absorber is an optical device that placed in a laser cavity to suppress continuous wave operation to promote cooperation between many modes to sustain ultrashort pulse operation. We apply CNWs for the material of SAs in our oscillator. CNWs are one of the nanocarbon materials, which are a high-aspect-ratio structure in the cross-section, where, although their width and height range in a few micrometers, the thickness is as small as ten nanometers or so. A sheet of CNWs is made up of nano-size graphite grain aggregates. Then CNWs structure is expected to have a high absorption to the incident light and large modulation depth due to a small number of carbon layers as well as CNT and Graphene. With this all-PM fiber laser oscillator based on CNWs SA, the soliton mode-locked laser oscillated with 66.3MHz repetition frequency and its spectrum width is 5.6nm in FWHM. Average output power is 8.1mW with 122.5mW laser diode pump power. In addition, the laser amplification system with erbium-doped fiber is constructed and amplifies the femtosecond pulse laser into 268.2mW and 3000mW pumping power.

  12. An agent-based method for simulating porous fluid-saturated structures with indistinguishable components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Jamal; Pettet, Graeme John; Gu, YuanTong; Zhang, Lihai; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-10-01

    Single-phase porous materials contain multiple components that intermingle up to the ultramicroscopic level. Although the structures of the porous materials have been simulated with agent-based methods, the results of the available methods continue to provide patterns of distinguishable solid and fluid agents which do not represent materials with indistinguishable phases. This paper introduces a new agent (hybrid agent) and category of rules (intra-agent rule) that can be used to create emergent structures that would more accurately represent single-phase structures and materials. The novel hybrid agent carries the characteristics of system's elements and it is capable of changing within itself, while also responding to its neighbours as they also change. As an example, the hybrid agent under one-dimensional cellular automata formalism in a two-dimensional domain is used to generate patterns that demonstrate the striking morphological and characteristic similarities with the porous saturated single-phase structures where each agent of the ;structure; carries semi-permeability property and consists of both fluid and solid in space and at all times. We conclude that the ability of the hybrid agent to change locally provides an enhanced protocol to simulate complex porous structures such as biological tissues which could facilitate models for agent-based techniques and numerical methods.

  13. Development of theoretical oxygen saturation calibration curve based on optical density ratio and optical simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Nur Anida; Beng, Gan Kok; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd; Zahedi, Edmond; Morsin, Marlia

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of surface-based Monte Carlo simulation technique for oxygen saturation (SaO2) calibration curve estimation is demonstrated in this paper. Generally, the calibration curve is estimated either from the empirical study using animals as the subject of experiment or is derived from mathematical equations. However, the determination of calibration curve using animal is time consuming and requires expertise to conduct the experiment. Alternatively, an optical simulation technique has been used widely in the biomedical optics field due to its capability to exhibit the real tissue behavior. The mathematical relationship between optical density (OD) and optical density ratios (ODR) associated with SaO2 during systole and diastole is used as the basis of obtaining the theoretical calibration curve. The optical properties correspond to systolic and diastolic behaviors were applied to the tissue model to mimic the optical properties of the tissues. Based on the absorbed ray flux at detectors, the OD and ODR were successfully calculated. The simulation results of optical density ratio occurred at every 20 % interval of SaO2 is presented with maximum error of 2.17 % when comparing it with previous numerical simulation technique (MC model). The findings reveal the potential of the proposed method to be used for extended calibration curve study using other wavelength pair.

  14. The impact of highway base-saturation flow rate adjustment on Kuwait's transport and environmental parameters estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRukaibi, Fahad; AlKheder, Sharaf; Al-Rukaibi, Duaij; Al-Burait, Abdul-Aziz

    2018-03-23

    Traditional transportation systems' management and operation mainly focused on improving traffic mobility and safety without imposing any environmental concerns. Transportation and environmental issues are interrelated and affected by the same parameters especially at signalized intersections. Additionally, traffic congestion at signalized intersections has a major contribution in the environmental problem as related to vehicle emission, fuel consumption, and delay. Therefore, signalized intersections' design and operation is an important parameter to minimize the impact on the environment. The design and operation of signalized intersections are highly dependent on the base saturation flow rate (BSFR). Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) uses a base-saturation flow rate of 1900-passenger car/h/lane for areas with a population intensity greater than or equal to 250,000 and a value of 1750-passenger car/h/lane for less populated areas. The base-saturation flow rate value in HCM is derived from a field data collected in developed countries. The adopted value in Kuwait is 1800passengercar/h/lane, which is the value that used in this analysis as a basis for comparison. Due to the difference in behavior between drivers in developed countries and their fellows in Kuwait, an adjustment was made to the base-saturation flow rate to represent Kuwait's traffic and environmental conditions. The reduction in fuel consumption and vehicles' emission after modifying the base-saturation flow rate (BSFR increased by 12.45%) was about 34% on average. Direct field measurements of the saturation flow rate were used while using the air quality mobile lab to calculate emissions' rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sector-condition-based results for adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems under input saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of adaptive feedback controllers for two problems (namely, stabilization and synchronization) of chaotic systems with unknown parameters by considering input saturation constraints. A novel generalized sector condition is developed to deal with the saturation nonlinearities for synthesizing the nonlinear and the adaptive controllers for the stabilization and synchronization control objectives. By application of the proposed sector condition and rigorous regional stability analysis, control and adaptation laws are formulated to guarantee local stabilization of a nonlinear system under actuator saturation. Further, simple control and adaptation laws are developed to synchronize two chaotic systems under uncertain parameters and input saturation nonlinearity. Numerical simulation results for Rössler and FitzHugh–Nagumo models are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive stabilization and synchronization control methodologies

  16. Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) simulations for fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E; Raman, E Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) involves screening low molecular weight molecules ("fragments") that correspond to functional groups found in larger drug-like molecules to determine their binding to target proteins or nucleic acids. Based on the principle of thermodynamic additivity, two fragments that bind nonoverlapping nearby sites on the target can be combined to yield a new molecule whose binding free energy is the sum of those of the fragments. Experimental FBDD approaches, like NMR and X-ray crystallography, have proven very useful but can be expensive in terms of time, materials, and labor. Accordingly, a variety of computational FBDD approaches have been developed that provide different levels of detail and accuracy.The Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) method of computational FBDD uses all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify fragment binding. The target is "soaked" in an aqueous solution with multiple fragments having different identities. The resulting computational competition assay reveals what small molecule types are most likely to bind which regions of the target. From SILCS simulations, 3D probability maps of fragment binding called "FragMaps" can be produced. Based on the probabilities relative to bulk, SILCS FragMaps can be used to determine "Grid Free Energies (GFEs)," which provide per-atom contributions to fragment binding affinities. For essentially no additional computational overhead relative to the production of the FragMaps, GFEs can be used to compute Ligand Grid Free Energies (LGFEs) for arbitrarily complex molecules, and these LGFEs can be used to rank-order the molecules in accordance with binding affinities.

  17. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  18. Laser frequency locking based on the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectroscopy of 87Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Jian-Hong; Liu Chang; Wang Yan-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical method to avoid the mis-locking phenomenon in the saturated-absorption-spectrum laser-frequency-locking system and set up a simple theoretical model to explain the abnormal saturated absorption spectrum. The method uses the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectra of the same transition 5 2 S 1/2 , F = 2–5 2 P 3/2 , F′ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87 Rb D 2 resonance line. After subtracting these two signals with the help of electronics, we can obtain a spectrum with a single peak to lock the laser. In our experiment, we use the normal and inverse signals of the transitions 5 2 S 1/2 , F = 2–5 2 P 3/2 , F′ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87 Rb D 2 resonance line to lock a 780-nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. This method improves the long-term locking performance and is suitable for other kinds of diode lasers. (paper)

  19. Phytosterol-based edible oleogels: A novel way of replacing saturated fat in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, A; Dalkas, G; Clegg, P S; Euston, S R

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a summary of recent results relating to phytosterol oleogels. Oleogels represent a novel way of replacing saturated fat in food, whilst phytosterols have been shown to actively lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- cholesterol levels. There are a number of technical challenges to exploiting phytosterol oleogels, including a high sensitivity to water. To facilitate their incorporation into food, the fundamental physiochemical processes which mediate the formation of these gels and two different approaches to produce phytosterol oleogels that are stable in the presence of water were explored as part of the recent Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)-Diet and Health Research Industry Club (DRINC)-funded Edible Oleogels for Reduction of Saturated Fat project. This report summarises the findings, which will support the development of healthier food products that are lower in saturated fat and acceptable to consumers.

  20. Femtosecond all-optical parallel logic gates based on tunable saturable to reverse saturable absorption in graphene-oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sukhdev; Yadav, Chandresh

    2013-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis of ultrafast transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) has been presented in graphene-oxide thin films with femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. Increase in pulse intensity leads to switching from SA to RSA with increased contrast due to two-photon absorption induced excited-state absorption. Theoretical results are in good agreement with reported experimental results. Interestingly, it is also shown that increase in concentration results in RSA to SA transition. The switching has been optimized to design parallel all-optical femtosecond NOT, AND, OR, XOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates

  1. Urban Saturated Power Load Analysis Based on a Novel Combined Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of urban saturated power loads is helpful to coordinate urban power grid construction and economic social development. There are two different kinds of forecasting models: the logistic curve model focuses on the growth law of the data itself, while the multi-dimensional forecasting model considers several influencing factors as the input variables. To improve forecasting performance, a novel combined forecasting model for saturated power load analysis was proposed in this paper, which combined the above two models. Meanwhile, the weights of these two models in the combined forecasting model were optimized by employing a fruit fly optimization algorithm. Using Hubei Province as the example, the effectiveness of the proposed combined forecasting model was verified, demonstrating a higher forecasting accuracy. The analysis result shows that the power load of Hubei Province will reach saturation in 2039, and the annual maximum power load will reach about 78,630 MW. The results obtained from this proposed hybrid urban saturated power load analysis model can serve as a reference for sustainable development for urban power grids, regional economies, and society at large.

  2. A Sensitive ANN Based Differential Relay for Transformer Protection with Security against CT Saturation and Tap Changer Operation

    OpenAIRE

    KHORASHADI-ZADEH, Hassan; LI, Zuyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based scheme for fault identification in power transformer protection. The proposed scheme is featured by the application of ANN to identifying system patterns, the unique choice of harmonics of positive sequence differential currents as ANN inputs, the effective handling of current transformer (CT) saturation with an ANN based approach, and the consideration of tap changer position for correcting secondary CT current. Performanc...

  3. A Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with a Carbon Nanotube Based Saturable Absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S. W.; Ismail, M. A.; Ahmad, F.; Ismail, M. F.; Nor, R. M.; Zulkepely, N. R.; Ahmad, H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple, compact and low cost Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a saturable absorber for possible applications in metrology, sensing, and medical diagnostics. The EDFL operates at around 1560 nm with repetition rates of 16.1 kHz and 6.4 kHz with saturable absorbers SA1 and SA2 at a pump power of 120 mW. The absorbers are constructed by optically driven deposition and normal deposition techniques. It is observed that the optical deposition method produces a Q-switched EDFL with a lower threshold of 70 mW and better Q-switching performance compared to that of the normal deposition method. The EDFL also has pulse energy of 90.3 nJ and pulse width of 11.6 μs at 120 mW pump power

  4. Dynamic Output Feedback Robust MPC with Input Saturation Based on Zonotopic Set-Membership Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xubin Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For quasi-linear parameter varying (quasi-LPV systems with bounded disturbance, a synthesis approach of dynamic output feedback robust model predictive control (OFRMPC with the consideration of input saturation is investigated. The saturated dynamic output feedback controller is represented by a convex hull involving the actual dynamic output controller and an introduced auxiliary controller. By taking both the actual output feedback controller and the auxiliary controller with a parameter-dependent form, the main optimization problem can be formulated as convex optimization. The consideration of input saturation in the main optimization problem reduces the conservatism of dynamic output feedback controller design. The estimation error set and bounded disturbance are represented by zonotopes and refreshed by zonotopic set-membership estimation. Compared with the previous results, the proposed algorithm can not only guarantee the recursive feasibility of the optimization problem, but also improve the control performance at the cost of higher computational burden. A nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  5. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  6. Dark solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers based on indium tin oxide as saturable absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Zhang, Huanian; Li, Zhen; Sheng, Yingqiang; Guo, Quanxin; Han, Xile; Liu, Yanjun; Man, Baoyuan; Ning, Tingyin; Jiang, Shouzhen

    2018-04-01

    Dark solitons, which have good stability, long transmission distance and strong anti-interference ability. By using a coprecipitation method, the high quality indium tin oxide (ITO) were prepared with an average diameter of 34.1 nm. We used a typical Z-scan scheme involving a balanced twin-detector measurement system to investigated nonlinear optical properties of the ITO nanoparticles. The saturation intensity and modulation depths are 13.21 MW/cm2 and 0.48%, respectively. In an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers, we using the ITO nanoparticles as saturable absorber (SA), and the formation of dark soliton is experimentally demonstrated. The generated dark solitons are centered at the wavelength of 1561.1 nm with a repetition rate of 22.06 MHz. Besides, the pulse width and pulse-to-pulse interval of the dark solitons is ∼1.33ns and 45.11 ns, respectively. These results indicate that the ITO nanoparticles is a promising nanomaterial for ultrafast photonics.

  7. Regional Quasi-Three-Dimensional Unsaturated-Saturated Water Flow Model Based on a Vertical-Horizontal Splitting Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high nonlinearity of the three-dimensional (3-D unsaturated-saturated water flow equation, using a fully 3-D numerical model is computationally expensive for large scale applications. A new unsaturated-saturated water flow model is developed in this paper based on the vertical/horizontal splitting (VHS concept to split the 3-D unsaturated-saturated Richards’ equation into a two-dimensional (2-D horizontal equation and a one-dimensional (1-D vertical equation. The horizontal plane of average head gradient in the triangular prism element is derived to split the 3-D equation into the 2-D equation. The lateral flow in the horizontal plane of average head gradient represented by the 2-D equation is then calculated by the water balance method. The 1-D vertical equation is discretized by the finite difference method. The two equations are solved simultaneously by coupling them into a unified nonlinear system with a single matrix. Three synthetic cases are used to evaluate the developed model code by comparing the modeling results with those of Hydrus1D, SWMS2D and FEFLOW. We further apply the model to regional-scale modeling to simulate groundwater table fluctuations for assessing the model applicability in complex conditions. The proposed modeling method is found to be accurate with respect to measurements.

  8. Adaptive fuzzy control of a class of nonaffine nonlinear system with input saturation based on passivity theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Ali; Jalali, Aliakbar; Ghasemi Naraghi, Mahdi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, based on the passivity theorem, an adaptive fuzzy controller is designed for a class of unknown nonaffine nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree and saturation input nonlinearity to track the desired trajectory. The system equations are in normal form and its unforced dynamic may be unstable. As relative degree one is a structural obstacle in system passivation approach, in this paper, backstepping method is used to circumvent this obstacle and passivate the system step by step. Because of the existence of uncertainty and disturbance in the system, exact passivation and reference tracking cannot be tackled, so the approximate passivation or passivation with respect to a set is obtained to hold the tracking error in a neighborhood around zero. Furthermore, in order to overcome the non-smoothness of the saturation input nonlinearity, a parametric smooth nonlinear function with arbitrary approximation error is used to approximate the input saturation. Finally, the simulation results for the theoretical and practical examples are given to validate the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  10. Saturation of THz detection in InGaAs-based HEMTs: a numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahi, A. [Centre Universitaire Nour Bachir, B.P. 900, 32000 El Bayadh (Algeria); Palermo, C., E-mail: christophe.palermo@umontpellier.fr [University of Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, 34000 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, 34000 Montpellier (France); Marinchio, H. [University of Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, 34000 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, 34000 Montpellier (France); Belgachi, A. [University of Bechar, Bechar 08000 (Algeria); Varani, L. [University of Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, 34000 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, 34000 Montpellier (France)

    2016-11-01

    By numerical simulations, we investigate the large-signal photoresponse of InGaAs high electron mobility transistors submitted to THz radiations. The used pseudo-2D hydrodynamic model considers electron density and velocity conservations equations. A third equation is solved, in order to describe average energy conservation or to maintain it constantly equal to its thermal equilibrium value. In both cases, the calculated photoresponse increases with the incoming power density for its smallest values. For the higher values, a saturation of the photoresponse is observed, in agreement with experimental results, only when the energy conservation is accounted for. This allows to relate the limitation of the transistor detection features to electron heating phenomenon.

  11. An Accurate CT Saturation Classification Using a Deep Learning Approach Based on Unsupervised Feature Extraction and Supervised Fine-Tuning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current transformer (CT saturation is one of the significant problems for protection engineers. If CT saturation is not tackled properly, it can cause a disastrous effect on the stability of the power system, and may even create a complete blackout. To cope with CT saturation properly, an accurate detection or classification should be preceded. Recently, deep learning (DL methods have brought a subversive revolution in the field of artificial intelligence (AI. This paper presents a new DL classification method based on unsupervised feature extraction and supervised fine-tuning strategy to classify the saturated and unsaturated regions in case of CT saturation. In other words, if protection system is subjected to a CT saturation, proposed method will correctly classify the different levels of saturation with a high accuracy. Traditional AI methods are mostly based on supervised learning and rely heavily on human crafted features. This paper contributes to an unsupervised feature extraction, using autoencoders and deep neural networks (DNNs to extract features automatically without prior knowledge of optimal features. To validate the effectiveness of proposed method, a variety of simulation tests are conducted, and classification results are analyzed using standard classification metrics. Simulation results confirm that proposed method classifies the different levels of CT saturation with a remarkable accuracy and has unique feature extraction capabilities. Lastly, we provided a potential future research direction to conclude this paper.

  12. Base-promoted isomerization of CF3-containing allylic alcohols to the corresponding saturated ketones under metal-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hamada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Following to the computational expectation, our previously reported intriguing 1,3-proton shift of 4,4,4-trifluorobut-2-yn-1-ols was successfully extended to the 4,4,4-trifluorobut-2-en-1-ol system under metal-free conditions to afford the corresponding saturated ketones in high to excellent chemical yields using such a convenient and easy-to-handle base as DBU at the toluene refluxing temperature, and utilization of the corresponding optically active substrates unambiguously demonstrated that this transformation proceeded in a highly stereoselective fashion.

  13. Saturation of cermets based on titanium carbide and diboride by metal melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsaj, A.A.; Tsyganova, T.V.; Ordan'yan, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    Different sintered composites - TiC-Ni(Mo), TiC-Fe (Ni), TiB 2 -Fe (Mo) are studied for their interaction in contact with metal melts at the temperature of liquid phase existence in the cermet. Due to structural and physicochemical similarity of cermets the processes occuring with contact interaction are identical: additional quantity of liquid is imbibed into the cermet resulting in reconstruction of the solid phase frame and volumetric growth of the specimen. Elongation of the specimens permits concluding that the intensity of the solid phase (frame) reconstruction process in the cermet TiC-Fe (Ni) is lower than in TiC-Ni (Mo) and TiB 2 -Fe (Mo) systems. In the TiC-Fe (Ni) cermet it causes prevalence of the processes of diffusional levellng for compositions of the metal-binder and contacting metal over the process of laminar flow of the melt into the specimen. Choosing the composite components it is possible to control intensity of the cermet saturation by the additional quantity of the melt and distribution of the liquid phase in the article volume

  14. Evaluation of arterial oxygen saturation using RGB camera-based remote photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Nakano, Kazuya; McDuff, Daniel; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Plethysmogram is the periodic variation in blood volume due to the cardiac pulse traveling through the body. Photo-plethysmograph (PPG) has been widely used to assess the cardiovascular system such as heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, vascular compliance. We have previously proposed a non-contact PPG imaging method using a digital red-green-blue camera. In the method, the Monte Carlo simulation for light transport is used to specify a relationship among the RGB-values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (CHbO) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (CHbR). The total hemoglobin concentration (CHbT) can be calculated as a sum of CHbO and CHbR. Applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT) band pass filters to each pixel of the sequential images for CHbT along the time line, two-dimentional plethysmogram can be reconstructed. In this study, we further extend the method to imaging the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). The PPG signals for both CHbO and CHbR are extracted by the FFT band pass filter and the pulse wave amplitudes (PWAs) of CHbO and CHbR are calculated. We assume that the PWA for CHbO and that for CHbR are decreased and increased as SaO2 is decreased. The ratio of PWA for CHbO and that for CHbR are associated to the reference value of SaO2 measured by a commercially available pulse oximeter, which provide an empirical formula to estimate SaO2 from the PPG signal at each pixel of RGB image. In vivo animal experiments with rats during varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. Estimation of Saturation Flow Rate and Start-Up Lost Time for Signal Timing Based on Headway Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to calibrate saturation flow rate (SFR and start-up lost time (SLT when developing signal timing. In current commonly used methods, SFR for one given lane is usually calibrated from many subjective adjustment factors and a fixed result. SLT is calculated based on the fixed SFR, which prevents local applications in China. Considering the importance of traffic behavior (headway in determining SFR and SLT, this study started from headway distribution and attempted to specify the relationships between headway and vehicle position directly. A common intersection in Nanjing, China, was selected to implement field study and data from 920 queues was collected. Headway distribution was explored and the 78th percentile of headway at each position was selected to build model. Based on the developed relationships, SFR and SLT were calibrated. The results showed that SFR and SLT were correlated with queue length. Moreover, the results showed that it was difficult to reach saturated state even with a long queue length. This paper provides a new perspective on calibrating important parameters in signal timing, which will be useful for traffic agencies to complete signal timing by making the process simpler.

  16. Identification of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources in aquifers by a modified two-level saturation based imperialist competitive algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, H. R.; Mosharaf-Dehkordi, M.; Afzalan, B.

    2017-07-01

    A simulation-optimization model is proposed for identifying the characteristics of local immiscible NAPL contaminant sources inside aquifers. This model employs the UTCHEM 9.0 software as its simulator for solving the governing equations associated with the multi-phase flow in porous media. As the optimization model, a novel two-level saturation based Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is proposed to estimate the parameters of contaminant sources. The first level consists of three parallel independent ICAs and plays as a pre-conditioner for the second level which is a single modified ICA. The ICA in the second level is modified by dividing each country into a number of provinces (smaller parts). Similar to countries in the classical ICA, these provinces are optimized by the assimilation, competition, and revolution steps in the ICA. To increase the diversity of populations, a new approach named knock the base method is proposed. The performance and accuracy of the simulation-optimization model is assessed by solving a set of two and three-dimensional problems considering the effects of different parameters such as the grid size, rock heterogeneity and designated monitoring networks. The obtained numerical results indicate that using this simulation-optimization model provides accurate results at a less number of iterations when compared with the model employing the classical one-level ICA. A model is proposed to identify characteristics of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources. The contaminant is immiscible in water and multi-phase flow is simulated. The model is a multi-level saturation-based optimization algorithm based on ICA. Each answer string in second level is divided into a set of provinces. Each ICA is modified by incorporating a new knock the base model.

  17. Watt-level passively Q-switched double-cladding fiber laser based on graphene oxide saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Song, Yanrong; Dong, Xinzheng; Li, Yanlin; Tian, Jinrong; Wang, Yonggang

    2013-10-10

    A watt-level passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-cladding fiber laser with a graphene oxide (GO) absorber was demonstrated. The structure of the GO saturable absorber mirror (GO-SAM) was of the sandwich type. A maximum output power of 1.8 W was obtained around a wavelength of 1044 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power in Q-switched fiber lasers based on a GO saturable absorber. The pure GO was protected from the oxygen in the air so that the damage threshold of the GO-SAM was effectively raised. The gain fiber was a D-shaped ytterbium-doped double-cladding fiber. The pulse repetition rates were tuned from 120 to 215 kHz with pump powers from 3.89 to 7.8 W. The maximum pulse energy was 8.37 μJ at a pulse width of 1.7 μs.

  18. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  19. Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) Simulations for Fragment-Based Drug Design

    OpenAIRE

    Faller, Christina E.; Raman, E. Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) involves screening low molecular weight molecules (“fragments”) that correspond to functional groups found in larger drug-like molecules to determine their binding to target proteins or nucleic acids. Based on the principle of thermodynamic additivity, two fragments that bind non-overlapping nearby sites on the target can be combined to yield a new molecule whose binding free energy is the sum of those of the fragments. Experimental FBDD approaches, like NMR ...

  20. Passivity-Based Control of Multi-Terminal HVDC Systems under Control Saturation Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doria-Cerezo, Arnau; Olm, Josep M.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized, passivity-based control design for power stations in a multi-terminal High Voltage Direct Current transmission system. The control algorithm is shown to asymptotically stabilize the closed-loop system when the voltage set points are appropriately selected. The

  1. Maxwell's Law Based Models for Liquid and Gas Phase Diffusivities in Variably-Saturated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2012-01-01

    -s,D-l). Different percolation threshold terms adopted from recent studies for gas (D-s,D-g) and solute (D-s,D-l) diffusion were applied. For gas diffusion, epsilon(th) was a function of bulk density (total porosity), while for solute diffusion theta(th) was best described by volumetric content of finer soil...... particles (clay and organic matter), FINESvol. The resulting LIquid and GAs diffusivity and tortuosity (LIGA) models were tested against D-s,D-g and D-s,D-l data for differently-textured soils and performed well against the measured data across soil types. A sensitivity analysis using the new Maxwell's Law...... based LIGA models implied that the liquid phase but not the gaseous-phase tortuosity was controlled by soil type. The analyses also suggested very different pathways and fluid-phase connectivity for gas and solute diffusion in unsaturated soil...

  2. Transport and retention of carbon-based engineered and natural nanoparticles through saturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, Maryeh [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden); Sharma, Prabhakar, E-mail: psharma@nalandauniv.com [Nalanda University, School of Ecology and Environment Studies (India); Katyal, Deeksha [Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, School of Environment Management (India); Fagerlund, Fritjof [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    Carbon-based engineered nanoparticles have been widely used due to their small size and unique physical and chemical properties. At the same time, the toxic effects of these nanoparticles on human and fish cells have also been observed; therefore, their release and distribution into the surface and subsurface environment is a subject of concern. The aim of this research is to evaluate and compare the transports and retentions of two types of engineered nanoparticles (multiwalled carbon nanotubes and C{sub 60}) and the natural carbon nanoparticles collected from a fire accident. Several laboratory experiments were conducted to observe the transport behavior of nanoparticles through a column packed with silica sand. The column experiments were intended to monitor the effect of ionic strength on transport of nanoparticles as a function of their shapes. It was observed that the mobilities of both types of engineered nanoparticles were reduced with the increasing ionic strength from 1.34 to 60 mM. However, at ionic strengths up to 10.89 mM, spherical nanoparticles were more mobile than cylindrical nanoparticles, but the mobility of the cylindrical nanoparticles became significantly higher than spherical nanoparticles at the ionic strength of 60 mM. In comparison with natural fire-born nanoparticles, both types of engineered nanoparticles were much less mobile under the selected experimental condition in this study. Furthermore, inverse modeling was used to calculate parameters such as attachment efficiency, the longitudinal dispersivity, and capacity of the solid phase for the attachment of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the combination of the shape and the solution chemistry of the NPs are responsible for the transport and the retention of nanoparticles in natural environment; however, fire-burned nanoparticles can be highly mobile at the natural groundwater chemistry.

  3. Distributed Event-Based Set-Membership Filtering for a Class of Nonlinear Systems With Sensor Saturations Over Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lifeng; Wang, Zidong; Lam, Hak-Keung; Kyriakoulis, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the distributed set-membership filtering problem is investigated for a class of discrete time-varying system with an event-based communication mechanism over sensor networks. The system under consideration is subject to sector-bounded nonlinearity, unknown but bounded noises and sensor saturations. Each intelligent sensing node transmits the data to its neighbors only when certain triggering condition is violated. By means of a set of recursive matrix inequalities, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of the desired distributed event-based filter which is capable of confining the system state in certain ellipsoidal regions centered at the estimates. Within the established theoretical framework, two additional optimization problems are formulated: one is to seek the minimal ellipsoids (in the sense of matrix trace) for the best filtering performance, and the other is to maximize the triggering threshold so as to reduce the triggering frequency with satisfactory filtering performance. A numerically attractive chaos algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problems. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm.

  4. A Physically Based Analytical Model to Describe Effective Excess Charge for Streaming Potential Generation in Water Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarracino, L.; Jougnot, D.

    2018-01-01

    Among the different contributions generating self-potential, the streaming potential is of particular interest in hydrogeology for its sensitivity to water flow. Estimating water flux in porous media using streaming potential data relies on our capacity to understand, model, and upscale the electrokinetic coupling at the mineral-solution interface. Different approaches have been proposed to predict streaming potential generation in porous media. One of these approaches is the flux averaging which is based on determining the excess charge which is effectively dragged in the medium by water flow. In this study, we develop a physically based analytical model to predict the effective excess charge in saturated porous media using a flux-averaging approach in a bundle of capillary tubes with a fractal pore size distribution. The proposed model allows the determination of the effective excess charge as a function of pore water ionic concentration and hydrogeological parameters like porosity, permeability, and tortuosity. The new model has been successfully tested against different set of experimental data from the literature. One of the main findings of this study is the mechanistic explanation to the empirical dependence between the effective excess charge and the permeability that has been found by several researchers. The proposed model also highlights the link to other lithological properties, and it is able to reproduce the evolution of effective excess charge with electrolyte concentrations.

  5. Minor-Cu doped soft magnetic Fe-based FeCoBCSiCu amorphous alloys with high saturation magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The effects of Cu alloying on the amorphous-forming ability (AFA) and magnetic properties of the P-free Fe81Co5B11C2Si1 amorphous alloy were investigated. Addition of ≤ 1.0 at.% Cu enhances the AFA of the base alloy without significant deterioration of the soft magnetic properties. The Fe80.5Co5B11C2Si1Cu0.5 alloy with the largest critical thickness for amorphous formation of ˜35 μm possesses a high saturation magnetization (Bs) of ˜1.78 T, low coercivity of ˜14.6 A/m, and good bending ductility upon annealing in a wide temperature range of 513-553 K with maintaining the amorphous state. The fabrication of the new high-Fe-content Fe-Co-B-C-Si-Cu amorphous alloys by minor doping of Cu gives a guideline to developing high Bs amorphous alloys with excellent AFA.

  6. A novel concept of fault current limiter based on saturable core in high voltage DC transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiaxin; Zhou, Hang; Gan, Pengcheng; Zhong, Yongheng; Gao, Yanhui; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Du, Zhiye; Chen, Baichao

    2018-05-01

    To develop mechanical circuit breaker in high voltage direct current (HVDC) system, a fault current limiter is required. Traditional method to limit DC fault current is to use superconducting technology or power electronic devices, which is quite difficult to be brought to practical use under high voltage circumstances. In this paper, a novel concept of high voltage DC transmission system fault current limiter (DCSFCL) based on saturable core was proposed. In the DCSFCL, the permanent magnets (PM) are added on both up and down side of the core to generate reverse magnetic flux that offset the magnetic flux generated by DC current and make the DC winding present a variable inductance to the DC system. In normal state, DCSFCL works as a smoothing reactor and its inductance is within the scope of the design requirements. When a fault occurs, the inductance of DCSFCL rises immediately and limits the steepness of the fault current. Magnetic field simulations were carried out, showing that compared with conventional smoothing reactor, DCSFCL can decrease the high steepness of DC fault current by 17% in less than 10ms, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  7. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdTaO4 laser based on tungsten disulfide nanosheets saturable absorber at 1066 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. X.; Jin, G. Y.; Li, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigated the passively Q-switched Nd:GdTaO4 laser based on tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber (SA). The preparation method of WS2 SA was to attach the WS2-alcohol dispersion onto the quartz substrates. The diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdTaO4 laser operated at a central wavelength of 1066 nm. The stable pulse output could be obtained at the single pulse width of 560 ns. In a word, WS2 seems to be a suitable saturable absorber for solid state lasers.

  8. An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jong-In; Kim, Hyun-Sung; Shin, Dong-Soo; Yoo, Han-Youl

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive model of the dependence of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) on both the temperature and the carrier density in InGaN-based blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). In our model, carriers are dominantly located and recombine both radiatively and nonradiatively inside randomly distributed In-rich areas of the InGaN quantum wells (QWs). In those areas, the carrier density is very high even at a small current density. We propose that the saturated radiative recombination rate is a primary factor determining the IQE droop of InGaN based LEDs. In typical InGaN-based QWs, it is common for the total carrier recombination rate to be smaller than the carrier injection rate even at a small current density. This is mostly attributable to the saturation of the radiative recombination rate. The saturation of the radiative recombination rate increases carrier density in InGaN QWs, enlarges nonradiative carrier losses, and eventually gives rise to the large IQE droop with increasing current. We show how the radiative recombination rate saturates and the radiative recombination rate has influence on the IQE droop in InGaN-based QW LEDs.

  9. Initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds with fast semiconductor switches and energy-releasing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Kardo-Sysoev, A. F.; Zegrya, A. G.; Os'kin, I. A.; Bragin, V. A.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2017-10-01

    The first findings concerning the initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds via the electrical explosion of a semiconductor bridge are presented. The obtained results indicate that the energy parameters of an explosive conversion depend on the mass of a combustible agent—namely, nanoporous silicon—and the silicon-doping type.

  10. Soil base saturation combines with beech bark disease to influence composition and structure of sugar maple-beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Todd C. McDonnell; Timothy J. Sullivan; Martin Dovciak; Scott W. Bailey; Michael R. Antidormi; Michael R. Zarfos

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in...

  11. Soil base saturation combines with Beech Bark Disease to influence composition and structure of Sugar Maple-Beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Dovciak, Martin; Bailey, Scott W.; Antidormi, Michael; Zarfos, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in influencing stand composition and structure, measurements of soils, canopy, subcanopy, and seedlings were taken in 21 watersheds in the Adirondack region of NY (USA), where sugar maple and beech were the predominant canopy species and base saturation of the upper B horizon ranged from 4.4 to 67%. The base saturation value corresponding to the threshold for Al mobilization (16.8%) helped to define the species composition of canopy trees and seedlings. Canopy vigor and diameter at breast height (DBH) were positively correlated (P soils, soil-Ca depletion and BBD may have created opportunities for gap-exploiting species such as red maple and black cherry, whereas in high-base saturation soils, sugar maple dominated the canopy. Where soils were beginning to recover from acidic deposition effects, sugar maple DBH and basal area increased progressively from 2000 to 2015, whereas for beech, average DBH did not change and basal area did not increase after 2010.

  12. A physically-based analytical model to describe effective excess charge for streaming potential generation in saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jougnot, D.; Guarracino, L.

    2016-12-01

    The self-potential (SP) method is considered by most researchers the only geophysical method that is directly sensitive to groundwater flow. One source of SP signals, the so-called streaming potential, results from the presence of an electrical double layer at the mineral-pore water interface. When water flows through the pore space, it gives rise to a streaming current and a resulting measurable electrical voltage. Different approaches have been proposed to predict streaming potentials in porous media. One approach is based on the excess charge which is effectively dragged in the medium by the water flow. Following a recent theoretical framework, we developed a physically-based analytical model to predict the effective excess charge in saturated porous media. In this study, the porous media is described by a bundle of capillary tubes with a fractal pore-size distribution. First, an analytical relationship is derived to determine the effective excess charge for a single capillary tube as a function of the pore water salinity. Then, this relationship is used to obtain both exact and approximated expressions for the effective excess charge at the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) scale. The resulting analytical relationship allows the determination of the effective excess charge as a function of pore water salinity, fractal dimension and hydraulic parameters like porosity and permeability, which are also obtained at the REV scale. This new model has been successfully tested against data from the literature of different sources. One of the main finding of this study is that it provides a mechanistic explanation to the empirical dependence between the effective excess charge and the permeability that has been found by various researchers. The proposed petrophysical relationship also contributes to understand the role of porosity and water salinity on effective excess charge and will help to push further the use of streaming potential to monitor groundwater flow.

  13. Strong indication of an extinction-based saturation of the flora on the Pacific Robinson Crusoe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimler, Josef; Schulze, Christian H; López Sepúlveda, Patricio; Novoa, Patricio; Gatica, Alejandro; Reiter, Karl; Wessely, Johannes; Baeza, Carlos; Peñailillo, Patricio; Ruiz, Eduardo; Stuessy, Tod

    2018-03-01

    Oceanic islands are vulnerable ecosystems and their flora has been under pressure since the arrival of the first humans. Human activities and both deliberately and inadvertently introduced biota have had and continue to have a severe impact on island endemic plants. The number of alien plants has increased nearly linearly on many islands, perhaps resulting in extinction-based saturation of island floras. Here, we provide evidence for such a scenario in Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Islands (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile). We compared species richness and species composition of historical vegetation samples from 1917 with recent ones from 2011. Changes in species' relative occurrence frequency were related to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode, distribution status, and humidity and temperature preferences. While total species richness of vascular plants remained relatively similar, species composition changed significantly. Plants endemic to the Robinson Crusoe Islands declined, exotic species increased substantially within the period of ca. 100 years. Further, the relative occurrence frequency of plants with preferences for very warm and humid climate decreased, while the opposite was found for plants preferring drier and colder environments. Potential drivers responsible for this dramatic shift in the vegetation within only one century might have been the large goat population affecting especially small populations of endemic plants and climatic changes. Taking into account a substantial extinction debt, we expect further shifts in the vegetation of this small oceanic island toward alien plants. This would have significant negative consequences on global biodiversity, considering that island floras contribute substantially to global plant species richness due to their high proportion of endemics.

  14. Fault tolerant control of systems with saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture in connec......This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture...... in connection with faulty systems including input saturation gives an additional YJBK transfer function related to the input saturation. In the fault free case, this additional YJBK transfer function can be applied directly for optimizing the feedback loop around the input saturation. In the faulty case......, the design problem is a mixed design problem involved both parametric faults and input saturation....

  15. A Constitutive Model for Unsaturated soils based on a Compressibility Framework dependent on Suction and Degree of Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Sitarenios Panagiotis; Kavvadas Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Cam Clay model is extended to account for the behaviour of unsaturated soils using Bishop’s stress. To describe the Loading – Collapse behaviour, the model incorporates a compressibility framework with suction and degree of saturation dependent compression lines. For simplicity, the present paper describes the model in the triaxial stress space with characteristic simulations of constant suction compression and triaxial tests, as well as wetting tests. The model reproduces an evo...

  16. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  18. Mechanics of non-saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, O.; Fleureau, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This book presents the different ways to approach the mechanics of non saturated soils, from the physico-chemical aspect to the mechanical aspect, from the experiment to the theoretical modeling, from the laboratory to the workmanship, and from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic one. Content: water and its representation; experimental bases of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; transfer laws in non-saturated environment; energy approach of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; homogenization for the non-saturated soils; plasticity and hysteresis; dams and backfilling; elaborated barriers. (J.S.)

  19. Electrochemical behavior of Q235 steel in saltwater saturated with carbon dioxide based on new imidazoline derivative inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.G.; Du, M.; Zhang, J.; Qiu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of carbon steel in saltwater saturated with CO 2 with/without an new synthesized imidazoline inhibitor was studied using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS), and the inhibitive ability of the inhibitor was evaluated by weight-loss method in 298-328 K temperature range. Results showed that the inhibition efficiency is up to above 80%, and imidazoline is a kind of mixed-type inhibitor. It was seen that the adsorption of imidazoline on Q235 steel can be fitted to Frumkin isotherm equation. Quantum chemistry calculation results show that the imidazoline ring and heteroatoms are the active sites of the inhibitors

  20. A Constitutive Model for Unsaturated soils based on a Compressibility Framework dependent on Suction and Degree of Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitarenios Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modified Cam Clay model is extended to account for the behaviour of unsaturated soils using Bishop’s stress. To describe the Loading – Collapse behaviour, the model incorporates a compressibility framework with suction and degree of saturation dependent compression lines. For simplicity, the present paper describes the model in the triaxial stress space with characteristic simulations of constant suction compression and triaxial tests, as well as wetting tests. The model reproduces an evolving post yield compressibility under constant suction compression, and thus, can adequately describe a maximum of collapse.

  1. The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2007-05-15

    To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

  2. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirehwa, Maxwell T; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mthiyane, Thuli; Onyebujoh, Philip; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen; Denti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Rifampin is a key sterilizing drug in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It induces its own metabolism, but neither the onset nor the extent of autoinduction has been adequately described. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends a rifampin dose of 8 to 12 mg/kg of body weight, which is believed to be suboptimal, and higher doses may potentially improve treatment outcomes. However, a nonlinear increase in exposure may be observed because of saturation of hepatic extraction and hence this should be taken into consideration when a dose increase is implemented. Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 61 HIV-TB-coinfected patients in South Africa were collected at four visits, on days 1, 8, 15, and 29, after initiation of treatment. Data were analyzed by population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Rifampin PKs were best described by using a transit compartment absorption and a well-stirred liver model with saturation of hepatic extraction, including a first-pass effect. Autoinduction was characterized by using an exponential-maturation model: hepatic clearance almost doubled from the baseline to steady state, with a half-life of around 4.5 days. The model predicts that increases in the dose of rifampin result in more-than-linear drug exposure increases as measured by the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve. Simulations with doses of up to 35 mg/kg produced results closely in line with those of clinical trials. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoğlu, Halime; Demirci, Mehmet; Toker, Omer Said; Konar, Nevzat; Karasu, Salih; Sagdic, Osman

    2018-05-24

    Oils and fats are widely used in the food formulations in order to improve nutritional and some quality characteristics of food products. Solid fats produced from oils by hydrogenization, interesterification, and fractionation processes are widely used in different foodstuffs for these aims. In recent years, consumer awareness of relation between diet and health has increased which can cause worry about solid fat including products in terms of their high saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents. Therefore, different attempts have been carried out to find alternative ways to produce solid fat with low saturated fatty acid content. One of the promising ways is using oleogels, structuring oils with oleogelators. In this review, history, raw materials and production methods of the oleogels and their functions in oleogel quality were mentioned. Moreover, studies related with oleogel usage in different products were summarized and positive and negative aspects of oleogel were also mentioned. Considering the results of the related studies, it can be concluded that oleogels can be used in the formulation of bakery products, breakfast spreads, margarines, chocolates and chocolate-derived products and some of the meat products.

  4. An estimate of higher twist at small xB and low Q2 based upon a saturation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Peters, K.

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the influence of higher twist corrections to deep inelastic structure functions in the low-Q 2 and small-x HERA region. We review the general features of the lowest-order QCD diagrams which contribute to twist-4 at small-x, in particular the sign structure of longitudinal and transverse structure functions which offers the possibility of strong cancellations in F 2 . For a numerical analysis we perform a twist analysis of the saturation model which has been very successful both in describing the structure function and the DIS diffractive cross section at HERA. As the main conclusion, twist 4 corrections are not small in F L or F T but in F 2 = F L + F T they almost cancel. We point out that F L analysis needs a large twist-4 correction. We also indicate the region of validity of the twist expansion. (orig.)

  5. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q sA 2 , in AA compared with pA collisions.

  6. Q-switching and mode-locking pulse generation with graphene oxide paper-based saturable absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Q-switched and mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers (EDFLs are demonstrated by using non-conductive graphene oxide (GO paper as a saturable absorber (SA. A stable and self-starting Q-switched operation was achieved at 1534.4 nm by using a 0.8 m long erbium-doped fibre (EDF as a gain medium. The pulse repetition rate changed from 14.3 to 31.5 kHz, whereas the corresponding pulse width decreased from 32.8 to 13.8 µs as the pump power increased from 22 to 50.5 mW. A narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched EDFL could also be realised by including a photonics crystal fibre and a tunable Bragg filter in the setup. It can operate at a maximum repetition rate of 31 kHz, with a pulse duration of 7.04 µs and pulse energy of 2.8 nJ. Another GOSA was used to realise mode-locked EDFL in a different cavity consisting of a 1.6 m long EDF in conjunction with 1480 nm pumping. The laser generated a soliton pulse train with a repetition rate of 15.62 MHz and pulse width of 870 fs. It is observed that the proposed fibre lasers have a low pulsing threshold pump power as well as a low damage threshold.

  7. Determination of Irreducible Water Saturation from nuclear magnetic resonance based on fractal theory — a case study of sandstone with complex pore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L.; Pan, H.; Ma, H.; Zhao, P.; Qin, R.; Deng, C.

    2017-12-01

    The irreducible water saturation (Swir) is a vital parameter for permeability prediction and original oil and gas estimation. However, the complex pore structure of the rocks makes the parameter difficult to be calculated from both laboratory and conventional well logging methods. In this study, an effective statistical method to predict Swir is derived directly from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data based on fractal theory. The spectrum of transversal relaxation time (T2) is normally considered as an indicator of pore size distribution, and the micro- and meso-pore's fractal dimension in two specific range of T2 spectrum distribution are calculated. Based on the analysis of the fractal characteristics of 22 core samples, which were drilled from four boreholes of tight lithologic oil reservoirs of Ordos Basin in China, the positive correlation between Swir and porosity is derived. Afterwards a predicting model for Swir based on linear regressions of fractal dimensions is proposed. It reveals that the Swir is controlled by the pore size and the roughness of the pore. The reliability of this model is tested and an ideal consistency between predicted results and experimental data is found. This model is a reliable supplementary to predict the irreducible water saturation in the case that T2 cutoff value cannot be accurately determined.

  8. Resposta de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em solo de cerrado Response of upland rice, dry bean, corn and soybean to base saturation in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand K. Fageria

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento de campo, quatro anos consecutivos (1995/96 a 1998/99 para avaliar a resposta das culturas de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico (LEd (Oxissolo cultivados em sistema de sucessão. Os valores de saturação por base criados pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56 e 66%. Ocorreu aumento significativo na produção de grãos de feijão, milho e soja com a saturação por base; entretanto, a produção de arroz não foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos. Mas, com base de equação de regressão, as saturações por base adequadas para a produção dos três, foram estabelecidas em 53, 60 e 63% respectivamente, e, para a cultura de arroz, o nível adequado de saturação por base encontrado foi de 40%. A acumulação de nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos e pela idade da planta nas quatro culturas estudadas. Os níveis adequados das propriedades químicas do solo, como pH, teor de Ca, teor de Mg, relações Ca/Mg, Ca/K, Mg/K, saturações por Ca, Mg e K, foram estabelecidos para as culturas de arroz, feijão, milho e soja, cultivados em solo de cerrado.A field experiments was conducted during four consecutive years (1995/96 to 1998/99 to evaluate responses of upland rice, dry bean, corn, and soybean grown in sequence to base saturation on a Dark Red Latosol (Oxisol. Mean base saturation levels determined after harvest of each crop were: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56, and 66%. Grain yield of dry bean, corn, and soybean were significantly affected with base saturation. Upland rice yield, however, was not influenced with base saturation treatments. Based on the quadratic response, optimum base saturation for maximum grain yield of dry bean was 53%, for corn 60% and for soybean 63%. For upland rice the base saturation under no lime treatment was 40%, which is considered

  9. Monte Carlo Simulations of High-speed, Time-gated MCP-based X-ray Detectors: Saturation Effects in DC and Pulsed Modes and Detector Dynamic Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruschwitz, Craig; Ming Wu; Moy, Ken; Rochau, Greg

    2008-01-01

    We present here results of continued efforts to understand the performance of microchannel plate (MCP)-based, high-speed, gated, x-ray detectors. This work involves the continued improvement of a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe MCP performance coupled with experimental efforts to better characterize such detectors. Our goal is a quantitative description of MCP saturation behavior in both static and pulsed modes. We have developed a new model of charge buildup on the walls of the MCP channels and measured its effect on MCP gain. The results are compared to experimental data obtained with a short-pulse, high-intensity ultraviolet laser; these results clearly demonstrate MCP saturation behavior in both DC and pulsed modes. The simulations compare favorably to the experimental results. The dynamic range of the detectors in pulsed operation is of particular interest when fielding an MCP-based camera. By adjusting the laser flux we study the linear range of the camera. These results, too, are compared to our simulations

  10. Passively Q-switched dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode interference filter and a semiconductor saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Huang, Y. J.; Ruan, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated a theta cavity passively Q-switched dual-wavelength fiber laser based on a multimode interference filter and a semiconductor saturable absorber. Relying on the properties of the fiber theta cavity, the laser can operate unidirectionally without an optical isolator. A semiconductor saturable absorber played the role of passive Q-switch while a section of single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure served as an multimode interference filter and was used for selecting the lasing wavelengths. By suitably manipulating the polarization controller, stable dual-wavelength Q-switched operation was obtained at ~1946.8 nm and ~1983.8 nm with maximum output power and minimum pulse duration of ~47 mW and ~762.5 ns, respectively. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from ~20.2 kHz to ~79.7 kHz by increasing the pump power from ~2.12 W to ~5.4 W.

  11. Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots as saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Na; Tao, Shina; Yang, Wenqing; Chen, Qingyun; Sun, Ruyi; Wang, Chang; Wang, Shuyun; Man, Baoyuan; Zhang, Huanian

    2018-04-02

    Previously, PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots with excellent optical properties have been widely used as light-harvesting materials in solar cell and biomarkers in bio-medicine. However, the nonlinear absorption characteristics of PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots have been rarely investigated. In this work, PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots were successfully employed as nonlinear saturable absorber (SA) for demonstrating a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser. Based on a film-type SA, which was prepared by incorporating the quantum dots with the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), mode-locked Er-doped operation with a pulse width of 54 ps and a maximum average output power of 2.71 mW at the repetition rate of 3.302 MHz was obtained. Our long-time stable results indicate that the CdS shell can effectively protect the PbS core from the effect of photo-oxidation and PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots were efficient SA candidates for demonstrating pulse fiber lasers due to its tunable absorption peak and excellent saturable absorption properties.

  12. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  13. Optical interrupter based in the internal total reflection of spatial solitons at nonlinear saturable interfaces; Interruptores opticos basados en reflexion interna total de solitones espaciales en interfaces no lineales saturables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Mendez, E.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Gutierrez-Hernandez, D. A.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Lagunas, R.; Pedraza-Ortega, J. C.; Torres Cisneros, G. E. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sanchez Mondragon, J. J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico); Flores-Alvarado, G. [Preparatoria por Cooperacion Domingo Arenas, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    We study the reflection of one-dimensional spatial soliton at the nonlinear interface between a saturable type medium and linear medium. Our study makes emphasis on determining the physical conditions under which the beam reflected by the interface is still a spatial soliton. Depended the incidence angle we find three critical regions for spatial solitons in the interface. We observed nonlinear Goos- Haechen shift is determined if reflection angle are conserved. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results in SBN61:Ce of the total internal reflection of one dimensional beam. [Spanish] Estudiamos la reflexion de un soliton espacial unidimensional en una interfase formada por un medio no lineal saturable y un medio lineal. Nuestros estudios hacen enfasis en determinar las condiciones fisicas bajo las cuales el haz reflejado por la interfase no lineal sigue siendo soliton. Encontramos tres regiones criticas para un soliton especial en la interfase, dependiendo del valor que tome el angulo de incidencia. Asi mismo observamos corrimiento Goos-Haechen no lineal que es determinante para la conservacion del angulo de reflexion. Finalmente, presentamos resultados preliminares experimentales en SBN61:Ce de la reflexion interna total de un haz unidimensional.

  14. Gluon Saturation and EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichtermann, Ernst

    2016-12-15

    The fundamental structure of nucleons and nuclear matter is described by the properties and dynamics of quarks and gluons in quantum chromodynamics. Electron-nucleon collisions are a powerful method to study this structure. As one increases the energy of the collisions, the interaction process probes regions of progressively higher gluon density. This density must eventually saturate. An high-energy polarized Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) has been proposed to observe and study the saturated gluon density regime. Selected measurements will be discussed, following a brief introduction.

  15. pH-metric solubility. 2: correlation between the acid-base titration and the saturation shake-flask solubility-pH methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeef, A; Berger, C M; Brownell, C

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of a normal saturation shake-flask method to a new potentiometric acid-base titration method for determining the intrinsic solubility and the solubility-pH profiles of ionizable molecules, and to report the solubility constants determined by the latter technique. The solubility-pH profiles of twelve generic drugs (atenolol, diclofenac.Na, famotidine, flurbiprofen, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, labetolol.HCl, naproxen, phenytoin, and propranolol.HCl), with solubilities spanning over six orders of magnitude, were determined both by the new pH-metric method and by a traditional approach (24 hr shaking of saturated solutions, followed by filtration, then HPLC assaying with UV detection). The 212 separate saturation shake-flask solubility measurements and those derived from 65 potentiometric titrations agreed well. The analysis produced the correlation equation: log(1/S)titration = -0.063(+/- 0.032) + 1.025(+/- 0.011) log(1/S)shake-flask, s = 0.20, r2 = 0.978. The potentiometrically-derived intrinsic solubilities of the drugs were: atenolol 13.5 mg/mL, diclofenac.Na 0.82 microg/mL, famotidine 1.1 mg/ mL, flurbiprofen 10.6 microg/mL, furosemide 5.9 microg/mL, hydrochlorothiazide 0.70 mg/mL, ibuprofen 49 microg/mL, ketoprofen 118 microg/mL, labetolol.HCl 128 microg/mL, naproxen 14 microg/mL, phenytoin 19 microg/mL, and propranolol.HCl 70 microg/mL. The new potentiometric method was shown to be reliable for determining the solubility-pH profiles of uncharged ionizable drug substances. Its speed compared to conventional equilibrium measurements, its sound theoretical basis, its ability to generate the full solubility-pH profile from a single titration, and its dynamic range (currently estimated to be seven orders of magnitude) make the new pH-metric method an attractive addition to traditional approaches used by preformulation and development scientists. It may be useful even to discovery

  16. A computational model of pile vertical vibration in saturated soil based on the radial disturbed zone of pile driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Shi Qian; Wang Kuihua

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a simplified computational model of pile vertical vibration was developed. The model was based on the inhomogeneous radial disturbed zone of soil in the vicinity of a pile disturbed by pile driving. The model contained two regions: the disturbed zone, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the pile, and the undisturbed region, external to the disturbed zone. In the model, excess pore pressure in the disturbed zone caused by pile driving was assumed to follow a logarithmic distribution. The relationships of stress and strain in the disturbed zone were based on the principle of effective stress under plain strain conditions. The external zone was governed by the poroelastic theory proposed by Biot. With the use of a variable separation method, an analytical solution in the frequency domain was obtained. Furthermore, a semi-analytical solution was attained by employing a numerical convolution method. Numerical results from the frequency and time domain indicated that the equivalent radius of the disturbed zone and the ratio of excess pore pressure had a significant effect on pile dynamic response. However, actual interactions between pile and soil will be weaker due to the presence of the radial disturbed zone, which is caused by pile driving. Consequently, the ideal undisturbed model overestimates the interaction between pile and soil; however, the proposed model reflects the interaction of pile and soil better than the perfect contact model. Numerical results indicate that the model can account for the time effect of pile dynamic tests.

  17. Calcium phosphate saturation in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Temperature, inorganic phosphate concentration and pH seem to be the major factors influencing the degree of saturation of calcium phosphate in sea water. Two water regions can be demarcated in the study area based on the saturation patterns...

  18. Strand breaks, base release and post-irradiation changes in DNA γ-irradiated in dilute O2-saturated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.F.; Kuo, I.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of DNA in dilute O 2 -saturated aqueous solution releases free bases and damaged bases from the macromolecule. The yields of these products were measured after column chromatographic separation. For double stranded DNA the immediate yield of bases varies from G = 0.012 for cytosine to G = 0.033 for adenine. The yields of released bases increase with post-irradiation time (the majority of the increase occurs in the first 2 hrs.) to yields in the range of G = 0.07 +- 0.012. Yields of two released damaged thymine radiation products from γ-irradiated 3 H thymine labelled DNA also increased with post-irradiation time. Strand breaks were measured in γ-irradiated single stranded DNA the initial yield G = 0.02 was low but increased with time to G = 0.07. No direct correlation between strand-break production and release of low molecular weight products is possible. The findings are discussed in terms of damage to DNA in vivo and its enzymatic repair

  19. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.

  20. 300-MHz-repetition-rate, all-fiber, femtosecond laser mode-locked by planar lightwave circuit-based saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chur; Kim, Dohyun; Cheong, YeonJoon; Kwon, Dohyeon; Choi, Sun Young; Jeong, Hwanseong; Cha, Sang Jun; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-10-05

    We show the implementation of fiber-pigtailed, evanescent-field-interacting, single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based saturable absorbers (SAs) using standard planar lightwave circuit (PLC) fabrication processes. The implemented PLC-CNT-SA device is employed to realize self-starting, high-repetition-rate, all-fiber ring oscillators at telecommunication wavelength. We demonstrate all-fiber Er ring lasers operating at 303-MHz (soliton regime) and 274-MHz (stretched-pulse regime) repetition-rates. The 303-MHz (274-MHz) laser centered at 1555 nm (1550 nm) provides 7.5 nm (19 nm) spectral bandwidth. After extra-cavity amplilfication, the amplified pulse train of the 303-MHz (274-MHz) laser delivers 209 fs (178 fs) pulses. To our knowledge, this corresponds to the highest repetition-rates achieved for femtosecond lasers employing evanescent-field-interacting SAs. The demonstrated SA fabrication method, which is based on well-established PLC processes, also shows a potential way for mass-producible and lower-cost waveguide-type SA devices suitable for all-fiber and waveguide lasers.

  1. Graphical user interface based computer simulation of self-similar modes of a paraxial slow self-focusing laser beam for saturating plasma nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Karuna; Mitra, Sugata; Subbarao, D.; Sharma, R.P.; Uma, R.

    2005-01-01

    The task for the present study is to make an investigation of self-similarity in a self-focusing laser beam both theoretically and numerically using graphical user interface based interactive computer simulation model in MATLAB (matrix laboratory) software in the presence of saturating ponderomotive force based and relativistic electron quiver based plasma nonlinearities. The corresponding eigenvalue problem is solved analytically using the standard eikonal formalism and the underlying dynamics of self-focusing is dictated by the corrected paraxial theory for slow self-focusing. The results are also compared with computer simulation of self-focusing by the direct fast Fourier transform based spectral methods. It is found that the self-similar solution obtained analytically oscillates around the true numerical solution equating it at regular intervals. The simulation results are the main ones although a feasible semianalytical theory under many assumptions is given to understand the process. The self-similar profiles are called as self-organized profiles (not in a strict sense), which are found to be close to Laguerre-Gaussian curves for all the modes, the shape being conserved. This terminology is chosen because it has already been shown from a phase space analysis that the width of an initially Gaussian beam undergoes periodic oscillations that are damped when any absorption is added in the model, i.e., the beam width converges to a constant value. The research paper also tabulates the specific values of the normalized phase shift for solutions decaying to zero at large transverse distances for first three modes which can, however, be extended to higher order modes

  2. Investigation of the kinetic mechanism of the demanganization reaction between carbon-saturated liquid iron and CaF2-CaO-SiO2-based slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Sheng-chao; Li, Chuang; Guo, Han-jie; Guo, Jing; Han, Shao-wei; Yang, Wen-sheng

    2018-04-01

    The demanganization reaction kinetics of carbon-saturated liquid iron with an eight-component slag consisting of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3-TiO2-CaF2 was investigated at 1553, 1623, and 1673 K in this study. The rate-controlling step (RCS) for the demanganization reaction with regard to the hot metal pretreatment conditions was studied via kinetics analysis based on the fundamental equation of heterogeneous reaction kinetics. From the temperature dependence of the mass transfer coefficient of a transition-metal oxide (MnO), the apparent activation energy of the demanganization reaction was estimated to be 189.46 kJ·mol-1 in the current study, which indicated that the mass transfer of MnO in the molten slag controlled the overall rate of the demanganization reaction. The calculated apparent activation energy was slightly lower than the values reported in the literature for mass transfer in a slag phase. This difference was attributed to an increase in the "specific reaction interface" (SRI) value, either as a result of turbulence at the reaction interface or a decrease of the absolute amount of slag phase during sampling, and to the addition of calcium fluoride to the slag.

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A novel time frequency-based 3D Lissajous figure method and its application to the determination of oxygen saturation from the photoplethysmogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S.; Watson, James N.

    2004-11-01

    We present a novel time-frequency method for the measurement of oxygen saturation using the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals from a standard pulse oximeter machine. The method utilizes the time-frequency transformation of the red and infrared PPGs to derive a 3D Lissajous figure. By selecting the optimal Lissajous, the method provides an inherently robust basis for the determination of oxygen saturation as regions of the time-frequency plane where high- and low-frequency signal artefacts are to be found are automatically avoided.

  4. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  5. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  6. Passively Q-switched 1.6 µm Er:YAG laser with a γ-Ga2O3:Co-based glass-ceramics as a saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Gao, Chunqing; Ye, Qing; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qing; Gao, Mingwei; Loiko, Pavel; Skoptsov, Nikolai; Dymshits, Olga; Zhilin, Alexander; Zapalova, Svetlana; Tsenter, Marina; Vitkin, Vladimir; Mateos, Xavier; Yumashev, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    A resonantly pumped passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser operating at 1.617 and 1.645 µm is reported with γ-Ga2O3:Co2+-based glass-ceramics (GCs) as a saturable absorber. The maximum average output power achieved from this laser was 273 mW; the highest pulse energy was 5.9 µJ, corresponding to a pulse duration of 3.0 µs at a repetition frequency of 31 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to use the γ-Ga2O3:Co2+-based GC as a passive Q-switcher for Er:YAG lasers and this is also the first time to obtain 1.617 µm and 1.645 µm pulses with a GC-based saturable absorber.

  7. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  8. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  9. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REIMUS, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid

  10. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85705 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-02-07

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  11. Saturated poroelastic actuators generated by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    the coupling of internal fluid pressure and elastic shear stresses a slab of the optimized porous material deflects/deforms when a pressure is imposed and an actuator is created. Several phenomenologically based constraints are imposed in order to get a stable force transmitting actuator.......In this paper the fluid-structure interaction problem of a saturated porous media is considered. The pressure coupling properties of porous saturated materials change with the microstructure and this is utilized in the design of an actuator using a topology optimized porous material. By maximizing...

  12. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  13. Saturation and linear transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutak, K.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  14. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  15. Multiscale optimization of saturated poroelastic actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    A multiscale method for optimizing the material micro structure in a macroscopically heterogeneous saturated poroelastic media with respect to macro properties is presented. The method is based on topology optimization using the homogenization technique, here applied to the optimization of a bi...

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF STEEL SATURATION PROCESSES USING CARBIDE-FORMING ELEMENTS IN SYSTEMS BASED ON Cr-Ti-V AND Cr-Ti-Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmatov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of saturating mixture compositions has been carried out in two three-component systems, namely: Cr-Ti-V and Cr-Ti-Mn in respect of micro-hardness and wear resistance of carbide coatings obtained by thermo-chemical treatment of high carbon steel. «Composition - properties» diagrams have been plotted using mathematical models. Treatment with optimum compositions of powder media permits to increase wear resistance of steel by factor of 30-70 as compared with untreated steel. 

  17. Correcting saturation of detectors for particle/droplet imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalt, Peter A M

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based diagnostic methods are being applied to more and more flows of theoretical and practical interest and are revealing interesting new flow features. Imaging particles or droplets in nephelometry and laser sheet dropsizing methods requires a trade-off of maximized signal-to-noise ratio without over-saturating the detector. Droplet and particle imaging results in lognormal distribution of pixel intensities. It is possible to fit a derived lognormal distribution to the histogram of measured pixel intensities. If pixel intensities are clipped at a saturated value, it is possible to estimate a presumed probability density function (pdf) shape without the effects of saturation from the lognormal fit to the unsaturated histogram. Information about presumed shapes of the pixel intensity pdf is used to generate corrections that can be applied to data to account for saturation. The effects of even slight saturation are shown to be a significant source of error on the derived average. The influence of saturation on the derived root mean square (rms) is even more pronounced. It is found that errors on the determined average exceed 5% when the number of saturated samples exceeds 3% of the total. Errors on the rms are 20% for a similar saturation level. This study also attempts to delineate limits, within which the detector saturation can be accurately corrected. It is demonstrated that a simple method for reshaping the clipped part of the pixel intensity histogram makes accurate corrections to account for saturated pixels. These outcomes can be used to correct a saturated signal, quantify the effect of saturation on a derived average and offer a method to correct the derived average in the case of slight to moderate saturation of pixels

  18. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    and interpretation from the C-wells reactive tracer testing complex in the saturated zone of Yucca Mountain. As no data regarding colloid transport have been developed by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) for the alluvial system, a theoretical analysis based on studies performed in other alluvial systems is developed. The parameters derived in this AMR are developed in a manner consistent with the PA methodology and can be readily integrated into that analysis

  19. Tunable Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser based on metal transition oxide saturable absorber and refractive index characteristic of multimode interference effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D. Z.; Khaleel, Wurood Abdulkhaleq; Al-Janabi, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Ferro-oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were used as a saturable absorber (SA) for a passively Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser (EDFL) with ring cavity. The Q-switching operation was achieved at a pump threshold of 80 mW. The proposed fiber laser produces stable pulses train of repetition rate ranging from 25 kHz to 80 kHz as the pump power increases from threshold to 342 mW. The minimum recorded pulse width was 2.7 μs at 342 mW. The C-band tunability operation was performed using single mode-multimode-single mode fiber (SM-MM-SM) structure. The laser exhibited a total tuning range of 7 nm, maximum sensitivity of 106.9 nm, optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of 38 dB and 3-dB linewidth of 0.06 nm.

  20. Generation of “gigantic” ultra-short microwave pulses based on passive mode-locking effect in electron oscillators with saturable absorber in the feedback loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Vilkov, M. N.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    A periodic train of powerful ultrashort microwave pulses can be generated in electron oscillators with a non-linear saturable absorber installed in the feedback loop. This method of pulse formation resembles the passive mode-locking widely used in laser physics. Nevertheless, there is a specific feature in the mechanism of pulse amplification when consecutive energy extraction from different fractions of a stationary electron beam takes place due to pulse slippage over the beam caused by the difference between the wave group velocity and the electron axial velocity. As a result, the peak power of generated “gigantic” pulses can exceed not only the level of steady-state generation but also, in the optimal case, the power of the driving electron beam.

  1. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  2. Saturation of bentonite dependent upon temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmannova, Lucie; Vasicek, Radek

    2010-01-01

    volume which attains a value of 1.0 in the fully saturated material. In the case of fully saturated bentonite with high dry density this value may exceed this theoretical limit due to very strong forces acting within the structure of the solid material which change the properties of the fixed water monolayer (the highest values of water density are close to 2000 kg/m 3 ). The aim of the experiment was to compare the degree of saturation of samples saturated at different temperatures (25 deg. C, 95 deg. C and 110 deg. C). Nine small physical models were used in the experiment. Cylindrically shaped samples with a height of 20 mm and a diameter of 30 mm were tested. The models were perforated and equipped with permeable plates on both bases to allow the supply of water. The expansion of the samples (volume change) was not permitted. The swelling pressure was not measured so as to keep the construction of the models as simple as possible. The saturation medium consisted of distilled water. The samples were compacted directly into the body of the individual models. The investigated medium consisted of Czech Ca-Mg bentonite from the Rokle locality, sieved to a fraction of 0-1 mm. The target dry density was 1700 kg/m 3 because Rokle bentonite at this dry density level contains the desired properties for use as a buffer (principally low permeability and a certain level of swelling pressure). A specific density of 2800 kg/m 3 was used for further calculations. Three models were used for testing at a certain temperature. The three models were then placed in a pressure cooker and each pressure cooker was stored at a different temperature (25 deg. C, 95 deg. C and 110 deg. C). The cookers had safety valves to limit the increase in generated steam pressure at higher temperatures; the exact monitoring of steam pressure was, unfortunately not possible. The models were dismantled after all the bentonite samples became fully saturated. The experiment was monitored by the regular weighing

  3. Assessing atmospheric particulate matter distribution based on Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization of herbaceous and tree leaves in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas; Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre; Koffi, N'guessan Achille; Kardel, Fatemeh; De Cannière, Charles; Samson, Roeland

    2014-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions, and the associated human health risks, are likely to continue increasing in urban environments of developing countries like Abidjan (Ivory Cost). This study evaluated the potential of leaves of several herbaceous and tree species as bioindicators of urban particulate matter pollution, and its variation over different land use classes, in a tropical area. Four species well distributed (presence frequencies >90%) over all land use classes, easy to harvest and whose leaves are wide enough to be easily scanned were selected, i.e.: Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae), Eleusine indica (Poaceae), Panicum maximum (Poaceae) and Ficus benjamina (Moraceae). Leaf sampling of these species was carried out at 3 distances from the road and at 3 height levels. Traffic density was also noted and finally biomagnetic parameters of these leaves were determined. Results showed that Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) of leaves was at least 4 times higher (27.5×10(-6)A) in the vicinity of main roads and industrial areas than in parks and residential areas. The main potential sources of PM pollution were motor vehicles and industries. The slightly hairy leaves of the herbaceous plant A. spinosus and the waxy leaves of the tree F. benjamina showed the highest SIRM (25×10(-6)A). Leaf SIRM increased with distance to road (R(2)>0.40) and declined with sampling height (R(2)=0.17). The distance between 0 and 5m from the road seemed to be the most vulnerable in terms of PM pollution. This study has showed that leaf SIRM of herbaceous and tree species can be used to assess PM exposure in tropical urban environments. © 2013.

  4. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Umari, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  5. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  6. 1-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-3-(4-nitropshenyl) prop-2-en-1-one: A reverse saturable absorption based optical limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra, Subrayachar, E-mail: raghuphotonics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalore, 574199 (India); Chidankumar, Chandraju Sadolalu [X-ray Crystallography Unit, School of Physics, 11800 USM, Universiti Sains Malaysia Penang (Malaysia); Jayarama, Arasalike [Department of Physics, Sadguru Swami Nithyananda Institute of Technology (SSNIT), Kanhangad, 671315 (India); Dharmaprakash, Sampyady Medappa [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalore, 574199 (India)

    2015-01-15

    An organic nonlinear optical material “1-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-3-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one” (4MPNP) has been synthesized by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and crystallized by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The functional groups present in 4MPNP molecule were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. TGA-DSC analysis in the temperature range 30{sup o}C–650 °C showed absence of phase transition before melting point. The crystal structure of 4MPNP was determined using X-ray single crystal diffraction technique. UV–Vis absorption studies were carried out in the wavelength range 190–800 nm. Beyond the cut off wavelength 4MPNP is optically transparent in the entire visible region of the spectrum. Open aperture Z-Scan experimental curve showed that the 4MPNP molecule exhibits minimum transmittance at the focus and maximum nonlinear absorptionat532 nm wavelength. The variation of normalized transmittance with laser power density indicates good optical limiting behavior of the molecule. Nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β), excited state absorption cross-section (σ{sub ex}) and ground state absorption cross-section (σ{sub g}) are estimated and found to be 4.5 cm/GW, 5.17 × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2} and 5.68 × 10{sup −21} cm{sup 2} respectively. The values σ{sub ex}>>σ{sub g} indicate that 4MPNP crystal has the property of reverse saturable absorption. The studies recommend that 4MPNPcan be considered as a potential material for third order nonlinear optical device applications such as optical limiters. - Highlights: • Beyond the cut off wavelength 4MPNP is transparent in entire visible region. • Potential material for nonlinear optical device applications such as optical limiters. • TGA curve indicates that 4MPNP is almost stable up to melting point. • Band gap of 4MPNP is found to be 3.06 eV.

  7. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E.; Geshev, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe_3O_4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  8. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, A. [Departamento de Física, UFSM, Santa Maria, 97105-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Mikhov, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Skumryev, V. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Geshev, J., E-mail: julian@if.ufrgs.br [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  9. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9......,121) and The Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, N = 24,195), as well as a 1:1 age- and sex-matched population-based case-control study with 6,129 patients with diabetes from the Steno Diabetes Centre and 6,129 control subjects, totaling 8,535 patients with diabetes and 37,039 control subjects. RESULTS...

  10. Reply to Comment by Roques et al. on "Base Flow Recession from Unsaturated-Saturated Porous Media considering Lateral Unsaturated Discharge and Aquifer Compressibility"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuyu; Zhan, Hongbin; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith

    2018-04-01

    Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR022085) claims that they have proposed an exponential time step (ETS) method to improve the computing method of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) which used a constant time step (CTS) method on the derivative for dQ/dt in field data, where Q is the base flow discharge and t is the time since the start of base flow recession. This reply emphasizes that the main objective of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) was to develop an analytical model to investigate the effects of the unsaturated flow on base flow recession, not on the data interpretation methods. The analytical model indicates that the base flow recession hydrograph behaves as dQ/dt ˜aQb with the exponent b close to 1 at late times, which is consistent with previous theoretical models. The model of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) was applied to field data where the derivative of dQ/dt was computed using the CTS method, a method that has been widely adopted in previous studies. The ETS method proposed by Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.07.013) appears to be a good alternative but its accuracy needs further validation. Using slopes to fit field data as proposed by Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR022085) appears to match data satisfactorily at early times whereas it performs less satisfactorily at late times and leads to the exponent b being obviously larger than 1.

  11. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  12. Investigation of saturation effects in ceramic phosphors for laser lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnoshchoka, Anastasiia; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We report observation of saturation effects in a Ce:LuAG and Eu-doped nitride ceramic phosphor for conversion of blue laser light for white light generation. The luminous flux from the phosphors material increases linearly with the input power until saturation effects limit the conversion....... It is shown, that the temperature of the phosphor layer influences the saturation power level and the conversion efficiency. It is also shown that the correlated color temperature (CCT), phosphor conversion efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) are dependent both on incident power and spot size diameter...... of the illumination. A phosphor conversion efficiency up to 140.8 lm/W with CRI of 89.4 was achieved. The saturation in a ceramic phosphor, when illuminated by high intensity laser diodes, is estimated to play the main role in limiting the available luminance from laser based lighting systems....

  13. Delayed system control in presence of actuator saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahjoub

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is introducing a new design method for systems’ controllers with input delay and actuator saturations and focuses on how to force the system output to track a reference input not necessarily saturation-compatible. We propose a new norm based on the way we quantify tracking performance as a function of saturation errors found using the same norm. The newly defined norm is related to signal average power making possible to account for most common reference signals e.g. step, periodic. It is formally shown that, whatever the reference shape and amplitude, the achievable tracking quality is determined by a well defined reference tracking mismatch error. This latter depends on the reference rate and its compatibility with the actuator saturation constraint. In fact, asymptotic output-reference tracking is achieved in the presence of constraint-compatible step-like references.

  14. Mass Transfer Behavior of Perfluorinated Chemicals in Saturated Clay-rich Sands: A Laboratory-based Study on Fate and Transport in Groundwater and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R. R.; Tick, G. R.; Abbott, J. B., III; Carroll, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of emerging contaminants that pose a threat to the human health and the quality of groundwater, surface water, and drinking water supplies. This study aims to elucidate the primary physicochemical factors controlling the fate and transport of the PFAS contaminants, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), in groundwater. Physicochemical processes of intercalation, adsorption, and desorption were investigated for the retention of PFAS at different initial aqueous-phase concentrations in modified-natural sediments composed of sand (40/50 accusand; foc = 0.04% unmodified) with low, medium, and high organic carbon contents (foc = 10, 20, and 50%) and various pre-conditioned clay-fractions. Diffusional mass-transfer limitations were evaluated based on initial PFAS concentration, specific clay structure, and resulting contaminant intercalation (d-spacing changes). A series of short- (48 hr), medium- (7 day) and long-term (30 day) batch and column experiments were conducted to determine physicochemical processes as a function of compound chemistry, sediment geochemistry, sorbent crystalline structure, and contaminant/sediment contact-time. Physicochemical parameters, PFAS concentrations, and sediment characterization were conducted using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and furnace combustion analytical techniques. The results of PFAS contaminant transport, under the different conditions tested, provide a scientific contribution with application to the development of improved risk assessments, predictions of fate and transport, and more effective remediation strategies for emerging perfluorinated contaminants in soil and groundwater.

  15. Law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays and radial consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It was derived that micro-scale amount level of average pore radius of clay changed from 0.01 to 0.1 micron by an equivalent concept of flow in porous media. There is good agreement between the derived results and test ones. Results of experiments show that flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays follows law of nonlinear flow. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that an interaction of solid-liquid interfaces varies inversely with permeability or porous radius. The interaction is an important reason why nonlinear flow in saturated clays occurs. An exact mathematical model was presented for nonlinear flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays. Dimension and physical meanings of parameters of it are definite. A new law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays was established. It can describe characteristics of flow curve of the whole process of the nonlinear flow from low hydraulic gradient to high one. Darcy law is a special case of the new law. A mathematical model was presented for consolidation of nonlinear flow in radius direction in saturated clays with constant rate based on the new law of nonlinear flow. Equations of average mass conservation and moving boundary, and formula of excess pore pressure distribution and average degree of consolidation for nonlinear flow in saturated clay were derived by using an idea of viscous boundary layer, a method of steady state in stead of transient state and a method of integral of an equation. Laws of excess pore pressure distribution and changes of average degree of consolidation with time were obtained. Results show that velocity of moving boundary decreases because of the nonlinear flow in saturated clay. The results can provide geology engineering and geotechnical engineering of saturated clay with new scientific bases. Calculations of average degree of consolidation of the Darcy flow are a special case of that of the nonlinear flow.

  16. Receptor saturation in roentgen films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, K G; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Roentgen-film recording of small object details of low attenuation differences (e.g. pulmonary vessels) is regularly seen to be impaired when the film is exposed to yield high values of optical density (D). This high-density failure is due to receptor saturation, which implies that at high exposure values most silver halide grains of the film are made developable, leaving few grains available to receive additional informative photons. The receptor saturation is analysed by means of a mathematical model of a non-screen film yielding Dsub(max) = 2.0. Optimum recording, defined by maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the image, is found at D approximately 0.64, corresponding to, on an average, 1.6 photons absorbed per grain. On the other hand, maximum contrast occurs at D approximately 1.4, where, on the average, 3.6 photons are absorbed per grain. The detective quantum efficiency of the film, i.e. the fraction of the photons actually contributing to the information content of the image, drops from 41 per cent at maximum signal-to-noise ratio to a mere 10 per cent at maximum contrast.

  17. Rapid determination of oxygen saturation and vascularity for cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyao Hu

    Full Text Available A rapid heuristic ratiometric analysis for estimating tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation from measured tissue diffuse reflectance spectra is presented. The analysis was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and applied to clinical measurements in head and neck, cervical and breast tissues. The analysis works in two steps. First, a linear equation that translates the ratio of the diffuse reflectance at 584 nm and 545 nm to estimate the tissue hemoglobin concentration using a Monte Carlo-based lookup table was developed. This equation is independent of tissue scattering and oxygen saturation. Second, the oxygen saturation was estimated using non-linear logistic equations that translate the ratio of the diffuse reflectance spectra at 539 nm to 545 nm into the tissue oxygen saturation. Correlations coefficients of 0.89 (0.86, 0.77 (0.71 and 0.69 (0.43 were obtained for the tissue hemoglobin concentration (oxygen saturation values extracted using the full spectral Monte Carlo and the ratiometric analysis, for clinical measurements in head and neck, breast and cervical tissues, respectively. The ratiometric analysis was more than 4000 times faster than the inverse Monte Carlo analysis for estimating tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in simulated phantom experiments. In addition, the discriminatory power of the two analyses was similar. These results show the potential of such empirical tools to rapidly estimate tissue hemoglobin in real-time spectral imaging applications.

  18. Saturation in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.; Zaider, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of dual radiation action (TDRA) was developed with the aim of applying microdosimetry to radiobiology. It therefore can deal only with the first phases in a long chain of events that results in patent effects. It is, however, clear that the initial spatial and temporal pattern of energy deposition has a profound influence on the ultimate outcome. As often happens, the early formulation of the theory contained a number of simplifying assumptions. Although most of these were explicitly stated when the first version of the TDRA was published experimental data obtained when the limitations are important were cited as contrary evidence causing considerable confusion. A more advanced version eliminated some of the restrictions but there remain others, one of which relates to certain aspects of saturation which are addressed here

  19. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH. MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products. Quantitative determination (qNMR has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination. Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation <6% and a limit of detection <0.1 g/100 g. The applicability of the method was proven by analysing 27 authentic samples with MOSH and MOAH contents in the range of 90-109 g/100 g and 0.02-1.10 g/100 g, respectively. It is important to distinguish this new NMR-approach from the hyphenated liquid chromatography-gas chromatography methodology previously used to characterize MOSH/MOAH amounts in cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer

  20. On the water saturation calculation in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Stein Ottar

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to identify the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation and examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations or possibility to develop methods to remove weaknesses and uncertainties in existing S{sub w} - equations. Due to the need for industrial applicability of the equations we aimed for results with the following properties: The accuracy in S{sub w} should increase compared with existing S{sub w} - equations. The equations should be simple to use in petrophysical evaluations. The equations should be based on conventional logs and use as few as possible input parameters. The equations should be numerical stable. This thesis includes an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the most common S{sub w} equations. The results are addressed in chapter 3 and were intended to find the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation. To increase the knowledge of the relationship between R{sub t} and S{sub w} in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs and to understand how the pore geometry affects the conductivity (n and m) of the rock a theoretical study was done. It was also an aim to examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations (or investigation an effective medium model) valid inhydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. The results are presented in paper 1. A new equation for water saturation calculation in clean sandstone oil reservoirs is addressed in paper 2. A recommendation for best practice of water saturation calculation in non water wet formation is addressed in paper 3. Finally a new equation for water saturation calculation in thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs is presented in paper 4. The papers are titled: 1) Is the saturation exponent n a constant. 2) A New Model for Calculating Water Saturation In 3) Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling. 4) Water Saturation Calculations in Thinly Interbedded Sandstone/mudstone Reservoirs. A

  1. Patterning via optical saturable transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Precious

    For the past 40 years, optical lithography has been the patterning workhorse for the semiconductor industry. However, as integrated circuits have become more and more complex, and as device geometries shrink, more innovative methods are required to meet these needs. In the far-field, the smallest feature that can be generated with light is limited to approximately half the wavelength. This, so called far-field diffraction limit or the Abbe limit (after Prof. Ernst Abbe who first recognized this), effectively prevents the use of long-wavelength photons >300nm from patterning nanostructures barrier is developed and experimentally verified. This approach, which I refer to as Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions (POST) has the potential for massive parallelism, enabling the creation of nanostructures and devices at a speed far surpassing what is currently possible with conventional optical lithographic techniques. The fundamental understanding of this technique goes beyond optical lithography in the semiconductor industry and is applicable to any area that requires the rapid patterning of large-area two or three-dimensional complex geometries. At a basic level, this research intertwines the fields of electrochemistry, material science, electrical engineering, optics, physics, and mechanical engineering with the goal of developing a novel super-resolution lithographic technique.

  2. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  3. Δ isobars and nuclear saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, A.; Hagen, G.; Morris, T. D.; Papenbrock, T.; Schwartz, P. D.

    2018-02-01

    We construct a nuclear interaction in chiral effective field theory with explicit inclusion of the Δ -isobar Δ (1232 ) degree of freedom at all orders up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We use pion-nucleon (π N ) low-energy constants (LECs) from a Roy-Steiner analysis of π N scattering data, optimize the LECs in the contact potentials up to NNLO to reproduce low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts, and constrain the three-nucleon interaction at NNLO to reproduce the binding energy and point-proton radius of 4He. For heavier nuclei we use the coupled-cluster method to compute binding energies, radii, and neutron skins. We find that radii and binding energies are much improved for interactions with explicit inclusion of Δ (1232 ) , while Δ -less interactions produce nuclei that are not bound with respect to breakup into α particles. The saturation of nuclear matter is significantly improved, and its symmetry energy is consistent with empirical estimates.

  4. Molybdenite saturation in silicic magmas: Occurrence and petrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audetat, A.; Dolejs, D.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    We identified molybdenite (MoS2) as an accessory magmatic phase in 13 out of 27 felsic magma systems examined worldwide. The molybdenite occurs as small (molybdenite-saturated samples reveal 1-13 ppm Mo in the melt and geochemical signatures that imply a strong link to continental rift basalt-rhyolite associations. In contrast, arc-associated rhyolites are rarely molybdenite-saturated, despite similar Mo concentrations. This systematic dependence on tectonic setting seems to reflect the higher oxidation state of arc magmas compared with within-plate magmas. A thermodynamic model devised to investigate the effects of T, f O2 and f S2 on molybdenite solubility reliably predicts measured Mo concentrations in molybdenite-saturated samples if the magmas are assumed to have been saturated also in pyrrhotite. Whereas pyrrhotite microphenocrysts have been observed in some of these samples, they have not been observed from other molybdenite-bearing magmas. Based on the strong influence of f S2 on molybdenite solubility we calculate that also these latter magmas must have been at (or very close to) pyrrhotite saturation. In this case the Mo concentration of molybdenite-saturated melts can be used to constrain both magmatic f O2 and f S2 if temperature is known independently (e.g. by zircon saturation thermometry). Our model thus permits evaluation of magmatic f S2, which is an important variable but is difficult to estimate otherwise, particularly in slowly cooled rocks. ?? The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Description of saturation curves and boiling process of dry air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestfálová Magda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air is a mixture of gases forming the gas wrap of Earth. It is formed by dry air, moisture and other pollutants. Dry air is a substance whose thermodynamic properties in gaseous state, as well as the thermodynamic properties of its main constituents in gaseous state, are generally known and described in detail in the literature. The liquid air is a bluish liquid and is industrially used to produce oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium by distillation. The transition between the gaseous and liquid state (the condensation process, resp. boiling process, is usually displayed in the basic thermodynamic diagrams using the saturation curves. The saturation curves of all pure substances are of a similar shape. However, since the dry air is a mixture, the shapes of its saturation curves are modified relative to the shapes corresponding to the pure substances. This paper deals with the description of the dry air saturation curves as a mixture, i.e. with a description of the process of phase change of dry air (boiling process. The dry air saturation curves are constructed in the basic thermodynamic charts based on the values obtained from the literature. On the basis of diagrams, data appearing in various publications are interpreted and put into context with boiling process of dry air.

  6. Gaseous saturable absorbers for the Helios CO2 laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Nowak, A.V.; Czuchlewski, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Saturable absorbers are widely used to suppress parasitic oscillations in large-aperture, high-power CO 2 fusion-laser systems. We report experimental results on SF 6 -based gaseous saturable absorbers used for parasitic suppression in the eight-beam, 10 kJ Helios fusion-laser system. The gas mix effectively quenches self-lasing in the 9 and 10 μm branches of the CO 2 laser spectrum while simultaneously allowing high transmission of subnanosecond multiwavelength pulses for target-irradiation experiments. The gas isolator now in use consists of SF 6 and the additional fluorocarbons: 1, 1-difluoroethane (FC-152a); dichlorodifluoromethane (FC-12); chloropentafluoroethane (FC-115); 1,1-dichloro 2,2-difluoroethylene (FC-1112a); chlorotrifluoroethylene (FC-1113); and perfluorocyclobutane (FC-C318). The saturation of the mix was studied as a function of incident fluence, pressure, cell length, and incident wavelength. Experimental results are presented on the saturation properties of pure SF 6 and FC-152a and compared with the saturation behavior of CO 2 at 400 0 C

  7. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriëtte; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michaël A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective observational controlled study. Setting: Nonacademic university-affiliated

  8. Traveling wave fronts and the transition to saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a general method to study the solutions to nonlinear QCD evolution equations, based on a deep analogy with the physics of traveling waves. In particular, we show that the transition to the saturation regime of high energy QCD is identical to the formation of the front of a traveling wave. Within this physical picture, we provide the expressions for the saturation scale and the gluon density profile as a function of the total rapidity and the transverse momentum. The application to the Balitskii-Kovchegov equation for both fixed and running coupling constants confirms the effectiveness of this method

  9. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  10. Entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot in CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhou Menglian; Zhang Jianmin; Lin Xinwei

    2013-01-01

    In the video of linear CCD camera being irradiated by 532 nm CW laser, the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot was found. The smear area does not represent the distribution of laser. Since this smear lies merely in one side of laser spot, it can not be induced by light leaking or carriers blooming, and it may be induced by charge transfer loss. However, the feature that the smear area is entirely saturated can not be explained by the current constant model of charge transfer inefficiency. Based on the inner structure and operating principle of buried channel CCD, a new model of charge transfer inefficiency that varies with charge quantity is proposed, which can explain the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot. (authors)

  11. Premature saturation in backpropagation networks: Mechanism and necessary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitela, J.E.; Reifman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented and a new method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. Validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Three case studies are presented. The first two came from a training session for classification of three component failures in a nuclear power plant. The last case, comes from a training session for classification of welded fuel elements

  12. Upscaling soil saturated hydraulic conductivity from pore throat characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upscaling and/or estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat at the core scale from microscopic/macroscopic soil characteristics has been actively under investigation in the hydrology and soil physics communities for several decades. Numerous models have beendeveloped based on different approac...

  13. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  14. Assessing species saturation: conceptual and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Karger, Dirk N; Kessler, Michael

    2018-05-07

    Is there a maximum number of species that can coexist? Intuitively, we assume an upper limit to the number of species in a given assemblage, or that a lineage can produce, but defining and testing this limit has proven problematic. Herein, we first outline seven general challenges of studies on species saturation, most of which are independent of the actual method used to assess saturation. Among these are the challenge of defining saturation conceptually and operationally, the importance of setting an appropriate referential system, and the need to discriminate among patterns, processes and mechanisms. Second, we list and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used to study species saturation. These approaches vary in time and spatial scales, and in the variables and assumptions needed to assess saturation. We argue that assessing species saturation is possible, but that many studies conducted to date have conceptual and methodological flaws that prevent us from currently attaining a good idea of the occurrence of species saturation. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Saturation and forward jets at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, C.; Peschanski, R.; Royon, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse forward-jet production at HERA in the framework of the Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff saturation models. We obtain a good description of the forward-jet cross-sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in the two-hard-scale region (k T∼ Q >> Λ QCD ) with two different parametrizations with either significant or weak saturation effects. The weak saturation parametrization gives a scale compatible with the one found for the proton structure function F2. We argue that Mueller-Navelet jets at the Tevatron and the LHC could help distinguishing between both options

  16. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, J.F.; Urban, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated. 2 figs

  17. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Chen

    2010-01-01

    A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

  18. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  19. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  20. Void fraction prediction in saturated flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco J Collado

    2005-01-01

    saturated flow boiling at several pressures of industrial interest. The first result is that the measured specific linear heat is not at all equal to the mixture enthalpy gradient based on the true quality, the difference being a factor quite close to the classic value of the slip ratio, suggesting that this parameter should be included in the thermodynamic heat balance. Furthermore it has been possible to predict this slip factor from the process parameters namely, inlet pressure and velocity, and heat flux. Hence allowing the accurate prediction of the true mass quality from the modified heat balance and so, from classic thermodynamic relationships, to derive accurate values of the void fraction that compares quite well with the measured ones in the Cambridge project. (author)

  1. Stochastic analysis of radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Moto

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, LLRW (low level radioactive wastes) generated from nuclear power plants shall be started to store concentrically in the Shimokita site from 1990, and those could be transformed into land disposal if the positive safety is confirmed. Therefore, it is hoped that the safety assessment method shall be successed for the land disposal of LLRW. In this study, a stochastic model to analyze the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils was constructed. The principal results are summarized as follows. 1) We presented a generalized idea for the modeling of the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils as an advective-dispersion phenomena followed by the decay of radionuclides and those adsorption/desorption in soils. 2) Based on the radionuclide migration model mentioned above, we developed a stochastic analysis model on radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. 3) From the comparison between the simulated results and the exact solution on a few simple one-dimensional advective-dispersion problems of radionuclides, the good validity of this model was confirmed. 4) From the comparison between the simulated results by this model and the experimental results of radionuclide migration in a one-dimensional unsaturated soil column with rainfall, the good applicability was shown. 5) As the stochastic model such as this has several advantages that it is easily able to represent the image of physical phenomena and has basically no numerical dissipation, this model should be more applicable to the analysis of the complicated radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. (author)

  2. Shear weakening for different lithologies observed at different saturation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethart-Jauk, Elisabeth; Gegenhuber, Nina

    2018-01-01

    For this study, samples from different lithologies ("Leitha"-limestone, "Dachstein"-limestone, "Haupt"-dolomite, "Bunt"-sandstone, Grey Berea sandstone, granite, quartzite and basalt) were selected. Samples were dried at 70 °C, respectively 105 °C and were saturated with brine. Mass, porosity, permeability, compressional and shear wave velocity were determined from dry and brine saturated samples at laboratory conditions, based on an individual measurement program. Shear modulus was calculated to find out, if shear weakening exists for the dataset. Shear weakening means that shear modulus of dry samples is higher than of saturated samples, but it is assumed that shear modulus is unaffected by saturation. "Dachstein"-limestone and basalt show shear weakening, quartzite samples show both weakening and hardening. Granite samples are affected by temperature, after drying with 105 °C no change can be observed anymore. "Bunt"-sandstone samples show a change in the shear modulus in a small extent, although they may contain clay minerals. The other lithologies show no effect. Explanations for carbonate samples can be the complicated pore structure, for basalt it could be that weathering creates clay minerals which are known as causes for a change of the shear modulus. Fluid viscosity can also be an important factor.

  3. Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances. It is based on the mixed 'stator current - rotor flux linkage' induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with saturation included behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  4. Impact of magnetic saturation on the input-output linearising tracking control of an induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearization with magnetic saturation included. Magnetic saturation is represented by the nonlinear magnetizing curve of the iron core and is used in the control design, the observer of state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances of the drive. It is based on the mixed ”stator current - rotor flux linkage” induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with the included saturation behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  5. Lipid order, saturation and surface property relationships: a study of human meibum saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Duran, Diana; Cox, Gregory W; Smith, Ryan J; Bhola, Rahul; Dennis, Gary R; Whitehall, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33 °C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear break up to occur. In this study, meibum from a pool of adult donors was saturated catalytically. The influence of saturation on meibum hydrocarbon chain order was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Meibum is in an anhydrous state in the meibomian glands and on the surface of the eyelid. The influence of saturation on the surface properties of meibum was determined using Langmuir trough technology. Saturation of native human meibum did not change the minimum or maximum values of hydrocarbon chain order so at temperatures far above or below the phase transition of human meibum, saturation does not play a role in ordering or disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains. Saturation did increase the phase transition temperature in human meibum by over 20 °C, a relatively high amount. Surface pressure-area studies showing the late take off and higher maximum surface pressure of saturated meibum compared to native meibum suggest that the saturated meibum film is quite molecularly ordered (stiff molecular arrangement) and elastic (molecules are able to rearrange during compression and expansion) compared with native meibum films which are more fluid agreeing with the infrared spectroscopic results of this study. In saturated meibum, the formation of compacted ordered islands of lipids above the surfactant layer would be expected to decrease the rate of evaporation compared to fluid and more loosely packed native meibum. Higher surface pressure observed with films of saturated meibum compared to native meibum

  6. New knowledge on the temperature-entropy saturation boundary slope of working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen; Zhao, Li; Deng, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    The slope of temperature-entropy saturation boundary of working fluids has a significant effect on the thermodynamic performance of cycle processes. However, for the working fluids used in cycles, few studies have been conducted to analyze the saturated slope from the molecular structure and mixture composition. Thus, in this contribution, an analytical expression on the slope of saturated curve is obtained based on the highly accurate Helmholtz energy equation. 14 pure working fluids and three typical binary mixtures are employed to analyze the influence of molecular groups and mixture compositions on the saturated slope, according to the correlated parameters of Helmholtz energy equation. Based on the calculated results, a preliminary trend is demonstrated that with an increase of the number of molecular groups, the positive liquid slope of pure fluids increases and the vapor slope appears positive sign in a narrow temperature range. Particularly, for the binary mixtures, the liquid slope is generally located between the corresponding pure fluids', while the vapor slope can be infinity by mixing dry and wet fluids ingeniously. It can be proved through the analysis of mixtures' saturated slope that three types of vapor slope could be obtained by regulating the mixture composition. - Highlights: • The saturated slope is derived from the Helmholtz function for working fluids. • The effect of molecular structure on the saturated slope is analyzed. • The variation of saturated slope with the mixture composition is investigated.

  7. Interger multiplication with overflow detection or saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, M.J.; Balzola, P.I.; Akkas, A.; Brocato, R.W.

    2000-01-11

    High-speed multiplication is frequently used in general-purpose and application-specific computer systems. These systems often support integer multiplication, where two n-bit integers are multiplied to produce a 2n-bit product. To prevent growth in word length, processors typically return the n least significant bits of the product and a flag that indicates whether or not overflow has occurred. Alternatively, some processors saturate results that overflow to the most positive or most negative representable number. This paper presents efficient methods for performing unsigned or two's complement integer multiplication with overflow detection or saturation. These methods have significantly less area and delay than conventional methods for integer multiplication with overflow detection and saturation.

  8. Tracking Controller for Intrinsic Output Saturated Systems in Presence of Amplitude and Rate Input Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, E.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling plants that are subject to multiple saturation constraints. Especially, we are interested in linear systems whose input is subject to amplitude and rate constraints of saturation type. Furthermore, the considered systems output is also subject to an intrinsi...

  9. Studies of non-isothermal flow in saturated and partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.; Maki, K.S.; Glass, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Physical and numerical experiments have been performed to investigate the behavior of nonisothermal flow in two-dimensional saturated and partially saturated porous media. The physical experiments were performed to identify non-isothermal flow fields and temperature distributions in fully saturated, half-saturated, and residually saturated two-dimensional porous media with bottom heating and top cooling. Two counter-rotating liquid-phase convective cells were observed to develop in the saturated regions of all three cases. Gas-phase convection was also evidenced in the unsaturated regions of the partially saturated experiments. TOUGH2 numerical simulations of the saturated case were found to be strongly dependent on the assumed boundary conditions of the physical system. Models including heat losses through the boundaries of the test cell produced temperature and flow fields that were in better agreement with the observed temperature and flow fields than models that assumed insulated boundary conditions. A sensitivity analysis also showed that a reduction of the bulk permeability of the porous media in the numerical simulations depressed the effects of convection, flattening the temperature profiles across the test cell

  10. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design:  Prospective observational controlled study. Setting:  Nonacademic university-affiliated

  11. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  12. On the saturation of astrophysical dynamos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil; Archontis, Vasilis

    2004-01-01

    In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate in the li......In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate...

  13. Nonlinear saturation of the Rayleigh Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kaw, P.; Sen, A.; Benkadda, S.; Verga, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the nonlinear saturation of the 2 dimensional Rayleigh Taylor instability is re-examined to put various earlier results in a proper perspective. The existence of a variety of final states can be attributed to the differences in the choice of boundary conditions and initial conditions in earlier numerical modeling studies. Our own numerical simulations indicate that the RT instability saturates by the self consistent generation of shear flow even in situations (with periodic boundaries) where, in principle, an infinite amount of gravitational energy can be tapped. Such final states can be achieved for suitable values of the Prandtl number. (author)

  14. Saturable absorption in detonation nanodiamond dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Viatcheslav; Mikheev, Gennady; Mogileva, Tatyana; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    We report on a saturable absorption in aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds with femtosecond laser pulse excitation at a wavelength of 795 nm. The open aperture Z-scan experiments reveal that in a wide range of nanodiamond particle sizes and concentrations, a light-induced increase of transmittance occurs. The transmittance increase originates from the saturation of light absorption and is associated with a light absorption at 1.5 eV by graphite and dimer chains (Pandey dimer chains). The obtained key nonlinear parameters of nanodiamond dispersions are compared with those of graphene and carbon nanotubes, which are widely used for the mode-locking.

  15. Saturation and postsaturation phenomena of Rayleigh-Taylor instability with adjacent modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegawa, Tadashi; Nishihara, Katsunobu

    2003-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory has been developed for the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability with a finite bandwidth taken into account self-consistently. The theory includes up to third order nonlinearity, which results in the saturation of linear growth and determines subsequent weakly nonlinear growth. Analytical results are shown to agree fairly well with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. There are generally many local peaks of a perturbation with a finite bandwidth due to the interference of modes. Since a local amplitude is determined from phases among the modes as well as the bandwidth, we have investigated an onset of the linear growth saturation and the subsequent weakly nonlinear growth for different bandwidths and phases. It is shown that the saturation of the linear growth occurs locally, i.e., each of the local maximum amplitudes (LMAs) grows exponentially until it reaches almost the same saturation amplitude. In the random phase case, the root mean square amplitude thus saturates with almost the same amplitude as the LMA, after most of the LMAs have saturated. The saturation amplitude of the LMA is found to be independent of the bandwidth and depends on the Atwood number. We derive a formula of the saturation amplitude of modes based on the results obtained, and discuss its relation with Haan's formula [Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. The LMAs grow linearly in time after the saturation and their speeds are approximated by the product of the linear growth rate and the saturation amplitude. We investigate the Atwood number dependence of both the saturation amplitude and the weakly nonlinear growth

  16. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  17. The effect of rock electrical parameters on the calculation of reservoir saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Liu, Chuncheng; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    The error in calculating a reservoir saturation caused by the error in the cementation exponent, m, and the saturation exponent, n, should be analysed. In addition, the influence of m and n on the reservoir saturation should be discussed. Based on the Archie formula, the effect of variables m and n on the reservoir saturation is analysed, while the formula for the error in calculating the reservoir saturation, caused by the error in m and n, is deduced, and the main factors affecting the error in reservoir saturation are illustrated. According to the physical meaning of m and n, it can be interpreted that they are two independent parameters, i.e., there is no connection between m and n. When m and n have the same error, the impact of the variables on the calculation of the reservoir saturation should be compared. Therefore, when the errors of m and n are respectively equal to 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, the distribution range of the errors in calculating the reservoir saturation is analysed. However, in most cases, the error of m and n is about 0.2. When the error of m is 0.2, the error in calculating the reservoir saturation ranges from 0% to 35%. Meanwhile, when the error in n is 0.2, the error in calculating the reservoir saturation is almost always below 5%. On the basis of loose sandstone, medium sandstone, tight sandstone, conglomerate, tuff, breccia, basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite, this paper first analyses the distribution range and change amplitude of m and n. Second, the impact of m and n on the calculation of reservoir saturation is elaborated upon. With regard to each lithology, the distribution range and change amplitude of m are greater than those of n. Therefore, compared with n, the effect of m on the reservoir saturation is stronger. The influence of m and n on the reservoir saturation is determined, and the error in calculating the reservoir saturation caused by the error of m and n is calculated. This is theoretically and practically significant for

  18. Selective saturation method for EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, E.A.; Romanyukha, A.A.; Koshta, A.A.; Wieser, A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of selective saturation is based on the difference in the microwave (mw) power dependence of the background and radiation induced EPR components of the tooth enamel spectrum. The subtraction of the EPR spectrum recorded at low mw power from that recorded at higher mw power provides a considerable reduction of the background component in the spectrum. The resolution of the EPR spectrum could be improved 10-fold, however simultaneously the signal-to-noise ratio was found to be reduced twice. A detailed comparative study of reference samples with known absorbed doses was performed to demonstrate the advantage of the method. The application of the selective saturation method for EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel reduced the lower limit of EPR dosimetry to about 100 mGy. (author)

  19. Saturated steam turbines for power reactors of WWER-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czwiertnia, K.

    1978-01-01

    The publication deals with design problems of large turbines for saturated steam and with problem of output limitations of single shaft normal speed units. The possibility of unification of conventional and nuclear turbines, which creates the economic basis for production of both types of turbines by one manufacturer based on standarized elements and assemblies is underlined. As separate problems the distribution of nuclear district heating power systems are considered. The choice of heat diagram for district heating saturated steam turbines, the advantages of different diagrams and evaluaton for further development are presented. On this basis a program of unified turbines both condensing and district heating type suitable for Soviet reactors of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type for planned development of nuclear power in Poland is proposed. (author)

  20. Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the shenhu area, south china sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Lee, M.; Guo, Y.; Yang, S.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range from 0 to 43% of the pore space. The higher gas hydrate saturations were present in the depth from 152 to 177 m at site SH7 and from 190 to 225 m at site SH2, respectively. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity using Archie equation have similar trends to those from chloride concentrations. To examine the variability of gas hydrate saturations away from the wells, acoustic impedances calculated from the 3 D seismic data using constrained sparse inversion method were used. Well logs acquired at site SH7 were incorporated into the inversion by establishing a relation between the water-filled porosity, calculated using gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, and the acoustic impedance, calculated from density and velocity logs. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from acoustic impedance of seismic data are ???10-23% of the pore space and are comparable to those estimated from the well logs. The uncertainties in estimated gas hydrate saturations from seismic acoustic impedances were mainly from uncertainties associated with inverted acoustic impedance, the empirical relation between the water-filled porosities and acoustic impedances, and assumed background resistivity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  2. Oxygen general saturation after bronchography under general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six patients undergoing bronchography or bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia were continuously monitored by pulse oximetry for 5 hours after these procedures. Significant falls in oxygen saturation were observed in the first hour and were of most clinical relevance in patients with preexisting pulmonary ...

  3. Iron saturation control in RHIC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 360 dipoles of 80 mm bore. This paper discusses the field perturbations produced by the saturation of the yoke iron. Changes have been made to the yoke to reduce these perturbations, in particular, decapole -4 . Measurements and calculations for 6 series of dipole magnets are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are ... predicted infinite speed for propagation of ther- mal signals. Lord and ..... saturated reservoir rock (North-sea Sandstone) is chosen for the numerical model ...

  5. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  6. Saturation at Low X and Nonlinear Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale Q s . We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution. (author)

  7. Two-beam interaction in saturable media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Schmidt, Michel R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a saturable nonlinearity is investigated It is shown by means of a variational method and by direct numerical calculations that two well-separated solitons can orbit around each other, if their initial velocity...

  8. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but which can actually be used for processes, which pro- duce interesting ... ing the synthesis of saturated polyester (from GPET waste). This has been done for the .... The solid product obtained from the glycolysis of PET was bis(hydroxy ethyl ...

  10. Blood oxygen saturation determined by transmission spectrophotometry of hemolyzed blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Use of the Lambert-Beer Transmission Law determines blood oxygen saturation of hemolyzed blood samples. This simplified method is based on the difference in optical absorption properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

  11. Transition-metal dichalcogenides heterostructure saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Yin, Jinde; Yang, Jingwei; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Mengli; Jiang, Zike; Wang, Jinzhang; Sun, Zhipei; Guo, Tuan; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Peiguang

    2017-11-01

    In this Letter, high-quality WS 2 film and MoS 2 film were vertically stacked on the tip of a single-mode fiber in turns to form heterostructure (WS 2 -MoS 2 -WS 2 )-based saturable absorbers with all-fiber integrated features. Their nonlinear saturable absorption properties were remarkable, such as a large modulation depth (∼16.99%) and a small saturable intensity (6.23  MW·cm -2 ). Stable pulses at 1.55 μm with duration as short as 296 fs and average power as high as 25 mW were obtained in an erbium-doped fiber laser system. The results demonstrate that the proposed heterostructures own remarkable nonlinear optical properties and offer a platform for adjusting nonlinear optical properties by stacking different transition-metal dichalcogenides or modifying the thickness of each layer, paving the way for engineering functional ultrafast photonics devices with desirable properties.

  12. Gain dynamics and saturation in semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2004-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD)-based semiconductor optical amplifiers offer unique properties compared with conventional devices based on bulk or quantum well material. Due to the bandfilling properties of QDs and the existence of a nearby reservoir of carriers in the form of a wetting layer, QD semiconductor...... optical amplifiers may be operated in regimes of high linearity, i.e. with a high saturation power, but can also show strong and fast nonlinearities by breaking the equilibrium between discrete dot states and the continuum of wetting layer states. In this paper, we analyse the interplay of these two...

  13. Nitrogênio e saturação por bases no desempenho do capim-pojuca (Paspalum atratum Swalen cv. Pojuca cultivado em vasos Nitrogen and base saturation in the performance of pojuca grass (Paspalum atratum Swalen cv. Pojuca grown in pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Wyllie Elyas

    2006-06-01

    levels of base saturation (40, 50, 60 and 80%. The experimental design was in a randomized complete blocks, making up a 4 x 4 factorial scheme with four replicates. Three cuts at the height of 4 cm from soil level were proceed. Previous for the first cut, the tiller appearance rate (TAR, tiller elongation rate (TER and leaf appearance rate (LAR were studied. Also, dry matter (DM yield and tiller density (TD were assessed. The N doses increased (P0.05 was observed for LAR. Nitrogen fertilization provided increases in TD and DM yield of Pojuca grass. No significant response was observed for increased levels of base saturation of the soil for the studied variables. It was concluded that application of N is indispensable for a good growth and good DM production of the Pojuca grass, being not needed to raise the base saturation level of the soil above 40% in haplic Gleysol.

  14. Space Charge Saturated Sheath Regime and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Secondary electron emission in Hall thrusters is predicted to lead to space charge saturated wall sheaths resulting in enhanced power losses in the thruster channel. Analysis of experimentally obtained electron-wall collision frequency suggests that the electron temperature saturation, which occurs at high discharge voltages, appears to be caused by a decrease of the Joule heating rather than by the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission

  15. Comparison of pulseoximetry oxygen saturation and arterial oxygen saturation in open heart intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mahoori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulseoximetry is widely used in the critical care setting, currently used to guide therapeutic interventions. Few studies have evaluated the accuracy of SPO2 (puls-eoximetry oxygen saturation in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to compare pulseoximetry with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 during clinical routine in such patients, and to examine the effect of mild acidosis on this relationship.Methods: In an observational prospective study 80 patients were evaluated in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. SPO2 was recorded and compared with SaO2 obtained by blood gas analysis. One or serial arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs were performed via a radial artery line while a reliable pulseoximeter signal was present. One hundred thirty seven samples were collected and for each blood gas analyses, SaO2 and SPO2 we recorded.Results: O2 saturation as a marker of peripheral perfusion was measured by Pulseoxim-etry (SPO2. The mean difference between arterial oxygen saturation and pulseoximetry oxygen saturation was 0.12%±1.6%. A total of 137 paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.754; P<0.0001 between changes in SPO2 and those in SaO2 in samples with normal hemoglobin. Also in forty seven samples with mild acidosis, paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.799; P<0.0001 and the mean difference between SaO2 and SPO2 was 0.05%±1.5%.Conclusion: Data showed that in patients with stable hemodynamic and good signal quality, changes in pulseoximetry oxygen saturation reliably predict equivalent changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Mild acidosis doesn’t alter the relation between SPO2 and SaO2 to any clinically important extent. In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with stable hemodynamic.

  16. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  17. Effective stress principle for partially saturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Wilson, R.K.; Nunziato, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    In support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project, we have undertaken a fundamental study of water migration in partially saturated media. One aspect of that study, on which we report here, has been to use the continuum theory of mixtures to extend the classical notion of effective stress to partially saturated media. Our analysis recovers previously proposed phenomenological representations for the effective stress in terms of the capillary pressure. The theory is illustrated by specializing to the case of linear poroelasticity, for which we calculate the deformation due to the fluid pressure in a static capillary fringe. We then examine the transient consolidation associated with liquid flow induced by an applied surface load. Settlement accompanies this flow as the liquid is redistributed by a nonlinear diffusion process. For material properties characteristic of tuff from the Nevada Test Site, these effects are found to be vanishingly small. 14 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  18. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks with divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1982-12-01

    We have developed a self-consistent theory of saturated tearing modes capable of predicting multiple magnetic island widths in tokamaks with no assumptions on the cross-sectional shape, aspect ratio, or plasma pressure. We are in the process of implementing this algorithm in the form of a computer code. We propose: (1) to complete, refine, document and publish this computer code; (2) to carry out a survey in which we vary the current profile, aspect ratio, cross-sectional shape, and pressure profile in order to determine their effect on saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths; and (3) to determine the effect of some externally applied magnetic perturbation harmonics on these magnetic island widths. Particular attention will be paid to the coupling between different helical harmonics, the effect of multiple magnetic islands on the profiles of temperature, pressure and current, and the potential of magnetic island overlap leading to a disruptive instability

  19. Tearing mode saturation with finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    With finite pressure, the saturation of the current-driven tearing mode is obtained in three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations for Tokamak plasmas. To effectively focus on the tearing modes, the perturbed pressure effects are excluded while the finite equilibrium pressure effects are retained. With this model, the linear growth rates of the tearing modes are found to be very insensitive to the equilibrium pressure increase. The nonlinear aspects of the tearing modes, however, are found to be very sensitive to the pressure increase in that the saturation level of the nonlinear harmonics of the tearing modes increases monotonically with the pressure rise. The increased level is associated with enhanced tearing island sizes or increased stochastic magnetic field region. (author)

  20. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat...

  1. Stabilization of Neutral Systems with Saturating Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. El Haoussi

    2012-01-01

    to determine stabilizing state-feedback controllers with large domain of attraction, expressed as linear matrix inequalities, readily implementable using available numerical tools and with tuning parameters that make possible to select the most adequate solution. These conditions are derived by using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional on the vertices of the polytopic description of the actuator saturations. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  2. Gluon saturation beyond (naive) leading logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2014-12-15

    An improved version of the Balitsky–Kovchegov equation is presented, with a consistent treatment of kinematics. That improvement allows to resum the most severe of the large higher order corrections which plague the conventional versions of high-energy evolution equations, with approximate kinematics. This result represents a further step towards having high-energy QCD scattering processes under control beyond strict Leading Logarithmic accuracy and with gluon saturation effects.

  3. THE SATURATION OF SASI BY PARASITIC INSTABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome; Sato, Jun'ichi; Foglizzo, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The standing accretion shock instability (SASI) is commonly believed to be responsible for large amplitude dipolar oscillations of the stalled shock during core collapse, potentially leading to an asymmetric supernovae explosion. The degree of asymmetry depends on the amplitude of SASI, but the nonlinear saturation mechanism has never been elucidated. We investigate the role of parasitic instabilities as a possible cause of nonlinear SASI saturation. As the shock oscillations create both vorticity and entropy gradients, we show that both Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor types of instabilities are able to grow on a SASI mode if its amplitude is large enough. We obtain simple estimates of their growth rates, taking into account the effects of advection and entropy stratification. In the context of the advective-acoustic cycle, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate how the acoustic feedback can be decreased if a parasitic instability distorts the advected structure. The amplitude of the shock deformation is estimated analytically in this scenario. When applied to the set up of Fernandez and Thompson, this saturation mechanism is able to explain the dramatic decrease of the SASI power when both the nuclear dissociation energy and the cooling rate are varied. Our results open new perspectives for anticipating the effect, on the SASI amplitude, of the physical ingredients involved in the modeling of the collapsing star.

  4. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  5. Saturation and nucleation in hot nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deangelis, A.R.

    1990-07-01

    We investigate nuclear fragmentation in a supersaturated system using classical nucleation theory. This allows us to go outside the normally applied constraint of chemical equilibrium. The system is governed by a virial equation of state, which we use to find an expression for the density as a function of pressure and temperature. The evolution of the system is discussed in terms of the phase diagram. Corrections are included to account for the droplet surface and all charges contained in the system. Using this model we investigate and discuss the effects of temperature and saturation, and compare the results to those of other models of fragmentation. We also discuss the limiting temperatures of the system for the cases with and without chemical equilibrium. We find that large nuclei will be formed in saturated systems, even above the limiting temperature as previously defined. We also find that saturation and temperature dominate surface and Coulomb effects. The effects are quite large, thus even a qualitative inspection of the yields may give an indication of the conditions during fragmentation

  6. Multipactor saturation in parallel-plate waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorolla, E.; Mattes, M.

    2012-01-01

    The saturation stage of a multipactor discharge is considered of interest, since it can guide towards a criterion to assess the multipactor onset. The electron cloud under multipactor regime within a parallel-plate waveguide is modeled by a thin continuous distribution of charge and the equations of motion are calculated taking into account the space charge effects. The saturation is identified by the interaction of the electron cloud with its image charge. The stability of the electron population growth is analyzed and two mechanisms of saturation to explain the steady-state multipactor for voltages near above the threshold onset are identified. The impact energy in the collision against the metal plates decreases during the electron population growth due to the attraction of the electron sheet on the image through the initial plate. When this growth remains stable till the impact energy reaches the first cross-over point, the electron surface density tends to a constant value. When the stability is broken before reaching the first cross-over point the surface charge density oscillates chaotically bounded within a certain range. In this case, an expression to calculate the maximum electron surface charge density is found whose predictions agree with the simulations when the voltage is not too high.

  7. Mass transfer in water-saturated concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Claisse, P.A.; Harris, A.W.; Nickerson, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Cements and concretes are often considered as components of barriers for the containment of radioactive waste. The performance of such materials as mainly physical barriers to the transport of dissolved radionuclides depends on the mass transfer characteristics of the material. In particular the diffusion and sorption behavior of the radionuclides and the water permeability are important. These parameters also influence how the chemistry of the concrete is imposed on the repository. In addition, the transport of gas through concrete controls the way in which gases escape from the repository. Diffusion and gas transport have been measured in a variety of cementitious materials, covering both structural concretes and cementitious backfills; all possible repository construction materials. Measurements have been made using aqueous iodide, strontium and caesium ions and tritiated water as diffusants. The results show that the diffusion of tritiated water is more rapid than that of other species, whilst the transport of strontium and caesium is hindered by sorption; particularly in materials containing blast furnace slag. The transport of gas in these materials has been found to be very sensitive to the degree of water saturation and is extremely low in fully saturated structural concretes. Cementitious backfills have, nevertheless, been identified that have appreciable gas transport even when almost water saturated. The consequences of the results for the performance of cementitious barriers are discussed

  8. Correlação entre a resposta do algodoeiro à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases em vários tipos de solos do Estado de São Paulo Correlation between cotton responses to fertilizers and percentage of base saturation in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Geraldo Fuzatto

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available É discutido um aspecto da relação entre o efeito da adubação no algodoeiro e a análise química do solo, nas condições do Estado de São Paulo. Correlação entre a resposta à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases no solo, foi verificada no estudo de 126 experimentos, conduzidos em vários tipos de solo. Uma equação polinomial de 2.° grau, descreve a correlação obtida, com um coeficiente R = 0,676xx.In this paper, the correlation between cotton responses to fertilization, and percentage of base saturation in soils, in the State of São Paulo, is discussed. A second degree polynomial, based on data collected from 126 experiments, was found to fit the data satisfactorily, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.676xx. The results indicate the possibility of estimating the effects due to fertilization in cotton crops, by use of the mentioned chemical characteristic of soils.

  9. Development of an oxygen saturation measuring system by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K.; Nakamachi, E.; Morita, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the hypoxia imaging has been recognized as the advanced technique to detect cancers because of a strong relationship with the biological characterization of cancer. In previous studies, hypoxia imaging systems for endoscopic diagnosis have been developed. However, these imaging technologies using the visible light can observe only blood vessels in gastric mucous membrane. Therefore, they could not detect scirrhous gastric cancer which accounts for 10% of all gastric cancers and spreads rapidly into submucous membrane. To overcome this problem, we developed a measuring system of blood oxygen saturation in submucous membrane by using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR, which has high permeability for bio-tissues and high absorbency for hemoglobin, can image and observe blood vessels in submucous membrane. NIR system with LED lights and a CCD camera module was developed to image blood vessels. We measured blood oxygen saturation using the optical density ratio (ODR) of two wavelengths, based on Lambert-Beer law. To image blood vessel clearly and measure blood oxygen saturation accurately, we searched two optimum wavelengths by using a multilayer human gastric-like phantom which has same optical properties as human gastric one. By using Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation, we derived the relationship between the ODR and blood oxygen saturation and elucidated the influence of blood vessel depth on measuring blood oxygen saturation. The oxygen saturation measuring methodology was validated with experiments using our NIR system. Finally, it was confirmed that our system can detect oxygen saturation in various depth blood vessels accurately.

  10. Modeling of carbon sequestration in coal-beds: A variable saturated simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoxiang; Smirnov, Andrei V.

    2008-01-01

    Storage of carbon dioxide in deep coal seams is a profitable method to reduce the concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere while the methane as a byproduct can be extracted during carbon dioxide injection into the coal seam. In this procedure, the key element is to keep carbon dioxide in the coal seam without escaping for a long term. It is depended on many factors such as properties of coal basin, fracture state, phase equilibrium, etc., especially the porosity, permeability and saturation of the coal seam. In this paper, a variable saturation model was developed to predict the capacity of carbon dioxide sequestration and coal-bed methane recovery. This variable saturation model can be used to track the saturation variability with the partial pressures change caused by carbon dioxide injection. Saturation variability is a key factor to predict the capacity of carbon dioxide storage and methane recovery. Based on this variable saturation model, a set of related variables including capillary pressure, relative permeability, porosity, coupled adsorption model, concentration and temperature equations were solved. From results of the simulation, historical data agree with the variable saturation model as well as the adsorption model constructed by Langmuir equations. The Appalachian basin, as an example, modeled the carbon dioxide sequestration in this paper. The results of the study and the developed models can provide the projections for the CO 2 sequestration and methane recovery in coal-beds within different regional specifics

  11. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  12. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  13. Soil Quality of Restinga Forest: Organic Matter and Aluminum Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Almeida Filho, Jasse; Casagrande, José Carlos; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The restinga vegetation (sand coastal plain vegetation) consists of a mosaic of plant communities, which are defined by the characteristics of the substrates, resulting from the type and age of the depositional processes. This mosaic complex of vegetation types comprises restinga forest in advanced (high restinga) and medium regeneration stages (low restinga), each with particular differentiating vegetation characteristics. Of all ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest, restinga is the most fragile and susceptible to anthropic disturbances. The purpose of this study was evaluating the organic matter and aluminum saturation effects on soil quality index (SQI). Two locations were studied: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W), and State Park of Cardoso Island in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W). The soil samples were collect at a depth of 0-10 cm, where concentrate 70% of vegetation root system. Was studied an additive model to evaluate soil quality index. The shallow root system development occurs due to low calcium levels, whose disability limits their development, but also can reflect on delay, restriction or even in the failure of the development vegetation. The organic matter is kept in the soil restinga ecosystem by high acidity, which reduces the decomposition of soil organic matter, which is very poor in nutrients. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil, due to very high rainfall and sandy texture, resulting in high saturation values for aluminum. Considering the critical threshold to 3% organic matter and for aluminum saturation to 40%, the IQS ranged from 0.95 to 0.1 as increased aluminum saturation and decreased the soil organic matter, indicating the main limitation to the growth of plants in this type of soil, when deforested.

  14. State-Feedback Control for Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a state-feedback control method for fractional-order nonlinear systems subject to input saturation. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the asymptotical stability of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. Then based on Gronwall-Bellman lemma and a sector bounded condition of the saturation function, a linear state-feed back controller is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Fabrication of PDMS/SWCNT thin films as saturable absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Romano, I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; Davila-Rodriguez, J; Delfyett, P J; May-Arrioja, D A

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel technique to fabricate a saturable absorber thin film based on Polydimethylsiloxane doped with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes. Using this film a passive mode-locked fiber laser in a standard ring cavity configuration was built by inserting the film between two angled connectors. Self-starting passively mode-locked laser operation was easily observed. The generated pulses have a width of 1.26 ps at a repetition rate of 22.7 MHz with an average power of 4.89 mW.

  16. Differentiated-effect shims for medium field levels and saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richie, A.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement of shims on the upstream and downstream ends of magnets may be based on the independent effects of variations in the geometric length and degree of saturation at the edges of the poles. This technique can be used to match the bending strength of an accelerator's magnets at two field levels (medium fields and maximum fields) and thus save special procedures (mixing the laminations, local compensation for errors by arranging the magnets in the appropriate order) and special devices (for instance, correcting dipoles) solely for correcting bending strengths at low field levels. (Auth.)

  17. Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption for multilevel atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, T.J.; Scholten, R.E.; Farrell, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    We present the first theoretical saturated absorption spectra for general multi-level atoms, using a model based on extensions of the optical Bloch equations, and using Monte Carlo averaging of the absorption of individual atoms with random trajectories through a standing wave. We are for the first time able to accurately predict the merging of hyperfine and cross-over resonances due to intensity dependent phenomena such as power broadening. Results for 20-level sodium and 24-level rubidium models are presented and compared to experiment, demonstrating excellent agreement

  18. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H A; Amy, Gary L.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2011-01-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen

  19. Two novel Pb(II) coordination polymers (CPs) based on 4-(4-oxopyridin-1(4H)-yl) and 3-(4-oxopyridin-1(4H)-yl) phthalic acid: Band gaps, structures, and their photoelectrocatalytic properties in CO2-saturated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi Shuo; Long, Ji Ying; Gong, Yun; Lin, Jian Hua

    2018-05-01

    Based on 4-(4-oxopyridin-1(4H)-yl) phthalic acid (H2L1) and 3-(4-oxopyridin-1(4H)-yl) phthalic acid (H2L2), two novel Pb(II) coordination polymers (CPs) formulated as [Pb4Cl4·(L1)2·H2O]n (CP 1), [Pb3Cl4·L2·H2O]n (CP 2) were solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The two novel Pb(II) CPs (CPs 1 and 2) possessed different structures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed the two CPs had different band structures yet the characteristic of semiconductors in common. Their valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) positions were determined by Mott-Schottky and UV-visible diffuse reflectance analyses. The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the two CPs towards CO2 reduction were tested by photocurrent responses at various applied potentials. And the E =-1.4 V vs SCE (-0.74 V vs NHE) was selected as the required potential according to the regulation of photocurrent responses at various tested potentials in CO2-saturated system. The photoelectrocatalytic performance of CP 2 was superior to that of CP 1 owing to the well-matched CB position of CP 2 and CO2 reduction potentials at the required potential of -1.4 V vs SCE (-0.74 V vs NHE). In addition, the photoelectrolytic experiment were performed 1 h in the CO2-saturated 0.2 M Na2SO4 solution at the required potential of -1.4 V vs SCE (-0.74 V vs NHE) with and without illumination, and we initially demonstrated the influence of visible light in the CO2-saturated photoelectrocatalytic measurement system and the reason of stability in 1 h chronoamperometry.

  20. Automated agitation management accounting for saturation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, A D; Chase, J G; Shaw, G M; Lee, D

    2004-01-01

    Agitation-sedation cycling in critically ill is damaging to patient health and increases length of and cost. A physiologically representative model of the agitation-sedation system is used as a platform to evaluate feedback controllers offering improved agitation management. A heavy-derivative controller with upper and infusion rate bounds maintains minimum plasma concentrations through a low constant infusion, and minimizes outbursts of agitation through strong, timely boluses. controller provides improved agitation management using from 37 critically ill patients, given the saturation of effect at high concentration. Approval was obtained the Canterbury Ethics Board for this research.

  1. Modelling contaminant transport in saturated aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, V.; Nayak, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    With the increase in population and industrialization the problem of pollution of groundwater has become critical. The present study deals with modelling of pollutant transport through saturated aquifers. Using this model it is possible to predict the concentration distribution, spatial as well as temporal, in the aquifer. The paper also deals with one of the methods of controlling the pollutant movement, namely by pumping wells. A simulation model is developed to determine the number, location and rate of pumping of a number of wells near the source of pollution so that the concentration is within acceptable limits at the point of interest. (Author) (18 refs., 14 figs., tab.)

  2. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2015-01-01

    arguments and themes involved in the debates surrounding the introduction and the repeal. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An analysis of parliamentary debates, expert reports and media coverage; key informant interviews; and a review of studies about the effects of the tax on consumer behaviour. RESULTS: A tax......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Health promoters have repeatedly proposed using economic policy tools, taxes and subsidies, as a means of changing consumer behaviour. As the first country in the world, Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in 2011. It was repealed in 2012. In this paper, we present...... indicates that the tax was effective in changing consumer behaviour....

  3. Rectifier transformer saturation on commutation failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, E.; Bronner, G.

    1989-01-01

    The rectifier transformer's service differs from the power transformer's service because of the rectifier load. Under certain fault conditions, such as a commutation failure, d.c. magnetization may be introduced into the rectifier transformer cores, resulting in possible saturation of the magnetic circuit, thus in degradation of the performance of the transformer. It is the purpose of this paper to present an approach for evaluating the electromagnetic transient process under such a fault condition. The studies were made on the operating 1000MVA converter system at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

  4. Experimental observation of energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The gamma photons continue to soften in energy as the number of scatterings increases in the target having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions. The number of multiply scattered photons increases with an increase in target thickness, and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness known as saturation thickness (depth). The present measurements are carried out to study the energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons from targets of various thicknesses. The scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector placed at 90 deg. to the incident beam. We observe that the saturation thickness increases with increasing incident gamma photon energy. Monte Carlo calculations based upon the package developed by Bauer and Pattison [Compton scattering experiments at the HMI (1981), HMI-B 364, pp. 1-106] support the present experimental results

  5. Precise algorithm to generate random sequential adsorption of hard polygons at saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.

    2018-04-01

    Random sequential adsorption (RSA) is a time-dependent packing process, in which particles of certain shapes are randomly and sequentially placed into an empty space without overlap. In the infinite-time limit, the density approaches a "saturation" limit. Although this limit has attracted particular research interest, the majority of past studies could only probe this limit by extrapolation. We have previously found an algorithm to reach this limit using finite computational time for spherical particles and could thus determine the saturation density of spheres with high accuracy. In this paper, we generalize this algorithm to generate saturated RSA packings of two-dimensional polygons. We also calculate the saturation density for regular polygons of three to ten sides and obtain results that are consistent with previous, extrapolation-based studies.

  6. A demonstration experiment for studying the properties of saturated vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, Igor V.; Lebedeva, Olga V.; Polushkina, Svetlana V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper proposes an important demonstration experiment that can be used at secondary schools in physics. The described experiment helps students learn the main concepts of the topic ‘saturated vapor’, namely, evaporation, condensation, dynamic equilibrium, saturation vapor, partial pressure, and the dependence of saturated vapor pressure on temperature.

  7. In vivo detection of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and carboxyhemoglobin saturation with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-08-15

    A method for noninvasively detecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SCO) in subcutaneous microvasculature with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy is presented. Blood samples mixed with different concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin were used to test the feasibility and accuracy of photoacoustic microscopy compared with the blood-gas analyzer. Moreover, fixed-point detection of SO2 and SCO in mouse ear was obtained, and the changes from normoxia to carbon monoxide hypoxia were dynamically monitored in vivo. Experimental results demonstrate that multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy can detect SO2 and SCO, which has future potential clinical applications.

  8. Particle Correlations in Saturated QCD Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Baier, R; Nardi, M; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Baier, Rudolf; Kovner, Alex; Nardi, Marzia; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2005-01-01

    We study quantitatively angular correlations in the two-particle spectrum produced by an energetic probe scattering off a dense hadronic target with sizeable saturation momentum. To this end, two parton inclusive cross sections for arbitrary projectiles with small color charge density are derived in the eikonal formalism. Our results are the following: For large momenta of the observed particles, the perturbative limit with characteristic back-to-back correlation is recovered. As the trigger momenta get closer to the saturation scale Q_s, the angular distribution broadens. When the momenta are significantly smaller than Q_s, the azimuthal distribution is broad but still peaked back-to-back. However, in a narrow momentum range (0.5 - 1.5) Q_s, we observe that the azimuthal correlation splits into a double peak with maxima displaced away from 180 degree. We argue that it is the soft multiple scattering physics that is responsible for the appearance of this shift in the angle of maximal correlation. We also poin...

  9. Simulation of saturated tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh N.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-linear model, which includes the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, is developed for saturated tearing modes in order to compute magnetic island widths in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with arbitrary aspect ratio and cross-sectional shape. The model is tested in a simple stand-alone code and is implemented in the BALDUR [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1982)] predictive modeling code. It is found that the widths of tearing mode islands increase with decreasing aspect ratio and with increasing elongation. Also, the island widths increase when the gradient of the current density increases at the edge of the islands and when the current density inside the islands is suppressed, such as the suppression caused by the near absence of the bootstrap current within the islands. In simulations of tokamak discharges, it is found that tearing mode island widths oscillate in time in response to periodic sawtooth crashes. The local enhancements in the transport produced by magnetic islands have a noticeable effect on global plasma confinement in simulations of low aspect ratio, high beta tokamaks, where saturated tearing mode islands can occur with widths that are greater than 15% of the plasma minor radius

  10. Thermal effects on tearing mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of geometry on tearing modes, saturated states of tearing modes, and the thermal effect on tearing modes are presented. The configuration of current and magnetic fields are quite different in slabs and in Tokamaks. However, for any magnetic island regardless of geometry and heating conditions, at island saturation the product of resistivity and current is the same at magnetic O and X lines. The temperature perturbation effect on the nonlinear development of tearing modes is investigated. Thermal conduction along the field lines is much faster than that in the perpendicular direction, and thus the temperature profile follows the island structure. Utilizing Spitzer's conductivity relation, the temperature perturbation is modelled as helical components of resistivity. For a usual tearing mode unstable Tokamak, where shear is positive, the islands continue to grow to a larger size when the islands are cooled. When they are heated, the island sizes are reduced. The temperature perturbation can induce islands even for equilibria stable with respect to tearing modes. Again, the islands appear when cooling takes place. The equilibria with the cooled islands show enhanced field line stochasticity, thus enhanced heat transport. Therefore, thermal instability can be directly related to pressure disruptions. (author)

  11. Facilitated transport near the carrier saturation limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Sungpet

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Permeation of ethylbenzene, styrene and 1-hexene through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes was carried out with the feed concentrations ranging from 1 M to pure. On comparison, fluxes of ethylbenzene through the Ag+-form membrane were the lowest. Only a small increase in ethylbenzene flux was observed after the feed concentration exceeded 3 M, indicating the existence of carrier saturation. The increase in styrene flux was suppressed to some degree at high concentration driving forces. In contrast, 1-hexene flux was the highest and continued to increase even at very high feed concentrations. After the experiments with pure feeds, extraction of the solutes from the membranes revealed that 62.5% of Ag+ ions reacted with 1-hexene as against 40.6% for styrene and 28.9% for ethylbenzene. Equilibrium constants, determined by distribution method, of 1-hexene, styrene and ethylbenzene were 129, 2.2 and 0.7 M-1 respectively, which suggested that stability of the complex was a key factor in the carrier saturation phenomenon.

  12. Salt-saturated concrete strength and permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments applicable to the use of salt-saturated concrete as a seal material for a transuranic waste repository have been completed. Nitrogen gas permeability measurements were made using a flexible-wall permeameter, a confining pressure of 1 MPa, and gas pressure gradients ranging from 0.3 MPa to 0.75 MPa. Results show that salt-saturated concrete has very low intrinsic permeability with values ranging from 9.4 x 10 -22 m 2 to 9.7 x 10 -17 m 2 . Strength and deformation characteristics were investigated under conditions of triaxial compression with confining pressures ranging from 0 to 15 MPa using either axial strain-rate or axial stress-rate control and show that the failure strength of concrete increases with confining pressure which can be adequately described through pressure-sensitive failure criteria. Axial, radial, and volumetric strains were also measured during each test and these data were used to determine elastic properties. Experimental results are applicable in the design and analysis of scale-related functions and apply to other concrete structures subjected to compressive loadings such as dams and prestressed structural members

  13. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    Liquefaction is loss of shear strength in fully saturated loose sands caused by build-up of excess pore water pressure, during moderate to large earthquakes, leading to catastrophic failures of structures. Currently used liquefaction mitigation measures are often costly and cannot be applied at sites with existing structures. An innovative, practical, and cost effective liquefaction mitigation technique titled "Induced Partial Saturation" (IPS) was developed by researchers at Northeastern University. The IPS technique is based on injection of sodium percarbonate solution into fully saturated liquefaction susceptible sand. Sodium percarbonate dissolves in water and breaks down into sodium and carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide which generates oxygen gas bubbles. Oxygen gas bubbles become trapped in sand pores and therefore decrease the degree of saturation of the sand, increase the compressibility of the soil, thus reduce its potential for liquefaction. The implementation of IPS required the development and validation of a monitoring and evaluation technique that would help ensure that the sands are indeed partially saturated. This dissertation focuses on this aspect of the IPS research. The monitoring system developed was based on using electric conductivity fundamentals and probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, calculate degree of saturation of sand, and determine the final zone of partial saturation created by IPS. To understand the fundamentals of electric conductivity, laboratory bench-top tests were conducted using electric conductivity probes and small specimens of Ottawa sand. Bench-top tests were used to study rate of generation of gas bubbles due to reaction of sodium percarbonate solution in sand, and to confirm a theory based on which degree of saturation were calculated. In addition to bench-top tests, electric conductivity probes were used in a relatively large sand specimen prepared in a specially manufactured glass tank. IPS was

  14. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. KELLER

    2004-01-01

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  15. Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J.; Zhang, M.; Guo, Z.; Chen, J.; Zhu, X.; Hu, G.; Peng, P.; Zheng, Z.; Zhang, H.

    2017-01-01

    We fabricate ultrasmall phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with an average size of 2.6 ± 0.9 nm using a liquid exfoliation method involving ultrasound probe sonication followed by bath sonication. By coupling the as-prepared PQDs with microfiber evanescent light field, the PQD-based saturable absorber (SA) device exhibits ultrafast nonlinear saturable absorption property, with an optical modulation depth of 8.1% at the telecommunication band. With the integration of the all-fiber PQD-based SA, a continuous-wave passively mode-locked erbium-doped (Er-doped) laser cavity delivers stable, self-starting pulses with a pulse duration of 0.88 ps and at the cavity repetition rate of 5.47 MHz. Our results contribute to the growing body of work studying the nonlinear optical properties of ultrasmall PQDs that present new opportunities of this two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial for future ultrafast photonic technologies. PMID:28211471

  16. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy by stepwise optical saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yide; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Vigil, Genevieve D.; Khan, Aamir A.; Mason, Devon E.; Boerckel, Joel D.; Roeder, Ryan K.; Howard, Scott S.

    2018-01-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in biomedical research for its ability to discern features smaller than the diffraction limit. However, due to its difficult implementation and high cost, the super-resolution microscopy is not feasible in many applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a saturation-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that can be easily implemented and requires neither additional hardware nor complex post-processing. The method is based on the principle of stepwise optical saturation (SOS), where M steps of raw fluorescence images are linearly combined to generate an image with a M-fold increase in resolution compared with conventional diffraction-limited images. For example, linearly combining (scaling and subtracting) two images obtained at regular powers extends the resolution by a factor of 1.4 beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution improvement in SOS microscopy is theoretically infinite but practically is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio. We perform simulations and experimentally demonstrate super-resolution microscopy with both one-photon (confocal) and multiphoton excitation fluorescence. We show that with the multiphoton modality, the SOS microscopy can provide super-resolution imaging deep in scattering samples. PMID:29675306

  17. Energy dependent saturable and reverse saturable absorption in cube-like polyaniline/polymethyl methacrylate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekkayil, Remyamol [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Gopinath, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India)

    2014-08-01

    Solid films of cube-like polyaniline synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization method have been fabricated in a transparent PMMA host by an in situ free radical polymerization technique, and are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties are studied by open aperture Z-scan technique employing 5 ns (532 nm) and 100 fs (800 nm) laser pulses. At the relatively lower laser pulse energy of 5 μJ, the film shows saturable absorption both in the nanosecond and femtosecond excitation domains. An interesting switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed at 532 nm when the energy of the nanosecond laser pulses is increased. The nonlinear absorption coefficient increases with increase in polyaniline concentration, with low optical limiting threshold, as required for a good optical limiter. - Highlights: • Synthesized cube-like polyaniline nanostructures. • Fabricated polyaniline/PMMA nanocomposite films. • At 5 μJ energy, saturable absorption is observed both at ns and fs regime. • Switchover from SA to RSA is observed as energy of laser beam increases. • Film (0.1 wt % polyaniline) shows high β{sub eff} (230 cm GW{sup −1}) and low limiting threshold at 150 μJ.

  18. Simulation of the saturation process of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Clouard, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of the saturation of the barrier and the plug of a storage cell by the surrounding host rock. Generally speaking, the unsaturated barrier and plug start saturating immediately in the vicinity of the quasi-saturated host rock. Then the saturation front propagates towards the canisters and the symmetry axis. Apart from the part in contact with the plug, the barrier is saturated at about 30 years. The part of the barrier near the plug is saturated around 80 years. If the top of the plug is saturated very soon, the part in the corner near the gallery and the symmetry axis is not completely saturated after 100 years. In the site, we observe a small desaturation during the first month, at the limit with the plug and the barrier, and especially in the corner limited by both FoCa clay pieces. This transient phenomenon may be assigned to the time difference between the immediate suction of water by the unsaturated materials and the delayed water flows coming from the saturated host rock to compensate the water suction. The purpose of this computation was at once to estimate the time necessary for the saturation of the clay layers surrounding the radwaste canisters and to evaluate the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the storage cell during the saturation process. Therefore a mechanical simulation was performed using the present hydraulic results to initiate the mechanical computation. (authors)

  19. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γLcase of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  20. Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain

    2016-07-01

    We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.

  1. Brief communication: Self-reported health and activity habits and attitudes in saturation divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; Deb, Sanjoy; Stephen, Graeme; Swinton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to the confined hyperbaric, hyperoxic environment of the saturation chamber poses a number of unique physiological challenges to divers. Appropriately tailored training, nutrition and health programs may help support the body to cope with and overcome these challenges. To describe the self-reported habits and attitudes of saturation divers toward issues related to health, lifestyle, nutrition and physical activity. A questionnaire was developed to elicit information related to four key areas: 1) respondent demographics; 2) physical activity habits and attitudes; 3) nutritional attitudes; and 4) general lifestyle and health information. Respondents (n = 89/45%) reported a generally healthy lifestyle, including high physical activity levels while onshore, low tobacco use and alcohol intakes within U.K.-recommended guidelines. Responses to in-chamber items demonstrated reduced physical activity, disrupted sleep and distorted taste and smell perception. In addition, lethargy, headaches and musculoskeletal stiffness/soreness were reported as frequent symptoms following a period of time spent in saturation. Results of this study provide an in-sight into the self-reported practices and attitudes of saturation divers and appear to indicate a generally healthy lifestyle in the respondents. Some themes emerged which may impact on diver health and performance while in saturation. The results of this report may help provide a platform to generate hypotheses for further research and facilitate development of appropriately tailored nutrition and training-based strategies for saturation divers.

  2. Acoustic and mechanical response of reservoir rocks under variable saturation and effective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzoli, C L; Santos, J E; Carcione, J M

    2003-04-01

    We investigate the acoustic and mechanical properties of a reservoir sandstone saturated by two immiscible hydrocarbon fluids, under different saturations and pressure conditions. The modeling of static and dynamic deformation processes in porous rocks saturated by immiscible fluids depends on many parameters such as, for instance, porosity, permeability, pore fluid, fluid saturation, fluid pressures, capillary pressure, and effective stress. We use a formulation based on an extension of Biot's theory, which allows us to compute the coefficients of the stress-strain relations and the equations of motion in terms of the properties of the single phases at the in situ conditions. The dry-rock moduli are obtained from laboratory measurements for variable confining pressures. We obtain the bulk compressibilities, the effective pressure, and the ultrasonic phase velocities and quality factors for different saturations and pore-fluid pressures ranging from normal to abnormally high values. The objective is to relate the seismic and ultrasonic velocity and attenuation to the microstructural properties and pressure conditions of the reservoir. The problem has an application in the field of seismic exploration for predicting pore-fluid pressures and saturation regimes.

  3. Saturation of DNA repair in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, F E; Setlow, R B

    1979-01-01

    Excision repair seems to reach a plateau in normal human cells at a 254 nm dose near 20 J/m/sup 2/. We measured excision repair in normal human fibroblasts up to 80 J/m/sup 2/. The four techniques used (unscheduled DNA synthesis, photolysis of BrdUrd incorporated during repair, loss of sites sensitive to a UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, and loss of pyrimidine dimers from DNA) showed little difference between the two doses. Moreover, the loss of endonuclease sites in 24h following two 20 J/m/sup 2/ doses separated by 24h was similar to the loss observed following one dose. Hence, we concluded that the observed plateau in excision repair is real and does not represent some inhibitory process at high doses but a true saturation of one of the rate limiting steps in repair.

  4. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on saturated...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done...... with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax....

  5. Relative Humidity in the Tropopause Saturation Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Pfister, L.; Thornberry, T. D.; Bui, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    The tropical tropopause separates two very different atmospheric regimes: the stable lower stratosphere where the air is both extremely dry and nearly always so, and a transition layer in the uppermost tropical troposphere, where humidity on average increases rapidly downward but can undergo substantial temporal fluctuations. The processes that control the humidity in this layer below the tropopause include convective detrainment (which can result in either a net hydration or dehydration), slow ascent, wave motions and advection. Together these determine the humidity of the air that eventually passes through the tropopause and into the stratosphere, and we refer to this layer as the tropopause saturation layer or TSL. We know from in situ water vapor observations such as Ticosonde's 12-year balloonsonde record at Costa Rica that layers of supersaturation are frequently observed in the TSL. While their frequency is greatest during the local rainy season from June through October, supersaturation is also observed in the boreal winter dry season when deep convection is well south of Costa Rica. In other words, local convection is not a necessary condition for the presence of supersaturation. Furthermore, there are indications from airborne measurements during the recent POSIDON campaign at Guam that if anything deep convection tends to `reset' the TSL locally to a state of just-saturation. Conversely, it may be that layers of supersaturation are the result of slow ascent. To explore these ideas we take Ticosonde water vapor observations from the TSL, stratify them on the basis of relative humidity and report on the differences in the the history of upstream convective influence between supersaturated parcels and those that are not.

  6. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  7. Thermal characteristic test for saturated temperature type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Motoji; Someya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Ohuchi, Mitsuo; Harayama, Yasuo

    1989-08-01

    The Japan Material Testing Reactor Project is developing a new type capsule so-called 'Saturated Temperature Capsule', as a part of irradiation technique improvement program. This type capsule, in which the water is supplied and boiled, bases on the conception of keeping the coolant at the saturated temperature and facilitating the temperature setting of specimens heated by gamma-ray in reactor. However, out-pile test was planned, because there were few usable data for design and operation of the capsule into which the coolant was injected. A out-pile apparatus, simulated the capsule with electric heaters, was fabricated and experiments were carried out, to obtain data concerning design and operation for the capsule into which the water was injected. As a structure of simulated capsule, a type of downward coolant supply was adopted. The downward coolant tube type injectes the water in the bottom of capsule by tube through the upper flange. Major objects of experiences were to grasp thermal features under operation and to provide performances of capsule control equipment. Experimental results proved that the temperature of water within the capsule was easily varied by controlling supply water flow rate, and that the control equipment was operated stably and safety. (author)

  8. Tuning Confinement in Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals with Saturated Surface Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neale, Nathan R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carroll, Gerard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Limpens, Rens [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-16

    The optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are a subject of intense study and continued debate. In particular, Si NC photoluminescence (PL) properties are known to depend strongly on the surface chemistry, resulting in electron-hole recombination pathways derived from the Si NC band-edge, surface-state defects, or combined NC-conjugated ligand hybrid states. In this Letter, we perform a comparison of three different saturated surface functional groups - alkyls, amides, and alkoxides - on nonthermal plasma-synthesized Si NCs. We find a systematic and size-dependent high-energy (blue) shift in the PL spectrum of Si NCs with amide and alkoxy functionalization relative to alkyl. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies reveal no change in the excited-state dynamics between Si NCs functionalized with alkyl, amide, or alkoxide ligands, showing for the first time that saturated ligands - not only surface-derived charge-transfer states or hybridization between NC and low-lying ligand orbitals - are responsible for tuning the Si NC optical properties. To explain these PL shifts we propose that the atom bound to the Si NC surface strongly interacts with the Si NC electronic wave function and modulates the Si NC quantum confinement. These results reveal a potentially broadly applicable correlation between the optoelectronic properties of Si NCs and related quantum-confined structures based on the interaction between NC surfaces and the ligand binding group.

  9. Flow and fracture in water-saturated, unconstrained granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán eVaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The injection of gas in a liquid-saturated granular bed gives rise to a wide variety of invasion patterns. Many studies have focused on constrained porous media, in which the grains are fixed in the bed and only the interstitial fluid flows when the gas invades the system. With a free upper boundary, however, the grains can be entrained by the ascending gas or fluid motion, and the competition between the upward motion of grains and sedimentation leads to new patterns. We propose a brief review of the experimental investigation of the dynamics of air rising through a water-saturated, unconstrained granular bed, in both two and three dimensions. After describing the invasion pattern at short and long time, a tentative regime-diagram is proposed. We report original results showing a dependence of the fluidized zone shape, at long times, on the injection flow rate and grain size. A method based on image analysis makes it possible to detect not only the fluidized zone profile in the stationary regime, but also to follow the transient dynamics of its formation. Finally, we describe the degassing dynamics inside the fluidized zone, in the stationary regime. Depending on the experimental conditions, regular bubbling, continuous degassing, intermittent regime or even spontaneous flow-to-fracture transition are observed.

  10. Tuning Confinement in Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals with Saturated Surface Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gerard M; Limpens, Rens; Neale, Nathan R

    2018-05-09

    The optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are a subject of intense study and continued debate. In particular, Si NC photoluminescence (PL) properties are known to depend strongly on the surface chemistry, resulting in electron-hole recombination pathways derived from the Si NC band-edge, surface-state defects, or combined NC-conjugated ligand hybrid states. In this Letter, we perform a comparison of three different saturated surface functional groups-alkyls, amides, and alkoxides-on nonthermal plasma-synthesized Si NCs. We find a systematic and size-dependent high-energy (blue) shift in the PL spectrum of Si NCs with amide and alkoxy functionalization relative to alkyl. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies reveal no change in the excited-state dynamics between Si NCs functionalized with alkyl, amide, or alkoxide ligands, showing for the first time that saturated ligands-not only surface-derived charge-transfer states or hybridization between NC and low-lying ligand orbitals-are responsible for tuning the Si NC optical properties. To explain these PL shifts we propose that the atom bound to the Si NC surface strongly interacts with the Si NC electronic wave function and modulates the Si NC quantum confinement. These results reveal a potentially broadly applicable correlation between the optoelectronic properties of Si NCs and related quantum-confined structures based on the interaction between NC surfaces and the ligand binding group.

  11. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  12. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  13. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  14. Electrical conductivity modeling in fractal non-saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W.; Cai, J.; Hu, X.; Han, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The variety of electrical conductivity in non-saturated conditions is important to study electric conduction in natural sedimentary rocks. The electrical conductivity in completely saturated porous media is a porosity-function representing the complex connected behavior of single conducting phases (pore fluid). For partially saturated conditions, the electrical conductivity becomes even more complicated since the connectedness of pore. Archie's second law is an empirical electrical conductivity-porosity and -saturation model that has been used to predict the formation factor of non-saturated porous rock. However, the physical interpretation of its parameters, e.g., the cementation exponent m and the saturation exponent n, remains questionable. On basis of our previous work, we combine the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model to build an electrical conductivity model in non-saturated porous media. Our theoretical porosity- and saturation-dependent models contain endmember properties, such as fluid electrical conductivities, pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension (representing the complex degree of electrical flowing path). We find the presented model with non-saturation-dependent electrical conductivity datasets indicate excellent match between theory and experiments. This means the value of pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension change from medium to medium and depends not only on geometrical properties of pore structure but also characteristics of electrical current flowing in the non-saturated porous media.

  15. Collector modulation in high-voltage bipolar transistor in the saturation mode: Analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. P.; Gert, A. V.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    A simple analytical model is developed, capable of replacing the numerical solution of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations by solving a simple algebraic equation when analyzing the collector resistance modulation of a bipolar transistor in the saturation mode. In this approach, the leakage of the base current into the emitter and the recombination of non-equilibrium carriers in the base are taken into account. The data obtained are in good agreement with the results of numerical calculations and make it possible to describe both the motion of the front of the minority carriers and the steady state distribution of minority carriers across the collector in the saturation mode.

  16. Analysis of an SEIR Epidemic Model with Saturated Incidence and Saturated Treatment Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of SEIR epidemic model with saturated incidence rate and saturated treatment function are explored in this paper. The basic reproduction number that determines disease extinction and disease survival is given. The existing threshold conditions of all kinds of the equilibrium points are obtained. Sufficient conditions are established for the existence of backward bifurcation. The local asymptotical stability of equilibrium is verified by analyzing the eigenvalues and using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. We also discuss the global asymptotical stability of the endemic equilibrium by autonomous convergence theorem. The study indicates that we should improve the efficiency and enlarge the capacity of the treatment to control the spread of disease. Numerical simulations are presented to support and complement the theoretical findings.

  17. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  18. H∞ control for uncertain linear system over networks with Bernoulli data dropout and actuator saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jimin; Yang, Chenchen; Tang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ping

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the H ∞ control problems for uncertain linear system over networks with random communication data dropout and actuator saturation. The random data dropout process is modeled by a Bernoulli distributed white sequence with a known conditional probability distribution and the actuator saturation is confined in a convex hull by introducing a group of auxiliary matrices. By constructing a quadratic Lyapunov function, effective conditions for the state feedback-based H ∞ controller and the observer-based H ∞ controller are proposed in the form of non-convex matrix inequalities to take the random data dropout and actuator saturation into consideration simultaneously, and the problem of non-convex feasibility is solved by applying cone complementarity linearization (CCL) procedure. Finally, two simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new design techniques. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain. Importantly, though, people eat foods, not isolated fatty acids. Some food sources of SFAs may pose no risk for CHD or possibly even be protective. Advice to reduce saturated fat in the diet without regard to nuances about LDL, SFAs, or dietary sources could actually increase people's risk of CHD. When saturated fats are replaced with refined carbohydrates, and specifically with added sugars (like sucrose or high fructose corn syrup), the end result is not favorable for heart health. Such replacement leads to changes in LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides that may increase the risk of CHD. Additionally, diets high in sugar may induce many other abnormalities associated with elevated CHD risk, including elevated levels of glucose, insulin, and uric acid, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin and leptin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and altered platelet function. A diet high in added sugars has been found to cause a 3-fold increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, but sugars, like saturated fats, are a diverse class of compounds. The monosaccharide, fructose, and fructose-containing sweeteners (e.g., sucrose) produce greater degrees of metabolic abnormalities than does glucose (either isolated as a monomer, or in chains as starch

  20. Empirical algorithms to predict aragonite saturation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Daniela; Dowd, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Novel sensor packages deployed on autonomous platforms (Profiling Floats, Gliders, Moorings, SeaCycler) and biogeochemical models have a potential to increase the coverage of a key water chemistry variable, aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) in time and space, in particular in the under sampled regions of global ocean. However, these do not provide the set of inorganic carbon measurements commonly used to derive ΩAr. There is therefore a need to develop regional predictive models to determine ΩAr from measurements of commonly observed or/and non carbonate oceanic variables. Here, we investigate predictive skill of several commonly observed oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate) in determining ΩAr using climatology and shipboard data. This will allow us to assess potential for autonomous sensors and biogeochemical models to monitor ΩAr regionally and globally. We apply the regression models to several time series data sets and discuss regional differences and their implications for global estimates of ΩAr.

  1. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R.; Li, Y.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Shlyaptsev, N.

    2000-01-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 (micro)J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p transition at 147 (angstrom) with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output

  2. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ

  3. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions. (paper)

  4. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  5. A preliminary study on method of saturated curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Liguo; Chen Yan; Ao Qi; Li Huijuan

    1987-01-01

    It is an effective method to determine directly the absorption coefficient of sample with the matrix effect correction. The absorption coefficient is calculated using the relation of the characteristic X-ray intensity with the thickness of samples (saturated curve). The method explains directly the feature of the sample and the correction of the enhanced effect in certain condition. The method is not as same as the usual one in which the determination of the absorption coefficient of sample is based on the procedure of absorption of X-ray penetrating sample. The sensitivity factor KI 0 is discussed. The idea of determinating KI o by experiment and quasi-absoluted measurement of absorption coefficient μ are proposed. The experimental results with correction in different condition are shown

  6. Advanced Takagi‒Sugeno fuzzy systems delay and saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    This monograph puts the reader in touch with a decade’s worth of new developments in the field of fuzzy control specifically those of the popular Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) type. New techniques for stabilizing control analysis and design based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), are proposed. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures and a rich bibliography is provided for further investigation. Control saturations are taken into account within the fuzzy model. The concept of positive invariance is used to obtain sufficient asymptotic stability conditions for the fuzzy system with constrained control inside a subset of the state space. The authors also consider the non-negativity of the states. This is of practical importance in many chemical, physical and biological processes that involve quantities that have intrinsically constant and non-negative sign: concentration of substances, level of liquids, etc. Results for linear systems are then extended to l...

  7. Standing torsional waves in a fully saturated, porous, circular cylinder

    CERN Document Server

    Solorza, S; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02198.x

    2004-01-01

    For dynamic measurement of the elastic moduli of a porous material saturated with viscous fluid using the resonance-bar technique, one also observes attenuation. In this article we have carried out the solution of the boundary-value problem associated with standing torsional oscillations of a finite, poroelastic, circular cylinder cast in the framework of volume-averaged theory of poroelasticity. Analysing this solution by eigenvalue perturbation approach we are able to develop expressions for torsional resonance and temporal attenuation frequencies in which the dependence upon the material properties are transparent. It shows how the attenuation is controlled by the permeability and the fluid properties, and how the resonance frequency drops over its value for the dry solid-frame due to the drag effect of fluid mass. Based upon this work we have a firm basis to determine solid-frame shear modulus, permeability, and tortuosity factor from torsional oscillation experiments.

  8. SATURATION OF MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY THROUGH MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, F.; Prager, S. C.; Schnack, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    The saturation mechanism of magnetorotational instability (MRI) is examined through analytical quasi-linear theory and through nonlinear computation of a single mode in a rotating disk. We find that large-scale magnetic field is generated through the α-effect (the correlated product of velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) and causes the MRI mode to saturate. If the large-scale plasma flow is allowed to evolve, the mode can also saturate through its flow relaxation. In astrophysical plasmas, for which the flow cannot relax because of gravitational constraints, the mode saturates through field generation only.

  9. The role of meson dynamics in nuclear matter saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, E.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the saturation of nuclea matter in the non-relativistic limit of the model proposed by J.D. Walecka is studied. In the original context nuclear matter saturation is obtained as a direct consequence of relativistic effects and both scalar and vector mesons are treated statically. In the present work we investigate the effect of the meson dynamics for the saturation using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the ground state. An upper limit for the saturation curve of nuclear matter and are able to decide now essential is the relativistic treatment of the nucleons for this problem, is obtained. (author) [pt

  10. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma

    2017-01-01

    saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.49, p = 0.023), but no significant correlations could be demonstrated with frontal and whole brain cerebral blood flow. These results suggest that measuring oxygen saturation by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation is feasible, even in neonates. Strong...... sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (R(2 )= 0.64, p ..., and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p 

  11. Sulfur concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) in magmatic silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Samaha, Naji-Tom; Baker, Don R.

    2007-04-01

    The sulfur concentration in silicate melts at sulfide saturation (SCSS) was experimentally investigated in a temperature range from 1150 to 1450 °C and a pressure range from 500 MPa to 1 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The investigated melt compositions varied from rhyolitic to basaltic and water concentrations varied from 0 to ˜9 wt%. All experiments were saturated with FeS melt or pyrrhotite crystals. Temperature was confirmed to have a positive effect on the SCSS. Experimental oxygen fugacities were either near the carbon-carbon monoxide buffer or one log unit above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer, and found to positively affect the SCSS. Combining our results with data from the literature we constructed a model to predict the SCSS in melts ranging in composition from komatiitic to rhyolitic, with water concentrations from 0 to 9 wt%, at pressures from 1 bar to 9 GPa and oxygen fugacities between ˜2 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer to ˜2 log units above it. The coefficients were obtained by multiple linear regression of experimental data and the best model found for the prediction of the SCSS is: ln(Sinppm)=11.35251-{4454.6}/{T}-0.03190{P}/{T}+0.71006ln(MFM)-1.98063[(MFM)(XO)]+0.21867ln(XO)+0.36192lnX where P is in bar, T is in K, MFM is a compositional parameter describing the melt based upon cation mole fractions: MFM={Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)}/{Si×(Al+Fe)}, XO is the mole fraction of water in the melt, and X is the mole fraction of FeO in the melt. This model was independently tested against experiments performed on anhydrous and hydrous melts in the temperature range from 800 to 1800 °C and 1-9 GPa. The model typically predicts the measured values of the natural log of the SCSS (in ppm) for komatiitic to rhyolitic (˜42 to ˜74 wt% SiO 2) melts to within 5% relative, but is less accurate for high-silica (>76 wt% SiO 2) rhyolites, especially those with molar ratios of iron to sulfur below 2. We demonstrate how this model can be used with

  12. Can Polyphosphate Biochemistry Affect Biological Apatite Saturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, S. J.; Matsuura, N.; Gorelikov, I.; Wynnyckyj, C.; Grynpas, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important and limiting element for life. One strategy for storing ortho phosphates (Pi) is polymerization. Polymerized Pi's (polyphosphates: (PO3-)n: polyPs) serve as a Pi bank, as well as a catiion chelator, energy source, & regulator of responses to stresses in the stationary phase of culture growth and development1. PolyP biochemistry has been investigated in yeasts, bacteria & plants2. Bigeochemical cycling of P includes the condensation of Pi into pyro (P2O7-4), & polyPs, & the release of Pi from these compounds by the hydrolytic degradation of Pi from phosphomonoester bonds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the predominate enzymes for regenerating Pi in aquatic systems3, & it cleaves Pi from polyPs. ALP is also the enzyme associated with apatite biomineralization in vertebrates4. PolyP was proposed to be the ALP substrate in bone mineralization5. Where calcium ions are plentiful in many aquatic environments, there is no requirement for aquatic life to generate Ca-stores. However, terrestrial vertebrates benefit from a bioavailable Ca-store such as apatite. The Pi storage strategy of polymerizing PO4-3 into polyPs dovetails well with Ca-banking, as polyPs sequester Ca, forming a neutral calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP: (Ca(PO3)2)n) complex. This neutral complex represents a high total [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], without the threat of inadvertent apatite precipitation, as the free [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], and therefore apatite saturation, are zero. Recent identification of polyP in regions of bone resorption & calcifying cartilage5 suggests that vertebrates may use polyP chemistry to bank Ca+2 and PO4-3. In vitro experiments with nanoparticulate Ca-polyP & ALP were undertaken to determine if carbonated apatite could precipitate from 1M Ca-polyP in Pi-free “physiological fluid” (0.1 M NaCl, 2 mM Ca+2, 0.8 mM Mg+2, pH ~8.0 ±0.5, 37 °C), as this is estimated to generate the [Ca+2] & [PO4-3] required to form the apatite content of bone tissue

  13. A new method for calculating gas saturation of low-resistivity shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jiaoshiba shale gas field is located in the Fuling area of the Sichuan Basin, with the Upper Ordovician Wufeng–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm as the pay zone. At the bottom of the pay zone, a high-quality shale gas reservoir about 20 m thick is generally developed with high organic contents and gas abundance, but its resistivity is relatively low. Accordingly, the gas saturation calculated by formulas (e.g. Archie using electric logging data is often much lower than the experiment-derived value. In this paper, a new method was presented for calculating gas saturation more accurately based on non-electric logging data. Firstly, the causes for the low resistivity of shale gas reservoirs in this area were analyzed. Then, the limitation of traditional methods for calculating gas saturation based on electric logging data was diagnosed, and the feasibility of the neutron–density porosity overlay method was illustrated. According to the response characteristics of neutron, density and other porosity logging in shale gas reservoirs, a model for calculating gas saturation of shale gas was established by core experimental calibration based on the density logging value, the density porosity and the difference between density porosity and neutron porosity, by means of multiple methods (e.g. the dual-porosity overlay method by optimizing the best overlay coefficient. This new method avoids the effect of low resistivity, and thus can provide normal calculated gas saturation of high-quality shale gas reservoirs. It works well in practical application. This new method provides a technical support for the calculation of shale gas reserves in this area. Keywords: Shale gas, Gas saturation, Low resistivity, Non-electric logging, Volume density, Compensated neutron, Overlay method, Reserves calculation, Sichuan Basin, Jiaoshiba shale gas field

  14. Trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability and electrostatic harmonic excitation in Earth's foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability is discussed using electron plasma Vlasov simulation results. The role of electrostatic harmonic excitation is considered in detail and shown to play a decisive role in the saturation of the instability. An extensive discussion of the simulation results is given to show that the results are not significantly limited by the finite number of Fourier modes used nor by the discrete distribution of those modes in wave number. It is argued that in the leading edge of Earth's electron foreshock a narrow wave number band of unstable field modes leads to trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability while simultaneously exciting electrostatic plasma waves at harmonics of the plasma frequency in simialr narrow bands of shorter wavelengths. The argument is based (1) on the observations of Lacombe et al. (1985), who found intense plasma waves at the leading edge of the foreshock with a spectral distribution sufficiently narrow to trap particles in resonance with the waves, and (2) on numerical simulations of the foreshock electron plasma which indicate that trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability leads to phase space vortex formation with consequent excitation of electrostatic harmonics. Thus it is suggested that observations of electrostatic harmonics in the leading edge of the foreshock would strongly implicate trapping as the saturation mechanism for the bump-on-tail instability in that region

  15. Effects of the Strain Rate Sensitivity and Strain Hardening on the Saturated Impulse of Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the stiffening effects of the material strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening on the saturated impulse of elastic, perfectly plastic plates. Finite element (FE code ABAQUS is employed to simulate the elastoplastic response of square plates under rectangular pressure pulse. Rigid-plastic analyses for saturated impulse, which consider strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening, are conducted. Satisfactory agreement between the finite element models (FEM and predictions of the rigid-plastic analysis is obtained, which verifies that the proposed rigid-plastic methods are effective to solve the problem including strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening. The quantitative results for the scale effect of the strain rate sensitivity are given. The results for the stiffening effects suggest that two general stiffening factors n 1 and n 2, which characterizes the strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening effect, respectively can be defined. The saturated displacement is inversely proportional to the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2 and saturated impulse is inversely proportional to the square roots of the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2. Formulae for displacement and saturated impulse are proposed based on the empirical analysis.

  16. The decision optimization of product development by considering the customer demand saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-song Xing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of over meeting customer demands on the product development process, which is on the basis of the quantitative model of customer demands, development cost and time. Then propose the corresponding product development optimization decision. Design/methodology/approach: First of all, investigate to obtain the customer demand information, and then quantify customer demands weights by using variation coefficient method. Secondly, analyses the relationship between customer demands and product development time and cost based on the quality function deployment and establish corresponding mathematical model. On this basis, put forward the concept of customer demand saturation and optimization decision method of product development, and then apply it in the notebook development process of a company. Finally, when customer demand is saturated, it also needs to prove the consistency of strengthening satisfies customer demands and high attention degree customer demands, and the stability of customer demand saturation under different parameters. Findings: The development cost and the time will rise sharply when over meeting the customer demand. On the basis of considering the customer demand saturation, the relationship between customer demand and development time cost is quantified and balanced. And also there is basically consistent between the sequence of meeting customer demands and customer demands survey results. Originality/value: The paper proposes a model of customer demand saturation. It proves the correctness and effectiveness on the product development decision method.

  17. Titration calorimetry of surfactant–drug interactions: Micelle formation and saturation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, Laura J.; Hussain, Talib; Parkes, Gareth M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isothermal titration calorimetry can be used to monitor the saturation of micelles with pharmaceutical compounds. ► The number of drug molecules per micelle varies depending on the drug used and the temperature of the calorimeter. ► The change in enthalpy for the saturation of micelles with drugs can be endothermic or exothermic. ► The critical micellar concentration of an anionic surfactant (SDS) does not appear to vary in the presence of drugs. - Abstract: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was employed to monitor the addition of five model drugs to anionic surfactant based micelles, composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), through to the point at which they were saturated with drug. Analysis of the resultant data using this newly developed method has confirmed the suitability of the technique to acquire such data with saturation limits established in all cases. Values for the point at which saturation occurred ranged from 17 molecules of theophylline per micelle at T = 298 K up to 63 molecules of caffeine per micelle at 310 K. Micellar systems can be disrupted by the presence of additional chemicals, such as the drugs used in this study, therefore a separate investigation was undertaken to determine the critical micellar concentration (CMC) for SDS in the presence of each drug at T = 298 K and 310 K using ITC. In the majority of cases, there was no appreciable alteration to the CMC of SDS with drug present.

  18. Top-gated chemical vapor deposition grown graphene transistors with current saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingwei; Liao, Lei; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Liu, Lixin; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-06-08

    Graphene transistors are of considerable interest for radio frequency (rf) applications. In general, transistors with large transconductance and drain current saturation are desirable for rf performance, which is however nontrivial to achieve in graphene transistors. Here we report high-performance top-gated graphene transistors based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene with large transconductance and drain current saturation. The graphene transistors were fabricated with evaporated high dielectric constant material (HfO(2)) as the top-gate dielectrics. Length scaling studies of the transistors with channel length from 5.6 μm to 100 nm show that complete current saturation can be achieved in 5.6 μm devices and the saturation characteristics degrade as the channel length shrinks down to the 100-300 nm regime. The drain current saturation was primarily attributed to drain bias induced shift of the Dirac points. With the selective deposition of HfO(2) gate dielectrics, we have further demonstrated a simple scheme to realize a 300 nm channel length graphene transistors with self-aligned source-drain electrodes to achieve the highest transconductance of 250 μS/μm reported in CVD graphene to date.

  19. A soluble model for the study of saturation in finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammaticos, B.

    1979-01-01

    The deviation of very small nuclear systems from saturation is studied. In the framework of a soluble one-dimensional model based on the energy density formalism simple expressions for the density profile, the deviation from nuclear matter density, the Fermi energy as a function of particle number are established. The binding energy of the nucleus is computed and the effect of the departure from saturation is identified as a term exponentially decaying for large A. A comparison with the theory of Krappe and Nix is also presented

  20. Effects of dietary saturated fat on LDL subclasses and apolipoprotein CIII in men

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Small dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein (apo) CIII are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can be modulated by diet, but there is little information regarding the effects of dietary saturated fat on their plasma levels. We tested the effects of high vs. low saturated fat intake in the context of a high beef protein diet on levels and composition of LDL subclasses and on apoCIII levels in plasma and LDL. Subjects/Methods Following consumption of a base...

  1. Robust control for spacecraft rendezvous system with actuator unsymmetrical saturation: a gain scheduling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xue, Anke

    2018-06-01

    This paper has proposed a robust control for the spacecraft rendezvous system by considering the parameter uncertainties and actuator unsymmetrical saturation based on the discrete gain scheduling approach. By changing of variables, we transform the actuator unsymmetrical saturation control problem into a symmetrical one. The main advantage of the proposed method is improving the dynamic performance of the closed-loop system with a region of attraction as large as possible. By the Lyapunov approach and the scheduling technology, the existence conditions for the admissible controller are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities. The numerical simulation illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A CHF Model in Narrow Gaps under Saturated Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suki; Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have paid a great attention to the CHF in narrow gaps due to enormous industrial applications. Especially, a great number of researches on the CHF have been carried out in relation to nuclear safety issues such as in-vessel retention for nuclear power plants during a severe accident. Analytical studies to predict the CHF in narrow gaps have been also reported. Yu et al. (2012) developed an analytical model to predict the CHF on downward facing and inclined heaters based on the model of Kandlikar et al. (2001) for an upward facing heater. A new theoretical model is developed to predict the CHF in narrow gaps under saturated pool boiling. This model is applicable when one side of coolant channels or both sides are heated including the effects of heater orientation. The present model is compared with the experimental CHF data obtained in narrow gaps. A new analytical CHF model is proposed to predict CHF for narrow gaps under saturated pool boiling. This model can be applied to one-side or two-sides heating surface and also consider the effects of heater orientation on CHF. The present model is compared with the experimental data obtained in narrow gaps with one heater. The comparisons indicate that the present model shows a good agreement with the experimental CHF data in the horizontal annular tubes. However, it generally under-predicts the experimental data in the narrow rectangular gaps except the data obtained in the gap thickness of 10 mm and the horizontal downward facing heater

  3. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  4. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion

  5. Saturation and beaming in astrophysical masers. II. The fully saturated limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.; Ross, R.R.; College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA)

    1985-01-01

    Radiative transfer in fully saturated maser clouds has been investigated using the four-stream model equations of Alcock and Ross (1985). It is shown that a modest elongation of the maser cloud produces a substantial asymmetry in the maser output. The ratio of output fluxes in different directions is a strong function of the ratio of the corresponding chord lengths across the cloud. Arguments are presented that the asymmetries reported here for the four-stream models closely mimic the asymmetries that should be expected in a real master cloud. 10 references

  6. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  7. Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2008-01-01

    In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....

  8. On the spin saturation and thermal properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.Y.M.; Ramadan, S.

    1983-12-01

    The binding energy and the incompressibility of nuclear matter with degree of spin saturation D is calculated using the Skyrme interaction and two forms of a velocity dependent effective potential. The effect of the degree of spin saturation D on the thermal properties of nuclear matter is also discussed. It is found that generally the pressure decreases with increasing D. (author)

  9. Comparison of empirical models and laboratory saturated hydraulic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous methods for estimating soil saturated hydraulic conductivity exist, which range from direct measurement in the laboratory to models that use only basic soil properties. A study was conducted to compare laboratory saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) measurement and that estimated from empirical models.

  10. Saturated hydraulic conductivity values of some forest soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple falling-head method is presented for the laboratory determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity of some forest soils of Ghana. Using the procedure, it was found that saturated hydraulic conductivity was positively and negatively correlated with sand content and clay content, respectively, both at P = 0.05 level.

  11. Stability and stabilization of linear systems with saturating actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbouriech, Sophie; Gomes da Silva Jr, João Manoel; Queinnec, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Gives the reader an in-depth understanding of the phenomena caused by the more-or-less ubiquitous problem of actuator saturation. Proposes methods and algorithms designed to avoid, manage or overcome the effects of actuator saturation. Uses a state-space approach to ensure local and global stability of the systems considered. Compilation of fifteen years' worth of research results.

  12. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobi...

  13. Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2008-07-01

    Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate-bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

  14. Ultrahigh precision nonlinear reflectivity measurement system for saturable absorber mirrors with self-referenced fluence characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsila, Lasse; Härkönen, Antti; Hyyti, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

  15. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies on geminate ion recombination in saturated hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Katsumura, Y.; Tabata, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The geminate recombination kinetics of the excess electron and the electron hole are discussed, based on time-resolved data on picosecond and nanosecond time scales. The recombination times of the excess electron and the electron hole are evaluated to be 3 ps for cyclohexane on the basis of the comparison between the experimental and the calculated results. The spin correlation decay of the geminate ion pairs and the triplet state formation before the spin correlation loss have also been discussed. The rapidly decaying species with very broad absorption spectra, which are similar to the absorption spectra of the cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons, have been observed in neat saturated hydrocarbons in the sub-nanosecond and a few nanosecond time regions. The identification of the rapidly decaying species were not definitely made but those species are tentatively assigned to the excited states and/or the tail of the geminate cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons. (author)

  16. Spacecraft reorientation control in presence of attitude constraint considering input saturation and stochastic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Ye, Dong; Sun, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shijie

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel feedback control law for spacecraft to deal with attitude constraint, input saturation, and stochastic disturbance during the attitude reorientation maneuver process. Applying the parameter selection method to improving the existence conditions for the repulsive potential function, the universality of the potential-function-based algorithm is enhanced. Moreover, utilizing the auxiliary system driven by the difference between saturated torque and command torque, a backstepping control law, which satisfies the input saturation constraint and guarantees the spacecraft stability, is presented. Unlike some methods that passively rely on the inherent characteristic of the existing controller to stabilize the adverse effects of external stochastic disturbance, this paper puts forward a nonlinear disturbance observer to compensate the disturbance in real-time, which achieves a better performance of robustness. The simulation results validate the effectiveness, reliability, and universality of the proposed control law.

  17. Dispersed free phytosterols as structuring agents in lipid systems with reduced saturated fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, K.R.R.; Basso, R.C.; Buscato, M.H.M.; Cardoso, L.P.; Kieckbusch, T.G.; Ribeiro, A.P.B.

    2017-01-01

    The negative effects of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids in food have been widely discussed and this has led to progressive changes in the legislation of many countries. The use of structuring agents or crystallization modifiers, as specific triacylglycerol and minor lipids have been indicated as the only viable alternative for obtaining low saturated fats with properties which are compatible with food application. In this context, phytosterols, natural products with hypocholesterolemic action, and hard fat-crystallization modulators, present a new option for structuring lipid matrices. This work characterized the effects of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and free phytosterols on the physical properties and crystallization behavior of palm oil and canola oil blends for the development of zero trans-fat bases with low levels of saturated fatty acids. The systems were evaluated for chemical composition, atherogenic index, solid fat profiles, microstructure, consistency, thermal behavior and polymorphism. [es

  18. Frequency domain performance analysis of marginally stable LTI systems with saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromski, A.Y.; Rooda, J.E.; Leonov, G.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromsky, A.; Fradkov, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the frequency domain performance analysis of a marginally stable linear time-invariant (LTI) system with saturation in the feedback loop. We present two methods, both based on the notion of convergent systems, that allow to evaluate the performance of this type of systems in

  19. Input saturation in nonlinear multivariable processes resolved by nonlinear decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for the resolution of the problem of input saturation in nonlinear multivariable process control by means of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END. Input saturation can have serious consequences particularly in multivariable control because it may lead to very undesirable system behaviour and quite often system instability. Many authors have searched for systematic techniques for designing multivariable control systems in which saturation may occur in any of the control variables (inputs, manipulated variables. No generally accepted method seems to have been presented so far which gives a solution in closed form. The method of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END can be applied directly to the case of saturation control variables by deriving as many control strategies as there are combinations of saturating control variables. The method is demonstrated by the multivariable control of a simulated Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC with very convincing results.

  20. On Neglecting Chemical Exchange Effects When Correcting in Vivo 31P MRS Data for Partial Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    Signal acquisition in most MRS experiments requires a correction for partial saturation that is commonly based on a single exponential model for T1 that ignores effects of chemical exchange. We evaluated the errors in 31P MRS measurements introduced by this approximation in two-, three-, and four-site chemical exchange models under a range of flip-angles and pulse sequence repetition times (TR) that provide near-optimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In two-site exchange, such as the creatine-kinase reaction involving phosphocreatine (PCr) and γ-ATP in human skeletal and cardiac muscle, errors in saturation factors were determined for the progressive saturation method and the dual-angle method of measuring T1. The analysis shows that these errors are negligible for the progressive saturation method if the observed T1 is derived from a three-parameter fit of the data. When T1 is measured with the dual-angle method, errors in saturation factors are less than 5% for all conceivable values of the chemical exchange rate and flip-angles that deliver useful SNR per unit time over the range T1/5 ≤ TR ≤ 2T1. Errors are also less than 5% for three- and four-site exchange when TR ≥ T1*/2, the so-called "intrinsic" T1's of the metabolites. The effect of changing metabolite concentrations and chemical exchange rates on observed T1's and saturation corrections was also examined with a three-site chemical exchange model involving ATP, PCr, and inorganic phosphate in skeletal muscle undergoing up to 95% PCr depletion. Although the observed T1's were dependent on metabolite concentrations, errors in saturation corrections for TR = 2 s could be kept within 5% for all exchanging metabolites using a simple interpolation of two dual-angle T1 measurements performed at the start and end of the experiment. Thus, the single-exponential model appears to be reasonably accurate for correcting 31P MRS data for partial saturation in the presence of chemical exchange. Even in systems where

  1. Hydrologic mechanisms governing fluid flow in partially saturated, fractured, porous tuff at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1984-10-01

    In contrast to the saturated zone where fluid moves rapidly along fractures, the fractures (with apertures large relative to the size of matrix pores) will desaturate first during drainage process and the bulk of fluid flow would be through interconnected pores in the matrix. Within a partially drained fracture, the presence of a relatively continuous air phase will produce practically an infinite resistance to liquid flow in the direction parallel to the fracture. The residual liquid will be held by capillary force in regions around fracture contact areas where the apertures are small. Normal to the fracture surfaces, the drained portion of the fractures will reduce the effective area for liquid flow from one matrix block to another matrix block. A general statistical theory is constructed for flow along the fracture and for flow between the matrix blocks to the fractures under partially saturated conditions. Results are obtained from an aperture distribution model for fracture saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and effective matrix-fracture flow areas as functions of pressure. Drainage from a fractured tuff column is simulated. The parameters for the simulations are deduced from fracture surface characteristics, spacings and orientations based on core analyses, and from matrix characteristics curve based on laboratory measurements. From the cases simulated for the fractured, porous column with discrete vertical and horizontal fractures and porous matrix blocks explicitly taken into account, it is observed that the highly transient changes from fully saturated conditions to partially saturated conditions are extremely sensitive to the fracture properties. However, the quasi-steady changes of the fluid flow of a partially saturated, fractured, porous system could be approximately simulated without taking the fractures into account. 22 references, 16 figures

  2. Elastoplastic model for unsaturated, quasi-saturated and fully saturated fine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ba Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In unsaturated soils, the gaseous phase is commonly assumed to be continuous. This assumption is no more valid at high saturation ratio. In that case, air bubbles and pockets can be trapped in the porous network by the liquid phase and the gas phase becomes discontinuous. This trapped air reduces the apparent compressibility of the pore fluid and affect the mechanical behavior of the soil. Although it is trapped in the pores, its dissolution can take place. Dissolved air can migrate through the pore space, either by following the flow of the fluid or by diffusion. In this context, this paper present a hydro mechanical model that separately considers the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of each fluid species (eg liquid water, dissolved air, gaseous air and the solid matrix. This new model was implemented in a C++ code. Some numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the ability of this model to reproduce a continuous transition of unsaturated to saturated states.

  3. Saturation behavior: a general relationship described by a simple second-order differential equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, Gordon R

    2010-04-13

    The numerous natural phenomena that exhibit saturation behavior, e.g., ligand binding and enzyme kinetics, have been approached, to date, via empirical and particular analyses. This paper presents a mechanism-free, and assumption-free, second-order differential equation, designed only to describe a typical relationship between the variables governing these phenomena. It develops a mathematical model for this relation, based solely on the analysis of the typical experimental data plot and its saturation characteristics. Its utility complements the traditional empirical approaches. For the general saturation curve, described in terms of its independent (x) and dependent (y) variables, a second-order differential equation is obtained that applies to any saturation phenomena. It shows that the driving factor for the basic saturation behavior is the probability of the interactive site being free, which is described quantitatively. Solving the equation relates the variables in terms of the two empirical constants common to all these phenomena, the initial slope of the data plot and the limiting value at saturation. A first-order differential equation for the slope emerged that led to the concept of the effective binding rate at the active site and its dependence on the calculable probability the interactive site is free. These results are illustrated using specific cases, including ligand binding and enzyme kinetics. This leads to a revised understanding of how to interpret the empirical constants, in terms of the variables pertinent to the phenomenon under study. The second-order differential equation revealed the basic underlying relations that describe these saturation phenomena, and the basic mathematical properties of the standard experimental data plot. It was shown how to integrate this differential equation, and define the common basic properties of these phenomena. The results regarding the importance of the slope and the new perspectives on the empirical

  4. On the propagation of a coupled saturation and pressure front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Using an asymptotic technique, valid for a medium with smoothly varying heterogeneity, I derive an expression for the velocity of a propagating, coupled saturation and pressure front. Due to the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the velocity of the propagating front depends upon the magnitude of the saturation and pressure changes across the front in addition to the properties of the medium. Thus, the expression must be evaluated in conjunction with numerical reservoir simulation. The propagation of the two-phase front is governed by the background saturation distribution, the saturation-dependent component of the fluid mobility, the porosity, the permeability, the capillary pressure function, the medium compressibility, and the ratio of the slopes of the relative permeability curves. Numerical simulation of water injection into a porous layer saturated with a nonaqueous phase liquid indicates that two modes of propagation are important. The fastest mode of propagation is a pressure-dominated disturbance that travels through the saturated layer. This is followed, much later, by a coupled mode with a large saturation change. These two modes are also observed in a simulation using a heterogeneous porous layer. A comparison between the propagation times estimated from the results of the numerical simulation and predictions from the asymptotic expression indicates overall agreement.

  5. On the extension of multi-phase models to sub-residual saturations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingineni, S.; Chen, Y.T.; Boehm, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the limitations of applying multi-phase flow and transport models to simulate the hydrothermal processes occurring when the liquid saturation falls below residual levels. A typical scenario of a heat-generating high-level waste package emplaced in a backfilled drift of a waste repository is presented. The hydrothermal conditions in the vicinity of the waste package as well as in the far-field are determined using multi-phase, non-isothermal codes such as TOUGH2 and FEHM. As the waste package temperature increases, heat-pipe effects are created and water is driven away from the package into colder regions where it condenses. The variations in the liquid saturations close to the waste package are determined using these models with extended capillary pressure-saturations relationships to sub-residual regime. The predictions indicate even at elevated temperatures, waste package surroundings are not completely dry. However, if transport based modeling is used to represent liquid saturation variations in the sub-residual regime, then complete dry conditions are predicted within the backfill for extended periods of time. The relative humidity conditions near the waste package are also found to be sensitive to the representation of capillary pressure-saturation relationship used for sub-residual regime. An experimental investigation is carried out to study the variations in liquid saturations and relative humidity conditions in sub-residual regimes. Experimental results indicated that extended multi-phase models without interphase transport can not predict dry-out conditions and the simulations underpredict the humidity conditions near the waste package

  6. Magnetic field saturation in the Riga dynamo experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailitis, A; Lielausis, O; Platacis, E; Dement'ev, S; Cifersons, A; Gerbeth, G; Gundrum, T; Stefani, F; Christen, M; Will, G

    2001-04-02

    After the dynamo experiment in November 1999 [A. Gailitis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4365 (2000)] had shown magnetic field self-excitation in a spiraling liquid metal flow, in a second series of experiments emphasis was placed on the magnetic field saturation regime as the next principal step in the dynamo process. The dependence of the strength of the magnetic field on the rotation rate is studied. Various features of the saturated magnetic field are outlined and possible saturation mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of AB-copolymers with saturating bonds

    CERN Document Server

    Chertovich, A V; Khokhlov, A R; Bohr, J

    2003-01-01

    Structural transitions in a single AB-copolymer chain where saturating bonds can be formed between A-and B-units are studied by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations using the bond fluctuation model. Three transitions are found, coil-globule, coil-hairpin and globule-hairpin, depending on the nature of a particular AB-sequence: statistical random sequence, diblock sequence and 'random-complementary' sequence (one-half of such an AB-sequence is random with Bernoulli statistics while the other half is complementary to the first one). The properties of random-complementary sequences are closer to those of diblock sequences than to the properties of random sequences. The model (although quite rough) is expected to represent some basic features of real RNA molecules, i.e. the formation of secondary structure of RNA due to hydrogen bonding of corresponding bases and stacking interactions of the base pairs in helixes. We introduce the notation of RNA-like copolymers and discuss in what sense the sequences studie...

  8. SATCAP-B: a program for thermal-hydraulic design of 'Saturated Temperature Capsule'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Niimi, Motoji

    1989-11-01

    As an advanced irradiation technique, the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) project is developing a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' which water is injected in and boiled. When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature. This type capsule is based on the conception of keeping the coolant to the saturated temperature and using the temperature control. In designing the capsule in which the inner coolant is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. Then, a program (named SATCAP) was compiled to graps the thermal performance within the capsule. On the other hand, a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' was made and irradiated in the JMTR core. It was indicated from supplied water temperatures recorded by thermo-couples attached in the capsule that heat transfer coefficients prefered models due to natural convection to models incorporated in the initial version of the program. Then, the program was revised by adding mainly heat transfer model based on natural convection. The present report describes the calculation procedure and guides of input and output for the revised program (SATCAP version-B). (author)

  9. Modelling nitrogen saturation and carbon accumulation in heathland soils under elevated nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.D.; Caporn, S.J.M.; Carroll, J.A.; Pilkington, M.G.; Wilson, D.B.; Ray, N.; Cresswell, N.

    2006-01-01

    A simple model of nitrogen (N) saturation, based on an extension of the biogeochemical model MAGIC, has been tested at two long-running heathland N manipulation experiments. The model simulates N immobilisation as a function of organic soil C/N ratio, but permits a proportion of immobilised N to be accompanied by accumulation of soil carbon (C), slowing the rate of C/N ratio change and subsequent N saturation. The model successfully reproduced observed treatment effects on soil C and N, and inorganic N leaching, for both sites. At the C-rich upland site, N addition led to relatively small reductions in soil C/N, low inorganic N leaching, and a substantial increase in organic soil C. At the C-poor lowland site, soil C/N ratio decreases and N leaching increases were much more dramatic, and soil C accumulation predicted to be smaller. The study suggests that (i) a simple model can effectively simulate observed changes in soil and leachate N; (ii) previous model predictions based on a constant soil C pool may overpredict future N leaching; (iii) N saturation may develop most rapidly in dry, organic-poor, high-decomposition systems; and (iv) N deposition may lead to significantly enhanced soil C sequestration, particularly in wet, nutrient-poor, organic-rich systems. - Enhanced carbon sequestration may slow the rate of nitrogen saturation in heathlands

  10. Calcium phosphate saturation in seawater around the Andaman Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Ionic product (IP) of calcium phosphate is calculated at some stations around Andaman Island. The depthwise variations of the ionic product of calcium phosphate seem to follow a normal trend with maximum saturation value between 100 to 200 m. Using...

  11. Saturation volume changes and resistivity changes in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    Saturation defect concentrations generated by thermal neutron irradiation of 235 U doped nickel at liquid helium temperature were measured by changes in electrical resistivity and volume. The experimental procedure is described

  12. A Partially Saturated Constitutive Theory for Compacted Fills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berney, Ernest

    2004-01-01

    ... variables present within the soil. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, a partially saturated soil can be best described by the free energy associated with each component of the soil and water mixture...

  13. Rib fracture in Prognathodon saturator (Mosasauridae, Late Cretaceous)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Walenkamp, G. H I M; Hofman, P.A.M.; Rothschild, B. M.; Jagt, J. W M

    2004-01-01

    Two unusual bumps occur on the internal surface of a rib of the marine reptile Prognathodon saturator from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Maastricht, The Netherlands. These bumps are interpreted as stress fractures, possibly related to agonistic behaviour.

  14. Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P

    1984-02-01

    Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow was compared by adding poliovirus to sewage water and applying the water at different rates to a 250-cm-long soil column equipped with ceramic samplers at different depths. Movement of viruses during unsaturated flow of sewage through soil columns was much less than during saturated flow. Viruses did not move below the 40-cm level when sewage water was applied at less than the maximum infiltration rate; virus penetration in columns flooded with sewage was at least 160 cm. Therefore, virus movement in soils irrigated with sewage should be less than in flooded groundwater recharge basins or in saturated soil columns. Management of land treatment systems to provide unsaturated flow through the soil should minimize the depth of virus penetration. Differences in virus movement during saturated and unsaturated flow must be considered in the development of any model used to simulate virus movement in soils.

  15. Retinal oxygen saturation before and after glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Eri; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Shimazaki, Takeru; Sato, Shino; Ukegawa, Kaori; Nakano, Yuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2017-08-01

    This study compared retinal vessel oxygen saturation before and after glaucoma surgery. Retinal oxygen saturation in glaucoma patients was measured using a non-invasive spectrophotometric retinal oximeter. Adequate image quality was found in 49 of the 108 consecutive glaucoma patients recruited, with 30 undergoing trabeculectomy, 11 EX-PRESS and eight trabeculotomy. Retinal oxygen saturation measurements in the retinal arterioles and venules were performed at 1 day prior to and at approximately 10 days after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test. After glaucoma surgery, intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 19.8 ± 7.7 mmHg to 9.0 ± 5.7 mmHg (p glaucoma surgery had an effect on the retinal venous oxygen saturation. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. New insight in magnetic saturation behavior of nickel hierarchical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Zhang, Jianxing; Liu, Chunting; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-09-01

    It is unanimously accepted that non-ferromagnetic inclusions in a ferromagnetic system will lower down total saturation magnetization in unit of emu/g. In this study, ;lattice strain; was found to be another key factor to have critical impact on magnetic saturation behavior of the system. The lattice strain determined assembling patterns of primary nanoparticles in hierarchical structures and was intimately related with the formation process of these architectures. Therefore, flower-necklace-like and cauliflower-like nickel hierarchical structures were used as prototype systems to evidence the relationship between assembling patterns of primary nanoparticles and magnetic saturation behaviors of these architectures. It was found that the influence of lattice strain on saturation magnetization outperformed that of non-ferromagnetic inclusions in these hierarchical structures. This will enable new insights into fundamental understanding of related magnetic effects.

  17. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...... than its blood flow. This is probably due to decreased filtration fraction and filtered sodium with subsequent reduction in absolute tubular re-absorption of sodium ions....

  18. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric ...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  19. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  20. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruje Hameed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  1. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks. Renewal proposal, progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1984-01-01

    We have completed a computer code (GTOR) implementing our quasilinear method for determining saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas. With this code we have surveyed the effect of current profile, aspect ratio and plasma elongation on saturated tearing modes. Current peaking within the islands is found to have a particularly large effect. In support of this research, we have developed a direct method for computing Hamada coordinates from harmonics of the inverse Grad-Shafranov equation

  2. Nonlinear saturation of dissipative trapped ion instability and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1977-04-01

    An expression for the turbulent collision frequency is derived by summing up the most dominant terms from each order in the perturbation expansion in order to obtain the nonlinear saturation level of the dissipative trapped ion instability. Numerical calculation shows that the anomalous diffusion coefficient at the saturated state is in good agreement with the result of Kadomtsev and Pogutse when the effect of the magnetic shear is taken into account. (auth.)

  3. Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....

  4. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  5. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of tissue oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, A; Canpolat, M; Uyuklu, M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) is a useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to detect pathologic tissues, due to a lack of normal blood circulation, by measuring StO 2 . In this study, human blood samples with different levels of oxygen saturation have been prepared and spectra were acquired using an optical fiber probe to investigate the correlation between the oxygen saturation levels and the spectra. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation and ratio of the intensities (760 nm to 790 nm) of the spectra acquired from blood samples has been found. In a validation study, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements with an error of 2.9%. It has also been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Spectra were acquired from the forearms of 30 healthy volunteers to estimate StO 2 prior to, at the beginning of, after 2 min, and at the release of total vascular occlusion. The average StO 2 of a forearm before and after the two minutes occlusion was significantly different. The results suggested that optical reflectance spectroscopy is a sensitive method to estimate the StO 2 levels of human tissue. The technique developed to measure StO 2 has potential to detect ischemia in real time. (paper)

  6. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  7. Elevated gas hydrate saturation within silt and silty clay sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Wu, Shiguo; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate saturations were estimated using five different methods in silt and silty clay foraminiferous sediments from drill hole SH2 in the South China Sea. Gas hydrate saturations derived from observed pore water chloride values in core samples range from 10 to 45% of the pore space at 190–221 m below seafloor (mbsf). Gas hydrate saturations estimated from resistivity (Rt) using wireline logging results are similar and range from 10 to 40.5% in the pore space. Gas hydrate saturations were also estimated by P wave velocity obtained during wireline logging by using a simplified three-phase equation (STPE) and effective medium theory (EMT) models. Gas hydrate saturations obtained from the STPE velocity model (41.0% maximum) are slightly higher than those calculated with the EMT velocity model (38.5% maximum). Methane analysis from a 69 cm long depressurized core from the hydrate-bearing sediment zone indicates that gas hydrate saturation is about 27.08% of the pore space at 197.5 mbsf. Results from the five methods show similar values and nearly identical trends in gas hydrate saturations above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at depths of 190 to 221 mbsf. Gas hydrate occurs within units of clayey slit and silt containing abundant calcareous nannofossils and foraminifer, which increase the porosities of the fine-grained sediments and provide space for enhanced gas hydrate formation. In addition, gas chimneys, faults, and fractures identified from three-dimensional (3-D) and high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) seismic data provide pathways for fluids migrating into the gas hydrate stability zone which transport methane for the formation of gas hydrate. Sedimentation and local canyon migration may contribute to higher gas hydrate saturations near the base of the stability zone.

  8. A Single Image Dehazing Method Using Average Saturation Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfei Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor images captured in bad weather are prone to yield poor visibility, which is a fatal problem for most computer vision applications. The majority of existing dehazing methods rely on an atmospheric scattering model and therefore share a common limitation; that is, the model is only valid when the atmosphere is homogeneous. In this paper, we propose an improved atmospheric scattering model to overcome this inherent limitation. By adopting the proposed model, a corresponding dehazing method is also presented. In this method, we first create a haze density distribution map of a hazy image, which enables us to segment the hazy image into scenes according to the haze density similarity. Then, in order to improve the atmospheric light estimation accuracy, we define an effective weight assignment function to locate a candidate scene based on the scene segmentation results and therefore avoid most potential errors. Next, we propose a simple but powerful prior named the average saturation prior (ASP, which is a statistic of extensive high-definition outdoor images. Using this prior combined with the improved atmospheric scattering model, we can directly estimate the scene atmospheric scattering coefficient and restore the scene albedo. The experimental results verify that our model is physically valid, and the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art single image dehazing methods in terms of both robustness and effectiveness.

  9. Archaeol: An Indicator of Methanogenesis in Water-Saturated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. H. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxic soils typically are a sink for methane due to the presence of high-affinity methanotrophic Bacteria capable of oxidising methane. However, soils experiencing water saturation are able to host significant methanogenic archaeal communities, potentially affecting the capacity of the soil to act as a methane sink. In order to provide insight into methanogenic populations in such soils, the distribution of archaeol in free and conjugated forms was investigated as an indicator of fossilised and living methanogenic biomass using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Of three soils studied, only one organic matter-rich site contained archaeol in quantifiable amounts. Assessment of the subsurface profile revealed a dominance of archaeol bound by glycosidic headgroups over phospholipids implying derivation from fossilised biomass. Moisture content, through control of organic carbon and anoxia, seemed to govern trends in methanogen biomass. Archaeol and crenarchaeol profiles differed, implying the former was not of thaumarcheotal origin. Based on these results, we propose the use of intact archaeol as a useful biomarker for methanogen biomass in soil and to track changes in moisture status and aeration related to climate change.

  10. Ultrasonic Characterization of Water Saturated Double Porosity Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruonan; Tinel, Alain; Alem, Abdellah; Franklin, Hervé; Wang, Huaqing

    Wave propagation through a multilayered structure consisting of a water saturated double porosity medium in an aluminum rectangular box immersed in water is studied. By assuming a plane incident wave from water onto the structure, the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived by application of the boundary conditions at each interface. Numerical computations are done for two particular double porosity media, ROBU® and Tobermorite 11 Å, that are assumed to obey Berryman's extension of Biot's theory [Berryman 1995, 2000]. The influence of the thickness of double porosity medium is investigated. To compare experiments to computations, two comparison coefficients Cnum and Cexp are introduced. The theoretical one Cnum is defined as the ratio of the transmission coefficient of the structure to the transmission coefficient of the box filled exclusively with water. The experimental comparison coefficient Cexp is defined as the ratio of the Fourier transforms of the transmitted signals by the box filled with the double porous medium to that of the transmitted signals by the box filled with water. A method of minimization based on a gradient descent algorithm is used to optimize some of the parameters of the double porosity media such as the bulk moduli.

  11. Library construction and evaluation for site saturation mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Bradford; Walton, Adam Z; Stewart, Jon D

    2013-06-10

    We developed a method for creating and evaluating site-saturation libraries that consistently yields an average of 27.4±3.0 codons of the 32 possible within a pool of 95 transformants. This was verified by sequencing 95 members from 11 independent libraries within the gene encoding alkene reductase OYE 2.6 from Pichia stipitis. Correct PCR primer design as well as a variety of factors that increase transformation efficiency were critical contributors to the method's overall success. We also developed a quantitative analysis of library quality (Q-values) that defines library degeneracy. Q-values can be calculated from standard fluorescence sequencing data (capillary electropherograms) and the degeneracy predicted from an early stage of library construction (pooled plasmids from the initial transformation) closely matched that observed after ca. 1000 library members were sequenced. Based on this experience, we suggest that this analysis can be a useful guide when applying our optimized protocol to new systems, allowing one to focus only on good-quality libraries and reject substandard libraries at an early stage. This advantage is particularly important when lower-throughput screening techniques such as chiral-phase GC must be employed to identify protein variants with desirable properties, e.g., altered stereoselectivities or when multiple codons are targeted for simultaneous randomization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Large, non-saturating magnetoresistance in WTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mazhar N; Xiong, Jun; Flynn, Steven; Tao, Jing; Gibson, Quinn D; Schoop, Leslie M; Liang, Tian; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Hirschberger, Max; Ong, N P; Cava, R J

    2014-10-09

    Magnetoresistance is the change in a material's electrical resistance in response to an applied magnetic field. Materials with large magnetoresistance have found use as magnetic sensors, in magnetic memory, and in hard drives at room temperature, and their rarity has motivated many fundamental studies in materials physics at low temperatures. Here we report the observation of an extremely large positive magnetoresistance at low temperatures in the non-magnetic layered transition-metal dichalcogenide WTe2: 452,700 per cent at 4.5 kelvins in a magnetic field of 14.7 teslas, and 13 million per cent at 0.53 kelvins in a magnetic field of 60 teslas. In contrast with other materials, there is no saturation of the magnetoresistance value even at very high applied fields. Determination of the origin and consequences of this effect, and the fabrication of thin films, nanostructures and devices based on the extremely large positive magnetoresistance of WTe2, will represent a significant new direction in the study of magnetoresistivity.

  13. Detection of movement artifact in recorded pulse oximeter saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poets, C F; Stebbens, V A

    1997-10-01

    Movement artifact (MA) must be detected when analysing recordings of pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2). Visual analysis of individual pulse waveforms is the safest, but also the most tedious, method for this purpose. We wanted to test the reliability of a computer algorithm (Edentec Motion Annotation System), based on a comparison between pulse and heart rate, for MA detection. Ten 12-h recordings of SpO2, pulse waveforms and heart rate from ten preterm infants were analysed for the presence of MA on the pulse waveform signal. These data were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the computer algorithm, and of the oximeter itself, in detecting MA. Recordings were divided into segments of 2.5 s duration to compare the movement identification methods. Of the segments 31% +/- 6% (mean +/- SD) contained MA. The computer algorithm identified 95% +/- 3% of these segments, the pulse oximeter only 18% +/- 11%. Specificity was 85% +/- 4% and 99% +/- 0%, respectively. SpO2 was signal showed MA during this time, leaving a significant potential for erroneous identification of hypoxaemia. Recordings of SpO2 do not allow a reliable identification of MA. Without additional information about movement artifact, a significant proportion of recording time of pulse oximeter signal may be regarded as demonstrating hypoxaemia which, in fact, simply reflects poor measurement conditions. The computer algorithm used in this study identified periods of movement artifact reliably.

  14. Interaction of Airy-Gaussian beams in saturable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiling; Peng, Yulian; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Xi; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-08-01

    Based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the interactions of the two Airy-Gaussian components in the incidence are analyzed in saturable media, under the circumstances of the same amplitude and different amplitudes, respectively. It is found that the interaction can be both attractive and repulsive depending on the relative phase. The smaller the interval between two Airy-Gaussian components in the incidence is, the stronger the intensity of the interaction. However, with the equal amplitude, the symmetry is shown and the change of quasi-breathers is opposite in the in-phase case and out-of-phase case. As the distribution factor is increased, the phenomena of the quasi-breather and the self-accelerating of the two Airy-Gaussian components are weakened. When the amplitude is not equal, the image does not have symmetry. The obvious phenomenon of the interaction always arises on the side of larger input power in the incidence. The maximum intensity image is also simulated. Many of the characteristics which are contained within other images can also be concluded in this figure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108 and 10904041), the Foundation for the Author of Guangdong Province Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (Grant No. SYBZZXM201227), and the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars (“Thousand, Hundred, Ten” Program) of Guangdong Province, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China.

  15. Interaction of Airy–Gaussian beams in saturable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Meiling; Peng Yulian; Chen Chidao; Chen Bo; Peng Xi; Deng Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the interactions of the two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence are analyzed in saturable media, under the circumstances of the same amplitude and different amplitudes, respectively. It is found that the interaction can be both attractive and repulsive depending on the relative phase. The smaller the interval between two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence is, the stronger the intensity of the interaction. However, with the equal amplitude, the symmetry is shown and the change of quasi-breathers is opposite in the in-phase case and out-of-phase case. As the distribution factor is increased, the phenomena of the quasi-breather and the self-accelerating of the two Airy–Gaussian components are weakened. When the amplitude is not equal, the image does not have symmetry. The obvious phenomenon of the interaction always arises on the side of larger input power in the incidence. The maximum intensity image is also simulated. Many of the characteristics which are contained within other images can also be concluded in this figure. (paper)

  16. A Case Study of Nitrogen Saturation in Western U.S. Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Fenn

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtually complete nitrification of the available ammonium in soil and nitrification activity in the forest floor are important factors predisposing forests in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California to nitrogen (N saturation. As a result, inorganic N in the soil solution is dominated by nitrate. High nitrification rates also generate elevated nitric oxide (NO emissions from soil. High-base cation saturation of these soils means that soil calcium depletion or effects associated with soil acidification are not an immediate risk for forest health as has been postulated for mesic forests in the eastern U.S. Physiological disturbance (e.g., altered carbon [C] cycling, reduced fine root biomass, premature needle abscission of ozone-sensitive ponderosa pine trees exposed to high N deposition and high ozone levels appear to be the greater threat to forest sustainability. However, N deposition appears to offset the aboveground growth depression effects of ozone exposure. High nitrification activity reported for many western ecosystems suggests that with chronic N inputs these systems are prone to N saturation and hydrologic and gaseous losses of N. High runoff during the winter wet season in California forests under a Mediterranean climate may further predispose these watersheds to high nitrate leachate losses. After 4 years of N fertilization at a severely N saturated site in the San Bernardino Mountains, bole growth unexpectedly increased. Reduced C allocation below- ground at this site, presumably in response to ozone or N or both pollutants, may enhance the bole growth response to added N.

  17. Decadal changes in the aragonite and calcite saturation state of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Richard A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Byrne, Robert H.; Millero, Frank J.; Dickson, Andrew G.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Murata, Akihiko; Miller, Lisa A.; Greeley, Dana

    2012-09-01

    Based on measurements from the WOCE/JGOFS global CO2 survey, the CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program and the Canadian Line P survey, we have observed an average decrease of 0.34% yr-1 in the saturation state of surface seawater in the Pacific Ocean with respect to aragonite and calcite. The upward migrations of the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons, averaging about 1 to 2 m yr-1, are the direct result of the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans and regional changes in circulation and biogeochemical processes. The shoaling of the saturation horizon is regionally variable, with more rapid shoaling in the South Pacific where there is a larger uptake of anthropogenic CO2. In some locations, particularly in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and in the California Current, the decadal changes in circulation can be the dominant factor in controlling the migration of the saturation horizon. If CO2 emissions continue as projected over the rest of this century, the resulting changes in the marine carbonate system would mean that many coral reef systems in the Pacific would no longer be able to sustain a sufficiently high rate of calcification to maintain the viability of these ecosystems as a whole, and these changes perhaps could seriously impact the thousands of marine species that depend on them for survival.

  18. Subcritical saturation of the magnetorotational instability through mean magnetic field generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin-Han; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2018-03-01

    The magnetorotational instability is widely believed to be responsible for outward angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs. The efficiency of this transport depends on the amplitude of this instability in the saturated state. We employ an asymptotic expansion based on an explicit, astrophysically motivated time-scale separation between the orbital period, Alfvén crossing time and viscous or resistive dissipation time-scales, originally proposed by Knobloch and Julien, to formulate a semi-analytical description of the saturated state in an incompressible disc. In our approach a Keplerian shear flow is maintained by the central mass but the instability saturates via the generation of a mean vertical magnetic field. The theory assumes that the time-averaged angular momentum flux and the radial magnetic flux are constant and determines both self-consistently. The results predict that, depending on parameters, steady saturation may be supercritical or subcritical, and in the latter case that the upper (lower) solution branch is always stable (unstable). The angular momentum flux is always outward, consistent with the presence of accretion, and for fixed wavenumber peaks in the subcritical regime. The limit of infinite Reynolds number at large but finite magnetic Reynolds number is also discussed.

  19. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST): what is in a name and what isn’t?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Yadav, Nirbhay N.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is a relatively new MRI contrast approach in which exogenous or endogenous compounds containing either exchangeable protons or exchangeable molecules are selectively saturated and, after transfer of this saturation, detected indirectly through the water signal with enhanced sensitivity. The focus of this review is on basic MR principles underlying CEST and similarities to and differences with conventional magnetization transfer contrast (MTC). In CEST MRI, transfer of magnetization is studied in mobile compounds instead of semisolids. Similar to MTC, CEST has contributions of both chemical exchange and dipolar cross-relaxation, but the latter can often be neglected if exchange is fast. Contrary to MTC, CEST imaging requires sufficiently slow exchange on the MR time scale to allow selective irradiation of the protons of interest. As a consequence, magnetic labeling is not limited to radio-frequency saturation but can be expanded with slower frequency-selective approaches such as inversion, gradient dephasing and frequency labeling. The basic theory, design criteria, and experimental issues for exchange transfer imaging are discussed. A new classification for CEST agents based on exchange type is proposed. The potential of this young field is discussed, especially with respect to in vivo application and translation to humans. PMID:21337419

  20. Synchronization of multiple 3-DOF helicopters under actuator faults and saturations with prescribed performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiliao; Jiang, Bin; Yang, Hao; Liu, Hugh H T

    2018-04-01

    The distributed cooperative control strategy is proposed to make the networked nonlinear 3-DOF helicopters achieve the attitude synchronization in the presence of actuator faults and saturations. Based on robust adaptive control, the proposed control method can both compensate the uncertain partial loss of control effectiveness and deal with the system uncertainties. To address actuator saturation problem, the control scheme is designed to ensure that the saturation constraint on the actuation will not be violated during the operation in spite of the actuator faults. It is shown that with the proposed control strategy, both the tracking errors of the leading helicopter and the attitude synchronization errors of each following helicopter are bounded in the existence of faulty actuators and actuator saturations. Moreover, the state responses of the entire group would not exceed the predesigned performance functions which are totally independent from the underlaying interaction topology. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of gas hydrogen diffusion through partially water saturated mono-modal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boher, C.; Lorente, S.; Frizon, F.; Bart, F.

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the disposal of nuclear wastes, it is important to design concrete envelopes with pore networks that allow the diffusion of hydrogen towards the outside. This work documents the relationship between geo-polymers, which are materials with a quasi mono-modal pore network, and their gaseous diffusivity capacities. Using a mono-modal material allows studying a specific pore size contribution to gaseous diffusion. The pore network is characterized by mercury porosimetry. These experimental results are used as data in a model named MOHYCAN. The modeling work consists of creating a virtual pore network. Then, water layers are deposited in this network to simulate variable water saturation levels. Finally hydrogen is transported through the virtual network using a combination of ordinary diffusion and Knudsen diffusion. MOHYCAN calculates the hydrogen diffusion coefficient for water saturation degree from 0% to 100%. The impacts of the pore network arrangement or the pore network discretization have been studied. The results are, for a quasi mono-modal material: -) the diffusion coefficient is not sensitive to different virtual pore network arrangement; -) the diffusion coefficient values have a sharp drop at specific water saturation (this is due to the water saturation of the main and unique pore family); -) a 2 pores family based model is sufficient to represent the pore network. Theses observations will not be valid if we consider a material with a large pore size distribution, like cementitious materials

  2. An innovative technique for estimating water saturation from capillary pressure in clastic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoti, Lukumon; Ayolabi, Elijah Adebowale; James, Logan

    2017-11-01

    A major drawback of old resistivity tools is the poor vertical resolution and estimation of hydrocarbon when applying water saturation (Sw) from historical resistivity method. In this study, we have provided an alternative method called saturation height function to estimate hydrocarbon in some clastic reservoirs in the Niger Delta. The saturation height function was derived from pseudo capillary pressure curves generated using modern wells with complete log data. Our method was based on the determination of rock type from log derived porosity-permeability relationship, supported by volume of shale for its classification into different zones. Leverette-J functions were derived for each rock type. Our results show good correlation between Sw from resistivity based method and Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves in wells with modern log data. The resistivity based model overestimates Sw in some wells while Sw from the pseudo capillary pressure curves validates and predicts more accurate Sw. In addition, the result of Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves replaces that of resistivity based model in a well where the resistivity equipment failed. The plot of hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV) from J-function against HCPV from Archie shows that wells with high HCPV have high sand qualities and vice versa. This was further used to predict the geometry of stratigraphic units. The model presented here freshly addresses the gap in the estimation of Sw and is applicable to reservoirs of similar rock type in other frontier basins worldwide.

  3. Cloudiness and Its Relationship to Saturation Pressure Differences during a Developing East Coast Winter Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliss, Randall J.; Raman, Sethu

    1995-11-01

    Cloudiness derived from surface observations and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite VISSR (Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) are compared with thermodynamic properties derived from upper-air soundings over the Gulf Stream locale during a developing winter storm. The Gulf Stream locale covers the United States mid-Atlantic coastal states, the Gulf Stream, and portions of the Sargasso Sea. Cloudiness is found quite frequently in this region. Cloud-top pressures are derived from VAS using the CO2 slicing technique and a simple threshold procedure. Cloud-base heights and cloud fractions are obtained from National Weather Service hourly reporting stations. The saturation pressure differences, defined as the difference between air parcel pressure and saturation-level pressure (lifted condensation level), are derived from upper-air soundings. Collocated comparisons with VAS and surface observations are also made. Results indicate that cloudiness is observed nearly all of the time during the 6-day period, well above the 8-yr mean. High, middle, and low opaque cloudiness are found approximately equally. Furthermore, of the high- and midlevel cloudiness observed, a considerable amount is determined to be semitransparent to terrestrial radiation. Comparisons of satellite-inferred cloudiness with surface observations indicate that the satellite can complement surface observations of cloud cover, particularly above 700 mb.Surface-observed cloudiness is segregated according to a composite cloud fraction and compared to the mean saturation pressure difference for a 1000 600-mb layer. The analysis suggests that this conserved variable may be a good indicator for estimating cloud fraction. Large negative values of saturation pressure difference correlate highly with clear skies, while those approaching zero correlate with overcast conditions. Scattered and broken cloud fractions are associated with increasing values of the

  4. Comparison of the effects of the CHESS sequence and the SPAIR sequence for fat saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kweon, Dae-Cheol; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the abilities of the chemical-shift selective saturation(CHESS) and the spectrally-adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR) fat-saturation techniques to resolve the recent problems in fat saturation caused by areas of changing volume such as the head and the neck and by metal artifacts when T1 fat-saturation techniques representing the anatomical images and T2 fat-saturation techniques representing pathological images are used. To compare the abilities of CHESS and SPAIR, we acquired images of the head and the neck and of the pelvis, and we compared the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the signals from the flexed body parts. Images were taken of the abdomens, heads and necks, and pelvises of 15 men and 15 women (30 in total). In all scanning techniques, the SNRs and the CNRs were calculated based on a quantitative analysis method with a view to obtaining uniform data. According to the study results, the CNRs of the SPAIR and the CHESS techniques for the pelvis in the T1-weighted image were 55.10 and 67.23, respectively. The SNRs of the SPAIR technique were70.61 for muscle and 15.50 for fat whereas the SNRs of the CHESS technique were 79.23 for muscle and 12.00 for fat. For the pelvis in the T2-weighted image, the CNRs of the SPAIR and the CHESS technique were 12.50 and 16.66, respectively. The SNRs of the SPAIR technique were 16.98 for muscle and 5.14 for fat. In contrast, the SNRs of the CHESS technique were 27.90 for muscle and 11.23 for fat. Consequently, the signal intensity was higher in the CHESS than in the SPAIR technique. Nevertheless, with regard to the clinical usefulness, the image quality was higher in the SPAIR technique than in the CHESS technique.

  5. Nutritional considerations during prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperbaric, hyperoxic environment: recommendations for saturation divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S K; Swinton, P A; Dolan, E

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving is an occupation that involves prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperoxic, hyperbaric environment. The unique and extreme environment is thought to result in disruption to physiological and metabolic homeostasis, which may impact human health and performance. Appropriate nutritional intake has the potential to alleviate and/or support many of these physiological and metabolic concerns, whilst enhancing health and performance in saturation divers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to identify the physiological and practical challenges of saturation diving and consequently provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for saturation divers to promote health and performance within this challenging environment. Saturation diving has a high-energy demand, with an energy intake of between 44 and 52 kcal/kg body mass per day recommended, dependent on intensity and duration of underwater activity. The macronutrient composition of dietary intake is in accordance with the current Institute of Medicine guidelines at 45-65 % and 20-35 % of total energy intake for carbohydrate and fat intake, respectively. A minimum daily protein intake of 1.3 g/kg body mass is recommended to facilitate body composition maintenance. Macronutrient intake between individuals should, however, be dictated by personal preference to support the attainment of an energy balance. A varied diet high in fruit and vegetables is highly recommended for the provision of sufficient micronutrients to support physiological processes, such as vitamin B12 and folate intake to facilitate red blood cell production. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, are also recommended to reduce oxidised molecules, e.g. free radicals, whilst selenium and zinc intake may be beneficial to reinforce endogenous antioxidant reserves. In addition, tailored hydration and carbohydrate fueling strategies for underwater work are also advised.

  6. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie-Ann; Rudenski, Aram; Gibson, John; Howard, Luke; O'Driscoll, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content), saturation (S O2 ) and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur-ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the S O2 in blood from patients with normal pH and S O2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (S pO2 ) is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (S aO2 ) as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable S pO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  7. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N; Herkelrath, William N

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Modelling critical degrees of saturation of porous building materials subjected to freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1996-01-01

    of SCR based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials has been developed.The degradation is modelled as being caused by different eigenstrains of the pore phase and the solid phase when freezing, leading to stress concentrations and crack propagation. Simplifications are made......Frost resistance of porous materials can be characterized by the critical degree of saturation, SCR, and the actual degree of saturation, SACT. An experimental determination of SCR is very laborious and therefore only seldom used when testing frost resistance. A theoretical model for prediction...... to describe the development of stresses and the pore structure, because a mathematical description of the physical theories explaining the process of freezing of water in porous materials is lacking.Calculations are based on porosity, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength, and parameters characterizing...

  9. THE SEARCH FOR SUPER-SATURATION IN CHROMOSPHERIC EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Damian J.; Arias, Tersi; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Jess, David B.; Jardine, Moira

    2011-01-01

    We investigate if the super-saturation phenomenon observed at X-ray wavelengths for the corona exists in the chromosphere for rapidly rotating late-type stars. Moderate resolution optical spectra of fast-rotating EUV- and X-ray-selected late-type stars were obtained. Stars in α Per were observed in the northern hemisphere with the Isaac Newton 2.5 m telescope and Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph. Selected objects from IC 2391 and IC 2602 were observed in the southern hemisphere with the Blanco 4 m telescope and R-C spectrograph at CTIO. Ca II H and K fluxes were measured for all stars in our sample. We find the saturation level for Ca II K at log (L CaK /L bol ) = -4.08. The Ca II K flux does not show a decrease as a function of increased rotational velocity or smaller Rossby number as observed in the X-ray. This lack of 'super-saturation' supports the idea of coronal stripping as the cause of saturation and super-saturation in stellar chromospheres and coronae, but the detailed underlying mechanism is still under investigation.

  10. Bulk hydrodynamic stability and turbulent saturation in compressing hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2018-04-01

    For hot spots compressed at constant velocity, we give a hydrodynamic stability criterion that describes the expected energy behavior of non-radial hydrodynamic motion for different classes of trajectories (in ρR — T space). For a given compression velocity, this criterion depends on ρR, T, and d T /d (ρR ) (the trajectory slope) and applies point-wise so that the expected behavior can be determined instantaneously along the trajectory. Among the classes of trajectories are those where the hydromotion is guaranteed to decrease and those where the hydromotion is bounded by a saturated value. We calculate this saturated value and find the compression velocities for which hydromotion may be a substantial fraction of hot-spot energy at burn time. The Lindl (Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] "attractor" trajectory is shown to experience non-radial hydrodynamic energy that grows towards this saturated state. Comparing the saturation value with the available detailed 3D simulation results, we find that the fluctuating velocities in these simulations reach substantial fractions of the saturated value.

  11. Bulk elastic wave propagation in partially saturated porous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.; Chin, R.C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The linear equations of motion that describe the behavior of small disturbances in a porous solid containing both liquid and gas are solved for bulk wave propagation. The equations have been simplified by neglecting effects due to changes in capillary pressure. With this simplifying assumption, the equations reduce to two coupled (vector) equations of the form found in Biot's equations (for full saturation) but with more complicated coefficients. As in fully saturated solids, two shear waves with the same speed but different polarizations exist as do two compressional waves with distinct speeds. Attenuation effects can be enhanced in the partially saturated solid, depending on the distribution of gas in the pore space. Two models of the liquid/gas spatial distribution are considered: a segregated-fluids model and a mixed-fluids model. The two models predict comparable attentuation when the gas saturation is low, but the segregated-fluids model predicts a more rapid roll-off of attenuation as the gas saturation increases

  12. A new theoretical interpretation of Archie's saturation exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. J. Glover

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the extension of the concepts of connectedness and conservation of connectedness that underlie the generalized Archie's law for n phases to the interpretation of the saturation exponent. It is shown that the saturation exponent as defined originally by Archie arises naturally from the generalized Archie's law. In the generalized Archie's law the saturation exponent of any given phase can be thought of as formally the same as the phase (i.e. cementation exponent, but with respect to a reference subset of phases in a larger n-phase medium. Furthermore, the connectedness of each of the phases occupying a reference subset of an n-phase medium can be related to the connectedness of the subset itself by Gi = GrefSini. This leads naturally to the idea of the term Sini for each phase i being a fractional connectedness, where the fractional connectednesses of any given reference subset sum to unity in the same way that the connectednesses sum to unity for the whole medium. One of the implications of this theory is that the saturation exponent of any phase can be now be interpreted as the rate of change of the fractional connectedness with saturation and connectivity within the reference subset.

  13. Immune networks: multitasking capabilities near saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, E; Annibale, A; Barra, A; Coolen, A C C; Tantari, D

    2013-01-01

    Pattern-diluted associative networks were recently introduced as models for the immune system, with nodes representing T-lymphocytes and stored patterns representing signalling protocols between T- and B-lymphocytes. It was shown earlier that in the regime of extreme pattern dilution, a system with N T T-lymphocytes can manage a number N B =O(N T δ ) of B-lymphocytes simultaneously, with δ B = αN T , with a high degree of pattern dilution, in agreement with immunological findings. We use graph theory and statistical mechanical analysis based on replica methods to show that in the finite-connectivity regime, where each T-lymphocyte interacts with a finite number of B-lymphocytes as N T → ∞, the T-lymphocytes can coordinate effective immune responses to an extensive number of distinct antigen invasions in parallel. As α increases, the system eventually undergoes a second order transition to a phase with clonal cross-talk interference, where the system’s performance degrades gracefully. Mathematically, the model is equivalent to a spin system on a finitely connected graph with many short loops, so one would expect the available analytical methods, which all assume locally tree-like graphs, to fail. Yet it turns out to be solvable. Our results are supported by numerical simulations. (paper)

  14. Dispersion of contaminants in saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltyaner, G.L.; Poisson, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to outline the experimental and theoretical investigations performed in an attempt to validate the applicability of finite element based numerical models for the prediction of the behaviour of a conservative tracer at the Twin Lake aquifer, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario. The essential point is that the 3/4 of a million data points obtained at the Twin Lake site from a 40 m natural gradient tracer test provide a unique opportunity for quantifying the system variability and for testing finite element models of the dispersion process. The subject of this discussion is the advection-dispersion model of contaminant transport - its equation and solution by the Galerkin finite element method. The report gives a brief description of the experimental data and the methods for the estimation of transport parameters. Scales of averaging associated with the conceptual formulation of the dispersion process, measurement of process variables, parameter estimation and the numerical models are discussed. The compatibility between the scales is emphasized as a major requirement for predictive modelling. The developed finite element model of the radioiodine transport describes the overall behaviour of the tracer plume but lacks the capability to simulate the fingerlike spreading of the plume due to the fact that the grid does not have an adequately fine space discretization. Unfortunately, a refinement of the grid spacing is limited by the size of the site computer memory. For the advection-dominated transport, as that encountered at the Twin Lake aquifer, the failure to satisfy fine mesh requirement causes numerical dispersion. In general, it was concluded that the conventional finite element model may produce accurate simulation of the tracer cloud provided that the adequately fine space discretization of the grid compatible with the support scale of measurements and the adequately fine time discretization are made. This

  15. Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, M.A.; Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.

    1989-12-01

    This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author) [pt

  16. A new through-tubing oil-saturation measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Adolph, R.A.; Bontemy, Y.; Cheeseborough, J.C. III; Hall, J.S.; McKeon, D.C.; Pittman, D.; Seeman, B.; Thomas, S.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on carbon-oxygen logging which is used primarily to estimate oil saturation in cased-hole conditions when the formation water is fresh or unknown. The drawbacks of current techniques are: slow logging speed, large tool diameter, and excessive sensitivity to borehole fluid composition. A new, slim, neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy logging system has been developed to overcome some of these limitations. The new logging service is called the Reservoir Saturation (RST) Tool. Initial field tests are being carried out in the Middle East. The RST tool uses multiple detectors to separate the signal contributions from the borehole and the formation. Therefore, even when the borehole fluid composition is unknown, oil saturation can be determined in addition to the borehole oil fraction. This presents the possibility of logging flowing wells, which ensures that reinvasion and crossflow will not affect the results, and eliminates the costs of well preparation

  17. Correlations for Saturation Efficiency of Evaporative Cooling Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, J. K.; Hindoliya, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents some experimental investigations to obtain correlations for saturation efficiency of evaporative cooling pads. Two commonly used materials namely aspen and khus fibers along with new materials namely coconut fibers and palash fibers were tested in a laboratory using suitably fabricated test setup. Simple mathematical correlations have been developed for calculating saturation efficiency of evaporating cooling pads which can be used to predict their performance at any desired mass flow rate. Performances of four different pad materials were also compared using developed correlations. An attempt was made to test two new materials (i.e. fibers of palash wood and coconut) to check their suitability as wetted media for evaporative cooling pads. It was found that Palash wood fibers offered highest saturation efficiency compared to that of other existing materials such as aspen and khus fibers at different mass flow rate of air.

  18. Prediction of saturation using the carbon/oxygen log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, S.C.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1984-09-01

    This project investigates the nature of Dresser-Atlas Carbon/Oxygen Log gamma ray spectra. It presents an attempt to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the C/O and Si/Ca parameters used by Dresser-Atlas to determine oil saturation. Two techniques were developed to subtract the Compton background from the spectral data. Neither technique significantly improves the accuracy of the cased-hole prediction of oil saturation. However, it has been shown that it is possible to develop a satisfactory correlation for oil saturation on a well-by-well basis. This correlation can then be used to generate oil-in-place from the C/O and Si/Ca ratios. 17 references.

  19. Error of image saturation in the structured-light method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhaoshuai; Wang, Zhao; Huang, Junhui; Xing, Chao; Gao, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    In the phase-measuring structured-light method, image saturation will induce large phase errors. Usually, by selecting proper system parameters (such as the phase-shift number, exposure time, projection intensity, etc.), the phase error can be reduced. However, due to lack of a complete theory of phase error, there is no rational principle or basis for the selection of the optimal system parameters. For this reason, the phase error due to image saturation is analyzed completely, and the effects of the two main factors, including the phase-shift number and saturation degree, on the phase error are studied in depth. In addition, the selection of optimal system parameters is discussed, including the proper range and the selection principle of the system parameters. The error analysis and the conclusion are verified by simulation and experiment results, and the conclusion can be used for optimal parameter selection in practice.

  20. Amplifying mirrors with saturated gain without and with a resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of amplifying mirrors with a view to their use in resonator structures has been performed. Both non-saturated and saturated amplifying mirrors are demonstrated. It was found that relatively high values of gain (typical 5-10 times) can be obtained even when saturation is taken...... into account. Several resonator structures containing from two up to four mirrors, some including beamsplitters, are investigated. It was found that the gain to a first approximation depends only on the ratio between the pumping power and the input power on the amplifying mirror. It was also found...... that the configuration with four mirrors is well suited as an amplifier device working as an optical transistor since high values of gain up to 40 times could be obtained....

  1. Nonlinear acoustics of water-saturated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1976-01-01

    Interest in the acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments has increased considerably during recent years. The use of sources of high-intensity sound in oil propsecting, in geophysical and geological studies of bottom and subbottom materials and profiles and recently in marine...... archaeology has emphasized the need of information about the nonlinear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments. While the acoustic experiments and theoretical investigations hitherto performed have concentrated on a determination of the linear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine...... sediments, their parameters of nonlinear acoustics are still unexplored. The strong absorption, increasing about linearly with frequency, found in most marine sediments and the occurrence of velocity dispersion by some marine sediments restrict the number of nonlinear acoustic test methods traditionally...

  2. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences....... Optimising a matching factor (k0) improved the fit considerably whereas optimising the l-parameter in the vGM model improved the fit only slightly. The vGM was improved with an empirical scaling function to account for the rapid increase in conductivity near saturation. Using the improved models...

  3. Mutual boosting of the saturation scales in colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z., E-mail: bzk@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pirner, H.J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Potashnikova, I.K.; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-03-14

    Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. The DGLAP driven gluon distribution turns out to be suppressed at large x, but significantly enhanced at x<<1. This is a high twist effect. In the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons on both sides get enriched in gluon density at small x, which leads to a further boosting of the saturation scale. We derive reciprocity equations for the saturation scales corresponding to a collision of two nuclei. The solution of these equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  4. Central venous oxygen saturation during hypovolaemic shock in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P; Iversen, H; Secher, N H

    1993-01-01

    We compared central venous oxygen saturation and central venous pressure (CVP) as indices of the effective blood volume during 50 degrees head-up tilt (anti-Trendelenburg's position) induced hypovolaemic shock in eight healthy subjects. Head-up tilt increased thoracic electrical impedance from 31...... (28-36) (median and range) to 34 (30-40) Ohm, mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 79 (70-88) to 86 (80-99) mmHg, heart rate (HR) from 67 (56-71) to 99 (78-119) beats min-1 (p ....05) but thereafter remained stable. In contrast, central venous oxygen saturation showed a linear decrease with time from 0.75 (0.69-0.78) at rest to 0.60 (0.49-0.67) (p measurement of central venous oxygen saturation...

  5. Seismic response analysis of the deep saturated soil deposits in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Zhuchang

    2009-01-01

    The quaternary deposits in Shanghai are horizontal soil layers of thickness up to about 280 m in the urban area with an annual groundwater table between 0.5 and 0.7 m from the surface. The characteristics of deep saturated deposits may have important influences upon seismic response of the ground in Shanghai. Based on the Biot theory for porous media, the water-saturated soil deposits are modeled as a two-phase porous system consisting of solid and fluid phases, in this paper. A nonlinear constitutive model for predicting the seismic response of the ground is developed to describe the dynamic characters of the deep-saturated soil deposits in Shanghai. Subsequently, the seismic response of a typical site with 280 m deep soil layers, which is subjected to four base excitations (El Centro, Taft, Sunan, and Tangshan earthquakes), is analyzed in terms of an effective stress-based finite element method with the proposed constitutive model. Special emphasis is given to the computed results of accelerations, excess pore-water pressures, and settlements during the seismic excitations. It has been found that the analysis can capture fundamental aspects of the ground response and produce preliminary results for seismic assessment.

  6. Color and emotion: effects of hue, saturation, and brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Lisa; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    Previous studies on emotional effects of color often failed to control all the three perceptual dimensions of color: hue, saturation, and brightness. Here, we presented a three-dimensional space of chromatic colors by independently varying hue (blue, green, red), saturation (low, medium, high), and brightness (dark, medium, bright) in a factorial design. The 27 chromatic colors, plus 3 brightness-matched achromatic colors, were presented via an LED display. Participants (N = 62) viewed each color for 30 s and then rated their current emotional state (valence and arousal). Skin conductance and heart rate were measured continuously. The emotion ratings showed that saturated and bright colors were associated with higher arousal. The hue also had a significant effect on arousal, which increased from blue and green to red. The ratings of valence were the highest for saturated and bright colors, and also depended on the hue. Several interaction effects of the three color dimensions were observed for both arousal and valence. For instance, the valence ratings were higher for blue than for the remaining hues, but only for highly saturated colors. Saturated and bright colors caused significantly stronger skin conductance responses. Achromatic colors resulted in a short-term deceleration in the heart rate, while chromatic colors caused an acceleration. The results confirm that color stimuli have effects on the emotional state of the observer. These effects are not only determined by the hue of a color, as is often assumed, but by all the three color dimensions as well as their interactions.

  7. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  8. Bistability By Self-Reflection In A Saturable Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Franco, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Propagation of laser light through a saturable absorber is theoretically studied. Computed steady state solutions of the Maxwell equations describing the unidimensional propagation of a plane monochromatic wave without introducing the slowly-varying envelope approximation are presented showing how saturation effects can influence the absorption of the field. At a certain range of refractive index and extintion coefficients, computed solutions display a very susprising behaviour, and a self-reflected wave appears inside the absorber. This can be useful for a new kind of biestable device, similar to a standard bistable cavity but with the back mirror self-induced by the light.

  9. Effective constants for wave propagation through partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.

    1985-01-01

    The multipole scattering coefficients for elastic wave scattering from a spherical inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium have been calculated. These coefficients may be used to obtain estimates of the effective macroscopic constants for long-wavelength propagation of elastic waves through partially saturated media. If the volume average of the single scattering from spherical bubbles of gas and liquid is required to vanish, the resulting equations determine the effective bulk modulus, density, and viscosity of the multiphase fluid filling the pores. The formula for the effective viscosity during compressional wave excitation is apparently new

  10. Inversion degree and saturation magnetization of different nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concas, G.; Spano, G.; Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Peddis, D.; Piccaluga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The inversion degree of a series of nanocrystalline samples of CoFe 2 O 4 ferrites has been evaluated by a combined study, which exploits the saturation magnetization at 4.2 K and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples, prepared by sol-gel autocombustion, have different thermal history and particle size. The differences observed in the saturation magnetization of these samples are explained in terms of different inversion degrees, as confirmed by the analysis of the components in the Moessbauer spectra. It is notable that the inversion degrees of the samples investigated are set among the highest values reported in the literature.

  11. TAE Saturation of Alpha Particle Driven Instability in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Chen, Y.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; White, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    A nonlinear theory of kinetic instabilities near threshold [H.L. Berk, et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, (1997) 842] is applied to calculate the saturation level of Toroidicity-induced Alfvn Eigenmodes (TAE) and be compared with the predictions of (delta)f method calculations [Y. Chen, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. Good agreement is observed between the predictions of both methods and the predicted saturation levels are comparable with experimentally measured amplitudes of the TAE oscillations in TFTR [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, (1985) 1167

  12. Improved Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Pedotransfer Functions Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, S. N.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the fundamental hydraulic properties of soils. Its measurement, however, is cumbersome and instead pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are often used to estimate it. Despite a lot of progress over the years, generic PTFs that estimate hydraulic conductivity generally don't have a good performance. We develop significantly improved PTFs by applying state of the art machine learning techniques coupled with high-performance computing on a large database of over 20,000 soils—USKSAT and the Florida Soil Characterization databases. We compared the performance of four machine learning algorithms (k-nearest neighbors, gradient boosted model, support vector machine, and relevance vector machine) and evaluated the relative importance of several soil properties in explaining Ks. An attempt is also made to better account for soil structural properties; we evaluated the importance of variables derived from transformations of soil water retention characteristics and other soil properties. The gradient boosted models gave the best performance with root mean square errors less than 0.7 and mean errors in the order of 0.01 on a log scale of Ks [cm/h]. The effective particle size, D10, was found to be the single most important predictor. Other important predictors included percent clay, bulk density, organic carbon percent, coefficient of uniformity and values derived from water retention characteristics. Model performances were consistently better for Ks values greater than 10 cm/h. This study maximizes the extraction of information from a large database to develop generic machine learning based PTFs to estimate Ks. The study also evaluates the importance of various soil properties and their transformations in explaining Ks.

  13. Molecular Determinants of Mutant Phenotypes, Inferred from Saturation Mutagenesis Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Arti; Gupta, Kritika; Khare, Shruti; Jain, Pankaj C; Patel, Siddharth; Kumar, Prasanth; Pulianmackal, Ajai J; Aghera, Nilesh; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how mutations affect protein activity and organismal fitness is a major challenge. We used saturation mutagenesis combined with deep sequencing to determine mutational sensitivity scores for 1,664 single-site mutants of the 101 residue Escherichia coli cytotoxin, CcdB at seven different expression levels. Active-site residues could be distinguished from buried ones, based on their differential tolerance to aliphatic and charged amino acid substitutions. At nonactive-site positions, the average mutational tolerance correlated better with depth from the protein surface than with accessibility. Remarkably, similar results were observed for two other small proteins, PDZ domain (PSD95 pdz3 ) and IgG-binding domain of protein G (GB1). Mutational sensitivity data obtained with CcdB were used to derive a procedure for predicting functional effects of mutations. Results compared favorably with those of two widely used computational predictors. In vitro characterization of 80 single, nonactive-site mutants of CcdB showed that activity in vivo correlates moderately with thermal stability and solubility. The inability to refold reversibly, as well as a decreased folding rate in vitro, is associated with decreased activity in vivo. Upon probing the effect of modulating expression of various proteases and chaperones on mutant phenotypes, most deleterious mutants showed an increased in vivo activity and solubility only upon over-expression of either Trigger factor or SecB ATP-independent chaperones. Collectively, these data suggest that folding kinetics rather than protein stability is the primary determinant of activity in vivo This study enhances our understanding of how mutations affect phenotype, as well as the ability to predict fitness effects of point mutations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. An XFEM Model for Hydraulic Fracturing in Partially Saturated Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimzadeh Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a complex multi-physics phenomenon. Numerous analytical and numerical models of hydraulic fracturing processes have been proposed. Analytical solutions commonly are able to model the growth of a single hydraulic fracture into an initially intact, homogeneous rock mass. Numerical models are able to analyse complex problems such as multiple hydraulic fractures and fracturing in heterogeneous media. However, majority of available models are restricted to single-phase flow through fracture and permeable porous rock. This is not compatible with actual field conditions where the injected fluid does not have similar properties as the host fluid. In this study we present a fully coupled hydro-poroelastic model which incorporates two fluids i.e. fracturing fluid and host fluid. Flow through fracture is defined based on lubrication assumption, while flow through matrix is defined as Darcy flow. The fracture discontinuity in the mechanical model is captured using eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM while the fracture propagation criterion is defined through cohesive fracture model. The discontinuous matrix fluid velocity across fracture is modelled using leak-off loading which couples fracture flow and matrix flow. The proposed model has been discretised using standard Galerkin method, implemented in Matlab and verified against several published solutions. Multiple hydraulic fracturing simulations are performed to show the model robustness and to illustrate how problem parameters such as injection rate and rock permeability affect the hydraulic fracturing variables i.e. injection pressure, fracture aperture and fracture length. The results show the impact of partial saturation on leak-off and the fact that single-phase models may underestimate the leak-off.

  15. Modelling carbon and nitrogen turnover in variably saturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Brovelli, A.; Porporato, A.; Barry, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural ecosystems provide services such as ameliorating the impacts of deleterious human activities on both surface and groundwater. For example, several studies have shown that a healthy riparian ecosystem can reduce the nutrient loading of agricultural wastewater, thus protecting the receiving surface water body. As a result, in order to develop better protection strategies and/or restore natural conditions, there is a growing interest in understanding ecosystem functioning, including feedbacks and nonlinearities. Biogeochemical transformations in soils are heavily influenced by microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon and nutrient cycles are in turn strongly sensitive to environmental conditions, and primarily to soil moisture and temperature. These two physical variables affect the reaction rates of almost all soil biogeochemical transformations, including microbial and fungal activity, nutrient uptake and release from plants, etc. Soil water saturation and temperature are not constants, but vary both in space and time, thus further complicating the picture. In order to interpret field experiments and elucidate the different mechanisms taking place, numerical tools are beneficial. In this work we developed a 3D numerical reactive-transport model as an aid in the investigation the complex physical, chemical and biological interactions occurring in soils. The new code couples the USGS models (MODFLOW 2000-VSF, MT3DMS and PHREEQC) using an operator-splitting algorithm, and is a further development an existing reactive/density-dependent flow model PHWAT. The model was tested using simplified test cases. Following verification, a process-based biogeochemical reaction network describing the turnover of carbon and nitrogen in soils was implemented. Using this tool, we investigated the coupled effect of moisture content and temperature fluctuations on nitrogen and organic matter cycling in the riparian zone, in order to help understand the relative

  16. Transition edge sensors for bolometric applications: responsivity and saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, D. J.; Audley, M. D.; Glowacka, D. M.; Tsaneva, V. N.; Withington, S.

    2008-01-01

    Microstrip-coupled transition edge sensors (TESs) combined with waveguide-horn technology produce sensitive bolometric detectors with well-defined, single-mode beam patterns and excellent polarization characteristics. These devices are now being deployed for astronomical observations. In bolometric applications, where power levels are monitored, the critical parameter that characterizes the detection is the power-to-current responsivity s I (ω), where ω is the postdetection angular frequency. In real applications, such as on a ground-based telescope, the signal of interest is superimposed on a background such as the thermal emission from the atmosphere. The power emitted by the atmosphere changes slowly in time and these changes may change the responsivity of the detector. A detailed understanding of how s I (ω) changes as a function of applied power levels and how the TES response saturates is vital for accurate calibration of astronomical data. In this paper we describe measurements of the changes in the current flowing through a TES as a function of the circuit bias and the applied power. From these measurements we calculate the efficiency of the coupling of power into the TES from a closely thermally coupled microstrip termination resistor and we determine the zero frequency responsivity s I (0) as a function of both the circuit bias and power. The variation of the responsivity is compared with predictions of a small-signal model: for the case when the loop gain L I is high, when simplifying approximations to the full solution to the electrothermal equations apply; and using the electrothermal parameters of the TES, determined by impedance measurements, as inputs to the full model solution. We find good agreement between theory and measurement in both cases in the relevant regimes

  17. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. Résumé De nombreuses études ont été réalisées pour évaluer le degré de pollution des aquifères par les pesticides aux États-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les résultats des études concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet

  18. Improvement of chemical shift selective saturation (CHESS) pulse for MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Sashie, Hiroyuki; Hiraga, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi

    2000-01-01

    We improved the fat suppression technique based on chemical shift selective saturation (CHESS). To do this, we shortened the duration of the CHESS pulse to achieve a short repetition time (TR) for MR angiography (MRA). A short-duration CHESS pulse causes broad frequency band saturation, creating extensive offset from the resonance frequency of water. In our phantom experiment, the best parameters of the short-duration CHESS pulse were 3.84 ms in duration, -650 Hz in offset frequency from water resonance, and had a 130-degree flip angle. With this technique, MRA will be able to be carried out without a significant increase in TR. Thus, better vessel contrast will be maintained in time-of-flight (TOF) MRA or contrast-enhanced MRA when using the maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. (author)

  19. Fabrication of a saturable absorber WS2 and its mode locking in solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Tang, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ying-Ying

    2018-04-01

    We report on a passively mode-locked Nd : LuVO4 laser using a type saturable absorber of tungsten disulfide (WS2) fabricated by chemical vapor deposition method. At the pump power of 3.3 W, 1.18-W average output power of continuous-wave mode-locked laser with optical conversion efficiency of 36% was achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of passively mode-locked solid-state laser based on WS2. The repetition rate of passively mode-locked pulse was 80 MHz with the pulse energy of 14.8 nJ. Our experimental results show that WS2 is an excellent type of saturable absorber.

  20. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Li, Tao; Zhang, Shuaiyi; Wang, Mingjian; Yang, Kejian; Fan, Mingqi; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Ming

    2018-03-01

    A Q-switched Er:YAG solid-state laser at 1645 nm based on black phosphorus (BP) saturable absorbers (SAs) was demonstrated firstly to our knowledge. The BP-SA was fabricated by drop-casting BP nanoplatelets dispersion on a YAG substrate and corresponding saturable absorption properties were characterized at 1.6 μm. By employing as-prepared BP-SAs, stable Q-switched laser operations were achieved with a pulse width of 2.8 μs and a repetition rate of 34 kHz, corresponding to the average output power of 0.33 W. The results verify that BP-SAs have great potential for pulsed 1.6 μm lasers.

  1. Suppression of mode-beating in a saturated hole-coupled FEL oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    In a hole-coupled resonator, either empty or loaded with a linear FEL gain medium, the phenomenon of mode-degeneracy and mode-beating have been studied. When the magnitudes of the eigenvalues, derived from a linear analysis, are equal for two or more dominant eigenmodes, the system cannot achieve a stable beam-profile. We investigate this phenomenon when a saturated FEL is present within the cavity, thus introducing non-linearity. We use a three-dimensional FEL oscillator code, based on the amplifier code TDA, and show that mode-beating is completely suppressed in the nonlinear saturated regime. We suggest a simple, qualitative model for the mechanism responsible for this suppression

  2. Torsional vibration of a pipe pile in transversely isotropic saturated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changjie; Hua, Jianmin; Ding, Xuanming

    2016-09-01

    This study considers the torsional vibration of a pipe pile in a transversely isotropic saturated soil layer. Based on Biot's poroelastic theory and the constitutive relations of the transversely isotropic medium, the dynamic governing equations of the outer and inner transversely isotropic saturated soil layers are derived. The Laplace transform is used to solve the governing equations of the outer and inner soil layers. The dynamic torsional response of the pipe pile in the frequency domain is derived utilizing 1D elastic theory and the continuous conditions at the interfaces between the pipe pile and the soils. The time domain solution is obtained by Fourier inverse transform. A parametric study is conducted to demonstrate the influence of the anisotropies of the outer and inner soil on the torsional dynamic response of the pipe pile.

  3. Enhanced CAH dechlorination in a low permeability, variably-saturated medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.P.; Sorenson, K.S.; Peterson, L.N.; Brennan, R.A.; Werth, C.J.; Sanford, R.A.; Bures, G.H.; Taylor, C.J.; ,

    2002-01-01

    An innovative pilot-scale field test was performed to enhance the anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD) of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in a low permeability, variably-saturated formation. The selected technology combines the use of a hydraulic fracturing (fracking) technique with enhanced bioremediation through the creation of highly-permeable sand- and electron donor-filled fractures in the low permeability matrix. Chitin was selected as the electron donor because of its unique properties as a polymeric organic material and based on the results of lab studies that indicated its ability to support ARD. The distribution and impact of chitin- and sand-filled fractures to the system was evaluated using hydrologic, geophysical, and geochemical parameters. The results indicate that, where distributed, chitin favorably impacted redox conditions and supported enhanced ARD of CAHs. These results indicate that this technology may be a viable and cost-effective approach for remediation of low-permeability, variably saturated systems.

  4. Composite population kernels in ytterbium-buffer collisions studied by means of laser-saturated absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.

    1986-01-01

    We present a systematic study of composite population kernels for 174 Yb collisions with He, Ar, and Xe buffer gases, using laser-saturation spectroscopy. 174 Yb is chosen as the active species because of the simple structure of its 1 S 0 - 3 P 1 resonance transition (lambda = 556 nm). Elastic collisions are modeled by means of a composite collision kernel, an expression of which is explicitly derived based on arguments of a hard-sphere potential and two-category collisions. The corresponding coupled population-rate equations are solved by iteration to obtain an expression for the saturated-absorption line shape. This expression is fit to the data to obtain information about the composite kernel, along with reasonable values for other parameters. The results confirm that a composite kernel is more general and realistic than a single-component kernel, and the generality in principle and the practical necessity of the former are discussed

  5. Numerical simulation of seismic performance of the underground structure buried in the dense saturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of the advanced earthquake resistant performance verification method on reinforced concrete underground structures developed by CRIEPI was investigated for the structures which buried in the dry sand. For the advancement of the method in practical use, the applicability to the structures buried in the saturated ground is expected to be verified. In this study the applicability of the effective stress based soil modeling method in numerical analysis, which was proposed through the modification of the formerly developed model by CRIEPI, was verified through the non-linear dynamic numerical simulations of the large centrifuge tests conducted by using a model comprised of fully saturated sand and a aluminium duct type structure specially prepared for the measurement of the load acting on the structure surface with the soil-structure interaction. The magnitudes of the simulated loads and the resultant deformations of the structure were almost same as those of experiments. As a result it is confirmed that the performance verification method is useful for the structures buried in the saturated ground with using the proposed effective stress based ground modeling method. (author)

  6. Effect of solution saturation state and temperature on diopside dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Susan A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Steady-state dissolution rates of diopside are measured as a function of solution saturation state using a titanium flow-through reactor at pH 7.5 and temperature ranging from 125 to 175°C. Diopside dissolved stoichiometrically under all experimental conditions and rates were not dependent on sample history. At each temperature, rates continuously decreased by two orders of magnitude as equilibrium was approached and did not exhibit a dissolution plateau of constant rates at high degrees of undersaturation. The variation of diopside dissolution rates with solution saturation can be described equally well with a ion exchange model based on transition state theory or pit nucleation model based on crystal growth/dissolution theory from 125 to 175°C. At 175°C, both models over predict dissolution rates by two orders of magnitude indicating that a secondary phase precipitated in the experiments. The ion exchange model assumes the formation of a Si-rich, Mg-deficient precursor complex. Lack of dependence of rates on steady-state aqueous calcium concentration supports the formation of such a complex, which is formed by exchange of protons for magnesium ions at the surface. Fit to the experimental data yields Rate (moldiopsidecm−2s−1=k×10−Ea/2.303RT(aH+2aMg2+n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaaieaacqWFsbGucqWFHbqycqWF0baDcqWFLbqzcqqGGaaicqGGOaakcqWFTbqBcqWFVbWBcqWFSbaBcqWFGaaicqWFKbazcqWFPbqAcqWFVbWBcqWFWbaCcqWFZbWCcqWFPbqAcqWFKbazcqWFLbqzcqWFGaaicqWFJbWycqWFTbqBdaahaaWcbeqaaiabgkHiTiabikdaYaaakiab=bcaGiab=nhaZnaaCaaaleqabaGaeyOeI0IaeGymaedaaOGaeiykaKIaeyypa0Jaem4AaSMaey41aqRaeeymaeJaeeimaaZaaWbaaSqabeaacqGHsislcqWGfbqrdaWgaaadbaGaemyyaegabeaaliabc+caViabikdaYiabc6caUiabioda

  7. Saturation behaviour of the LHC NEG coated beam pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Porcelli, T; Lanza, G; Baglin, V; Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    In the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), about 6 km of the UHV beam pipe are at room temperature and serve as experimental or utility insertions. TiZrV non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating is used to maintain the design pressure during beam operation. Molecular desorption due to dynamic effects is stimulated during protons operation at high intensity. This phenomenon produces an important gas load from the vacuum chamber walls, which could lead to a partial or total saturation of the NEG coating. To keep the design vacuum performances and to schedule technical interventions for NEG reactivation, it is necessary to take into account all these aspects and to regularly evaluate the saturation level of the NEG coating. Experimental studies of a typical LHC vacuum sector were conducted in the laboratory in order to identify the best method to assess the saturation level of the beam pipe. Partial saturation of the NEG was performed and the effective pumping speed, transmission and capture probability are analysed.

  8. Experimental Validation of the Invariance of Electrowetting Contact Angle Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalliot, S.; Dhindsa, M.; Kuiper, S.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basic electrowetting theory predicts that a continued increase in applied voltage will allow contact angle modulation to zero degrees. In practice, the effect of contact angle saturation has always been observed to limit the contact angle modulation, often only down to a contact angle of 60 to 70°.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of AB-copolymers with saturating bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chertovich, A.C.; Ivanov, V.A.; Khokhlov, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Structural transitions in a single AB-copolymer chain where saturating bonds can be formed between A- and B-units are studied by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations using the bond fluctuation model. Three transitions are found, coil-globule, coil-hairpin and globule-hairpin, depending...

  10. The Saturation of Several Universal Inequalities in Information-Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Wu Jun-De; Fei Shao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the saturation of four universal inequalities in quantum information theory, including a variant version of strong subadditivity inequality for von Neumann entropy, the coherent information inequality, the Holevo quantity, and average entropy inequalities. These results shed new light on quantum information inequalities. (paper)

  11. Effect of soil saturation on denitrification in a grassland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Cardenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is of major importance as a greenhouse gas and precursor of ozone (O3 destruction in the stratosphere mostly produced in soils. The soil-emitted N2O is generally predominantly derived from denitrification and, to a smaller extent, nitrification, both processes controlled by environmental factors and their interactions, and are influenced by agricultural management. Soil water content expressed as water-filled pore space (WFPS is a major controlling factor of emissions and its interaction with compaction, has not been studied at the micropore scale. A laboratory incubation was carried out at different saturation levels for a grassland soil and emissions of N2O and N2 were measured as well as the isotopocules of N2O. We found that flux variability was larger in the less saturated soils probably due to nutrient distribution heterogeneity created from soil cracks and consequently nutrient hot spots. The results agreed with denitrification as the main source of fluxes at the highest saturations, but nitrification could have occurred at the lower saturation, even though moisture was still high (71 % WFSP. The isotopocules data indicated isotopic similarities in the wettest treatments vs. the two drier ones. The results agreed with previous findings where it is clear there are two N pools with different dynamics: added N producing intense denitrification vs. soil N resulting in less isotopic fractionation.

  12. Saturating time-delay transformer for overcurrent protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1977-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to d-c supplies are protected from damage by overcurrent in the case of a load fault by connecting in series with the load a saturating transformer that detects a load fault and limits the fault current to a safe level for a period long enough to correct the fault or else disconnect the power supply.

  13. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  14. Dynamical study of a laser with a saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignowity, D; RamIrez, R [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    The study of a laser including a saturable absorber is presented. The non-linear system describing the complex dynamics of the laser is presented. The laser is shown to operate in several regimes depending on the parameters used. It is also shown how the control of the laser is possible depending on the operating regime parameters.

  15. Centrifuge modeling of LNAPL transport in partially saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, G.; Allersma, H.G.B.; Selvadurai, A.P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Model tests were performed at the Geotechnical Centrifuge Facility of Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, to examine the mechanics of light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) movement in a partially saturated porous granular medium. The experiment simulated a 2D spill of LNAPL in an

  16. Enhancement of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon by modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three sediment samples collected from the Qua Iboe River System and eighteen different column packing ratios of silica gel and alumina were used in this investigation. The variation of the composition of the stationary phase (silica gel and alumina, SA) gave different yields of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons. In all the ...

  17. Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important

  18. Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion inf...... characteristics of the amplifier and shows local maxima for specific dispersion values....

  19. Influence of soil particle shape on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Zofia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define the correlation between the geometry of grains and saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils. The particle shape characteristics were described by the ζ0C index (Parylak, 2000, which expresses the variability of several shape properties, such as sphericity, angularity and roughness.

  20. Surface wave propagation in a fluid-saturated incompressible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dilatational and one rotational elastic waves in fluid-saturated porous solids. Biot theory ..... If the pore liquid is absent or gas is filled in the pores, then ρF ..... Biot M A (1962) Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media.

  1. Reliable monitoring of oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry: Which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on identifying the best site for placement of pulse oximeter probe accurate measuring of oxygen saturation. Twenty-three healthy male volunteers aged 20 to 40 years old were recruited in this study. Cold pressor test was done to stim 460 measurements of SpO2level were obtained throughout the study.

  2. Effect Of Intraruminal Infussion Of Saturated And Unsaturated Fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the effect of intraruminal infusion of diferent proportions of palmitic (saturated fatty acid) and linolenic (unsaturated fatty acid) on rumen degradability of organic matter fraction of Pennisetium purpureum, total volatile fatty acid and total methane productions in West African Dwarf sheep. Five combination ...

  3. Simple adaptive control for quadcopters with saturated actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Oleg I.; Bobtsov, Alexey A.; Pyrkin, Anton A.; Gromov, Vladislav S.

    2017-01-01

    The stabilization problem for quadcopters with saturated actuators is considered. A simple adaptive output control approach is proposed. The control law "consecutive compensator" is augmented with the auxiliary integral loop and anti-windup scheme. Efficiency of the obtained regulator was confirmed by simulation of the quadcopter control problem.

  4. Relating saturation capacity to charge density in strong cation exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Coquebert de Neuville, Bertrand; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-07-21

    In this work the relation between physical and chemical resin characteristics and the total amount of adsorbed protein (saturation capacity) for ion-exchange resins is discussed. Eleven different packing materials with a sulfo-functionalization and one multimodal resin were analyzed in terms of their porosity, pore size distribution, ligand density and binding capacity. By specifying the ligand density and binding capacity by the total and accessible surface area, two different groups of resins were identified: Below a ligand density of approx. 2.5μmol/m 2 area the ligand density controls the saturation capacity, while above this limit the accessible surface area becomes the limiting factor. This results in a maximum protein uptake of around 2.5mg/m 2 of accessible surface area. The obtained results allow estimating the saturation capacity from independent resin characteristics like the saturation capacity mainly depends on "library data" such as the accessible and total surface area and the charge density. Hence these results give an insight into the fundamentals of protein adsorption and help to find suitable resins, thus limiting the experimental effort in early process development stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transformation of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshikov, Igor A; Silva, Eliane O; Furtado, Niege A J C

    2014-02-01

    The saturated nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds include many drugs and compounds that may be used as synthons for the synthesis of other pharmacologically active substances. The need for new derivatives of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles for organic synthesis, biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry, including optically active derivatives, has increased interest in microbial synthesis. This review provides an overview of microbial technologies that can be valuable to produce new derivatives of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles, including hydroxylated derivatives. The chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity of microbial processes can be indispensable for the synthesis of new compounds. Microbial processes carried out with fungi, including Beauveria bassiana, Cunninghamella verticillata, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and bacteria, including Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas sp. and Rhodococcus erythropolis, biotransform many substrates efficiently. Among the biological activities of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds are antimicrobial, antitumor, antihypertensive and anti-HIV activities; some derivatives are effective for the treatment and prevention of malaria and trypanosomiasis, and others are potent glycosidase inhibitors.

  6. PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions

  7. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  8. Nuclear determination of saturation profiles in core plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sletsgaard, J.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    A method to determine liquid saturations in core plugs during flooding is of importance when the relative permeability and capillary pressure function are to be determined. This part of the EFP-95 project uses transmission of γ-radiation to determine these saturations. In γ-transmission measurements, the electron density of the given substance is measured. This is an advantage as compared to methods that use electric conductivity, since neither oil nor gas conducts electricity. At the moment a single 137 Cs-source is used, but a theoretical investigation of whether it is possible to determine three saturations, using two radioactive sources with different γ-energies, has been performed. Measurements were made on three core plugs. To make sure that the measurements could be reproduced, all the plugs had a point of reference, i.e. a mark so that it was possible to place the plug same way every time. Two computer programs for calculation of saturation and porosity and the experimental setup are listed. (EG)

  9. Effect of weightlessness on mineral saturation of bone tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnykh, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray photometry of bone density established dynamic changes in mineral saturation of bone tissues for Soyuz spacecraft and Salyut orbital station crews. Calcaneus optical bone densities in all crew members fell below initial values; an increase in spacecrew exposure time to weightlessness conditions also increased the degree of decalcification. Demineralization under weightlessness conditions took place at a higher rate than under hypodynamia.

  10. Double shock dynamics induced by the saturation of defocusing nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We show that the saturation of defocusing nonlinearities leads to qualitative changes in the onset of wave breaking, determining double shock formation whose regularization occurs in terms of antidark solitons. In a given material, the crossover between different regimes can be controlled by changing the input intensity. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  11. Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow ... The value of ionic activity product (IAP) for a mineral ... where γi is the activity coefficient of ionic species ...... Domenico P A and Schwartz W 1990 Physical and Chemical.

  12. Investigation of paramagnetic saturation in lanthanum manganese nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Meijer, H.C.; Bots, G.J.C.; Verheij, W.A.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1973-01-01

    Paramagnetic saturation of lanthanum manganese nitrate, La2Mn3(NO3)12·24H2O, has been investigated at liquid He temperatures in a static as well as a dynamical way. With the aid of the molecular-field theory the Casimir and Du Pré dispersion and absorption curves are adapted explicitly to the

  13. Mulching an Arenic Hapludult at Umudike: Effects on saturated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out over two cropping seasons on an Arenic Hapludult at Umudike, southeastern Nigeria, to investigate and determine the quantity and type of mulch material that would optimize the rhizome yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) and improve the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The turmeric ...

  14. Saturation of single toroidal number Alfvén modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Briguglio, S

    2016-01-01

    The results of numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the saturation mechanism of a single toroidal number Alfvén mode, driven unstable, in a tokamak plasma, by the resonant interaction with energetic ions. The effects of equilibrium geometry non-uniformities and finite mode radial width on the wave-particle nonlinear dynamics are discussed. Saturation occurs as the fast-ion density flattening produced by the radial flux associated to the resonant particles captured in the potential well of the Alfvén wave extends over the whole region where mode-particle power exchange can take place. The occurrence of two different saturation regimes is shown. In the first regime, dubbed resonance detuning, that region is limited by the resonance radial width (that is, the width of the region where the fast-ion resonance frequency matches the mode frequency). In the second regime, called radial decoupling, the power exchange region is limited by the mode radial width. In the former regime, the mode saturation amplitude scales quadratically with the growth rate; in the latter, it scales linearly. The occurrence of one or the other regime can be predicted on the basis of linear dynamics: in particular, the radial profile of the fast-ion resonance frequency and the mode structure. Here, we discuss how such properties can depend on the considered toroidal number and compare simulation results with the predictions obtained from a simplified nonlinear pendulum model. (paper)

  15. Map showing thickness of saturated Quaternary deposits, Sugar House quadrangle, Salt Lake County, Utah, February 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1973-01-01

    Saturated Quaternary deposits in the Sugar Horse quadrangle supply significant quantities of water to wells from which water is withdrawn for domestic, municipal, industrial, and irrigation uses. The deposits consist of clay, silt, sand, and gravel; individual beds range from a few inches to several tens of feet thick. The principal aquifer, which is almost completely within the Quaternary deposits, supplied about 4 percent, or 9,000 acre-feet, of the municipal and industrial water used annually in Salt Lake County during 1964-68.As a general rule, more water is stored and more water will be yielded to a well where aquifers are thicker. This map can be used as a general guide to those areas where greatest amounts of water are stored in the aquifer, and where yields to wells may be greater. Local variations in the ability of saturated deposits to transmit water can alter the general relationship between aquifer thickness and yield of wells.The thickness of saturated Quaternary deposits within the area of the Sugar Horse quadrangle ranges from zero to about 650 feet, as shown on the map. The thickest section of these deposits is near the southwestern corner of the quadrangle, and the thinnest section is along the mountain front adjacent to the approximate eastern limit of saturated Quaternary deposits.The thickness of saturated Quaternary deposits shown on this map is based on drillers’ logs for 55 deep wells (which show the thickness of the Quaternary deposits) and on water-level measurements made in February 1972 in wells in unconfined shallow aquifers.Reports in the following list of selected references contain other information about the saturated Quaternary deposits in this and adjacent parts of Jordan Valley, Utah. The basic-data reports and releases contain well logs, water-level measurements, and other types of basic ground-water data. The interpretive repots contain discussions of the occurrence of ground water, tests to determine hydraulic properties of

  16. Simulation of consolidation in partially saturated soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    1982-03-01

    Partially saturated soil materials undergo consolidation, heave, collapse and failure due to changes in pore fluid pressure. The precise nature of the mechanics of such deformations is only poorly understood at present. Experimental evidence has shown that the volume change behavior of unsaturated soils cannot be adequately explained through changes in effective stress, even when a saturation dependent parameter is incorporated into the definition of effective stress. Two independent stress-state variables, involving combinations of total stress, pore air pressure and pore water pressure, are required to characterize volume changes and saturation changes in the partially saturated state. In general, two coupled conservation equations, one for the water-phase and the other for the air-phase need to be solved in order to predict the deformation behavior of unsaturated soils. If directional displacements and changes in the stress-field are required, then the conservation equations are to be integrated with an additional set of multi-dimensional force balance equations. For lack of a sufficient understanding of elastic constants such as Poisson's Ratio and Lame's constants as applied to unsaturated soils, little has been achieved so far in integrating the conservation equations and the force balance equations. For the long-term modeling of consolidation with respect to uranium mill tailings, it may be acceptable and economical to solve a single conservation equation for water, assuming that the air-phase is continuous and is at atmospheric pressure everywhere in the soil. The greatest challenge to modeling consolidation in the unsaturated zone at the presnt time is to develop enough experimental data defining the variation of void ratio and saturation with reference to the two chosen stress-state variables

  17. Modelling suction instabilities in soils at varying degrees of saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscarnera Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting paths imparted by the natural environment and/or human activities affect the state of soils in the near-surface, promoting transitions across different regimes of saturation. This paper discusses a set of techniques aimed at quantifying the role of hydrologic processes on the hydro-mechanical stability of soil specimens subjected to saturation events. Emphasis is given to the mechanical conditions leading to coupled flow/deformation instabilities. For this purpose, energy balance arguments for three-phase systems are used to derive second-order work expressions applicable to various regimes of saturation. Controllability analyses are then performed to relate such work input with constitutive singularities that reflect the loss of strength under coupled and/or uncoupled hydro-mechanical forcing. A suction-dependent plastic model is finally used to track the evolution of stability conditions in samples subjected to wetting, thus quantifying the growth of the potential for coupled failure modes upon increasing degree of saturation. These findings are eventually linked with the properties of the field equations that govern pore pressure transients, thus disclosing a conceptual link between the onset of coupled hydro-mechanical failures and the evolution of suction with time. Such results point out that mathematical instabilities caused by a non-linear suction dependent behaviour play an important role in the advanced constitutive and/or numerical tools that are commonly used for the analysis of geomechanical problems in the unsaturated zone, and further stress that the relation between suction transients and soil deformations is a key factor for the interpretation of runaway failures caused by intense saturation events.

  18. Saturated Adaptive Output-Feedback Power-Level Control for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs are those nuclear fission reactors with electrical output powers of less than 300 MWe. Due to its inherent safety features, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR has been seen as one of the best candidates for building SMR-based nuclear plants with high safety-level and economical competitive power. Power-level control is crucial in providing grid-appropriation for all types of SMRs. Usually, there exists nonlinearity, parameter uncertainty and control input saturation in the SMR-based plant dynamics. Motivated by this, a novel saturated adaptive output-feedback power-level control of the MHTGR is proposed in this paper. This newly-built control law has the virtues of having relatively neat form, of being strong adaptive to parameter uncertainty and of being able to compensate control input saturation, which are given by constructing Lyapunov functions based upon the shifted-ectropies of neutron kinetics and reactor thermal-hydraulics, giving an online tuning algorithm for the controller parameters and proposing a control input saturation compensator respectively. It is proved theoretically that input-to-state stability (ISS can be guaranteed for the corresponding closed-loop system. In order to verify the theoretical results, this new control strategy is then applied to the large-range power maneuvering control for the MHTGR of the HTR-PM plant. Numerical simulation results show not only the relationship between regulating performance and control input saturation bound but also the feasibility of applying this saturated adaptive control law practically.

  19. Thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pad using the saturated interfacial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Aoh, Jong-Hing; Wang, Chang-Ming

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been used to replace conventional aluminium interconnection to improve the performance of deep submicron integrated circuits. This study used the saturated interfacial phenomena found in thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto aluminium pad to investigate thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto copper pad. The effects of preheat temperatures and ultrasonic powers on the bonding force were investigated by using a thermosonic bonding machine and a shear tester. This work shows that under proper preheat temperatures, the bonding force of thermosonic wire bonding can be explained based on interfacial microcontact phenomena such as energy intensity, interfacial temperature and real contact area. It is clearly shown that as the energy intensity is increased, the shear force increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. After saturation, i.e. the establishment of maximum atomic bonding, any type of additional energy input will damage the bonding, decreasing the shear force. If the preheat temperature is not within the proper range, the interfacial saturation phenomenon does not exist. For a preload of 0.5 N and a welding time of 15 ms in thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pads, a maximum shear force of about 0.33 N is found where the interfacial energy intensity equals 1.8×106 J m-2 for preheat temperatures of 150°C and 170°C. Moreover, the corresponding optimal ultrasonic power is about 110 units.

  20. Transient response of a cylindrical cavity in viscoelastic saturated porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on dynamic characteristics for fluid-solid coupling system in saturated porous medium is of significant academic value and potential application foreground.In this paper,the transient response of a cylindrical cavity in infinite viscoelastic saturated porous medium with the circular lining is studied,and the corresponding results can be used in the design of foundation engineering,such as the tunnel analyses in saturated soil,the nuclear waste disposal engineering,and the exploitation and utilization of geothermal reservoirs and so on.Firstly,based on the porous media theory,the governing equations of coupled system are presented,and the corresponding boundary conditions,initial conditions as well as the joint conditions are derived.Then,the differential quadrature element method and the second-order backward difference scheme are applied to discretize the governing differential equations of the coupled system on the spatial and temporal domains,respectively.Finally,the Newton-Raphson method is adopted to solve the discretization equations with the initial conditions,the transient responses of the coupled system are analyzed,the effects of the parameters are considered,and the validity of the numerical method is verified.

  1. Grain scale observations of stick-slip dynamics in fluid saturated granular fault gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Dorostkar, O.; Guyer, R. A.; Marone, C.; Carmeliet, J.

    2017-12-01

    We are studying granular mechanics during slip. In the present work, we conduct coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) simulations to study grain scale characteristics of slip instabilities in fluid saturated granular fault gouge. The granular sample is confined with constant normal load (10 MPa), and sheared with constant velocity (0.6 mm/s). This loading configuration is chosen to promote stick-slip dynamics, based on a phase-space study. Fluid is introduced in the beginning of stick phase and characteristics of slip events i.e. macroscopic friction coefficient, kinetic energy and layer thickness are monitored. At the grain scale, we monitor particle coordination number, fluid-particle interaction forces as well as particle and fluid kinetic energy. Our observations show that presence of fluids in a drained granular fault gouge stabilizes the layer in the stick phase and increases the recurrence time. In saturated model, we observe that average particle coordination number reaches higher values compared to dry granular gouge. Upon slip, we observe that a larger portion of the granular sample is mobilized in saturated gouge compared to dry system. We also observe that regions with high particle kinetic energy are correlated with zones of high fluid motion. Our observations highlight that spatiotemporal profile of fluid dynamic pressure affects the characteristics of slip instabilities, increasing macroscopic friction coefficient drop, kinetic energy release and granular layer compaction. We show that numerical simulations help characterize the micromechanics of fault mechanics.

  2. Adaptive projection intensity adjustment for avoiding saturation in three-dimensional shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-03-01

    Phase-based fringe projection methods have been commonly used for three-dimensional (3D) measurements. However, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. Existing solutions are complex. This paper proposes an adaptive projection intensity adjustment method to avoid image saturation and maintain good fringe modulation in measuring objects with a high range of surface reflectivities. The adapted fringe patterns are created using only one prior step of fringe-pattern projection and image capture. First, a set of phase-shifted fringe patterns with maximum projection intensity value of 255 and a uniform gray level pattern are projected onto the surface of an object. The patterns are reflected from and deformed by the object surface and captured by a digital camera. The best projection intensities corresponding to each saturated-pixel clusters are determined by fitting a polynomial function to transform captured intensities to projected intensities. Subsequently, the adapted fringe patterns are constructed using the best projection intensities at projector pixel coordinate. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are projected for phase recovery and 3D shape calculation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high measurement accuracy even for objects with a high range of surface reflectivities.

  3. Driver behavior and accident frequency in school zones: Assessing the impact of sign saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawderman, Lesley; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Huang, Yunchen; Nandi, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    Based on the models of human information processing, if a driver observes too many of the same signs, he or she may no longer pay attention to those signs. In the case of school zones, this expected effect may lead to non-compliance to posted speeds, negatively impacting safety around nearby schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of the number of nearby school zones on driver behavior (vehicle speed and compliance) and accident frequency. As a measure of the density of school zones, this study introduced and defined a new term sign saturation and presented a methodology to calculate sign saturation for school zones. Results found a significant effect of sign saturation on vehicle speed, compliance, and accident frequency. This study also examined the speeding behavior in school zones for different time of the day and day of the week. Results found that speeding was more prevalent in the early mornings and during the weekends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Parabolic Variational Inequalities for Variably Saturated Water Flow in Heterogeneous Fracture Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuyang Ye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures are ubiquitous in geological formations and have a substantial influence on water seepage flow in unsaturated fractured rocks. While the matrix permeability is small enough to be ignored during the partially saturated flow process, water seepage in heterogeneous fracture systems may occur in a non-volume-average manner as distinguished from a macroscale continuum model. This paper presents a systematic numerical method which aims to provide a better understanding of the effect of fracture distribution on the water seepage behavior in such media. Based on the partial differential equation (PDE formulations with a Signorini-type complementary condition on the variably saturated water flow in heterogeneous fracture networks, the equivalent parabolic variational inequality (PVI formulations are proposed and the related numerical algorithm in the context of the finite element scheme is established. With the application to the continuum porous media, the results of the numerical simulation for one-dimensional infiltration fracture are compared to the analytical solutions and good agreements are obtained. From the application to intricate fracture systems, it is found that water seepage flow can move rapidly along preferential pathways in a nonuniform fashion and the variably saturated seepage behavior is intimately related to the geometrical characteristics orientation of fractures.

  5. Effective diffusion coefficients of DNAPL waste components in saturated low permeability soil materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral-Cinar, Derya; Demond, Avery H.

    2017-12-01

    Diffusion is regarded as the dominant transport mechanism into and out of low permeable subsurface lenses and layers in the subsurface. But, some reports of mass storage in such zones are higher than what might be attributable to diffusion, based on estimated diffusion coefficients. Despite the importance of diffusion to efforts to estimate the quantity of residual contamination in the subsurface, relatively few studies present measured diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in saturated low permeability soils. This study reports the diffusion coefficients of a trichloroethylene (TCE), and an anionic surfactant, Aerosol OT (AOT), in water-saturated silt and a silt-montmorillonite (25:75) mixture, obtained using steady-state experiments. The relative diffusivity ranged from 0.11 to 0.17 for all three compounds for the silt and the silt-clay mixture that was allowed to expand. In the case in which the swelling was constrained, the relative diffusivity was about 0.07. In addition, the relative diffusivity of 13C-labeled TCE through a water saturated silt-clay mixture that had contacted a field dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) for 18 months was measured and equaled 0.001. These experimental results were compared with the estimates generated using common correlations, and it was found that, in all cases, the measured diffusion coefficients were significantly lower than the estimated. Thus, the discrepancy between mass accumulations observed in the field and the mass storage that can attributable to diffusion may be greater than previously believed.

  6. Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times

  7. Determination of the activity of a molecular solute in saturated solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordstroem, Fredrik L.; Rasmuson, Ake C.

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of the solubility of a solid molecular compound in a solvent, as well as, estimation of the solution activity coefficient from experimental solubility data both require estimation of the activity of the solute in the saturated solution. The activity of the solute in the saturated solution is often defined using the pure melt at the same temperature as the thermodynamic reference. In chemical engineering literature also the activity of the solid is usually defined on the same reference state. However, far below the melting temperature, the properties of this reference state cannot be determined experimentally, and different simplifications and approximations are normally adopted. In the present work, a novel method is presented to determine the activity of the solute in the saturated solution (=ideal solubility) and the heat capacity difference between the pure supercooled melt and solid. The approach is based on rigorous thermodynamics, using standard experimental thermodynamic data at the melting temperature of the pure compound and solubility measurements in different solvents at various temperatures. The method is illustrated using data for ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylamide and paracetamol. The results show that complete neglect of the heat capacity terms may lead to estimations of the activity that are incorrect by a factor of 12. Other commonly used simplifications may lead to estimations that are only one-third of the correct value

  8. Determination of the activity of a molecular solute in saturated solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, Fredrik L. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rasmuson, Ake C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: rasmuson@ket.kth.se

    2008-12-15

    Prediction of the solubility of a solid molecular compound in a solvent, as well as, estimation of the solution activity coefficient from experimental solubility data both require estimation of the activity of the solute in the saturated solution. The activity of the solute in the saturated solution is often defined using the pure melt at the same temperature as the thermodynamic reference. In chemical engineering literature also the activity of the solid is usually defined on the same reference state. However, far below the melting temperature, the properties of this reference state cannot be determined experimentally, and different simplifications and approximations are normally adopted. In the present work, a novel method is presented to determine the activity of the solute in the saturated solution (=ideal solubility) and the heat capacity difference between the pure supercooled melt and solid. The approach is based on rigorous thermodynamics, using standard experimental thermodynamic data at the melting temperature of the pure compound and solubility measurements in different solvents at various temperatures. The method is illustrated using data for ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylamide and paracetamol. The results show that complete neglect of the heat capacity terms may lead to estimations of the activity that are incorrect by a factor of 12. Other commonly used simplifications may lead to estimations that are only one-third of the correct value.

  9. Micro-poromechanics model of fluid-saturated chemically active fibrous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a micromechanics based model for chemically active saturated fibrous media that incorporates fiber network microstructure, chemical potential driven fluid flow, and micro-poromechanics. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's volume averaging. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model accounts for the discrete nature of the individual fibers while retaining a form suitable for porous materials. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of micro-scale phenomena, such as the fiber pre-strain caused by osmotic effects and evolution of fiber network structure with loading, on the overall behavior and in particular, on the poromechanics parameters. Additionally, the model can describe fluid-flow related rate-dependent behavior under confined and unconfined conditions and varying chemical environments. The significance of the approach is demonstrated by simulating unconfined drained monotonic uniaxial compression under different surrounding fluid bath molarity, and fluid-flow related creep and relaxation at different loading-levels and different surrounding fluid bath molarity. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for saturated soft fibrous materials. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams and concrete.

  10. Saturation of radiation-induced parametric instabilities by excitation of Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Progress made in the last few years in the calculation of the saturation spectra of parametric instabilities which involve Langmuir daughter waves will be reviewed. These instabilities include the ion acoustic decay instability, the two plasmon decay instability (TPDI), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In particular we will emphasize spectral signatures which can be directly compared with experiment. The calculations are based on reduced models of driven Langmuir turbulence. Thomson scattering from hf-induced Langmuir turbulence in the unpreconditioned ionosphere has resulted in detailed agreement between theory and experiment at early times. Strong turbulence signatures dominate in this regime where the weak turbulence approximation fails completely. Recent experimental studies of the TPDI have measured the Fourier spectra of Langmuir waves as well as the angular and frequency spectra of light emitted near 3/2 of the pump frequency again permitting some detailed comparisons with theory. Thomson scattering measurements of the Langmuir wave spectra from SRS are consistent with the saturation by secondary and tertiary decay of the primary SRS Langmuir waves. Scaling laws derived from a local model of SRS saturation are compared with full simulations and recent Nova experiments. (orig.)

  11. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators with input saturation using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and disturbance observer. First, the RBFNN is used to approximate the system uncertainty, and the unknown approximation error of the RBFNN and the time-varying unknown external disturbance of robot manipulators are integrated as a compounded disturbance. Then, the state observer and the disturbance observer are proposed to estimate the unmeasured system state and the unknown compounded disturbance based on RBFNN. At the same time, the adaptation technique is employed to tackle the control input saturation problem. Utilizing the estimate outputs of the RBFNN, the state observer, and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural output feedback control scheme is developed for robot manipulators using the backstepping technique. The convergence of all closed-loop signals is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the asymptotically convergent tracking error is obtained under the integrated effect of the system uncertainty, the unmeasured system state, the unknown external disturbance, and the input saturation. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators.

  12. A Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Gas Pressure on the Water Saturation of Compacted Bentonite-Sand Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Feng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In deep geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste, the generated gas can potentially affect the sealing ability of bentonite buffers. There is a competition between water and gas: the former provides sealing by swelling bentonite, and the latter attempts to desaturate the bentonite buffer. Thus, this study focused on numerically modelling the coupling effects of water and gas on the water saturation and sealing efficiency of compacted bentonite-sand samples. Different gas pressures were applied to the top surface of an upper sample, whereas the water pressure on the bottom side of the lower sample was maintained at 4 MPa. The results indicated that gas pressure did not significantly affect the saturation of the bentonite-sand sample until 2 MPa. At 2 MPa, the degree of water saturation of the upper sample was close to 1.0. As the gas pressure increased, this influence was more apparent. When the gas pressure was 6 MPa or higher, it was difficult for the upper sample to become fully saturated. Additionally, the lower sample was desaturated due to the high gas pressure. This indicated that gas pressure played an important role in the water saturation process and can affect the sealing efficiency of bentonite-based buffer materials.

  13. Analytical theory relating the depth of the sulfate-methane transition to gas hydrate distribution and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Gaurav; Chatterjee, Sayantan; Chapman, Walter G.; Dugan, Brandon; Dickens, Gerald R.; Hirasaki, George J.

    2011-03-01

    We develop a theory that relates gas hydrate saturation in marine sediments to the depth of the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) zone below the seafloor using steady state, analytical expressions. These expressions are valid for systems in which all methane transported into the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) comes from deeper external sources (i.e., advective systems). This advective constraint causes anaerobic oxidation of methane to be the only sulfate sink, allowing us to link SMT depth to net methane flux. We also develop analytical expressions that define the gas hydrate saturation profile based on SMT depth and site-specific parameters such as sedimentation rate, methane solubility, and porosity. We evaluate our analytical model at four drill sites along the Cascadia Margin where methane sources from depth dominate. With our model, we calculate average gas hydrate saturations across GHSZ and the top occurrence of gas hydrate at these sites as 0.4% and 120 mbsf (Site 889), 1.9% and 70 mbsf (Site U1325), 4.7% and 40 mbsf (Site U1326), and 0% (Site U1329), mbsf being meters below seafloor. These values compare favorably with average saturations and top occurrences computed from resistivity log and chloride data. The analytical expressions thus provide a fast and convenient method to calculate gas hydrate saturation and first-order occurrence at a given geologic setting where vertically upward advection dominates the methane flux.

  14. Estimation of Gas Hydrate Saturation Using Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion: Case Study from the Northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs were observed beneath the seafloor in the northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS. Acoustic impedance profile was derived by Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion (CSSI method to provide information on rock properties and to estimate gas hydrate or free gas saturations in the sediments where BSRs are present. In general, gas hydrate-bearing sediments have positive impedance anomalies and free gas-bearing sediments have negative impedance anomalies. Based on well log data and Archie's equation, gas hydrate saturation can be estimated. But in regions where well log data is not available, a quantitative estimate of gas hydrate or free gas saturation is inferred by fitting the theoretical acoustic impedance to sediment impedance obtained by CSSI. Our study suggests that gas hydrate saturation in the Taixinan Basin is about 10 - 20% of the pore space, with the highest value of 50%, and free gas saturation below BSR is about 2 - 3% of the pore space, that can rise to 8 - 10% at a topographic high. The free gas is non-continuous and has low content in the southeastern slope of the Dongsha Islands. Moreover, BSR in the northern continental margin of the SCS is related to the presence of free gas. BSR is strong where free gas occurs.

  15. Experimental investigation of virus and clay particles cotransport in partially saturated columns packed with glass beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-02-15

    Suspended clay particles in groundwater can play a significant role as carriers of viruses, because, depending on the physicochemical conditions, clay particles may facilitate or hinder the mobility of viruses. This experimental study examines the effects of clay colloids on the transport of viruses in variably saturated porous media. All cotransport experiments were conducted in both saturated and partially saturated columns packed with glass beads, using bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 as model viruses, and kaolinite (KGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. The various experimental collision efficiencies were determined using the classical colloid filtration theory. The experimental data indicated that the mass recovery of viruses and clay colloids decreased as the water saturation decreased. Temporal moments of the various breakthrough concentrations collected, suggested that the presence of clays significantly influenced virus transport and irreversible deposition onto glass beads. The mass recovery of both viruses, based on total effluent virus concentrations, was shown to reduce in the presence of suspended clay particles. Furthermore, the transport of suspended virus and clay-virus particles was retarded, compared to the conservative tracer. Under unsaturated conditions both clay particles facilitated the transport of ΦX174, while hindered the transport of MS2. Moreover, the surface properties of viruses, clays and glass beads were employed for the construction of classical DLVO and capillary potential energy profiles, and the results suggested that capillary forces play a significant role on colloid retention. It was estimated that the capillary potential energy of MS2 is lower than that of ΦX174, and the capillary potential energy of KGa-1b is lower than that of STx-1b, assuming that the protrusion distance through the water film is the same for each pair of particles. Moreover, the capillary potential energy is several orders of

  16. Characterization of saturation of CR-39 detector at high alpha-particle fluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Ghazaly

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of saturation in the CR-39 detector reduces and limits its detection dynamic range; nevertheless, this range could be extended using spectroscopic techniques and by measuring the net bulk rate of the saturated CR-39 detector surface. CR-39 detectors were irradiated by 1.5 MeV high alpha-particle fluence varying from 0.06 × 108 to 7.36 × 108 alphas/cm2 from Am-241 source; thereafter, they were etched in a 6.25N NaOH solution at a temperature of 70°C for different durations. Net bulk etch rate measurement of the 1.5 MeV alpha-irradiated CR-39 detector surface revealed that rate increases with increasing etching time and reaches its maximum value at the end of the alpha-particle range. It is also correlated with the alpha-particle fluence. The measurements of UV–Visible (UV–Vis absorbance at 500 and 600 nm reveal that the absorbance is linearly correlated with the fluence of alpha particles at the etching times of 2 and 4 hour. For extended etching times of 6, 10, and 14.5 hour, the absorbance is saturated for fluence values of 4.05 × 108, 5.30 × 108, and 7.36 × 108 alphas/cm2. These new methods pave the way to extend the dynamic range of polymer-based solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs in measurement of high fluence of heavy ions as well as in radiation dosimetry. Keywords: Alpha Particle, Bulk Etch Rate, CR-39 Detector, Saturated Regime, UV–Vis Spectroscopy

  17. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  18. The performance of a surface-applied corrosion inhibitor for the carbon steel in saturated Ca(OH)2 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Haibing; Li, Weihua; Ma, Fubin; Kong, Qinglin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the performance of an amino alcohol based surface applied inhibitor was studied by the electrochemical techniques in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solutions. The surface morphology of the carbon steel was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the energy diffraction spectrum was also tested. Results showed that the inhibitor used in this work demonstrated obvious inhibition efficiency on the carbon steel in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solutions. The inhibition mechanism of the inhibitor lies in the quick adsorption of the active component on carbon steel surface

  19. Criterion of magnetic saturation and simulation of nonlinear magnetization for a linear multi-core pulse transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhengzhong; Kuai Bin; Sun Fengju; Cong Peitian; Qiu Aici

    2002-01-01

    The linear multi-core pulse transformer is an important primary driving source used in pulsed power apparatus for the production of dense plasm owing to its compact, relatively low-cost and easy-to-handle characteristics. The evaluation of the magnetic saturation of the transformer cores is essential to the transformer design, because the energy transfer efficiency of the transformer will degrade significantly after magnetic saturation. This work proposes analytical formulas of the criterion of magnetic saturation for the cores when the transformer drives practical loads. Furthermore, an electric circuit model based on a dependent source treatment for simulating the electric behavior of the cores related to their nonlinear magnetization is developed using the initial magnetization curve of the cores. The numerical simulation with the model is used to evaluate the validity of the criterion. Both the criterion and the model are found to be in agreement with the experimental data

  20. Measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity in fine-grained glacial tills in Iowa: Comparison of in situ and laboratory methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, D. Roger; Lutenegger, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    Nested-standpipe and vibrating-wire piezometers were installed in Pre-Illinoian Wolf Creek and Albernett formations at the Eastern Iowa Till Hydrology Site located in Linn County, Iowa. These surficial deposits are composed of fine-grained glacial diamicton (till) with occasional discontinuous lenses of sand and silt. They overlie the Silurian (dolomite) aquifer which provides private, public, and municipal drinking water supplies in the region. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Wolf Creek Formation was investigated in a sub-area of the Eastern Iowa Till Hydrology Site. Calculations of saturated hydraulic conductivity were based on laboratoryflexible-wall permeameter tests, bailer tests, and pumping test data. Results show that bulk hydraulic conductivity increases by several orders of magnitude as the tested volume of till increases. Increasing values of saturated hydraulic conductivity at larger spatial scales conceptually support a double-porosity flow model for this till.

  1. Experimental study on saturated boiling of two phase natural circulation under low pressure in narrow rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zi-chao; Qi, Shi; Zhou, Tao; Li, Bing; Shahzad, Muhammad Ali [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, Beijing (China); Huang, Yan-ping [Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Chengdu (China). CNNC Key Lab.

    2017-12-15

    Saturated boiling of two-phase natural circulation has been experimentally investigated based on a natural circulation device with narrow rectangular channels. When heating power reaches a certain range, it is possible to observe the phenomenon of saturated boiling and flow pattern transition in the system. The results show the heat transfer coefficient of saturated boiling decreases with the increasing of pressure, heating power and size of narrow rectangle channels. The buoyancy force causing mixed convection decreases the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, a dimensionless number is introduced, which reflects length to width ratio of rectangular narrow section and Rayleigh number, in order to revise the presented correlation. All errors fall within the range of ±15%.

  2. Pump requirements for betatron-generated femtosecond X-ray laser at saturation from inner-shell transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribiere, M.; Grunenwald, J.; Ribeiro, P.; Sebban, S.; Phuoc, K.Ta; Gautier, J.; Kozlova, M.; Zeitoun, P.; Rousse, A.; Jacquemot, S.; Cheron, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    We study pump requirements to produce femtosecond X-ray laser pulses at saturation from inner-shell transitions in the amplified spontaneous emission regime. Since laser-based betatron radiation is considered as the pumping source, we first study the impact of the driving laser power on its intensity. Then we investigate the amplification behavior of the K-a transition of nitrogen at 3.2 nm (395 eV) from radiative transfer calculations coupled with kinetics modeling of the ion population densities. We show that the saturation regime may be experimentally achieved by using PW-class laser-accelerated electron bunches. Finally, we show that this X-ray laser scheme can be extended to heavier atoms and we calculate pump requirements to reach saturation at 1.5 nm (849 eV) from the K-a transition of neon. (authors)

  3. Coral calcifying fluid aragonite saturation states derived from Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. DeCarlo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr within the calcifying fluid of corals is critical for understanding their biomineralization process and sensitivity to environmental changes including ocean acidification. Recent advances in microscopy, microprobes, and isotope geochemistry enable the determination of calcifying fluid pH and [CO32−], but direct quantification of ΩAr (where ΩAr =  [CO32−][Ca2+]∕Ksp has proved elusive. Here we test a new technique for deriving ΩAr based on Raman spectroscopy. First, we analysed abiogenic aragonite crystals precipitated under a range of ΩAr from 10 to 34, and we found a strong dependence of Raman peak width on ΩAr with no significant effects of other factors including pH, Mg∕Ca partitioning, and temperature. Validation of our Raman technique for corals is difficult because there are presently no direct measurements of calcifying fluid ΩAr available for comparison. However, Raman analysis of the international coral standard JCp-1 produced ΩAr of 12.3 ± 0.3, which we demonstrate is consistent with published skeletal Mg∕Ca, Sr∕Ca, B∕Ca, δ11B, and δ44Ca data. Raman measurements are rapid ( ≤  1 s, high-resolution ( ≤  1 µm, precise (derived ΩAr ± 1 to 2 per spectrum depending on instrument configuration, accurate ( ±2 if ΩAr < 20, and require minimal sample preparation, making the technique well suited for testing the sensitivity of coral calcifying fluid ΩAr to ocean acidification and warming using samples from natural and laboratory settings. To demonstrate this, we also show a high-resolution time series of ΩAr over multiple years of growth in a Porites skeleton from the Great Barrier Reef, and we evaluate the response of ΩAr in juvenile Acropora cultured under elevated CO2 and temperature.

  4. All-optical packet envelope detection using a slow semiconductor saturable absorber gate and a semiconductor optical amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porzi, C.; Fresi, F.; Poti, L.; Bogoni, A.; Guina, M.; Orsila, L.; Okhotnikov, O.; Calabretta, N.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—We propose a simple and effective scheme for alloptical packet envelope detection (AO-PED), exploiting a slow saturable absorber-based vertical cavity semiconductor gate and a semiconductor optical amplifier. A high extinction ratio of 15 dB was measured for the recovered envelope signal.

  5. A multi-scale computational scheme for anisotropic hydro-mechanical couplings in saturated heterogeneous porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercatoris, B.C.N.; Massart, T.J.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution discusses a coupled two-scale framework for hydro-mechanical problems in saturated heterogeneous porous geomaterials. The heterogeneous nature of such materials can lead to an anisotropy of the hydro-mechanical couplings and non-linear effects. Based on an assumed model of the

  6. A Model to Couple Flow, Thermal and Reactive Chemical Transport, and Geo-mechanics in Variably Saturated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, G. T.; Tsai, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the development of a THMC (thermal-hydrology-mechanics-chemistry) process model in variably saturated media. The governing equations for variably saturated flow and reactive chemical transport are obtained based on the mass conservation principle of species transport supplemented with Darcy's law, constraint of species concentration, equation of states, and constitutive law of K-S-P (Conductivity-Degree of Saturation-Capillary Pressure). The thermal transport equation is obtained based on the conservation of energy. The geo-mechanic displacement is obtained based on the assumption of equilibrium. Conventionally, these equations have been implicitly coupled via the calculations of secondary variables based on primary variables. The mechanisms of coupling have not been obvious. In this paper, governing equations are explicitly coupled for all primary variables. The coupling is accomplished via the storage coefficients, transporting velocities, and conduction-dispersion-diffusion coefficient tensor; one set each for every primary variable. With this new system of equations, the coupling mechanisms become clear. Physical interpretations of every term in the coupled equations will be discussed. Examples will be employed to demonstrate the intuition and superiority of these explicit coupling approaches. Keywords: Variably Saturated Flow, Thermal Transport, Geo-mechanics, Reactive Transport.

  7. Estimation of changes in saturation and pressure from 4D seismic AVO and time-shift analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trani, M.; Arts, R.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Brouwer, J.

    2011-01-01

    A reliable estimate of reservoir pressure and fluid saturation changes from time-lapse seismic data is difficult to obtain. Existing methods generally suffer from leakage between the estimated parameters. We propose a new method using different combinations of time-lapse seismic attributes based on

  8. Characterization of highly stacked InAs quantum dot layers on InP substrate for a planar saturable absorber at 1.5 μm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Isu, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    We examined the absorption saturation properties in the 1.5 μm band of novel highly stacked InAs quantum dot layers. The transmission change at vertical incidence based on the saturable absorption of the quantum dots was more than 1%. This value is as large as the reflection changes of previously reported 1-μm-band quantum dot saturable absorber with interference enhancement. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Rejection of Erroneous Saturation Data in Optical Pulse Oximetry in Newborn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, Paolo; Carnielli, Virgilio P.

    2011-08-01

    Pulse oximetry (PO) is extensively used in intensive care unit (ICU); this is mainly due to the fact that it is a non-invasive and real-time monitoring method. PO allows to measure arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and in particular hemoglobin oxygenation. Optical PO is typically realized by the use of a clip (to be applied on the ear or on the finger top) containing a couple of monochromatic LED sources and a photodiode. The main drawback with the use of PO is the presence of movement artifacts or disturbance due to optical sources and skin, causing erroneous saturation data. The aim of this work is to present the measurement procedure based on a specially developed algorithm able to reject erroneous oxygen saturation data during long lasting monitoring of patients in ICU and to compare measurement data with reference data provided by EGA. We have collected SaO2 data from a standard PO and used an intensive care unit monitor to collect data. This device was connected to our acquisition system and heart rate (HR) and SaO2 data were acquired and processed by our specially developed algorithm and directly reproduced on the PC screen for use by the clinicians. The algorithm here used for the individuation and rejection of erroneous saturation data is based on the assessment of the difference between the Heart Rate (HR) measured by respectively by the ECG and PO. We have used an emogasanalyzer (EGA) for comparison of the measured data. The study was carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), using 817 data coming from 24 patients and the observation time was of about 10000 hours. Results show a reduction in the maximum difference between the SaO2 data measured, simultaneously, on the same patient by the EGA and by the proposed method of 14.20% and of the 4.76% in average over the 817 samples. The measurement method proposed is therefore able to individuate and eliminate the erroneous saturation data due to motion artifacts and reported by the pulse oxymeter

  10. A Parallel Saturation Algorithm on Shared Memory Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Jonathan; Siminiceanu

    2007-01-01

    Symbolic state-space generators are notoriously hard to parallelize. However, the Saturation algorithm implemented in the SMART verification tool differs from other sequential symbolic state-space generators in that it exploits the locality of ring events in asynchronous system models. This paper explores whether event locality can be utilized to efficiently parallelize Saturation on shared-memory architectures. Conceptually, we propose to parallelize the ring of events within a decision diagram node, which is technically realized via a thread pool. We discuss the challenges involved in our parallel design and conduct experimental studies on its prototypical implementation. On a dual-processor dual core PC, our studies show speed-ups for several example models, e.g., of up to 50% for a Kanban model, when compared to running our algorithm only on a single core.

  11. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimension transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 refs., 8 figs

  12. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  13. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy.

  14. Thermophysical properties of a fluid-saturated sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, Muhammad; Hammerschmidt, Ulf; Koehler, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of a fluid-saturated stone are presented that are obtained by using the transient hot-bridge technique (THB) at ambient conditions. Measurements are succeedingly done each after having filled the porous stone structure first with six different fluids of distinct thermal conductivities and next with six different gases also having different thermal conductivities. Variations in thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric specific heat due to liquid or gas saturations are discussed. Internal pore structure of the stone is studied by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) and other standardized density methods at ambient conditions. Effect of interstitial pore pressure on thermophysical properties are also discussed in the context of Knudsen effect. (authors)

  15. Mutual boosting of the saturation scales in colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Pirner, H.J.; Potashnikova, I.K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. The DGLAP driven gluon distribution turns out to be suppressed at large x, but significantly enhanced at x sA 2 , in AA compared with pA collisions.

  16. Saturation of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase using radioactive fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores de la Torre, J.A.; Badillo A, V.E.; Lopez D, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    With the purpose of knowing the Anion exchange capacity (CIA) of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase, marketed by BIO-RAD, becomes necessary to saturate the surface of the mineral with an anion specie that possesses a strong affinity by this solid as it is the case of the fluorine. Moreover it takes advantage that offers the radioactive tracer technique, using the radioactive isotope of the fluorine, 18 F, produced in the cyclotron of the UNAM. This saturation is obtained in terms of the quantity of retained fluorine (mmol/ 100 g) in the synthetic hydroxyapatite in function of the concentration of the solution of NaF that oscillates from 0.7 M up to 0.16 M to fixed values of pH of 9.2. Those results demonstrate that to this fixed pH value the saturation of the surface of the hydroxyapatite is achieved in approximately 30 mmol/ 100 g, using important concentrations of NaF that correspond to 0.14 M from now on. This result demonstrates the high capacity of the solid considered to retain considerable quantities of fluorine even to basic pH values. (Author)

  17. Saturated versus unsaturated hydrocarbon interactions with carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivasigamani eUmadevi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons in both saturated and unsaturated forms with the carbon nanostructures (CNSs have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT calculations. Model systems representing armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene have been considered to investigate the effect of chirality and curvature of the CNSs towards these interactions. Results of this study reveal contrasting binding nature of the acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons towards CNSs. While the saturated molecules show stronger binding affinity in acyclic hydrocarbons; the unsaturated molecules exhibit higher binding affinity in cyclic hydrocarbons. In addition, acyclic hydrocarbons exhibit stronger binding affinity towards the CNSs when compared to their corresponding cyclic counterparts. The computed results excellently corroborate the experimental observations. The interaction of hydrocarbons with graphene is more favourable when compared with CNTs. Bader’s theory of atoms in molecules has been invoked to characterize the noncovalent interactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Our results are expected to provide useful insights towards the development of rational strategies for designing complexes with desired noncovalent interaction involving CNSs.

  18. Nonlinear mechanisms for drift wave saturation and induced particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A detailed theoretical study of the nonlinear dynamics of gyrokinetic particle simulations of electrostatic collisionless and weakly collisional drift waves is presented. In previous studies it was shown that, in the nonlinearly saturated phase of the evolution, the saturation levels and especially the particle fluxes have an unexpected dependence on collisionality. In this paper, the explanations for these collisionality dependences are found to be as follows: The saturation level is determined by a balance between the electron and ion fluxes. The ion flux is small for levels of the potential below an E x B-trapping threshold and increases sharply once this threshold is crossed. Due to the presence of resonant electrons, the electron flux has a much smoother dependence on the potential. In the 2-1/2-dimensional (''pseudo-3D'') geometry, the electrons are accelerated away from the resonance as they diffuse spatially, resulting in an inhibition of their diffusion. Collisions and three-dimensional effects can repopulate the resonance thereby increasing the value of the particle flux. 30 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina; Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna; Lyublinski, Igor; Vertkov, Alexey; Mazzitelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(−144/RT). • The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10 −13 cm −2 s −1 . The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(-144/RT). The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  20. Density, viscosity, and saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhixian; Jiang, Haiming; Li, Ling; Wang, Hongxing; Qiu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Density of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and its thermal expansion coefficient was determined. • Viscosity of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and fitted to the Andrade equation. • Saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate was reported. • The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the molar evaporation enthalpy of ethyl trifluoroacetate. - Abstract: The properties of ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF 3 COOCH 2 CH 3 ) were measured as a function of temperature: density (278.08 to 322.50) K, viscosity (293.45 to 334.32) K, saturated vapor pressure (293.35 to 335.65) K. The density data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation, and the viscosity data were regressed to the Andrade equation. The correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of equations for density and viscosity are 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The correlation between saturated vapor pressures and temperatures was achieved with a maximum absolute relative deviation of 0.142%. In addition, the molar evaporation enthalpy in the range of T = (293.35 to 335.65) K was estimated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation

  1. Gluon saturation and baryon stopping in the SPS, RHIC, and LHC energy regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuang; Feng Shengqin

    2012-01-01

    A new geometrical scaling method with a gluon saturation rapidity limit is proposed to study the gluon saturation feature of the central rapidity region of relativistic nuclear collisions. The net-baryon number is essentially transported by valence quarks that probe the saturation regime in the target by multiple scattering. We take advantage of the gluon saturation model with geometric scaling of the rapidity limit to investigate net baryon distributions, nuclear stopping power and gluon saturation features in the SPS and RHIC energy regions. Predictions for net baryon rapidity distributions, mean rapidity loss and gluon saturation feature in central Pb + Pb collisions at the LHC are made in this paper. (authors)

  2. User manual of the multicompenent variably - saturated flow and transport model HP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.; Simunek, J.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a new comprehensive simulation tool HP1 (HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC) that was obtained by coupling the HYDRUS-1D one-dimensional variably-saturated water flow and solute transport model with the PHREEQC geochemical code. The HP1 code incorporates modules simulating (1) transient water flow in variably-saturated media, (2) transport of multiple components, and (3) mixed equilibrium/kinetic geochemical reactions. The program numerically solves the Richards equation for variably-saturated water flow and advection-dispersion type equations for heat and solute transport. The flow equation incorporates a sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The heat transport equation considers transport due to conduction and convection with flowing water. The solute transport equations consider advective-dispersive transport in the liquid phase. The program can simulate a broad range of low-temperature biogeochemical reactions in water, soil and ground water systems including interactions with minerals, gases, exchangers, and sorption surfaces, based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics, or mixed equilibrium-kinetic reactions. The program may be used to analyze water and solute movement in unsaturated, partially saturated, or fully saturated porous media. The flow region may be composed of nonuniform soils or sediments. Flow and transport can occur in the vertical, horizontal, or a generally inclined direction. The water flow part of the model can deal with prescribed head and flux boundaries, boundaries controlled by atmospheric conditions, as well as free drainage boundary conditions. The governing flow and transport equations were solved numerically using Galerkin-type linear finite element schemes. To test the accuracy of the coupling procedures implemented in HP1, simulation results were compared with (i) HYDRUS-1D for transport problems of multiple components subject to sequential first-order decay, (ii) PHREEQC for steady-state flow conditions, and

  3. A Perturbation Analysis of Harmonics Generation from Saturated Elements in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Teruhisa

    Nonlinear phenomena such as saturation in magnetic flux give considerable effects in power system analysis. It is reported that a failure in a real 500kV system triggered islanding operation, where resultant even harmonics caused malfunctions in protective relays. It is also reported that the major origin of this wave distortion is nothing but unidirectional magnetization of the transformer iron core. Time simulation is widely used today to analyze this type of phenomena, but it has basically two shortcomings. One is that the time simulation takes two much computing time in the vicinity of inflection points in the saturation characteristic curve because certain iterative procedure such as N-R (Newton-Raphson) should be used and such methods tend to be caught in an ill conditioned numerical hunting. The other is that such simulation methods sometimes do not help intuitive understanding of the studied phenomenon because the whole nonlinear equations are treated in a matrix form and not properly divided into understandable parts as done in linear systems. This paper proposes a new computation scheme which is based on so called perturbation method. Magnetic saturation in iron cores in a generator and a transformer are taken into account. The proposed method has a special feature against the first shortcoming of the N-R based time simulation method stated above. In the proposed method no iterative process is used to reduce the equation residue but uses perturbation series, which means free from the ill condition problem. Users have only to calculate each perturbation terms one by one until he reaches necessary accuracy. In a numerical example treated in the present paper the first order perturbation can make reasonably high accuracy, which means very fast computing. In numerical study three nonlinear elements are considered. Calculated results are almost identical to the conventional Newton-Raphson based time simulation, which shows the validity of the method. The

  4. NDVI saturation adjustment: a new approach for improving cropland performance estimates in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.; Phuyal, Khem P.; Ji, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new approach that adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pixel values that were near saturation to better characterize the cropland performance (CP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), USA. The relationship between NDVI and the ratio vegetation index (RVI) at high NDVI values was investigated, and an empirical equation for estimating saturation-adjusted NDVI (NDVIsat_adjust) based on RVI was developed. A 10-year (2000–2009) NDVIsat_adjust data set was developed using 250-m 7-day composite historical eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. The growing season averaged NDVI (GSN), which is a proxy for ecosystem performance, was estimated and long-term NDVI non-saturation- and saturation-adjusted cropland performance (CPnon_sat_adjust, CPsat_adjust) maps were produced over the GPRB. The final CP maps were validated using National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop yield data. The relationship between CPsat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.78, 113 samples) is stronger than the relationship between CPnon_sat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.67, 113 samples), indicating that the new CPsat_adjust map reduces the NDVI saturation effects and is in good agreement with the corn yield ground observations. Results demonstrate that the NDVI saturation adjustment approach improves the quality of the original GSN map and better depicts the actual vegetation conditions of the GPRB cropland systems.

  5. Global asymptotic stability of a delayed SEIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tailei; Teng Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the asymptotic behavior of solutions of an autonomous SEIRS epidemic model with the saturation incidence is studied. Using the method of Liapunov-LaSalle invariance principle, we obtain the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable if the basic reproduction number is not greater than one. Moreover, we show that the disease is permanent if the basic reproduction number is greater than one. Furthermore, the sufficient conditions of locally and globally asymptotically stable convergence to an endemic equilibrium are obtained base on the permanence

  6. Photoirradiation system with depth optical dosimetry control in initial oxygen saturation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanar, L.; Stolik, S.; Rosa, J. de la; Moreno, E.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a technique in which a photosensitizing substance is applied that is activated by light and it generates reactive oxygen species which cause selective cell destruction. The efficiency of the therapy is affected by the parameters dose. In this work it is shown a photo-irradiation system for superficial Photodynamic Therapy, using as a light source a light emitting diode with an automatic control of optical power based on a model of the distribution of light in depth that was tested in tissue phantoms. It also has a reflective pulse oximeter for the measurement of the initial oxygen saturation. (Author)

  7. Pump-To-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer Characteristics in FOPAs: Modulation Frequency and Saturation Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Cristofori, Valentina; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study of pump- to-signal intensity modulation transfer (IMT) in single-pump fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In particular, the IMT is studied for the first time for high-frequency fluctuations of the pump as well as in the saturated gain regime. The IMT...... cut-off frequency in typical single-pump FOPAs is around 100–200 GHz. The possibilities to shift this frequency based on dispersion and nonlinearities involved in the parametric gain are discussed. The severe IMT to the signal at low modulation frequencies can be suppressed by more than 50...

  8. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: survival probability of central exclusive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departemento de Fisica, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2016-04-15

    We estimate the value of the survival probability for central exclusive production in a model which is based on the CGC/saturation approach. Hard and soft processes are described in the same framework. At LHC energies, we obtain a small value for the survival probability. The source of the small value is the impact parameter dependence of the hard amplitude. Our model has successfully described a large body of soft data: elastic, inelastic and diffractive cross sections, inclusive production and rapidity correlations, as well as the t-dependence of deep inelastic diffractive production of vector mesons. (orig.)

  9. Diffusion, Coulombic interactions and multicomponent ionic transport of charged species in saturated porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolle, Massimo; Muniruzzaman, Muhammad

    water are cross-coupled due to the effects of Coulombic interactions. Such effects are illustrated in flow-through experiments in saturated porous media. Simple strong electrolytes (i.e., salts and strong acid solutions) were selected as tracers and their transport was studied under different advection......-dominated conditions in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media [2-3]. The model-based interpretation of the experimental results is challenging since it requires a multicomponent ionic formulation with an accurate description of local hydrodynamic dispersion and explicitly accounting for the cross-coupling...

  10. Prediction technique for minimum-heat-flux (MHF)- point condition of saturated pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Shigefumi

    1987-01-01

    The temperature-controlled hypothesis for the minimum-heat-flux (MHF)-point condition, in which the MHF-point temperature is regarded as the controlling factor and is expected to be independent of surface configuration and dimensions, is inductively investigated for saturated pool-boiling. In this paper such features of the MHF-point condition are experimentally proved first. Secondly, a correlation of the MHF-point temperature is developed for the effect of system pressure. Finally, a simple technique based on this correlation is presented to estimate the effects of surface configuration, dimensions and system pressure on the minimum heat flux. (author)

  11. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U.; Levin, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y 1 , y 2 ) ≥ 1, which is independent of y 1 and y 2 . Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  12. [Models for quantification of fluid saturation in two-phase flow system by light transmission method and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Hong; Ye, Shu-Jun; Wu, Ji-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Based on light transmission method in quantification of liquid saturation and its application in two-phase flow system, two groups of sandbox experiments were set up to study the migration of gas or Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in water saturated porous media. The migration of gas or DNAPL was monitored in the study. Two modified Light Intensity-Saturation (LIS) models for water/gas two-phase system were applied and verified by the experiment data. Moreover two new LIS models for NAPL/water system were developed and applied to simulate the DNAPL infiltration experiment data. The gas injection experiment showed that gas moved upward to the top of the sandbox in the form of 'fingering' and finally formed continuous distribution. The results of DNAPL infiltration experiment showed that TCE mainly moved downward as the result of its gravity, eventually formed irregular plume and accumulated at the bottom of the sandbox. The outcomes of two LIS models for water/gas system (WG-A and WG-B) were consistent to the measured data. The results of two LIS models for NAPL/water system (NW-A and NW-B) fit well with the observations, and Model NW-A based on assumption of individual drainage gave better results. It could be a useful reference for quantification of NAPL/water saturation in porous media system.

  13. A total pressure-saturation formulation of two-phase flow incorporating dynamic effects in the capillary-pressure-saturation relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, H K; Celia, M A; Hassanizadeh, S M; Karlsen, K H

    2002-07-01

    New theories suggest that the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation should be enhanced by a dynamic term that is proportional to the time rate of change of saturation. This so-called dynamic capillary pressure formulation is supported by laboratory experiments, and can be included in various forms of the governing equations for two-phase flow in porous media. An extended model of two-phase flow in porous media may be developed based on fractional flow curves and a total pressure - saturation description that includes the dynamic capillary pressure terms. A dimensionless form of the resulting equation set provides an ideal tool to study the relative importance of the dynamic capillary pressure effect. This equation provides a rich set of mathematical research questions, and numerical solutions to the equation provide insights into the behavior of two-phase immiscible flow. For typical two-phase flow systems, dynamic capillary pressure acts to retard infiltration fronts, with responses dependent on system parameters including boundary conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that the traditional algebraic relationship between capillary pressure and saturation may be inadequate. Instead, a so-called dynamic capillary pressure formulation is needed, where capillary pressure is defined as a thermodynamic variable, and the difference between phase pressures is only equal to the capillary pressure at equilibrium. Under dynamic conditions, the disequilibrium between phase-pressure differences and the capillary pressure is taken to be proportional to the time rate of change of saturation. A recent study by Hassanizadeh et al. presents experimental evidence, culled from the literature, to support this claim. Numerical simulations using dynamic pore-scale network models and upscaling also support the claim. Hassanizadeh et al. also presented numerical solutions for an enhanced version of Richards' equation that included the dynamic terms. A preliminary

  14. Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Judson A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry. Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation

  15. Simulations of cold nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giménez Molinelli, P.A., E-mail: pagm@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Nichols, J.I. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); López, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Dorso, C.O. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2014-03-01

    Ideal nuclear matter is expected to undergo a first order phase transition at the thermodynamic limit. At such phase transitions the size of density fluctuations (bubbles or droplets) scale with the size of the system. This means that simulations of nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities will inexorably suffer from what is vaguely referred to as “finite size effects”. It is usually thought that these finite size effects can be diminished by imposing periodic boundary conditions and making the system large enough, but as we show in this work, that is actually not the case at sub-saturation densities. In this paper we analyze the equilibrium configurations of molecular dynamics simulations of a classical model for symmetric ideal (uncharged) nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities and low temperatures, where phase coexistence is expected at the thermodynamic limit. We show that the most stable configurations in this density range are almost completely determined by artificial aspects of the simulations (i.e. boundary conditions) and can be predicted analytically by surface minimization. This result is very general and is shown to hold true for several well known semi-classical models of nuclear interaction and even for a simple Lennard-Jones potential. Also, in the limit of very large systems, when “small size” effects can be neglected, those equilibrium configurations seem to be restricted to a few structures reminiscent to the “Pasta Phases” expected in Neutron Star matter, but arising from a completely different origin: In Neutron Star matter, the non-homogeneous structures arise from a competition between nuclear and Coulomb interactions while for ideal nuclear matter they emerge from finite (yet not “small”) size effects. The role of periodic boundary conditions and finite size effects in Neutron Star matter simulations are reexamined.

  16. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU «MEPhI», Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, Giuseppe [ENEA, RC Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(−144/RT). • The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10{sup −13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(-144/RT). The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  17. The viscosity of the refrigerant 1,1-difluoroethane along the saturation line

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gulik, P. S.

    1993-07-01

    The viscosity coefficient of the refrigerant R152a (1,1-difluoroethane) has been measured along the saturation line both in the saturated liquid and in the saturated vapor. The data have been obtained every 10 K from 243 up to 393 K by means of a vibrating-wire viscometer using the free damped oscillation method. The density along the saturation line was calculated from the equation of state given by Tamatsu et al. with application of the saturated vapor-pressure correlation given by Higashi et al. An interesting result is that in the neighborhood of the critical point, the kinematic viscosity of the saturated liquid seems to coincide with that of the saturated vapor. The results for the saturated liquid are in satisfying agreement with those of Kumagai and Takahashi and of Phillips and Murphy. A comparison of the saturatedvaport data with the unsaturated-vapor data of Takahashi et al. shows some discrepancies.

  18. Pump-to-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer in Saturated- Gain Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in saturated degenerate FOPAs is numerically investigated over the whole gain bandwidth. The intensity modulation transfer decreases and the OSNR improves when the amplifier operates in the saturation regime....

  19. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  20. Preparation of hydrophilic magnetic nanospheres with high saturation magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Tong Naihu; Cui Longlan; Lu Ying; Gu Hongchen

    2007-01-01

    Well-defined silica-magnetite core-shell nanospheres were prepared via a modified sol-gel method. Sphere-like magnetite aggregates were obtained as cores of the final nanospheres by assembling in the presence of Tween 20. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed spherical morphology of the nanospheres with controlled silica shell thickness from 9 to 30 nm, depending on the amount of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) used. The nanospheres contained up to 41.7 wt% magnetite with a saturation magnetization of 21.8 emu/g. Up to 35 μg/mg of the model biomolecule streptavidin (SA) could be bound covalently to the hydrophilic silica nanospheres

  1. Deep saturated Free Electron Laser oscillators and frozen spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, P.L. [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Bologna, via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, IT 40129, Bologna (Italy); Pagnutti, S., E-mail: simonetta.pagnutti@enea.it [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Bologna, via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, IT 40129, Bologna (Italy); Dattoli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.dattoli@enea.it [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45, IT 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sabia, E., E-mail: elio.sabia@enea.it [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45, IT 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Petrillo, V., E-mail: vittoria.petrillo@mi.infn.it [Universita' degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT 20133, Milano (Italy); INFN - Mi, via Celoria 16, IT 20133, Milano (Italy); Slot, P.J.M. van der, E-mail: p.j.m.vanderslot@utwente.nl [Mesa+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O.Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Biedron, S., E-mail: sandra.biedron@colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Colorado State University (United States); Milton, S., E-mail: milton@engr.colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Colorado State University (United States)

    2016-10-21

    We analyze the behavior of Free Electron Laser (FEL) oscillators operating in the deep saturated regime and point out the formation of sub-peaks of the optical pulse. These are very stable configurations and the sub-peaks are found to have a duration corresponding to the coherence length. We speculate on the physical mechanisms underlying their growth and attempt an identification with natural mode-locked structures in FEL oscillators. Their impact on the intra-cavity nonlinear harmonic generation is also discussed along with the possibility of exploiting them as cavity out-coupler.

  2. Pressure of saturated vapor of yttrium and zirconium acetylacetonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembovetskij, G.V.; Berdonosov, S.S.; Murav' eva, I.A.; Martynenko, L.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1984-08-01

    The static method and the flow method using /sup 91/Y and /sup 95/Zr radioactive indicators have been applied to determine pressure of saturated vapour of yttrium and zirconium acetylacetonates. Values of thermodynamic functions ..delta..Hsub(subl)=(98+-16)kJ/mol and ..delta..Ssub(subl.)=(155+-30)J/mol x K are calculated for sublimation of yttrium acetylacetonate. For sublimation of zirconium acetylacetonates ..delta..Hsub(subl) equals (116+-38) kJ/mol and ..delta..Ssub(subl) is equal to (198+-65) J/molxK.

  3. Saturated vapor pressure of lutetium tris-acetylacetonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembovetskij, G.V.; Berdonosov, S.S.; Murav' eva, I.A.; Martynenko, L.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-12-01

    By the statical method using /sup 177/Lu radioactive isotope the saturated vapor pressure of anhydrous lutetium acetylacetonate at 130 to 160 deg is determined. The calculations are carried out assuming the vapor to be monomolecular. The equation of lgP versus 1/T takes the form: lg Psub((mmHg))=(8.7+-1.6)-(4110+-690)/T. The thermodynamical characteristics of LuA/sub 3/ sublimation are calculated to be ..delta..Hsub(subl.)=79+-13 kJ/mol; ..delta..Ssub(subl.)=111+-20 J/kxmol.

  4. WHATIF-AQ, Geochem Speciation and Saturation of Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Ole John; Jensen, Bror Skytte

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: WHATIF-AQ is part of a family of programs for calculations of geochemistry in the near-field of radioactive waste with temperature gradients. The program calculates speciation and saturation indices for an aqueous solution at temperatures in the range 0 - 125 degrees C. The chemical equilibrium is determined by solving a set of nonlinear equations consisting of the equilibrium constant and mass balance constraints. 2 - Method of solution: The set of equations is solved using a generalized Newton-Raphson technique

  5. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA) in fluorinated iridium derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Michael J.; O'Donnell, Ryan M.; Bambha, Neal; Ensley, Trenton R.; Shensky, William M.; Shi, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    The photophysical properties of cyclometallated iridium compounds are beneficial for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, such as the design of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) materials. We report on the NLO characterization of a family of compounds of the form [Ir(pbt)2(LX)], where pbt is 2-phenylbenzothiazole and LX is a beta-diketonate ligand. In particular, we investigate the effects of trifluoromethylation on compound solubility and photophysics compared to the parent acetylacetonate (acac) version. The NLO properties, such as the singlet and triplet excited-state cross sections, of these compounds were measured using the Z-scan technique. The excited-state lifetimes were determined from visible transient absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Elastic unitarity of direct channel and Froissart saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushko, N.I.; Kobylinsky, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The condition of elastic unitarity for direct channel continued analytically to high-energy range reveals a fast (upper the Froissart bound) rise of the amplitude between elastic and inelastic cuts in the case when the hadron scattering picture approaches the black disc limit. This fact is assumed as a basis for a new model of generating the Froissart saturation which describes well the main characteristics of NN, PIN and KN scattering. The model suggested is also compared witn the U-matrix approach

  7. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dieta...

  8. Nitrous oxide: Saturation properties and the phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, A.G.M.; Lobo, L.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental values of the coordinates of the triple point and of the critical point of nitrous oxide registered in the literature were assessed and those judged as most reliable have been selected. Empirical equations have been found for the vapour pressure, sublimation and fusion curves. The virial coefficients and saturation properties as functions of temperature along the equilibrium curves are described by reduced equations. They were used in arriving at the molar enthalpies at the triple point and the normal boiling temperature. Equations for the sublimation and fusion curves resulting from the exactly integrated Clapeyron equation compare favourably with the results from the empirical treatment and the experimental data.

  9. Collisional redistribution effects on x-ray laser saturation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.J.; Lee, R.W.; London, R.A.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    We recently published a detailed summary of our experimental and theoretical research on Ne-like Se x-ray laser line widths, and one of our conclusions was that collisional redistribution rates are likely to have an effect on the saturation behavior of the 206.4 angstrom Se x-ray laser. In this paper we focus on the effects of collisional redistribution on x-ray laser gain coefficients, and discuss ways of including these effects in existing laser line- transfer models

  10. Measurement of the saturation magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.; Vazquez, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire by conventional techniques is very difficult because of its small diameter. However, accurate determination of the magnetostriction constant is important in the study of amorphous wires. Here the saturation magnetostriction constant (λ s ) for a low-magnetostriction amorphous wire of nominal composition (Fe 6.3 Co 92.7 Nb 1 ) 77.5 Si 7.5 B 15 has been determined by means of the small-angle magnetization-rotation method. λ s has been evaluated to be 2.1x10 -7 for its as-received state. The dependence of thermal treatment is also reported

  11. A Modified Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers Authors: DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Paul C. Algra, LT, MC...May 2012 – May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Modified Prophylactic Regimen for the Prevention of Otitis Externa in Saturation Divers...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To prevent acute otitis externa (AOE) in the saturation setting and to decrease the side effects

  12. τ-MnAl with high coercivity and saturation magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, high purity τ-Mn54Al46 and Mn54−xAl46Cxalloys were successfully prepared using conventional arc-melting, melt-spinning, and heat treatment process. The magnetic and the structural properties were examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD, powder neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. A room temperature saturation magnetization of 650.5 kAm-1, coercivity of 0.5 T, and a maximum energy product of (BHmax = 24.7 kJm-3 were achieved for the pure Mn54Al46 powders without carbon doping. The carbon substituted Mn54−xAl46Cx, however, reveals a lower Curie temperature but similar saturation magnetization as compared to the carbon-free sample. The electronic structure of MnAl shows that the Mn atom possesses a magnetic moment of 2.454 μB which results from strong hybridization between Mn-Al and Mn-Mn. We also investigated the volume and c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moments of Mn and Al. The results indicate that an increase in the intra-atomic exchange splitting due to the cell volume expansion, leads to a large magnetic moment for the Mn atom. The Mn magnetic moment can reach a value of 2.9 μB at a volume expansion rate of ΔV/V ≈ 20%.

  13. Cascade damage in nickel: Production, saturation and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the electrical resistivity and length were simultaneously measured during the bombardment of nickel at 70 K with 235 U fission fragments and during a subsequent isothermal annealing program. The resistivity changes and length changes were linearly related during the damage production for damage concentrations less 80% of the defect saturation limit. The initial ratio of the length change to the resistivity change was 8.4x10 4 /Ω m. At high damage concentrations, the length change increased at a slightly higher rate than the resistivity change. During isothermal annealing of the near-saturation defect concentration, the resistivity and the length changes had identical recoveries through stage I and most of stage II. During stage III annealing, the ratio of the length change to the resistivity change showed a small increase. At temperatures above 475 K, this ratio showed a marked increase as the resistivity change exhibited recovery without a corresponding recovery of the length change. These differences, which are attributed to the direct formation and growth of three-dimensional vacancy agglomerates, and results of tranmission electron microscopy suggest that the sign of the third derivative of the resistivity with respect to fast-neutron fluence (the sense of curvature in the damage rate) is positive for materials in which cascades collapse to loops, and negative for materials in which three-dimensional vacancy agglomerates are stable. (orig.)

  14. Vitamin A degradation in triglycerides varying by their saturation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccand, Cyril; Martin, Fréderic; Martiel, Isabelle; Gancel, Charlotte; Michel, Martin; Fries, Lennart; Sagalowicz, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has a widespread occurrence globally and is considered as one of the world's most serious health risk factors. Potential solutions to address this deficiency include dietary diversification or supplementation, but food fortification is generally accepted as the most cost-effective solution. The main issue with food fortification of this vitamin is related to its high instability in food matrices. Dilution of vitamin A in triglycerides is a natural and appropriate way to stabilize this compound. We show here that vitamin A palmitate stability increases with increasing concentration of triglycerides. Moreover, we found that vitamin A palmitate displays improved stability in more saturated oils. Using various temperatures, and Arrhenius plots of experiments performed at storage temperatures between 30°C and 60°C for oils varying by their saturation and crystallinity, we demonstrate that crystallization is not responsible for this phenomenon. Additionally, we show by centrifugation that vitamin A is preferably solubilized in the liquid phase compared to the crystalline phase, explaining that triglyceride crystallization does not stabilize vitamin A palmitate. It is proposed that unsaturated fats generate more oxidation products such as radicals and peroxides, leading to a quicker degradation of vitamin A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compression characteristics and permeability of saturated Gaomiaozi ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjing; Sun De'an; Fang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The compression characteristics and permeability of compacted Gaomiaozi Ca-bentonite saturated by the water uptake tests are studied by conducting a series of one-dimension compression tests. The permeability coefficient can be calculated by the Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory after the consolidation coefficient is obtained by the square root of time method. It is found that the compression curves of compacted specimens saturated by the water uptake tests tend to be consistent in the relatively high stress range. The compression indexes show a linear decrease with increasing dry density and the swelling index is a constant. The permeability coefficient decreases with increasing compression stress, and they show the linear relationship in double logarithmic coordinates. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient shows a linear decrease with decreasing void ratio, which has no relationship with initial states, stress states and stress paths. The permeability coefficient k of GMZ Ca-bentonite at dry density Pd of 1.75 g/cm 3 can be calculated as 2.0 × 10 -11 cm/s by the linear relationship between Pd and log k. It is closed to the permeability coefficient of GMZ Ca-bentonite with the same dry density published in literature, which testifies that the method calculating the permeability coefficient is feasible from the consolidation coefficient obtained by the consolidation test. (authors)

  16. Saturation spectroscopy of an optically opaque argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    A pure argon (Ar) plasma formed by a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge was analyzed using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy. The expected line shape was a characteristic of sub-Doppler spectra in the presence of velocity-changing collisions, a narrow Lorentzian centered on a Doppler pedestal, but the observed line shapes contain a multi-peak structure, attributed to opacity of the medium. Laser absorption and inter-modulated fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were made to validate opacity as a driving factor of the observed line shapes. Spectral line shapes are further complicated by the spatial dependence of the pump laser, probe laser and of the absorbing medium, as well as the large absorbance of the transition under investigation. A numerical line shape was derived by accounting for the spatial variation of the pump and probe with a saturated line shape obtained from the rate equations for an equivalent two-level system. This simulated line shape shows good qualitative agreement with the trends observed in the data.

  17. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2011-05-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L-1-135 mg L-1) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d-1-1780 mg d-1 applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency. © 2011.

  18. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-01-01

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel

  19. ON THE SATURATION OF THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY VIA PARASITIC MODES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessah, Martin E.; Goodman, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the stability of incompressible, exact, non-ideal magnetorotational (MRI) modes against parasitic instabilities. Both Kelvin-Helmholtz and tearing-mode parasitic instabilities may occur in the dissipative regimes accessible to current numerical simulations. We suppose that a primary MRI mode saturates at an amplitude such that its fastest parasite has a growth rate comparable to its own. The predicted alpha parameter then depends critically on whether the fastest primary and parasitic modes fit within the computational domain and whether non-axisymmetric parasitic modes are allowed. Hence, even simulations that resolve viscous and resistive scales may not saturate properly unless the numerical domain is large enough to allow the free evolution of both MRI and parasitic modes. To minimally satisfy these requirements in simulations with vertical background fields, the vertical extent of the domain should accommodate the fastest growing MRI mode while the radial and azimuthal extents must be twice as large. The fastest parasites have horizontal wavelengths roughly twice as long as the vertical wavelength of the primary.

  20. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hae ePARK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.