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Sample records for base mismatch detection

  1. Heterodyne detection with mismatch correction base on array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhou, Dong; Guoqiang, Li; Ruofu, Yang; Chunping, Yang; Mingwu, Ao

    2016-07-01

    Based on an array detector, a new heterodyne detection system, which can correct the mismatches of amplitude and phase between signal and local oscillation (LO) beams, is presented in this paper. In the light of the fact that, for a heterodyne signal, there is a certain phase difference between the adjacent two samples of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), we propose to correct the spatial phase mismatch by use of the time-domain phase difference. The corrections can be realized by shifting the output sequences acquired from the detector elements in the array, and the steps of the shifting depend on the quantity of spatial phase mismatch. Numerical calculations of heterodyne efficiency are conducted to confirm the excellent performance of our system. Being different from previous works, our system needs not extra optical devices, so it provides probably an effective means to ease the problem resulted from the mismatches.

  2. Heterodyne detection with mismatch correction based on array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Guoqiang; Yang, Ruofu; Yang, Chunping; Ao, Mingwu

    2016-07-01

    Based on an array detector, a new heterodyne detection system, which can correct the mismatches of amplitude and phase between signal and local oscillation (LO) beams, is presented in this paper. In the light of the fact that, for a heterodyne signal, there is a certain phase difference between the adjacent two samples of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), we propose to correct the spatial phase mismatch by use of the time-domain phase difference. The corrections can be realized by shifting the output sequences acquired from the detector elements in the array, and the steps of the shifting depend on the quantity of spatial phase mismatch. Numerical calculations of heterodyne efficiency are conducted to confirm the excellent performance of our system. Being different from previous works, our system needs not extra optical devices, so it provides probably an effective means to ease the problem resulted from the mismatches.

  3. Single-base mismatch detection based on charge transduction through DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, S O; Boon, E M; Barton, J K; Jackson, N M; Hill, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sensors capable of detecting single-base mismatches are required for the routine screening of genetic mutations and disease. A new strategy for the electrochemical detection of single-base mismatches in DNA has been developed based upon charge transport through DNA films. Double-helical DNA films on gold surfaces have been prepared and used to detect DNA mismatches electrochemically. The signals obtained from redox-active intercalators bound to DNA-modified gold surfaces d...

  4. Reactivity of potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride with mismatched bases and a simple mutation detection protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrinakos, A; Humphrey, K E; Babon, J J; Ellis, T P; Cotton, R G

    1999-01-01

    Many mutation detection techniques rely upon recognition of mismatched base pairs in DNA hetero-duplexes. Potassium permanganate in combination with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) is capable of chemically modifying mismatched thymidine residues. The DNA strand can then be cleaved at that point by treatment with piperidine. The reactivity of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in TEAC toward mismatches was investigated in 29 different mutations, representing 58 mismatched base pairs and 116 mis...

  5. Blind Decorrelating Detection Based on Particle Swarm Optimization under Spreading Code Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jhih-Chung Chang; Chih-Chang Shen

    2014-01-01

    A way of resolving spreading code mismatches in blind multiuser detection with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is proposed. It has been shown that the PSO algorithm incorporating the linear system of the decorrelating detector, which is termed as decorrelating PSO (DPSO), can significantly improve the bit error rate (BER) and the system capacity. As the code mismatch occurs, the output BER performance is vulnerable to degradation for DPSO. With a blind decorrelating scheme, the proposed blind DPSO (BDPSO) offers more robust capabilities over existing DPSO under code mismatch scenarios.

  6. Gold-based optical biosensor for single-mismatched DNA detection using salt-induced hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Zongrui; Ma, Xingyi; Cao, Cuong;

    2011-01-01

    DNA while Au-NPs modified with oligonucleotide detection sequences played a role in recognition and signal production. Due to the much lower stability of mismatched DNA strands caused by unstable duplex structures in solutions of relatively low salt concentration, hybridization efficiency in the...... presence of different buffers was well investigated, and thus, the optimized salt concentration allowed for discrimination of single-mismatched DNA (MMT) from perfectly matched DNA (PMT). Therefore, quantitative information concerning the target analyte was translated into a colorimetric signal, which...

  7. Label-free detection of DNA single-base mismatches using a simple reflectance-based optical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, G; Ceccarello, E; Giavazzi, F; Salina, M; Damin, F; Chiari, M; Buscaglia, M; Bellini, T; Zanchetta, G

    2016-05-21

    Rapid and quantitative detection of the binding of nucleic acids to surface-immobilized probes remains a challenge in many biomedical applications. We investigated the hybridization of a set of fully complementary and defected 12-base long DNA oligomers by using the Reflective Phantom Interface (RPI), a recently developed multiplexed label-free detection technique. Based on the simple measurement of reflected light intensity, this technology enables to quantify the hybridization directly as it occurs on the surface with a sensitivity of 10 pg mm(-2). We found a strong effect of single-base mismatches and of their location on hybridization kinetics and equilibrium binding. In line with previous studies, we found that DNA-DNA binding is weaker on a surface than in the bulk. Our data indicate that this effect is a consequence of weak nonspecific binding of the probes to the surface. PMID:27122358

  8. Chimeric Proteins to Detect DNA Damage and Mismatches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutchen-Maloney, S; Malfatti, M; Robbins, K M

    2002-01-14

    The goal of this project was to develop chimeric proteins composed of a DNA mismatch or damage binding protein and a nuclease, as well as methods to detect DNA mismatches and damage. We accomplished this through protein engineering based on using polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to create chimeras with novel functions for damage and mismatch detection. This project addressed fundamental questions relating to disease susceptibility and radiation-induced damage in cells. It also supported and enhanced LLNL's competency in the emerging field of proteomics. In nature, DNA is constantly being subjected to damaging agents such as exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various environmental and dietary carcinogens. If DNA damage is not repaired however, mutations in DNA result that can eventually manifest in cancer and other diseases. In addition to damage-induced DNA mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are variations in the genetic sequence between individuals, may predispose some to disease. As a result of the Human Genome Project, the integrity of a person's DNA can now be monitored. Therefore, methods to detect DNA damage, mutations, and SNPs are useful not only in basic research but also in the health and biotechnology industries. Current methods of detection often use radioactive labeling and rely on expensive instrumentation that is not readily available in many research settings. Our methods to detect DNA damage and mismatches employ simple gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry, thereby alleviating the need for radioactive labeling and expensive equipment. In FY2001, we explored SNP detection by developing methods based on the ability of the chimeric proteins to detect mismatches. Using multiplex assays with flow cytometry and fluorescent beads to which the DNA substrates where attached, we showed that several of the chimeras possess greater affinity for damaged and mismatched DNA than for native DNA. This affinity was

  9. Technical aspects of typing for HLA-DP alleles using allele-specific DNA in vitro amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Detection of single base mismatches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P;

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an effective method for in vitro DNA amplification which combined with probing with synthetic oligonucleotides can be used for, e.g., HLA-typing. We have studied the technical aspects of HLA-DP typing with the technique. DNA from mononuclear nucleated cells...... base mismatches may be detected in the PCR and typing for HLA-DP gene variants, which differ for only one base, may be performed....

  10. A Model Driven approach for Applicationspecific Mismatch Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Raj

    2013-01-01

    Several large-scale systems are developed in modules that are assembled together to deliver a desired functionality. The modules developed in isolation may not implement the desired requirements. Itcreates several problems either at design-time, deployment-time or at run-time. Existing research defines a class of such problems as mismatches. A mismatch may cause malfunctioning or crash of a system.Therefore, a mismatch needs to be detected and resolved. The paper describes a model-driven gene...

  11. Advanced radar detection schemes under mismatched signal models

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive detection of signals embedded in correlated Gaussian noise has been an active field of research in the last decades. This topic is important in many areas of signal processing such as, just to give some examples, radar, sonar, communications, and hyperspectral imaging. Most of the existing adaptive algorithms have been designed following the lead of the derivation of Kelly's detector which assumes perfect knowledge of the target steering vector. However, in realistic scenarios, mismatches are likely to occur due to both environmental and instrumental factors. When a mismatched signal

  12. Mismatched feature detection with finer granularity for emotional speaker recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHEN; Ying-chun YANG; Zhao-hui WU

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of speakers’ vocal organs change under their different emotional states, which leads to the deviation of the emotional acoustic space of short-time features from the neutral acoustic space and thereby the degradation of the speaker recognition performance. Features deviating greatly from the neutral acoustic space are considered as mismatched features, and they negatively affect speaker recognition systems. Emotion variation produces different feature deformations for different phonemes, so it is reasonable to build a fi ner model to detect mismatched features under each phoneme. However, given the difficulty of phoneme recognition, three sorts of acoustic class recognition- phoneme classes, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) tokenizer, and probabilistic GMM tokenizer- are proposed to replace phoneme recognition. We propose feature pruning and feature regulation methods to process the mismatched features to improve speaker recognition performance. As for the feature regulation method, a strategy of maximizing the between-class distance and minimizing the within-class distance is adopted to train the transformation matrix to regulate the mismatched features. Experiments conducted on the Mandarin affective speech corpus (MASC) show that our feature pruning and feature regulation methods increase the identifi cation rate (IR) by 3.64% and 6.77%, compared with the baseline GMM-UBM (universal background model) algorithm. Also, corresponding IR increases of 2.09% and 3.32% can be obtained with our methods when applied to the state-of-the-art algorithm i-vector.

  13. Detection of single base mismatches of thymine and cytosine residues by potassium permanganate and hydroxylamine in the presence of tetralkylammonium salts.

    OpenAIRE

    Gogos, J.A.; Karayiorgou, M; Aburatani, H; Kafatos, F C

    1990-01-01

    In the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride, potassium permanganate specifically modifies mismatched thymines. Similarly, the modification of mismatched cytosines by hydroxylamine was enhanced by tetraethylammonium chloride. Modification followed by piperidine cleavage permits specific identification of the T and C mismatches and by extension, when the opposite DNA strand is analyzed, of A and G mismatches as well. These reactions can be performed conveniently with DNA immobilized on Hybo...

  14. Energy Detection of Multilevel PAM Signals with Systematic Threshold Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Anttonen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address a symbol decision problem with spectrally efficient energy detected multilevel pulse amplitude modulated (PAM signals. First, we analytically quantify the relationship between a systematic threshold mismatch and the required increase of the average signal-to-noise ratio to preserve a desired symbol error rate. For the case in which such an increase is not tolerable, we present a novel near-optimal multilevel threshold selection scheme, which is accurate for a wide range of system parameters.

  15. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  16. Visual mismatch negativity reveals automatic detection of sequential regularity violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Stefanics

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequential regularities are abstract rules based on repeating sequences of environmental events, which are useful to make predictions about future events. As the processes underlying visual mismatch negativity (vMMN are sensitive to complex stimulus changes, this event-related potential component, like its auditory counterpart, may be an index of a primitive system of intelligence. Here we tested whether the visual system is capable to detect abstract sequential regularity in unattended stimulus sequences. In our first experiment we investigated the emergence of vMMN and other change-related activity to stimuli violating abstract rules. Red and green disk patterns were delivered in pairs. When in the majority of pairs the colors were identical within the pairs, deviant pairs with different colors for the second member of the pair elicited vMMN. Spatially more extended vMMN responses with longer latency were observed for deviants with 10% compared to 30% probability. In our second experiment utilizing oddball sequences, we tested the emergence of vMMN to violations of a concrete, feature-based rule of a repetition of a standard color. Deviant colors elicited a vMMN response in the oddball sequences. VMMN was larger for the second member of the pair, i.e. after a shorter stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA. This result corresponds to the expected SOA/(vMMN relationship. Our results show that the system underlying vMMN is sensitive to abstract probability rules and this component can be considered as a correlate of violated predictions about the characteristics of environmental events.

  17. Mismatch oxidation assay: detection of DNA mutations using a standard UV/Vis microplate reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Tania; Sallmann, Georgina; Cotton, Richard G H

    2009-01-01

    Simple, low-cost mutation detection assays that are suitable for low-throughput analysis are essential for diagnostic applications where the causative mutation may be different in every family. The mismatch oxidation assay is a simple optical absorbance assay to detect nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions in heteroduplex DNA. The method relies on detecting the oxidative modification products of mismatched thymine and cytosine bases by potassium permanganate as it is reduced to manganese dioxide. This approach, unlike other methods commonly used to detect sequence variants, does not require costly labeled probes or primers, toxic chemicals, or a time-consuming electrophoretic separation step. The oxidation rate, and hence the presence of a sequence variant, is detected by measuring the formation of the potassium permanganate reduction product (hypomanganate diester), which absorbs at the 420-nm visible wavelength, using a standard UV/vis microplate reader. PMID:19768598

  18. An unexpected sequence of events: mismatch detection in the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran, D.; Maguire, E. A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to identify and react to novelty within the environment is fundamental to survival. Computational models emphasize the potential role of the hippocampus in novelty detection, its unique anatomical circuitry making it ideally suited to act as a comparator between past and present experience. The hippocampus, therefore, is viewed to detect associative mismatches between what is expected based on retrieval of past experience and current sensory input. However, direct evidence that th...

  19. An Unexpected Sequence of Events: Mismatch Detection in the Human Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to identify and react to novelty within the environment is fundamental to survival. Computational models emphasize the potential role of the hippocampus in novelty detection, its unique anatomical circuitry making it ideally suited to act as a comparator between past and present experience. The hippocampus, therefore, is viewed to detect associative mismatches between what is expected based on retrieval of past experience and current sensory input. However, direct evidence that th...

  20. Model Mismatch Paradigm for Probe based Nanoscale Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pranav

    Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) are widely used for investigation of material properties and manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. These instruments are considered critical enablers of nanotechnology by providing the only technique for direct observation of dynamics at the nanoscale and affecting it with sub Angstrom resolution. Current SPMs are limited by low throughput and lack of quantitative measurements of material properties. Various applications like the high density data storage, sub-20 nm lithography, fault detection and functional probing of semiconductor circuits, direct observation of dynamical processes involved in biological samples viz. motor proteins and transport phenomena in various materials demand high throughput operation. Researchers involved in material characterization at nanoscale are interested in getting quantitative measurements of stiffness and dissipative properties of various materials in a least invasive manner. In this thesis, system theoretic concepts are used to address these limitations. The central tenet of the thesis is to model, the known information about the system and then focus on perturbations of these known dynamics or model, to sense the effects due to changes in the environment such as changes in material properties or surface topography. Thus a model mismatch paradigm for probe based nanoscale imaging is developed. The topic is developed by presenting physics based modeling of a particular mode of operation of SPMs called the dynamic mode operation. This mode is modeled as a forced Lure system where a linear time invariant system is in feedback with an unknown static memoryless nonlinearity. Tools from averaging theory are used to tame this complex nonlinear system by approximating it as a linear system with time varying parameters. Material properties are thus transformed from being parameters of unknown nonlinear functions to being unknown coefficients of a linear plant. The first contribution of this thesis

  1. Single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence spectroscopy reveals directional MutS binding to mismatched bases in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cristovao, M.; Sisamakis, E.; Hingorani, M M; Marx, A. D.; Jung, C. P.; Rothwell, P. J.; Seidel, C. A. M.; Friedhoff, P.

    2012-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects replication errors such as mismatched bases and loops in DNA. The evolutionarily conserved dimeric MMR protein MutS recognizes mismatches by stacking a phenylalanine of one subunit against one base of the mismatched pair. In all crystal structures of G:T mismatch-bound MutS, phenylalanine is stacked against thymine. To explore whether these structures reflect directional mismatch recognition by MutS, we monitored the orientation of Escherichia coli MutS binding ...

  2. Detecting mismatches of bird migration stopover and tree phenology in response to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; Van Riper, Charles, III

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.

  3. Detection of cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome using mismatch negativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Wen; Ningyu Wang; Jinfeng Liu; Zhanfeng Yan; Zhonghai Xin

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, 97 patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome were divided into three groups (mild, moderate, severe) according to minimum oxygen saturation, and 35 healthy subjects were examined as controls. Cognitive function was determined using the mismatch negativity paradigm and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The results revealed that as the disease worsened, the mismatch negativity latency was gradually extended, and the amplitude gradually declined in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Importantly, mismatch negativity latency in severe patients with a persistent time of minimum oxygen saturation 60 seconds. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between minimum oxygen saturation latency and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. These findings indicate that intermittent night-time hypoxemia affects mismatch negativity waveforms and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. As indicators for detecting the cognitive functional status of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients, the sensitivity of mismatch negativity is 82.93%, the specificity is 73.33%, the accuracy rate is 81.52%, the positive predictive value is 85.00%, the negative predictive value is 70.21%, the positive likelihood ratio is 3, and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.23. These results indicate that mismatch negativity can be used as an effective tool for diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients.

  4. Single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence spectroscopy reveals directional MutS binding to mismatched bases in DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Cristovao (Michele); E. Sisamakis (Evangelos); M.M. Hingorani (Manju); A.D. Marx (Andreas); C.P. Jung (Caroline); P.J. Rothwell (Paul); C.A.M. Seidel (Claus A.); P. Friedhoff (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMismatch repair (MMR) corrects replication errors such as mismatched bases and loops in DNA. The evolutionarily conserved dimeric MMR protein MutS recognizes mismatches by stacking a phenylalanine of one subunit against one base of the mismatched pair. In all crystal structures of G:T mi

  5. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wojciechowski

    Full Text Available Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI. However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  6. A simple and rapid quantitative method of detection of the common achondroplasia mutation: Analysis in mismatch repair deficient cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Raji

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia is the most common form of dwarfism and has an incidence of approximately 1/7,500. In more than 97% of cases, it is caused by a recurrent point mutation, a G to A substitution at nucleotide position 1138 (G1138A of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene. Although this is an autosomal dominant condition, more than 90% of all mutations occur sporadically making this one of the most mutagenic sites in the human genome. The reasons for the high spontaneous G1138A mutation rate are not known. This investigation was performed by developing a simple and rapid semi-quantitative allele specific PCR based assay capable of reliably detecting more than 25 mutant G1138A copies in a pool of 300,000 wild type molecules. Using this assay, the G1138A mutation frequency was measured in cell lines deficient in mismatch repair (LoVo, SW48 and comparing it with controls. No differences were found in the frequency of this point mutation between the mismatch repair deficient and wild type cell lines.

  7. Automatic Change Detection to Facial Expressions in Adolescents: Evidence from Visual Mismatch Negativity Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a critical period for the neurodevelopment of social-emotional processing, wherein the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions is crucial for the development of interpersonal communication. Two groups of participants (an adolescent group and an adult group were recruited to complete an emotional oddball task featuring on happy and one fearful condition. The measurement of event-related potential (ERP was carried out via electroencephalography (EEG and electrooculography (EOG recording, to detect visual mismatch negativity (vMMN with regard to the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions between the two age groups. The current findings demonstrated that the adolescent group featured more negative vMMN amplitudes than the adult group in the fronto-central region during the 120-200 ms interval. During the time window of 370-450 ms, only the adult group showed better automatic processing on fearful faces than happy faces. The present study indicated that adolescents posses stronger automatic detection of changes in emotional expression relative to adults, and sheds light on the neurodevelopment of automatic processes concerning social-emotional information.

  8. Automatic Change Detection to Facial Expressions in Adolescents: Evidence from Visual Mismatch Negativity Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Shi, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the neurodevelopment of social-emotional processing, wherein the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions is crucial for the development of interpersonal communication. Two groups of participants (an adolescent group and an adult group) were recruited to complete an emotional oddball task featuring on happy and one fearful condition. The measurement of event-related potential was carried out via electroencephalography and electrooculography recording, to detect visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) with regard to the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions between the two age groups. The current findings demonstrated that the adolescent group featured more negative vMMN amplitudes than the adult group in the fronto-central region during the 120–200 ms interval. During the time window of 370–450 ms, only the adult group showed better automatic processing on fearful faces than happy faces. The present study indicated that adolescent’s posses stronger automatic detection of changes in emotional expression relative to adults, and sheds light on the neurodevelopment of automatic processes concerning social-emotional information. PMID:27065927

  9. Evolving approach and clinical significance of detecting DNA mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Jinru

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen significant advancement in our understanding of colorectal tumors with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. The ever-emerging revelations of new molecular and genetic alterations in various clinical conditions have necessitated constant refinement of disease terminology and classification. Thus, a case with the clinical condition of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer as defined by the Amsterdam criteria may be one of Lynch syndrome characterized by a germline defect in one of the several MMR genes, one of the yet-to-be-defined “Lynch-like syndrome” if there is evidence of MMR deficiency in the tumor but no detectable germline MMR defect or tumor MLH1 promoter methylation, or “familial colorectal cancer type X” if there is no evidence of MMR deficiency. The detection of these conditions carries significant clinical implications. The detection tools and strategies are constantly evolving. The Bethesda guidelines symbolize a selective approach that uses clinical information and tumor histology as the basis to select high-risk individuals. Such a selective approach has subsequently been found to have limited sensitivity, and is thus gradually giving way to the alternative universal approach that tests all newly diagnosed colorectal cancers. Notably, the universal approach also has its own limitations; its cost-effectiveness in real practice, in particular, remains to be determined. Meanwhile, technological advances such as the next-generation sequencing are offering the promise of direct genetic testing for MMR deficiency at an affordable cost probably in the near future. This article reviews the up-to-date molecular definitions of the various conditions related to MMR deficiency, and discusses the tools and strategies that have been used in detecting these conditions. Special emphasis will be placed on the evolving nature and the clinical importance of the disease definitions and the detection strategies. PMID:25716099

  10. A polymerization-based method to construct a plasmid containing clustered DNA damage and a mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Akamatsu, Ken; Shikazono, Naoya

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of biological materials to ionizing radiation often induces clustered DNA damage. The mutagenicity of clustered DNA damage can be analyzed with plasmids carrying a clustered DNA damage site, in which the strand bias of a replicating plasmid (i.e., the degree to which each of the two strands of the plasmid are used as the template for replication of the plasmid) can help to clarify how clustered DNA damage enhances the mutagenic potential of comprising lesions. Placement of a mismatch near a clustered DNA damage site can help to determine the strand bias, but present plasmid-based methods do not allow insertion of a mismatch at a given site in the plasmid. Here, we describe a polymerization-based method for constructing a plasmid containing clustered DNA lesions and a mismatch. The presence of a DNA lesion and a mismatch in the plasmid was verified by enzymatic treatment and by determining the relative abundance of the progeny plasmids derived from each of the two strands of the plasmid. PMID:27449134

  11. The mismatch negativity as an index of cognitive decline for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Pirulli, Cornelia; Mazza, Veronica; Miniussi, Carlo; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is part of a continuum, characterized by long preclinical phases before the onset of clinical symptoms. In several cases, this continuum starts with a syndrome, defined as mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in which daily activities are preserved despite the presence of cognitive decline. The possibility of having a reliable and sensitive neurophysiological marker that can be used for early detection of AD is extremely valuable because of the incidence of this type of dementia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the reliability of auditory mismatch negativity (aMMN) as a marker of cognitive decline from normal ageing progressing from MCI to AD. We compared aMMN elicited in the frontal and temporal locations by duration deviant sounds in short (400 ms) and long (4000 ms) inter-trial intervals (ITI) in three groups. We found that at a short ITI, MCI showed only the temporal component of aMMN and AD the frontal component compared to healthy elderly who presented both. At a longer ITI, aMMN was elicited only in normal ageing subjects at the temporal locations. Our study provides empirical evidence for the possibility to adopt aMMN as an index for assessing cognitive decline in pathological ageing. PMID:27616726

  12. An optimized pentaplex PCR for detecting DNA mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Goel

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Microsatellite instability (MSI is used to screen colorectal cancers (CRC for Lynch Syndrome, and to predict outcome and response to treatment. The current technique for measuring MSI requires DNA from normal and neoplastic tissues, and fails to identify tumors with specific DNA mismatch repair (MMR defects. We tested a panel of five quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide repeat markers amplified in a single multiplex PCR reaction (pentaplex PCR to detect MSI. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated a cohort of 213 CRC patients, comprised of 114 MMR-deficient and 99 MMR-proficient tumors. Immunohistochemical (IHC analysis evaluated the expression of MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. MSI status was defined by differences in the quasi-monomorphic variation range (QMVR from a pool of normal DNA samples, and measuring differences in allele lengths in tumor DNA. RESULTS: Amplification of 426 normal alleles allowed optimization of the QMVR at each marker, and eliminated the requirement for matched reference DNA to define MSI in each sample. Using > or = 2/5 unstable markers as the criteria for MSI resulted in a sensitivity of 95.6% (95% CI = 90.1-98.1% and a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI = 96.6%-100%. Detection of MSH6-deficiency was limited using all techniques. Data analysis with a three-marker panel (BAT26, NR21 and NR27 was comparable in sensitivity (97.4% and positive predictive value (96.5% to the five marker panel. Both approaches were superior to the standard approach to measuring MSI. CONCLUSIONS: An optimized pentaplex (or triplex PCR offers a facile, robust, very inexpensive, highly sensitive, and specific assay for the identification of MSI in CRC.

  13. Phase Error Caused by Speed Mismatch Analysis in the Line-Scan Defect Detection by Using Fourier Transform Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase error caused by the speed mismatch issue is researched in the line-scan images capturing 3D profile measurement. The experimental system is constructed by a line-scan CCD camera, an object moving device, a digital fringe pattern projector, and a personal computer. In the experiment procedure, the detected object is moving relative to the image capturing system by using a motorized translation stage in a stable velocity. The digital fringe pattern is projected onto the detected object, and then the deformed patterns are captured and recorded in the computer. The object surface profile can be calculated by the Fourier transform profilometry. However, the moving speed mismatch error will still exist in most of the engineering application occasion even after an image system calibration. When the moving speed of the detected object is faster than the expected value, the captured image will be compressed in the moving direction of the detected object. In order to overcome this kind of measurement error, an image recovering algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the original compressed image. Thus, the phase values can be extracted much more accurately by the reconstructed images. And then, the phase error distribution caused by the speed mismatch is analyzed by the simulation and experimental methods.

  14. MEASURES OF OCCUPATIONAL MISMATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mihaela MAER MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research developed in this paper is based on micro data available in Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC. The research aimed to estimate the size of both forms of labour market mismatch: education mismatch and skill mismatch. The first measure of job mismatch is based on workers’ self-assessment. The second one uses the PIAAC assessment regarding the proficiency for each skill dimension (literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology rich environments. The labor market mismatch was measured for Spain and Italy datasets for the higher education graduates whose occupations are included in Major Group two Professionals, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The estimation results showed that the two measures of labour market mismatch are not correlated.

  15. Statistical weighting of model-based optoacoustic reconstruction for minimizing artefacts caused by strong acoustic mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    A modified quantitative inversion algorithm is presented that minimizes the effects of internal acoustic reflections or scattering in tomographic optoacoustic images. The inversion procedure in our model-based algorithm consists in solving a linear system of equations in which each individual equation corresponds to a given position of the acoustic transducer and to a given time instant. Thus, the modification that we propose in this work consists in weighting each equation of the linear system with the probability that the measured wave is not distorted by reflection or scattering phenomena. We show that the probability that a reflected or scattered wave is detected at a given position and at a given instant is approximately proportional to the size of the area in which the original wave could have been generated, which is dependent on the position of the transducer and on the time instant, so that such probability can be used to weight each equation of the linear system. Thereby, the contribution of the waves that propagate directly to the transducer to the reconstructed images is emphasized. We experimentally test the proposed inversion algorithm with tissue-mimicking agar phantoms in which air-gaps are included to cause reflections of the acoustic waves. The tomographic reconstructions obtained with the modification proposed herein show a clear reduction of the artefacts due to these acoustic phenomena with respect to the reconstructions yielded with the original algorithm. This performance is directly related to in-vivo small animal imaging applications involving imaging in the presence of bones, lungs, and other highly mismatched organs.

  16. Mismatch responses and deviance detection in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction and developmental models of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    Reductions in the size of the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential component elicited in response to unexpected stimuli, are arguably the most robust neurophysiological findings in schizophrenia. Several studies have now demonstrated that 'true' human-like deviance detection mismatch responses (MMRs) can be generated in the rodent brain and therefore that animal models can be used to examine the neurobiology of schizophrenia-like MMR impairments and investigate the efficacy of new treatments in addressing underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Two broad categories of animal models have been examined for schizophrenia-like MMRs: models involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, and models involving an insult or exposure during development. While these models have been shown to exhibit reductions in MMRs, it is still unclear whether or not these reductions involve changes to neural adaptation to repetitive stimuli or whether they reflect impairments in the response to unexpected deviations in regular patterns. PMID:26159809

  17. Detection of mismatch repair gene germline mutation carrier among Chinese population with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recommended the Revised Bethesda guidelines for screening HNPCC. There has been a great deal of research on the value of these tests in other countries. However, literature about the Chinese population is scarce. Our objective is to detect and study microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch repair (MMR) gene germline mutation carriers among a Chinese population with colorectal cancer. In 146 prospectively recruited consecutive patients with clinically proven colorectal cancer, MSI carriers were identified by analysis of tumor tissue using multiplex fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the NCI recommended panel and classified into microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L), microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable (MSS) groups. Immunohistochemical staining for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 on tissue microarrays (TMAs) was performed, and methylation of the MLH1 promoter was analyzed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (MSP). Germline mutation analysis of blood samples was performed for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 genes. Thirty-four out of the 146 colorectal cancers (CRCs, 23.2%) were MSI, including 19 MSI-H CRCs and 15 MSI-L CRCS. Negative staining for MSH2 was found in 8 CRCs, negative staining for MSH6 was found in 6 CRCs. One MSI-H CRC was negative for both MSH6 and MSH2. Seventeen CRCs stained negatively for MLH1. MLH1 promoter methylation was determined in 34 MSI CRCs. Hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter occurred in 14 (73.7%) out of 19 MSI-H CRCs and 5 (33.3%) out of 15 MSI-L CRCs. Among the 34 MSI carriers and one MSS CRC with MLH1 negative staining, 8 had a MMR gene germline mutation, which accounted for 23.5% of all MSI colorectal cancers and 5.5% of all the colorectal cancers. Five patients harbored MSH2 germline mutations, and three patients harbored MSH6 germline mutations. None of the patients had an MLH

  18. Performance Analysis of Spectral Amplitude Coding Based OCDMA System with Gain and Splitter Mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umrani, Fahim A.; Umrani, A. Waheed; Umrani, Naveed A.; Memon, Kehkashan A.; Kalwar, Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the practical analysis of the optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) systems based on perfect difference codes. The work carried out use SNR criterion to select the optimal value of avalanche photodiodes (APD) gain and shows how the mismatch in the splitters and gains of the APD used in the transmitters and receivers of network can degrade the BER performance of the system. The investigations also reveal that higher APD gains are not suitable for such systems even at higher powers. The system performance, with consideration of shot noise, thermal noise, bulk and surface leakage currents is also investigated.

  19. Effect of base mismatch on the electronic properties of DNA-DNA and LNA-DNA double strands: Density-functional theoretical calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Natsume, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Dedachi, Kenichi; Tsukamoto, Takayuki; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2007-01-01

    The electronic properties of double-stranded octametric DNA-DNA and LNA-DNA with a single-base mismatch were compared with those having fully complementary base pairs to quantify the effect of the base mismatch on hybridization energies (HE). A single T-G mismatch in the LNA-DNA gives rise to a significant reduction in HE, which is consistent with a significant lowering of the melting temperature for mismatched LNA-DNA. By contrast, the hybridization strength of the mismatched DNA-DNA depends...

  20. Compensating Acoustic Mismatch Using Class-Based Histogram Equalization for Robust Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Sungtak; Kim, Hoirin

    2007-12-01

    A new class-based histogram equalization method is proposed for robust speech recognition. The proposed method aims at not only compensating for an acoustic mismatch between training and test environments but also reducing the two fundamental limitations of the conventional histogram equalization method, the discrepancy between the phonetic distributions of training and test speech data, and the nonmonotonic transformation caused by the acoustic mismatch. The algorithm employs multiple class-specific reference and test cumulative distribution functions, classifies noisy test features into their corresponding classes, and equalizes the features by using their corresponding class reference and test distributions. The minimum mean-square error log-spectral amplitude (MMSE-LSA)-based speech enhancement is added just prior to the baseline feature extraction to reduce the corruption by additive noise. The experiments on the Aurora2 database proved the effectiveness of the proposed method by reducing relative errors by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] over the mel-cepstral-based features and by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] over the conventional histogram equalization method, respectively.

  1. Low frequency of defective mismatch repair in a population-based series of upper urothelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfoss Björn L

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper urothelial cancer (UUC, i.e. transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and the ureter, occur at an increased frequency in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC. Defective mismatch repair (MMR specifically characterizes HNPCC-associated tumors, but also occurs in subsets of some sporadic tumors, e.g. in gastrointestinal cancer and endometrial cancer. Methods We assessed the contribution of defective MMR to the development of UUC in a population-based series from the southern Swedish Cancer Registry, through microsatellite instability (MSI analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of expression of the MMR proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6. Results A MSI-high phenotype was identified in 9/216 (4% successfully analyzed patients and a MSI-low phenotype in 5/216 (2%. Loss of MMR protein immunostaining was found in 11/216 (5% tumors, and affected most commonly MSH2 and MSH6. Conclusion This population-based series indicates that somatic MMR inactivation is a minor pathway in the development of UUC, but tumors that display defective MMR are, based on the immunohistochemical expression pattern, likely to be associated with HNPCC.

  2. The γ/γ ' mismatch in Ni based superalloys: In situ measurements during a creep test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diologent, F.; Caron, P.; d'Almeida, T.; Jacques, A.; Bastie, P.

    2003-01-01

    The lattice mismatch between the fcc γ matrix and the ordered γ ' cuboı̈dal precipitates in superalloys induces large internal stresses within the material. These stresses have a major effect on its mechanical behaviour and on the anisotropic evolution of the microstructure (rafting…) during its lifetime. The evolution of the effective lattice mismatch of the AM1 and MCNG superalloys was measured continuously during high temperature creep tests (1100 °C, 150 MPa) at the ID 15 (high energy) beamline of the ESRF. The bulk profiles of the 200 reflection (parallel to the tensile axis) were recorded using the triple crystal diffractometer. Both materials have a negative mismatch, and exhibit a transition between the initial wide γ ' peak to a two peaks profile during stage I of the creep curve, as rafting takes place. During stage II, the 200 mismatch decreases in magnitude. During stage III, as a microstructural transition (coalescence) occurs and the strain rate increases, the mismatch changes in the same direction, but at a faster rate, while the thickness of both peaks increases. Evolution of the MCNG specimen was the same as AM1 ones, but rafting and transition to stage II take place at a different rate.

  3. Optimization of energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Xing; Ghaly, Michael; Frey, Eric C. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287-0859 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: In yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. Methods: An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a

  4. Optimization of energy window for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of 90Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. Methods: An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a Gaussian distribution; the

  5. Magnetostatic-Wave-Based Magneto-Optic Pulse Compression by Control of Phase Mismatching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bao-Jian; GAO Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Microwave magnetostatic waves (MSWs) as moving gratings in magneto-optic (MO) film can lead to the Bragg diffraction of guided optical waves (GOWs). The MO coupling characteristics are responsible for the amplitude and phase frequency spectra of diffracted pulses and even result in the compression of chirped optical pulses in time domain. We theoretically investigate the noncollinear diffraction of linearly chirped Gaussian optical pulses by continuous magnetostatic forward volume waves in detail. For a given chirped optical pulse, with the increase of phase-mismatching slopes, the compression efficiency (CE) is gradually improved up to the maximum followed by the transition of diffracted pulses from single peak to multi peaks. The larger the chirp parameter is,the smaller the required phase-mismatching slope to achieve the maximal CE is. However, the rise of the chirp parameter or phase-mismatching slope reduces the relative peak intensity of the diffracted pulse. Lastly, it is pointed out that the phase-mismatching slope can be greatly increased by using the high-order modes of MSWs and GOWs.

  6. Rapid detection of sequence variation in Clostridium difficile genes using LATE-PCR with multiple mismatch-tolerant hybridization probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth E; Khan, Huma; Mistry, Rohit; Goldenberg, Simon D; French, Gary L; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2012-11-01

    A novel molecular assay for Clostridium difficile was developed using Linear-After-The-Exponential polymerase chain reaction (LATE-PCR). Single-stranded DNA products generated by LATE-PCR were detected and distinguished by hybridization to fluorescent mismatch-tolerant probes, as the temperature was lowered after amplification in 5(°)C intervals between 65°C and 25°C. Single-tube multiplex reactions for tcdA, tcdB, tcdC, and cdtB (binary toxin) sequences were initially optimized using synthetic targets and were subsequently done using genomic DNA; each target was detected and characterized by hybridization to one or more probes of a different fluorescent color. In the case of tcdC, three probes, each labeled with a Quasar fluorophore, hybridize to different locations with known mutations, including the deletion at nucleotide 117 in ribotype 027 strains and the premature stop codon mutation at nucleotide 184 in ribotype 078 strains, each of which is associated with hypervirulent infections. These and other tcdC mutations were distinguished from the reference sequence, as well as from each other by changes in the fluorescent contour generated from the combined Quasar-labeled probes. Specific variations in tcdA and tcdB were also identified in the multiplex assay, including those that identified strains lacking toxin A production. This single closed-tube assay generates substantially more information about virulent C. difficile than currently available commercial assays and could be further expanded to provide strain typing. PMID:22982259

  7. Automated detection of residual cells after sex-mismatched stem-cell transplantation – evidence for presence of disease-marker negative residual cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tilman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new chimerism analysis based on automated interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH evaluation was established to detect residual cells after allogene sex-mismatched bone marrow or blood stem-cell transplantation. Cells of 58 patients were characterized as disease-associated due to presence of a bcr/abl-gene-fusion or a trisomy 8 and/or a simultaneous hybridization of gonosome-specific centromeric probes. The automatic slide scanning platform Metafer with its module MetaCyte was used to analyse 3,000 cells per sample. Results Overall 454 assays of 58 patients were analyzed. 13 of 58 patients showed residual recipient cells at one stage of more than 4% and 12 of 58 showed residual recipient cells less than 4%, respectively. As to be expected, patients of the latter group were associated with a higher survival rate (48 vs. 34 month. In only two of seven patients with disease-marker positive residual cells between 0.1–1.3% a relapse was observed. Besides, disease-marker negative residual cells were found in two patients without relapse at a rate of 2.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusion The definite origin and meaning of disease-marker negative residual cells is still unclear. Overall, with the presented automatic chimerism analysis of interphase FISH slides, a sensitive method for detection of disease-marker positive residual cells is on hand.

  8. The Escherichia coli Methyl-Directed Mismatch Repair System Repairs Base Pairs Containing Oxidative Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrzykowski, Jennifer; Volkert, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    A major role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system of Escherichia coli is to repair postreplicative errors. In this report, we provide evidence that MMR also acts on oxidized DNA, preventing mutagenesis. When cells deficient in MMR are grown anaerobically, spontaneous mutation frequencies are reduced compared with those of the same cells grown aerobically. In addition, we show that a dam mutant has an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide treatment that can be suppressed by...

  9. Analysis of the effects of mismatched errors on coherent beam combining based on a self-imaging waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Wang, X.; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model of coherent beam combining (CBC) based on a self-imaging waveguide (SIW) is built and the effects of mismatched errors on SIW-based CBC are simulated and analysed numerically. With the combination of the theoretical model and the finite difference beam propagation method, two main categories of errors, assembly and nonassembly errors, are numerically studied to investigate their effect on the beam quality by using the M2 factor. The optimisation of the SIW and error control principle of the system is briefly discussed. The generalised methodology offers a good reference for investigating waveguide-based high-power coherent combining of fibre lasers in a comprehensive way.

  10. Estimation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters based on fractional delay and sine curve fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Jiang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to estimate the channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) based on fractional delay (FD) and sine curve fitting. Choose one channel as the reference channel and apply FD to the output samples of reference channel to obtain the ideal samples of non-reference channels with no mismatches. Based on least square method, the sine curves are adopted to fit the ideal and the actual samples of non-reference channels, and then the mismatch parameters can be estimated by comparing the ideal sine curves and the actual ones. The principle of this algorithm is simple and easily understood. Moreover, its implementation needs no extra circuits, lowering the hardware cost. Simulation results show that the estimation accuracy of this algorithm can be controlled within 2%. Finally, the practicability of this algorithm is verified by the measurement results of channel mismatch errors of a two-channel TIADC prototype. PMID:25832264

  11. Strategy in clinical practice for classification of unselected colorectal tumours based on mismatch repair deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Lindebjerg, J; Byriel, L;

    2007-01-01

    Objective Deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) causes microsatellite instability (MSI) in a subset of colorectal cancers. Patients with these tumours have a better prognosis and may have an altered response to chemotherapy. Some of the tumours are caused by hereditary mutations (hereditary non...... methylation or BRAF mutation analysis to distinguish sporadic patients from likely hereditary ones. MMR deficient patients with sporadic disease can be reassured of the better prognosis and the likely hereditary cases should receive genetic counselling.......Objective Deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) causes microsatellite instability (MSI) in a subset of colorectal cancers. Patients with these tumours have a better prognosis and may have an altered response to chemotherapy. Some of the tumours are caused by hereditary mutations (hereditary...... nonpolyposis colon cancer or Lynch syndrome), but most are epigenetic changes of sporadic origin. The aim of this study was to define a robust and inexpensive strategy for such classification in clinical practice. Method Tumours and blood samples from 262 successive patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas...

  12. Effect of LNA- and OMeN-modified oligonucleotide probes on the stability and discrimination of mismatched base pairs of duplexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ying Yan; Jing Yan; Xianyu Piao; Tianbiao Zhang; Yifu Guan

    2012-06-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) and 2′--methyl nucleotide (OMeN) are the most extensively studied nucleotide analogues. Although both LNA and OMeN are characterized by the C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation, which is dominant in A-form DNA and RNA nucleotides, they demonstrate different binding behaviours. Previous studies have focused attention on their properties of duplex stabilities, hybridization kinetics and resistance against nuclease digestion; however, their ability to discriminate mismatched hybridizations has been explored much less. In this study, LNA- and OMeN-modified oligonucleotide probes have been prepared and their effects on the DNA duplex stability have been examined: LNA modifications can enhance the duplex stability, whereas OMeN modifications reduce the duplex stability. Next, we studied how the LNA:DNA and OMeN:DNA mismatches reduced the duplex stability. Melting temperature measurement showed that different LNA:DNA or OMeN:DNA mismatches indeed influence the duplex stability differently. LNA purines can discriminate LNA:DNA mismatches more effectively than LNA pyrimidines as well as DNA nucleotides. Furthermore, we designed five LNA- and five OMeN-modified oligonucleotide probes to simulate realistic situations where target–probe duplexes contain a complementary LNA:DNA or OMeN:DNA base pairs and a DNA:DNA mismatch simultaneously. The measured collective effect showed that the duplex stability was enhanced by the complementary LNA:DNA base pair but decreased by the DNA:DNA mismatch in a position-dependent manner regardless of the chemical identity and position of the complementary LNA:DNA base pair. On the other hand, the OMeN-modified probes also showed that the duplex stability was reduced by both the OMeN modification and the OMeN:DNA mismatch in a position-dependent manner.

  13. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex drives hippocampal theta oscillations induced by mismatch computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta I; Barnes, Gareth R; Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-15

    Detecting environmental change is fundamental for adaptive behavior in an uncertain world. Previous work indicates the hippocampus supports the generation of novelty signals via implementation of a match-mismatch detector that signals when an incoming sensory input violates expectations based on past experience. While existing work has emphasized the particular contribution of the hippocampus, here we ask which other brain structures also contribute to match-mismatch detection. Furthermore, we leverage the fine-grained temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate whether mismatch computations are spectrally confined to the theta range, based on the prominence of this range of oscillations in models of hippocampal function. By recording MEG activity while human subjects perform a task that incorporates conditions of match-mismatch novelty we show that mismatch signals are confined to the theta band and are expressed in both the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Effective connectivity analyses (dynamic causal modeling) show that the hippocampus and vmPFC work as a functional circuit during mismatch detection. Surprisingly, our results suggest that the vmPFC drives the hippocampus during the generation and processing of mismatch signals. Our findings provide new evidence that the hippocampal-vmPFC circuit is engaged during novelty processing, which has implications for emerging theories regarding the role of vmPFC in memory. PMID:26187453

  14. Microcomputer-based video motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This system was developed to enhance the volumetric intrusion detection capability of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's security program. Not only does the system exhibit an extended range of detection over present infrared, microwave, and ultrasonic devices, it also provides an instantaneous assessment capability by providing the operator with a closed-circuit television (CCTV) image of the alarm scene as soon as motion is detected. The system consists of a custom-built, microcomputer-based, video processor which analyzes the signals received from a network of video cameras. The operator can view the camera images as they are displayed on a CCTV monitor while alarm scenes are displayed on a second monitor. Motion is detected by digitizing and comparing successive video frames and making an alarm decision based on the degree of mismatch. The software-based nature of the microcomputer lends a great deal of flexibility and adaptability in making the alarm decision. Alarm decision variables which are easily adjusted through software are the percent change in gray level required to label a pixel (picture element) as suspect, the number of suspect pixels required to generate an alarm, the pixel pattern to be sampled from the image, and the rate at which a new reference frame is taken. The system is currently being evaluated in a warehouse for potential application in several areas of the Plant. This paper discusses the hardware and software design of the system as well as problems encountered in its implementation and results obtained

  15. The {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '} mismatch in Ni based superalloys: In situ measurements during a creep test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diologent, F.; Caron, P.; D' Almeida, T.; Jacques, A. E-mail: jacques@mines.u-nancy.fr; Bastie, P

    2003-01-01

    The lattice mismatch between the fcc {gamma} matrix and the ordered {gamma}{sup '} cuboiedal precipitates in superalloys induces large internal stresses within the material. These stresses have a major effect on its mechanical behaviour and on the anisotropic evolution of the microstructure (rafting...) during its lifetime. The evolution of the effective lattice mismatch of the AM1 and MCNG superalloys was measured continuously during high temperature creep tests (1100 deg. C, 150 MPa) at the ID 15 (high energy) beamline of the ESRF. The bulk profiles of the 200 reflection (parallel to the tensile axis) were recorded using the triple crystal diffractometer. Both materials have a negative mismatch, and exhibit a transition between the initial wide {gamma}{sup '} peak to a two peaks profile during stage I of the creep curve, as rafting takes place. During stage II, the 200 mismatch decreases in magnitude. During stage III, as a microstructural transition (coalescence) occurs and the strain rate increases, the mismatch changes in the same direction, but at a faster rate, while the thickness of both peaks increases. Evolution of the MCNG specimen was the same as AM1 ones, but rafting and transition to stage II take place at a different rate.

  16. Differential modes of DNA binding by mismatch uracil DNA glycosylase from Escherichia coli: implications for abasic lesion processing and enzyme communication in the base excision repair pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Grippon, Seden; Zhao, Qiyuan; Robinson, Tom; Marshall, Jacqueline J. T.; O’Neill, Rory J.; Manning, Hugh; Kennedy, Gordon; Dunsby, Christopher; Neil, Mark; Halford, Stephen E.; French, Paul M. W.; Baldwin, Geoff S.

    2010-01-01

    Mismatch uracil DNA glycosylase (Mug) from Escherichia coli is an initiating enzyme in the base-excision repair pathway. As with other DNA glycosylases, the abasic product is potentially more harmful than the initial lesion. Since Mug is known to bind its product tightly, inhibiting enzyme turnover, understanding how Mug binds DNA is of significance when considering how Mug interacts with downstream enzymes in the base-excision repair pathway. We have demonstrated differential binding modes o...

  17. Method based on chirp decomposition for dispersion mismatch compensation in precision absolute distance measurement using swept-wavelength interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Hu, Tao; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-12-14

    We establish a theoretical model of dispersion mismatch in absolute distance measurements using swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) and propose a novel dispersion mismatch compensation method called chirp decomposition. This method separates the dispersion coefficient and distance under test, which ensures dispersion mismatch compensation without introducing additional random errors. In the measurement of a target located at 3.9 m, a measurement resolution of 45.9 μm is obtained, which is close to the theoretical resolution, and a standard deviation of 0.74 μm is obtained, which is better than the traditional method. The measurement results are compared to a single-frequency laser interferometer. The target moves from 1 m to 3.7 m, and the measurement precision using the new method is less than 0.81 μm. PMID:26698959

  18. Detecting scale violations in absence of mismatch requires music-syntactic analysis: a further look at the early right anterior negativity (ERAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalda, Tiina; Minati, Ludovico

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether infrequent scale violations in a sequence of in-key notes are detected when the deviants are matched for frequency of occurrence and preceding intervals with the control notes. We further investigated whether the detectability of scale violations is modulated by the presence of melodic context and by the level of musical training. Event related potentials were recorded from 14 musicians and 13 non-musicians. In non-musicians, the out-of-key notes elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN), which appeared prominently over right frontal sites only when presented within structured sequences; no effects were found when the out-of-key notes were presented within scrambled sequences. In musicians, the out-of-key notes elicited a similar bilateral ERAN in structured and scrambled sequences. Our findings suggest that scale information is processed at the level of music-syntactic analysis, and that the detection of deviants does not require activation of auditory sensory memory by mismatch effects. Scales are perceived as a broader context, not just as online interval relations. Additional melodic context information appears necessary to support the representation of scale deviants in non-musicians, but not in musically-trained individuals, likely as a consequence of stronger pre-existing representations. PMID:22080232

  19. NMR study of oligonucleotides containing base pair mismatches and a human growth hormone peptide for the determination of solution structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of unusual basepairs in DNA for random mutations in DNA was proposed in the sixties. These mismatches arise due to errors in replication, and from deamination of the 5-methylcytosine. The author's interest in studying mismatches and other oligonucleotides has been two fold. One is related to 31P chemical shifts and the backbone structure of oligonucleotides. He wanted to find out the significance of the dispersion of 31p chemical shifts in oligonucleotides. He wished to address whether this dispersion in 31P chemical shifts is related to global structural parameters of oligonucleotides like helix twist and whether he can prove the relationship between 31P chemical shifts and the backbone torsional angles epsilon and zeta. How does a mismatch affect 31P chemical shifts and the backbone torsional angle? The second interest is related to solving the three dimensional structure of these biopolymers by using NMR data (NOESY distances) and computer simulations. His major study of these mismatches has been in the assignments of the protons resonances and the phosphorus resonances by 2D NMR. He has also tried to answer the question about the relationships between 31P chemical shifts and global parameters for DNA such as the helix twist. He has made substantial progress in determination of J(H3'-P) coupling constants by 2D NMR and also in determining the relationship between the SIP chemical shifts and the backbone torsional angles by using the mismatch dodecamer sequences and the tetradecamer sequences. The 2D NMR data for the GG and GT mismatch have been used to determine three dimensional structures by using distance restrained molecular dynamics. The second project involved studying a 28 residue synthetic peptide by NMR

  20. Diagnosis of Constitutional Mismatch Repair-Deficiency Syndrome Based on Microsatellite Instability and Lymphocyte Tolerance to Methylating Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodo, Sahra; Colas, Chrystelle; Buhard, Olivier;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with bi-allelic germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2) develop a rare but severe variant of Lynch syndrome called constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD). This syndrome is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancers, lymphomas o...

  1. Temporal Processing Ability Is Related to Ear-Asymmetry for Detecting Time Cues in Sound: A Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Juanita; Finch, Brayden; Smith, Ellen; Budd, Timothy W.; Schall, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spectral sound information is processed asymmetrically in the brain with the left-hemisphere showing an advantage for processing the former and the right-hemisphere for the latter. Using monaural sound presentation we demonstrate a context and ability dependent ear-asymmetry in brain measures of temporal change detection. Our measure…

  2. Detection of CpG methylations in human mismatch repair gene hMLH1 promoter by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a novel method to detect CpG methylation by DHPLC. Methods: After DNA was treated with sodium bisulfite, mismatch repair gene hMLH1 promoter was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DHPLC was used to separate the PCR products at their partially denaturing temperatures. BstUI digestion assay was also used for comparison study. Results: A 294bp band was obtained by PCR from each DNA samples of colon cancer cell line RKO and gastric cancer cell line PACM82. These two bands could be separated completely by DHPLC at 53° C (retention time 6.7 min for RKO vs. 6.2 min for PACM82). We concluded that the hMLH1 promoter in RKO cells is methylated, while PACM82 is not methylated, since methylation can protect the conversion of C to T and keep higher C/G content after bisulfite treatment, leading to the delayed time. These results consistent with those from BstUI digestion assay. Conclusion: Methylation in CpG islands of hMLH1 could be detected conveniently by DHPLC after bisulfite modification.

  3. Native and non-native speech sound processing and the neural mismatch responses: A longitudinal study on classroom-based foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Lea B; Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Pleisch, Georgette; Heusser, Veronica; Brandeis, Daniel; Zevin, Jason D; Maurer, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Learning a foreign language in a natural immersion context with high exposure to the new language has been shown to change the way speech sounds of that language are processed at the neural level. It remains unclear, however, to what extent this is also the case for classroom-based foreign language learning, particularly in children. To this end, we presented a mismatch negativity (MMN) experiment during EEG recordings as part of a longitudinal developmental study: 38 monolingual (Swiss-) German speaking children (7.5 years) were tested shortly before they started to learn English at school and followed up one year later. Moreover, 22 (Swiss-) German adults were recorded. Instead of the originally found positive mismatch response in children, an MMN emerged when applying a high-pass filter of 3 Hz. The overlap of a slow-wave positivity with the MMN indicates that two concurrent mismatch processes were elicited in children. The children's MMN in response to the non-native speech contrast was smaller compared to the native speech contrast irrespective of foreign language learning, suggesting that no additional neural resources were committed to processing the foreign language speech sound after one year of classroom-based learning. PMID:25934634

  4. Potential for DNA-based identification of Great Lakes fauna: Match and mismatch between taxa inventories and DNA barcode libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers the potential to greatly reduce the need for resource-intensive morphological identification, which would be of value both to biotic condition assessment and non-native species early-detection monitoring. However, the abi...

  5. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    individual buildings and an element of economy of scale. For these three reasons mismatches should be dealt with at the aggregated level and not at the individual level of each building. Instead, this paper suggests to compensate the mismatch of a building by increasing (or decreasing) the capacity of the...... energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  6. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Comeron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1 genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2 identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3 screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation.

  7. Detecting deletions, insertions, and single nucleotide substitutions in cloned β-globin genes and new polymorphic nucleotide substitutions in β-globin genes in a Japanese population using ribonuclease cleavage at mismatches in RNA: DNA duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of ribonuclease (RNase) cleavage at mismatches in RNA:DNA duplexes (the RNase cleavage method) for determining nucleotide variant rates was examined in a Japanese population. DNA segments of various lengths obtained from four different regions of one normal and three thalassemic cloned human β-globin genes were inserted into transcription vectors. Sense and antisense RNA probes uniformly labeled with 32P were prepared. When RNA probes of 771 nucleotides (nt) or less were hybridized with cloned DNAs and the resulting duplexes were treated with a mixture of RNases A and T1, the length of products agreed with theoretical values. Twelve possible mismatches were examined. Since both sense and antisense probes were used, uncleavable mismatches such as G:T and G:G which were made from one combination of RNA and DNA strands could be converted to the cleavable C:A and C:C mismatches, respectively, by using the opposite combination. Deletions and insertions of one (G), four(TTCT), five (ATTTT), and 10 (ATTTTATTTT) nt were easily detected. A polymorphic substitution of T to C at position 666 of the second intervening sequence (IVS2-666) of the β-globin gene was detected using genomic DNAs from cell lines established from the peripheral B lymphocytes of 59 unrelated Japanese from Hiroshima or those amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of the gene with C at the IVS2-666 (allele C) was 0.48 and that of the gene with T (allene T) was 0.52. Two new polymorphic substitutions of C to A and A to T were detected at nucleotide positions 1789 and 1945 from the capping site, respectively, using genomic DNAs amplified by PCR. We conclude that it would be feasible to use the RNase cleavage method combined with PCR for large-scale screening of variation in chromosomal DNA. (J.P.N.)

  8. Research of China’s Credit Currency Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Cui; Weiyi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Large positive current mismatch exists in China at present, and with the continual development of financial reform, the risk of the current mismatch will gradually diffuse from the micro layer to the macro layer, so it is very important to study China’s credit currency mismatch. Based on the theoretical research of the credit currency mismatch, the formula of AECM is used to measure the level of China’s credit currency mismatch, and the causes are analyzed, and corresponding policy advices ar...

  9. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2002-01-01

    Limiting dilution analysis has been used in the context of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation to determine anti-recipient interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequencies, which in several studies have been predictive of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently...... high anti-recipient IL-4 producing HTLp frequencies have been reported and associated with a decreased risk of GVHD. The aim of the present study was to define the optimal conditions for combined determination of IL-2 and IL-4 producing anti-recipient HTLp frequencies. We have optimised the CT.h4S......-2 in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched mixed leukocyte culture (MLC). An interindividual variation in cytokine accumulation was demonstrated for IL-4 but not for IL-2. With the use of 5x10(4) responder cells/well no IL-4 could be detected in HLA-mismatched MLC between days 1 and 16. The lack...

  10. Influence of mis-match of weld and base material creep properties on elevated temperature design of pressure vessels and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress and strain concentrations developed at the weldments during the long time operation of pressure vessels and piping at high temperature due to the mis-match in the creep properties of weldment constituents (weld, heat affected zone and base metal) are estimated using detailed finite element analysis. Three materials, viz. 2.25Cr 1Mo, SS 316 LN and modified 9Cr 1 Mo which are the most commonly used materials in the nuclear and thermal power plants are considered. A longitudinal seam weld with single and double V (X) configurations are analysed. Parametric studies have been done on weld angle and stresses. Based on the analysis, critical locations and the maximum stress concentration factors in the weldments for the above materials are identified. The weld design procedures of the currently used pressure vessel and piping codes are commented. The importance of ductility based failure criteria is emphasised. (orig.)

  11. MutS recognition: Multiple mismatches and sequence context effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amita Joshi; Basuthkar J Rao

    2001-12-01

    Escherichia coli MutS is a versatile repair protein that specifically recognizes not only various types of mismatches but also single stranded loops of up to 4 nucleotides in length. Specific binding, followed by the next step of tracking the DNA helix that locates hemi-methylated sites, is regulated by the conformational state of the protein as a function of ATP binding/hydrolysis. Here, we study how various molecular determinants of a heteroduplex regulate mismatch recognition by MutS, the critical first step of mismatch repair. Using classical DNase I footprinting assays, we demonstrate that the hierarchy of MutS binding to various types of mismatches is identical whether the mismatches are present singly or in multiples. Moreover, this unique hierarchy is indifferent both to the differential level of DNA helical flexibility and to the unpaired status of the mismatched bases in a heteroduplex. Surprisingly, multiple mismatches exhibit reduced affinity of binding to MutS, compared to that of a similar single mismatch. Such a reduction in the affinity might be due to sequence context effects, which we established more directly by studying two identical single mismatches in an altered sequence background. A mismatch, upon simply being flipped at the same location, elicits changes in MutS specific contacts, thereby underscoring the importance of sequence context in modulating MutS binding to mismatches.

  12. Strategic Mismatches in Competing Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Kräkel, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic role of mismatching, where players voluntarily form inefficient teams or forego the formation of efficient teams, respectively. Strategic mismatching can be rational when players realize a competitive advantage (e.g. harming other competitors). In addition, the results show that free riding can be beneficial for a team in combination with strategic mismatching and that the loser?s curse may be welfare improving by mitigating the problem of strategic mismatch...

  13. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  14. Human DNA mismatch repair: coupling of mismatch recognition to strand-specific excision

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Huixian; Hays, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic mismatch-repair (MMR) proteins MutSα and MutLα couple recognition of base mismatches to strand-specific excision, initiated in vivo at growing 3′ ends and 5′ Okazaki-fragment ends or, in human nuclear extracts, at nicks in exogenous circular substrates. We addressed five biochemical questions relevant to coupling models. Excision remained fully efficient at DNA:MutSα ratios of nearly 1 to 1 at various mismatch-nick distances, suggesting a requirement for only one MutSα molecule per...

  15. Metrology of ground-based satellite validation: co-location mismatch and smoothing issues of total ozone comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Hendrick, F.; Köhler, U.; Lerot, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Redondas, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2015-12-01

    Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite data on atmospheric composition. The error budget of these comparisons contains not only the measurement errors but also several terms related to differences in sampling and smoothing of the inhomogeneous and variable atmospheric field. A versatile system for Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), named OSSSMOSE, is used here to quantify these terms. Based on the application of pragmatic observation operators onto high-resolution atmospheric fields, it allows a simulation of each individual measurement, and consequently, also of the differences to be expected from spatial and temporal field variations between both measurements making up a comparison pair. As a topical case study, the system is used to evaluate the error budget of total ozone column (TOC) comparisons between GOME-type direct fitting (GODFITv3) satellite retrievals from GOME/ERS2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A, and ground-based direct-sun and zenith-sky reference measurements such as those from Dobsons, Brewers, and zenith-scattered light (ZSL-)DOAS instruments, respectively. In particular, the focus is placed on the GODFITv3 reprocessed GOME-2A data record vs. the ground-based instruments contributing to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The simulations are found to reproduce the actual measurements almost to within the measurement uncertainties, confirming that the OSSE approach and its technical implementation are appropriate. This work reveals that many features of the comparison spread and median difference can be understood as due to metrological differences, even when using strict co-location criteria. In particular, sampling difference errors exceed measurement uncertainties regularly at most mid- and high-latitude stations, with values up to 10 % and more in extreme cases. Smoothing difference errors only play a role in the

  16. Metrology of ground-based satellite validation: co-location mismatch and smoothing issues of total ozone comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Verhoelst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite data on atmospheric composition. The error budget of these comparisons contains not only the measurement errors but also several terms related to differences in sampling and smoothing of the inhomogeneous and variable atmospheric field. A versatile system for Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs, named OSSSMOSE, is used here to quantify these terms. Based on the application of pragmatic observation operators onto high-resolution atmospheric fields, it allows a simulation of each individual measurement, and consequently, also of the differences to be expected from spatial and temporal field variations between both measurements making up a comparison pair. As a topical case study, the system is used to evaluate the error budget of total ozone column (TOC comparisons between GOME-type direct fitting (GODFITv3 satellite retrievals from GOME/ERS2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A, and ground-based direct-sun and zenith–sky reference measurements such as those from Dobsons, Brewers, and zenith-scattered light (ZSL-DOAS instruments, respectively. In particular, the focus is placed on the GODFITv3 reprocessed GOME-2A data record vs. the ground-based instruments contributing to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. The simulations are found to reproduce the actual measurements almost to within the measurement uncertainties, confirming that the OSSE approach and its technical implementation are appropriate. This work reveals that many features of the comparison spread and median difference can be understood as due to metrological differences, even when using strict co-location criteria. In particular, sampling difference errors exceed measurement uncertainties regularly at most mid- and high-latitude stations, with values up to 10 % and more in extreme cases. Smoothing difference errors only

  17. An analytical study of mismatched complementary media

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lin; Ma, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    Complementary media (CM) interacting with arbitrarily situated obstacles are usually less discussed. In this paper, an analytical framework based on multiple scattering theory is established for analyzing such a mismatched case. As examples, CM-based devices, i.e., a superlens and superscatterer, are discussed. From an analysis, the cancellation mechanism of the mismatched CM is studied. In addition, numerical results are provided for illustration. Moreover, further study shows that such cancellation effects might rely on specific conditions. Actually, the conclusions are not restricted to any specific frequencies; they could be extended to many other areas including applications to active cloaking, antennas, and wireless power transfer.

  18. Mammalian mismatch repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation......, in which MMR proteins are required for mutagenesis rather than for its prevention....

  19. PARP-1 enhances the mismatch-dependence of 5′-directed excision in human mismatch repair in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yiyong; Kadyrov, Farid A; Modrich, Paul

    2011-01-01

    End-directed mismatch-provoked excision has been reconstituted in several purified systems. While 3′-directed excision displays a mismatch dependence similar to that observed in nuclear extracts (≈ 20-fold), the mismatch dependence of 5′-directed excision is only 3 to 4-fold, significantly less than that in extracts (8 to 10-fold). Utilizing a fractionation-based approach, we have isolated a single polypeptide that enhances mismatch dependence of reconstituted 5′-directed excision and have sh...

  20. Mechanisms in E. coli and Human Mismatch Repair (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrich, Paul

    2016-07-18

    DNA molecules are not completely stable, they are subject to chemical or photochemical damage and errors that occur during DNA replication resulting in mismatched base pairs. Through mechanistic studies Paul Modrich showed how replication errors are corrected by strand-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli and human cells. PMID:27198632

  1. A liquid-crystal-based DNA biosensor for pathogen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mashooq; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho; Park, Soo-Young

    2016-03-01

    A liquid-crystal (LC)-filled transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), to which a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid probe (ssDNAprobe) was adsorbed at the LC/aqueous interface (TEMDTAB/DNA), was applied for the highly specific detection of target DNA molecules. The DTAB-coated E7 (used LC mixture) in the TEM grid (TEMDTAB) exhibited a homeotropic orientation, and changed to a planar orientation upon adsorption of the ssDNAprobe. The TEMDTAB/DNA was then exposed to complementary (target) ssDNA, which resulted in a planar-to-homeotropic configurational change of E7 that could be observed through a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. The optimum adsorption density (2 μM) of ssDNAprobe enabled the detection of ≥0.05 nM complementary ssDNA. This TEMDTAB/DNA biosensor could differentiate complementary ssDNA from mismatched ssDNA as well as double-stranded DNA. It also successfully detected the genomic DNAs of the bacterium Erwinia carotovora and the fungi Rhazictonia solani. Owe to the high specificity, sensitivity, and label-free detection, this biosensor may broaden the applications of LC-based biosensors to pathogen detection.

  2. Potential for DNA-based identification of Great Lakes fauna: match and mismatch between taxa inventories and DNA barcode libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebitz, Anett S.; Hoffman, Joel C.; Grant, George W.; Billehus, Tyler M.; Pilgrim, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers the potential to greatly reduce the need for resource-intensive morphological identification, which would be of value both to bioassessment and non-native species monitoring. The ability to assign species identities to DNA sequences found depends on the availability of comprehensive DNA reference libraries. Here, we compile inventories for aquatic metazoans extant in or threatening to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes and examine the availability of reference mitochondrial COI DNA sequences (barcodes) in the Barcode of Life Data System for them. We found barcode libraries largely complete for extant and threatening-to-invade vertebrates (100% of reptile, 99% of fish, and 92% of amphibian species had barcodes). In contrast, barcode libraries remain poorly developed for precisely those organisms where morphological identification is most challenging; 46% of extant invertebrates lacked reference barcodes with rates especially high among rotifers, oligochaetes, and mites. Lack of species-level identification for many aquatic invertebrates also is a barrier to matching DNA sequences with physical specimens. Attaining the potential for DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples covering the breadth of aquatic fauna requires a concerted effort to build supporting barcode libraries and voucher collections. PMID:26199185

  3. Nonlinear disturbance observer-based control for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems subject to mismatching condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Chen, Wen-Hua

    2012-08-01

    For a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear system, the existing disturbance observer-based control (DOBC) only provides solutions to those whose disturbance relative degree (DRD) is higher than or equal to its input relative degree. By designing a novel disturbance compensation gain matrix, a generalised nonlinear DOBC method is proposed in this article to solve the disturbance attenuation problem of the MIMO nonlinear system with arbitrary DRD. It is shown that the disturbances are able to be removed from the output channels by the proposed method with appropriately chosen control parameters. The property of nominal performance recovery, which is the major merit of the DOBCs, is retained with the proposed method. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by simulation studies of both the numerical and application examples.

  4. Heterogenous mismatch-repair status in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Veurink, Nynke; Holck, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins is efficient and widely used to identify mismatch repair defective tumors. The tumors typically show uniform and widespread loss of MMR protein staining. We identified and characterized colorectal cancers with alternative......, heterogenous mismatch repair protein staining in order to delineate expression patterns and underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Heterogenous staining patterns that affected at least one of the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 were identified in 14 colorectal cancers. Based on alternative...... expression patterns macro-dissected and micro-dissected tumor areas were separately analyzed for microsatellite instability and MLH1 promoter methylation. RESULTS: Heterogenous retained/lost mismatch repair protein expression could be classified as intraglandular (within or in-between glandular formations...

  5. Design and analysis of mismatch probes for long oligonucleotide microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-08-15

    Nonspecific hybridization is currently a major concern with microarray technology. One of most effective approaches to estimating nonspecific hybridizations in oligonucleotide microarrays is the utilization of mismatch probes; however, this approach has not been used for longer oligonucleotide probes. Here, an oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to evaluate and optimize parameters for 50-mer mismatch probe design. A perfect match (PM) and 28 mismatch (MM) probes were designed for each of ten target genes selected from three microorganisms. The microarrays were hybridized with synthesized complementary oligonucleotide targets at different temperatures (e.g., 42, 45 and 50 C). In general, the probes with evenly distributed mismatches were more distinguishable than those with randomly distributed mismatches. MM probes with 3, 4 and 5 mismatched nucleotides were differentiated for 50-mer oligonucleotide probes hybridized at 50, 45 and 42 C, respectively. Based on the experimental data generated from this study, a modified positional dependent nearest neighbor (MPDNN) model was constructed to adjust the thermodynamic parameters of matched and mismatched dimer nucleotides in the microarray environment. The MM probes with four flexible positional mismatches were designed using the newly established MPDNN model and the experimental results demonstrated that the redesigned MM probes could yield more consistent hybridizations. Conclusions: This study provides guidance on the design of MM probes for long oligonucleotides (e.g., 50 mers). The novel MPDNN model has improved the consistency for long MM probes, and this modeling method can potentially be used for the prediction of oligonucleotide microarray hybridizations.

  6. Molecularly resolved label-free sensing of single nucleobase mismatches by interfacial LNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sourav; Lahiri, Hiya; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Mukhopadhyay, Rupa

    2016-05-01

    So far, there has been no report on molecularly resolved discrimination of single nucleobase mismatches using surface-confined single stranded locked nucleic acid (ssLNA) probes. Herein, it is exemplified using a label-independent force-sensing approach that an optimal coverage of 12-mer ssLNA sensor probes formed onto gold(111) surface allows recognition of ssDNA targets with twice stronger force sensitivity than 12-mer ssDNA sensor probes. The force distributions are reproducible and the molecule-by-molecule force measurements are largely in agreement with ensemble on-surface melting temperature data. Importantly, the molecularly resolved detection is responsive to the presence of single nucleobase mismatches in target sequences. Since the labelling steps can be eliminated from protocol, and each force-based detection event occurs within milliseconds' time scale, the force-sensing assay is potentially capable of rapid detection. The LNA probe performance is indicative of versatility in terms of substrate choice - be it gold (for basic research and array-based applications) or silicon (for 'lab-on-a-chip' type devices). The nucleic acid microarray technologies could therefore be generally benefited by adopting the LNA films, in place of DNA. Since LNA is nuclease-resistant, unlike DNA, and the LNA-based assay is sensitive to single nucleobase mismatches, the possibilities for label-free in vitro rapid diagnostics based on the LNA probes may be explored. PMID:27025649

  7. Application of detecting algorithm based on network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤斌; 杨永田; 江子扬; 孙冰心

    2004-01-01

    Because currently intrusion detection systems cannot detect undefined intrusion behavior effectively,according to the robustness and adaptability of the genetic algorithms, this paper integrates the genetic algorithms into an intrusion detection system, and a detection algorithm based on network traffic is proposed. This algorithm is a real-time and self-study algorithm and can detect undefined intrusion behaviors effectively.

  8. Effects of Mismatched Parameter on Chaotic Synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJiang-hua; FANGJin-qing

    2003-01-01

    Chaos-based security communication has become one of the most interesting hot subjects for research of chaotic theory in real world since. In recent years, secure communication via synchronized chaos has been intensely studied. However, in practical application it is difficult to construct two complete identical chaotic systems since there are many reasons to induce parameter mismatch between two systems (response system and drive system).

  9. Robust Control of Urban Industrial Water Mismatching Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kebai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban industrial water system parameter fluctuation producing uncertainty may not occur in a control input channel, can be applied mismatching uncertain system to describe. Based on Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality, design the urban industrial water mismatching uncertain system feedback stabilization robust control scheme. Avoid the defects that the feedback stabilization control method based on the matrix Riccati equation need to preset equation parameters, easier to solve and can reduce the conservative.

  10. Zepto-molar electrochemical detection of Brucella genome based on gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Amid; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh; Heli, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms were sonoelectrodeposited on a polycrystalline gold surface at -1800 mV (vs. AgCl) with the assistance of ultrasound and co-occurrence of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The nanostructure, as a transducer, was utilized to immobilize a Brucella-specific probe and fabrication of a genosensor, and the process of immobilization and hybridization was detected by electrochemical methods, using methylene blue as a redox marker. The proposed method for detection of the complementary sequence, sequences with base-mismatched (one-, two- and three-base mismatches), and the sequence of non-complementary sequence was assayed. The fabricated genosensor was evaluated for the assay of the bacteria in the cultured and human samples without polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The genosensor could detect the complementary sequence with a calibration sensitivity of 0.40 μA dm3 mol-1, a linear concentration range of 10 zmol dm-3 to 10 pmol dm-3, and a detection limit of 1.71 zmol dm-3.

  11. Detection of 100% of mutations in 124 individuals using a standard UV/Vis microplate reader: a novel concept for mutation scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Tania; Sallmann, Georgina; Webb, Elizabeth; Cotton, Richard G.H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the development of a simple and inexpensive assay for the detection of DNA polymorphisms and mutations that is based on the modification of mismatched bases by potassium permanganate. Unlike the chemical cleavage of mismatch assay, which also exploits the reactivity of potassium permanganate to detect genomic variants, the assay we describe here does not require a cleavage manipulation and therefore does not require expensive or toxic chemicals or a separation step, as mismatches ar...

  12. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. PMID:27074674

  13. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics of strength-mismatching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, D.M.; Ganti, S.; McClintock, F.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Approximate solutions to stress-fields are provided for a strength-mismatched interface crack in small-scale yielding (SSY) for non-hardening and low hardening materials. Variations of local deformation intensities, characterized by a J-type contour integral, are proposed. The softer material experiences a higher deformation intensity level, J{sub S}, while the harder material sees a much lower deformation intensity level, J{sub H}, compared to that obtained from the applied J near the respective homogeneous crack-tips. For a low hardening material, the stress fields are obtained by scaling from an elastic/perfectly-plastic problem, based on an effective mismatch, M{sub eff}, which is a function of mismatch, M, and the hardening exponent, n. Triaxial stress build-up is discussed quantitatively in terms of M. The influence of strength-mismatch on cleavage fracture is discussed using Weibull statistics.

  14. Detection Algorithm for LFM Echo of Underwater Moving Targets Based on Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mismatch between echo and replica caused by underwater moving target(UMT)'s radial velocity degrades the detection performance of the matched filter(MF) for the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal. By using the focusing property of fractional Fourier transform(FRFT) to that signal, a detection algorithm for UMT's LFM echo based on the discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT) is proposed. This algorithm is less affected by the target's radial velocity compared with the other MF detection algorithm utilizing zero radial velocity replica(ZRVR), and the mathematical relation between the output peak positions of these two algorithms exists in the case of existence of target echo. The algorithm can also estimate the target distance by using this relation. The simulation and experiment show that this algorithm's detection performance is better than or equivalent to that of the other MF algorithm utilizing ZRVR for the LFM echo of UMT with unknown radial velocity under reverberation noise background.

  15. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  16. Image Edge Detection Based on Oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong; WANG Zhi-jie

    2005-01-01

    A new method for image edge detection based on a pulse neural network is proposed in this paper. The network is locally connected. The external input of each neuron of the network is gray value of the corresponding pixel. The synchrony of the neuron and its neighbors is detected by detection neurons. The edge of the image can be read off at minima of the total activity of the detection neurons.

  17. Radar-based hail detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skripniková, Kateřina; Řezáčová, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-185. ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2045; GA MŠk LD11044 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hail detection * weather radar * hail damage risk Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809513001804

  18. Visual-Based Transmedia Events Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Alexis; Champ, Julien; Letessier, Pierre; Hervé, Nicolas; Buisson, Olivier; Viaud, Marie-Luce

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a visual-based media event detection system based on the automatic discovery of the most circulated images across the main news media (news websites, press agencies, TV news and newspapers). Its main originality is to rely on the transmedia contextual information to denoise the raw visual detections and consequently focus on the most salient transmedia events.

  19. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    OpenAIRE

    JuanitaTodd

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with it...

  20. Educational Mismatch and Wait Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Ordine; Giuseppe Rose

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates educational mismatch and its interrelationships with individual unemployment duration. By studying unemployment histories of Italian workers we show that overeducated have longer unemployment spells than well matched workers. Using duration models we show that hazard rates of graduates are higher than those of undergraduates only for transitions toward occupations that require the competencies provided by the universities. This process is strictly related to innate abil...

  1. Label-free and rapid colorimetric detection of DNA damage based on self-assembly of a hemin-graphene nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemin-graphene nanosheets (H-GNs) can be controllably assembled by target DNA via a hybridization process. This results in a color change from dark blue-green to light blue-green. The degree of aggregation is dependent on DNA concentration and very sensitive to base mismatch. The formation of the blue-green color can be detected with bare eyes or a spectrometer. The method is simple, rapid, and works over the concentration range from 1.0 to 100 nM. The detection limit for target DNA is 0.2 nM. Excellent selectivity is also found in that a DNA with a single base mismatch can be discriminated. This was exploited to detect DNA damage as induced by styrene oxide, sodium arsenite, Fenton’s reagent, or UV radiation. We presume that this method represents a promising tool for evaluating genotoxicity. (author)

  2. Bilayer thickness mismatch controls domain size in biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Petruzielo, Robin S.; Pan, Jianjun; Drazba, Paul; Kučerka, Norbert; Standaert, Robert F.; Feigenson, Gerald W.; Katsara, John

    2013-03-01

    In order to promote functionality, cells may alter the spatial organization of membrane lipids and proteins, including separation of liquid phases into distinct domains. In model membranes, domain size and morphology depend strongly on composition and temperature, but the physicochemical mechanisms controlling them are poorly understood. Theoretical work suggests a role for interfacial energy at domain boundaries, which may be driven in part by thickness mismatch between a domain and its surrounding bilayer. However, no direct evidence linking thickness mismatch to domain size in free-standing bilayers has been reported. We describe the use of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) to detect domains in simplified lipid-only models that mimic the composition of plasma membrane. We find that domain size is controlled by the degree of acyl chain unsaturation of low-melting temperature lipids, and that this size transition is correlated to changes in the thickness mismatch between coexisting liquid phases.

  3. Image edge detection based on beamlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Huang Peikang; Wang Xiaohu; Pan Xudong

    2009-01-01

    Combining beamlet transform with steerable filters, a new edge detection method based on line gra-dient is proposed. Compared with operators based on point local properties, the edge-detection results with this method achieve higher SNR and position accuracy, and are quite helpful for image registration, object identification, etc. Some edge-detection experiments on optical and SAR images that demonstrate the significant improvement over classical edge operators are also presented. Moreover, the template matching result based on edge information of optical reference image and SAR image also proves the validity of this method.

  4. Adaptive Endpoint Detection Based on Subband Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文军; 谢剑英

    2003-01-01

    An adaptive endpoint detection algorithm based on band energy and adaptive smoothing algorithm is described.This algorithm utilizes the capability of adaptive smoothing algorithm that intensifies the discontinuity between local areas. The band energy features are selected because of their usefulness in detecting high energy regions (in the incoming signal) and making the distinction between speech and noise. Heuristic "edge-focusing" is used to endpoint detection to save the time in iteration.

  5. An electrochemiluminescent assay for high sensitive detection of mercury (II) based on isothermal rolling circular amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xiaoming; Su Qiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bst DNA polymerase shows specific function on the T-Hg{sup 2+}-T biomimetic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T-Hg{sup 2+}-T can be formed in the presence of Hg{sup 2+}, thus induces the RCA reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sub-nanomolar sensitivity and excellent selectivity were achieved for Hg{sup 2+} detection. - Abstract: In this study, we firstly demonstrated that Bst DNA polymerase shows specific recognition and function on the T-Hg{sup 2+}-T biomimetic structure. Based on this, a novel available electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor for Hg{sup 2+} has been developed. In this strategy, magnet beads tagged primer was designed to complementary to the region of the circular padlock probe but with two T-T mismatches at the 3 Prime end. The mismatched primers cannot be extended by Bst DNA polymerase in the absence of Hg{sup 2+}. Stable T-Hg{sup 2+}-T can be formed in the presence of Hg{sup 2+}, thus induces the elongation and amplification reaction by DNA polymerase with a rolling circular amplification (RCA) mechanism. Subsequently, the resulted RCA products are hybridized with the tris (bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR)-tagged probes and detected by ECL platform. Current method shows a sub-nanomolar sensitivity and excellent selectivity over a spectrum of interference metal ions.

  6. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, A; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J B; Hoiby, P E; Missier, V; Pedersen, L H; Hansen, Theis Peter; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Bang, Ole

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy and...

  7. Immune based computer virus detection approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ying; ZHANG Pengtao

    2013-01-01

    The computer virus is considered one of the most horrifying threats to the security of computer systems worldwide.The rapid development of evasion techniques used in virus causes the signature based computer virus detection techniques to be ineffective.Many novel computer virus detection approaches have been proposed in the past to cope with the ineffectiveness,mainly classified into three categories:static,dynamic and heuristics techniques.As the natural similarities between the biological immune system (BIS),computer security system (CSS),and the artificial immune system (AIS) were all developed as a new prototype in the community of anti-virus research.The immune mechanisms in the BIS provide the opportunities to construct computer virus detection models that are robust and adaptive with the ability to detect unseen viruses.In this paper,a variety of classic computer virus detection approaches were introduced and reviewed based on the background knowledge of the computer virus history.Next,a variety of immune based computer virus detection approaches were also discussed in detail.Promising experimental results suggest that the immune based computer virus detection approaches were able to detect new variants and unseen viruses at lower false positive rates,which have paved a new way for the anti-virus research.

  8. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  9. Fabricating Hexagonal Al-Doped LiCoO2 Nanomeshes Based on Crystal-Mismatch Strategy for Ultrafast Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Huijuan; Liu, Li; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-09-23

    In the designed synthesis, low crystal-mismatch strategy has been applied in the synthesis of ion-doped LiCoO2 materials, and a good success of single crystal property has been achieved between the precursor and the final sample for the first time. The hexagonal LiCo0.8Al0.26O2 (LCAO) nanomesh possesses several advantages in morphology and crystal structure, including mesoporous structure, single crystal, atomic even distribution, high exposing surface area as (100) or their equivalent planes, and shortened Li ions diffusion distance. All the merits are beneficial to the application in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) cathode, for example, accelerating Li ions diffusion rate, improving the Li ions shuttle between the LCAO nanomesh and electrolyte, and reducing the Li ions capacitive behavior during Li intercalation. Hence, our research adopts Al-contained precursor with morphology of hexagonal nanoplates to fabricate designed Al-doped LiCoO2 nanomeshes and greatly improves the cathode performance in LIBs. PMID:26333181

  10. Ontology-Based Textual Emotion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Haggag; Samar Fathy; Nahla Elhaggar

    2015-01-01

    Emotion Detection from text is a very important area of natural language processing. This paper shows a new method for emotion detection from text which depends on ontology. This method is depending on ontology extraction from the input sentence by using a triplet extraction algorithm by the OpenNLP parser, then make an ontology matching with the ontology base that we created by similarity and word sense disambiguation. This ontology base consists of ontologies and the emotion label related t...

  11. Biotoxin Detection Using Cell-Based Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pratik Banerjee; Spyridon Kintzios; Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs) by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results ob...

  12. Preliminary Studies on Base Substitutions and Repair of DNA Mismatch Damage Stimulated by Low Energy N+ Ion Beam Implantation in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢传晓; 郭金华; 程备久; 余增亮

    2003-01-01

    Ever since the low energy N+ ion beam has been accepted that the mutation effectsof ionizing radiation are attributed mainly to direct or indirect damage to DNA. Evidences basedon naked DNA irradiation in support of a mutation spectrum appears to be consistent, but directproof of such results in vivo are limited. Using mutS, dam and/or dcm defective Eschericha colimutator strains, an preliminary experimental system on induction of in vivo mutation spectra oflow energy N+ ion beam has been established in this study. It was observed that the mutationrates of rifampicin resistance induced by N+ implantation were quite high, ranging from 9.2 ×10-8 to 4.9 × 10-5 at the dosage of 5.2 × 1014 ions/cm2. Strains all had more than 90-fold highermutation rate than its spontaneous mutation rate determined by this method. It reveals thatbase substitutions involve in induction of mutation of low energy nitrogen ion beam implantation.The mutation rates of mutator strains were nearly 500-fold (GM2929), 400-fold (GM5864) and6-fold larger than that of AB1157. The GM2929 and GM5864 both lose the ability of repair DNAmismatch damage by virtue of both dam and dcm pathways defective (GM2929) or failing toassemble the repair complex (GM5864) respectively. It may explain the both strains had a similarhigher mutation rate than GM124 did. It indicated that DNA cytosine methylase might play animportant role in mismatch repair of DNA damage induced by N+ implantation. The furtherrelated research were also discussed.

  13. High fitness costs of climate change-induced camouflage mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L Scott; Nowak, J Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has created myriad stressors that threaten to cause local extinctions if wild populations fail to adapt to novel conditions. We studied individual and population-level fitness costs of a climate change-induced stressor: camouflage mismatch in seasonally colour molting species confronting decreasing snow cover duration. Based on field measurements of radiocollared snowshoe hares, we found strong selection on coat colour molt phenology, such that animals mismatched with the colour of their background experienced weekly survival decreases up to 7%. In the absence of adaptive response, we show that these mortality costs would result in strong population-level declines by the end of the century. However, natural selection acting on wide individual variation in molt phenology might enable evolutionary adaptation to camouflage mismatch. We conclude that evolutionary rescue will be critical for hares and other colour molting species to keep up with climate change. PMID:26799459

  14. Web Based Cross Language Plagiarism Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2009-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross language and cultural border by providing different types of translation tools, cross language plagiarism, also known as translation plagiarism are bound to arise. Especially among the academic works, such issue will definitely affect the student's works including the quality of their assignments and paper works. In this paper, we propose a new approach in detecting cross language plagiarism. Our web based cross language plagiarism detection system is specially tuned to detect translation plagiarism by implementing different techniques and tools to assist the detection process. Google Translate API is used as our translation tool and Google Search API, which is used in our information retrieval process. Our system is also integrated with the fingerprint matching technique, which is a widely used plagiarism detection technique. In general, our proposed system is started by translating the input documents from Malay to English, followed by removal of stop words and stemming words, ...

  15. Dictionary based Approach to Edge Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Edge detection is a very essential part of image processing, as quality and accuracy of detection determines the success of further processing. We have developed a new self learning technique for edge detection using dictionary comprised of eigenfilters constructed using features of the input image. The dictionary based method eliminates the need of pre or post processing of the image and accounts for noise, blurriness, class of image and variation of illumination during the detection process itself. Since, this method depends on the characteristics of the image, the new technique can detect edges more accurately and capture greater detail than existing algorithms such as Sobel, Prewitt Laplacian of Gaussian, Canny method etc which use generic filters and operators. We have demonstrated its application on various classes of images such as text, face, barcodes, traffic and cell images. An application of this technique to cell counting in a microscopic image is also presented.

  16. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. PMID:23934306

  17. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Yang; Ruiwen Tang

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software...

  18. Web Based Cross Language Plagiarism Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Chow Kok; Salim, Naomie

    2009-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross language and cultural border by providing different types of translation tools, cross language plagiarism, also known as translation plagiarism are bound to arise. Especially among the academic works, such issue will definitely affect the student's works including the quality of their assignments and paper works. In this paper, we propose a new approach in detecting cross language plagiarism. Our web based cross language plagiarism detection system is specially t...

  19. Verification-based Software-fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gladisch, Christoph David

    2011-01-01

    Software is used in many safety- and security-critical systems. Software development is, however, an error-prone task. In this dissertation new techniques for the detection of software faults (or software "bugs") are described which are based on a formal deductive verification technology. The described techniques take advantage of information obtained during verification and combine verification technology with deductive fault detection and test generation in a very unified way.

  20. Plagiarism Detection Based on SCAM Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzelmi, Daniele; Carlone, Domenico; Rizzello, Fabio;

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex problem and considered one of the biggest in publishing of scientific, engineering and other types of documents. Plagiarism has also increased with the widespread use of the Internet as large amount of digital data is available. Plagiarism is not just direct copy but also...... paraphrasing, rewording, adapting parts, missing references or wrong citations. This makes the problem more difficult to handle adequately. Plagiarism detection techniques are applied by making a distinction between natural and programming languages. Our proposed detection process is based on natural language...... registered document. Our plagiarism detection system, like many Information Retrieval systems, is evaluated with metrics of precision and recall....

  1. Single-stranded DNA detection by solvent-induced assemblies of a metallo-peptide-based complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2016-05-01

    DNA detection is highly important for the sensitive sensing of different pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The major challenge is to create a sensor that can selectively detect very small concentrations of DNA without the need for amplification or complicated equipment. Different technologies such as optical, electrochemical and microgravimetric approaches can detect DNA fragments. Here we show, for the first time, the use of self-assembled nanostructures generated by a metallo-peptide as an optical sensing platform for DNA detection. The system can selectively detect single stranded DNA fragments by fluorescence measurements as it can discriminate even one base mismatch and can perform in the presence of other interfering proteins. This system may be useful in lab-on-a-chip applications.DNA detection is highly important for the sensitive sensing of different pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The major challenge is to create a sensor that can selectively detect very small concentrations of DNA without the need for amplification or complicated equipment. Different technologies such as optical, electrochemical and microgravimetric approaches can detect DNA fragments. Here we show, for the first time, the use of self-assembled nanostructures generated by a metallo-peptide as an optical sensing platform for DNA detection. The system can selectively detect single stranded DNA fragments by fluorescence measurements as it can discriminate even one base mismatch and can perform in the presence of other interfering proteins. This system may be useful in lab-on-a-chip applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Peptide and receptor synthesis, characterization of the final and intermediate products, experimental details and additional figures including SEM, TEM, DLS, XRD, UV analysis and AFM topographic analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07714a

  2. Mode-mismatched confocal thermal-lens microscope with collimated probe beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Humberto, E-mail: hcabrera@ictp.it [SPIE-ICTP Anchor Research Laboratory, International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, Trieste (Italy); Centro Multidisciplinartio de Ciencias, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Mérida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Korte, Dorota; Franko, Mladen [Laboratory for Environmental Research, University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, 5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2015-05-15

    We report a thermal lens microscope (TLM) based on an optimized mode-mismatched configuration. It takes advantage of the coaxial counter propagating tightly focused excitation and collimated probe beams, instead of both focused at the sample, as it is in currently known TLM setups. A simple mathematical model that takes into account the main features of the instrument is presented. The confocal detection scheme and the introduction of highly collimated probe beam allow enhancing the versatility, limit of detection (LOD), and sensitivity of the instrument. The theory is experimentally verified measuring ethanol’s absorption coefficient at 532.8 nm. Additionally, the presented technique is applied for detection of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(III) in liquid solution. The achieved LOD is 1.3 ppb, which represents 20-fold enhancement compared to transmission mode spectrometric techniques and a 7.5-fold improvement compared to previously reported methods for Cr(III) based on thermal lens effect.

  3. Mode-mismatched confocal thermal-lens microscope with collimated probe beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a thermal lens microscope (TLM) based on an optimized mode-mismatched configuration. It takes advantage of the coaxial counter propagating tightly focused excitation and collimated probe beams, instead of both focused at the sample, as it is in currently known TLM setups. A simple mathematical model that takes into account the main features of the instrument is presented. The confocal detection scheme and the introduction of highly collimated probe beam allow enhancing the versatility, limit of detection (LOD), and sensitivity of the instrument. The theory is experimentally verified measuring ethanol’s absorption coefficient at 532.8 nm. Additionally, the presented technique is applied for detection of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(III) in liquid solution. The achieved LOD is 1.3 ppb, which represents 20-fold enhancement compared to transmission mode spectrometric techniques and a 7.5-fold improvement compared to previously reported methods for Cr(III) based on thermal lens effect

  4. Speedy Object Detection Based on Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jayanta Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of design of an audio system for in-house object detection system for visually impaired,low vision personnel by birth or by an accident ordue to old age. The input of the system will be scene andoutput as audio. Alert facility is provided based on severity levels of the objects (snake, broke glass etc andalso during difficulties. The study proposed techniques to provide speedy detection of objects based onshapes and its scale. Features are extraction to have minimum spaces using dynamic scaling. From ascene, clusters of objects are formed based on thescale and shape. Searching is performed among theclusters initially based on the shape, scale, meancluster value and index of object(s. The minimumoperation to detect the possible shape of the object is performed. In case the object does not have alikelymatching shape, scale etc, then the several operations required for an object detection will not perform;instead, it will declared as a new object. In suchway, this study finds a speedy way of detecting objects.

  5. SPEEDY OBJECT DETECTION BASED ON SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jayanta Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of design of an audio system for in-house object detection system for visually impaired, low vision personnel by birth or by an accident or due to old age. The input of the system will be scene and output as audio. Alert facility is provided based on severity levels of the objects (snake, broke glass etc and also during difficulties. The study proposed techniques to provide speedy detection of objects based on shapes and its scale. Features are extraction to have minimum spaces using dynamic scaling. From a scene, clusters of objects are formed based on the scale and shape. Searching is performed among the clusters initially based on the shape, scale, mean cluster value and index of object(s. The minimum operation to detect the possible shape of the object is performed. In case the object does not have a likely matching shape, scale etc, then the several operations required for an object detection will not perform; instead, it will declared as a new object. In such way, this study finds a speedy way of detecting objects.

  6. Mismatch repair deficiency testing in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Natalia; Ziai, James; Hui, Pei

    2016-05-01

    Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, is caused by inactivating mutations involving DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This leads to profound genetic instability, including microsatellite instability (MSI) and increased risk for cancer development, particularly colon and endometrial malignancies. Clinical testing of tumor tissues for the presence of MMR gene deficiency is standard practice in clinical oncology, with immunohistochemistry and PCR-based microsatellite instability analysis used as screening tests to identify potential Lynch syndrome families. The ultimate diagnosis of Lynch syndrome requires documentation of mutation within one of the four MMR genes (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6) or EPCAM, currently achieved by comprehensive sequencing analysis of germline DNA. In this review, the genetic basis of Lynch syndrome, methodologies of MMR deficiency testing, and current diagnostic algorithms in the clinical management of Lynch syndrome, are discussed. PMID:26895074

  7. Ontology-Based Textual Emotion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Haggag

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotion Detection from text is a very important area of natural language processing. This paper shows a new method for emotion detection from text which depends on ontology. This method is depending on ontology extraction from the input sentence by using a triplet extraction algorithm by the OpenNLP parser, then make an ontology matching with the ontology base that we created by similarity and word sense disambiguation. This ontology base consists of ontologies and the emotion label related to each one. We choose the emotion label of the sentence with the highest score of matching. If the extracted ontology doesn’t match any ontology from the ontology base we use the keyword-based approach. This method doesn’t depend only on keywords like previous approaches; it depends on the meaning of sentence words and the syntax and semantic analysis of the context.

  8. Metamer mismatching in practice versus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiandou; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Metamer mismatching (the phenomenon that two objects matching in color under one illuminant may not match under a different illuminant) potentially has important consequences for color perception. Logvinenko et al. [PLoS ONE10, e0135029 (2015)] show that in theory the extent of metamer mismatching can be very significant. This paper examines metamer mismatching in practice by computing the volumes of the empirical metamer mismatch bodies and comparing them to the volumes of the theoretical mismatch bodies. A set of more than 25 million unique reflectance spectra is assembled using datasets from several sources. For a given color signal (e.g., CIE XYZ) recorded under a given first illuminant, its empirical metamer mismatch body for a change to a second illuminant is computed as follows: the reflectances having the same color signal when lit by the first illuminant (i.e., reflect metameric light) are computationally relit by the second illuminant, and the convex hull of the resulting color signals then defines the empirical metamer mismatch body. The volume of these bodies is shown to vary systematically with Munsell value and chroma. The empirical mismatch bodies are compared to the theoretical mismatch bodies computed using the algorithm of Logvinenko et al. [IEEE Trans. Image Process.23, 34 (2014)]. There are three key findings: (1) the empirical bodies are found to be substantially smaller than the theoretical ones; (2) the sizes of both the empirical and theoretical bodies show a systematic variation with Munsell value and chroma; and (3) applied to the problem of color-signal prediction, the centroid of the empirical metamer mismatch body is shown to be a better predictor of what a given color signal might become under a specified illuminant than state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26974929

  9. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on avidin-biotin conjugation for influenza virus (type A) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Da-Jung; Kim, Ki-Chul; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2011-09-01

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor (E-DNA biosensor) was fabricated by avidin-biotin conjugation of a biotinylated probe DNA, 5'-biotin-ATG AGT CTT CTA ACC GAG GTC GAA-3', and an avidin-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to detect the influenza virus (type A). An avidin-modified GCE was prepared by the reaction of avidin and a carboxylic acid-modified GCE, which was synthesized by the electrochemical reduction of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt. The current value of the E-DNA biosensor was evaluated after hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The current value decreased after the hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA. The DNA that was used follows: complementary target DNA, 5'-TTC GAC CTC GGT TAG AAG ACT CAT-3' and two-base mismatched DNA, 5'-TTC GAC AGC GGT TAT AAG ACT CAT-3'.

  10. Decision Tree Based Algorithm for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a defense measure that supervises activities of the computer network and reports the malicious activities to the network administrator. Intruders do many attempts to gain access to the network and try to harm the organization’s data. Thus the security is the most important aspect for any type of organization. Due to these reasons, intrusion detection has been an important research issue. An IDS can be broadly classified as Signature based IDS and Anomaly based IDS. In our proposed work, the decision tree algorithm is developed based on C4.5 decision tree approach. Feature selection and split value are important issues for constructing a decision tree. In this paper, the algorithm is designed to address these two issues. The most relevant features are selected using information gain and the split value is selected in such a way that makes the classifier unbiased towards most frequent values. Experimentation is performed on NSL-KDD (Network Security Laboratory Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining dataset based on number of features. The time taken by the classifier to construct the model and the accuracy achieved is analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed Decision Tree Split (DTS algorithm can be used for signature based intrusion detection.

  11. Microwave-Based Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, N. S. M.; Khalid, K.; Yusof, N. A.

    2010-07-01

    In this project, microwave-based biosensor for glucose detection has been studied. The study is based on the dielectric properties changes at microwave frequency for glucose-enzyme reaction. Glucose interaction with glucose oxidase (GOD) produced gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction of the glucose solutions with an enzyme was carried out in 1:3 of glucose and enzyme respectively. The measurements were done using the Open Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) coupled with computer controlled software automated network analyzer (ANA) with frequency range from 200MHz to 20GHz at room temperature (25 °C). The differences of enzyme and glucose-enzyme reaction were calculated and plotted. In the microwave interaction with the glucose-enzyme reaction, ionic conduction and dipole molecules was detected at 0.99GHz and 16.44GHz respectively based on changes of dielectric loss factor.

  12. Differential Search Algorithm Based Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunen, M. A.; Civicioglu, P.; Beşdok, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new method has been presented for the extraction of edge information by using Differential Search Optimization Algorithm. The proposed method is based on using a new heuristic image thresholding method for edge detection. The success of the proposed method has been examined on fusion of two remote sensed images. The applicability of the proposed method on edge detection and image fusion problems have been analysed in detail and the empirical results exposed that the proposed method is useful for solving the mentioned problems.

  13. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective......: to show whether medical signal processing of EMG data is feasible for detection of epileptic seizures. Methods: EMG signals during generalised seizures were recorded from 3 patients (with 20 seizures in total). Two possible medical signal processing algorithms were tested. The first algorithm was...... patients, while the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....

  14. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  15. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Kumar, Saurabh; Mouli Pandey, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection.

  16. DATA-MINING BASED FAULT DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hongguang; Han Chongzhao; Wang Guohua; Xu Jianfeng; Zhu Xiaofei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a fault-detection method based on the phase space reconstruction and data mining approaches for the complex electronic system. The approach for the phase space reconstruction of chaotic time series is a combination algorithm of multiple autocorrelation and Γ-test, by which the quasi-optimal embedding dimension and time delay can be obtained.The data mining algorithm, which calculates the radius of gyration of unit-mass point around the centre of mass in the phase space, can distinguish the fault parameter from the chaotic time series output by the tested system. The experimental results depict that this fault detection method can correctly detect the fault phenomena of electronic system.

  17. Regional principal color based saliency detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jing; Ren, Mingwu; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Saliency detection is widely used in many visual applications like image segmentation, object recognition and classification. In this paper, we will introduce a new method to detect salient objects in natural images. The approach is based on a regional principal color contrast modal, which incorporates low-level and medium-level visual cues. The method allows a simple computation of color features and two categories of spatial relationships to a saliency map, achieving higher F-measure rates. At the same time, we present an interpolation approach to evaluate resulting curves, and analyze parameters selection. Our method enables the effective computation of arbitrary resolution images. Experimental results on a saliency database show that our approach produces high quality saliency maps and performs favorably against ten saliency detection algorithms. PMID:25379960

  18. AGENT BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Mandal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a technique for intrusion detection in MANET has been proposed where agents are fired from a node which traverses each node randomly and detect the malicious node. Detection is based on triangular encryption technique (TE where AODV is taken as routing protocol. For simulation we have taken NS2 (2.33 where two type of parameters are considered out of which number of nodes and percentage of node mobility are the attributes. For analysis purpose 20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 60 nodes are taken with a variable percentage of malicious node as 0 %( no malicious, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Analysis have been done taking generated packets, forwarded packets, delay, and average delay as parameters

  19. Sensitive detection of enteropathogenic E. coli using a bfpA gene-based electrochemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a sensitive assay for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) by integrating DNA extraction, specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA detection using an electrode modified with the bundle-forming pilus (bfpA) structural gene. The PCR amplified products are captured on the electrode and hybridized with biotinylated detection probes to form a sandwich hybrid containing two biotinylated detection probes. The sandwich hybridization structure significantly combined the numerous streptavidin alkaline phosphatase on the electrode by biotin-streptavidin connectors. Electrochemical readout is based on dual signal amplification by both the sandwich hybridization structure and the enzyme. The electrode can satisfactorily discriminate complementary and mismatched oligonucleotides. Under optimal conditions, synthetic target DNA can be detected in the 1 pM to 10 nM concentration range, with a detection limit of 0.3 pM. EPEC can be quantified in the 10 to 107 CFU mL−1 levels within 3.5 h. The method also is believed to present a powerful platform for the screening of pathogenic microorganisms in clinical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. (author)

  20. Modeling of channel mismatch in time-interleaved SAR ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengquan, Li; Liang, Zhang; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    In a time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TI ADC), several individual ADCs operate in parallel to achieve a higher sampling rate. Low power consumption as well as good linearity can be obtained by applying successive approximation register (SAR) converters as sub-channel ADCs. In spite of the advantages, this structure suffers from three mismatches, which are offset mismatch, gain mismatch, and time skew. This paper focuses on a TI SAR ADC with a number of channels. The mismatch effects in the frequency domain are analyzed and the derived close form formulas are verified based on Matlab. In addition, we clarify that the standard deviation of DNL and INL of an M-channel TI ADC is reduced by a factor of \\sqrt M compared to a single channel ADC. The formulas can be used to derive the corresponding requirements when designing a TI ADC. Our analysis process is able to inform the study of calibration algorithms. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61322405, 61306044, 61376033) and the National High-Tech Program of China (No. 2013AA014103).

  1. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting

  2. Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon

    2010-10-01

    The performance enhancements based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) for compensating IQ mismatch in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems are investigated. We analytically explore IQ mismatch in optical OFDM systems and investigate the impacts of phase and amplitude IQ mismatch on required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for the different values of data mapping and polarization multiplexing. The impacts of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution and the number of samples in GSOP are also evaluated. The results show that the GSOP operation efficiently compensate IQ mismatch induced performance degradations regardless of the amount of IQ phase mismatch, density of data mapping, and polarization multiplexing.

  3. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Gemma; Rashid, Sukaina; Martin, Sarah A., E-mail: sarah.martin@qmul.ac.uk [Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-05

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting.

  4. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F.

    2015-08-01

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  5. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Arafa H., E-mail: arafa16@yahoo.com, E-mail: arafa.hussien@science.bsu.edu.eg; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2015-08-14

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  6. Shearlet-based detection of flame fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenhofer, Rafael; Kiefer, Johannes; King, Emily J.

    2016-03-01

    Identifying and characterizing flame fronts is the most common task in the computer-assisted analysis of data obtained from imaging techniques such as planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS), or particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). We present Complex Shearlet-Based Ridge and Edge Measure (CoShREM), a novel edge and ridge (line) detection algorithm based on complex-valued wavelet-like analyzing functions—so-called complex shearlets—displaying several traits useful for the extraction of flame fronts. In addition to providing a unified approach to the detection of edges and ridges, our method inherently yields estimates of local tangent orientations and local curvatures. To examine the applicability for high-frequency recordings of combustion processes, the algorithm is applied to mock images distorted with varying degrees of noise and real-world PLIF images of both OH and CH radicals. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the newly proposed complex shearlet-based measure to well-established edge and ridge detection techniques such as the Canny edge detector, another shearlet-based edge detector, and the phase congruency measure.

  7. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  8. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  9. An FPGA-Based People Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Clark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA-based system for detecting people from video. The system is designed to use JPEG-compressed frames from a network camera. Unlike previous approaches that use techniques such as background subtraction and motion detection, we use a machine-learning-based approach to train an accurate detector. We address the hardware design challenges involved in implementing such a detector, along with JPEG decompression, on an FPGA. We also present an algorithm that efficiently combines JPEG decompression with the detection process. This algorithm carries out the inverse DCT step of JPEG decompression only partially. Therefore, it is computationally more efficient and simpler to implement, and it takes up less space on the chip than the full inverse DCT algorithm. The system is demonstrated on an automated video surveillance application and the performance of both hardware and software implementations is analyzed. The results show that the system can detect people accurately at a rate of about 2.5 frames per second on a Virtex-II 2V1000 using a MicroBlaze processor running at 75 MHz, communicating with dedicated hardware over FSL links.

  10. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI) as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26), MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA) and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR) in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation), SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression) and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes). Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response). The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation

  11. Cluster Based Cost Efficient Intrusion Detection System For Manet

    OpenAIRE

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan; B, Hemalatha; P, Hashini

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks are temporary wireless networks. Network resources are abnormally consumed by intruders. Anomaly and signature based techniques are used for intrusion detection. Classification techniques are used in anomaly based techniques. Intrusion detection techniques are used for the network attack detection process. Two types of intrusion detection systems are available. They are anomaly detection and signature based detection model. The anomaly detection model uses the historica...

  12. General SIC measurement-based entanglement detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Tao; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2015-06-01

    We study the quantum separability problem by using general symmetric informationally complete measurements and present separability criteria for both -dimensional bipartite and multipartite systems. The criterion for bipartite quantum states is effective in detecting several well-known classes of quantum states. For isotropic states, it becomes both necessary and sufficient. Furthermore, our criteria can be experimentally implemented, and the criterion for two-qudit states requires less local measurements than the one based on mutually unbiased measurements.

  13. Raman LIDAR Detection of Cloud Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoz, Belay; Starr, David; Whiteman, David; Evans, Keith; Hlavka, Dennis; Peravali, Ravindra

    1999-01-01

    Advantages introduced by Raman lidar systems for cloud base determination during precipitating periods are explored using two case studies of light rain and virga conditions. A combination of the Raman lidar derived profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol scattering ratio, together with the Raman scattered signals from liquid drops, can minimize or even eliminate some of the problems associated with cloud boundary detection using elastic backscatter lidars.

  14. Parametric Adaptive Radar Detector with Enhanced Mismatched Signals Rejection Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of adaptive signal detection in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrix. We propose a parametric radar detector by introducing a design parameter to trade off the target sensitivity with sidelobes energy rejection. The resulting detector merges the statistics of Kelly's GLRT and of the Rao test and so covers Kelly's GLRT and the Rao test as special cases. Both invariance properties and constant false alarm rate (CFAR behavior for this detector are studied. At the analysis stage, the performance of the new receiver is assessed and compared with several traditional adaptive detectors. The results highlight better rejection capabilities of this proposed detector for mismatched signals. Further, we develop two two-stage detectors, one of which consists of an adaptive matched filter (AMF followed by the aforementioned detector, and the other is obtained by cascading a GLRT-based Subspace Detector (SD and the proposed adaptive detector. We show that the former two-stage detector outperforms traditional two-stage detectors in terms of selectivity, and the latter yields more robustness.

  15. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Burg Maria EL; Ewing Patricia C; Ritstier Kirsten; van Kuijk Patricia F; Dinjens Winand NM; van Staveren Iris L; Helleman Jozien; Stoter Gerrit; Berns Els MJJ

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI) as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26), MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfi...

  16. Biotoxin detection using cell-based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Kintzios, Spyridon; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar

    2013-12-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs) by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results obtained from CBBs are based on the toxin-cell interactions, and therefore, reveal functional information (such as mode of action, toxic potency, bioavailability, target tissue or organ, etc.) about the toxin. CBBs incorporate both prokaryotic (bacteria) and eukaryotic (yeast, invertebrate and vertebrate) cells. To create CBB devices, living cells are directly integrated onto the biosensor platform. The sensors report the cellular responses upon exposures to toxins and the resulting cellular signals are transduced by secondary transducers generating optical or electrical signals outputs followed by appropriate read-outs. Examples of the layout and operation of cellular biosensors for detection of selected biotoxins are summarized. PMID:24335754

  17. Biotoxin Detection Using Cell-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Banerjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based biosensors (CBBs utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results obtained from CBBs are based on the toxin-cell interactions, and therefore, reveal functional information (such as mode of action, toxic potency, bioavailability, target tissue or organ, etc. about the toxin. CBBs incorporate both prokaryotic (bacteria and eukaryotic (yeast, invertebrate and vertebrate cells. To create CBB devices, living cells are directly integrated onto the biosensor platform. The sensors report the cellular responses upon exposures to toxins and the resulting cellular signals are transduced by secondary transducers generating optical or electrical signals outputs followed by appropriate read-outs. Examples of the layout and operation of cellular biosensors for detection of selected biotoxins are summarized.

  18. SKILLS MISMATCH OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatos Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a main issue with many fields of study. Studies on transition from school to work, have highlight the importance of two categories of factors at the level of the individual formal proceedings which may affect how easy it is to graduate to integrate into the labor market: 1 so far as the educational systems are transmitting specific competences as compared with those general and 2 so far as there are direct links between employers and the education system. In this way, are reduced the costs of selection and allocation for employers. A poor articulation between educational institutions and the labor market produce a high level of unmatched competences of assimilated by formal education and competencies required of the labor market (skill mismatch (Parodi et al., 2012. The surveys with European employers reflect particular difficulties that they are experiencing in employment vacancies. Investigation on the European companies in the spring of 2013 found that 40% of the firms in the EU have difficulty in finding employees with suitable qualification (CEDEFOP-European Center for the Development of the Vocational Training, 2014. Skills mismatch is a generic term that refers to various types of imbalances between skills and competences offered and those required in the labor market. Concept has become one intensely discussed and submitted to measurement in international research on the background concerns the under-utilization human resource. Numerous opinion polls with employers come to the same unexpected conclusion - that despite high unemployment many posts can't find occupants satisfactorily prepared and identify the causes: most of them criticized the lack of skills of the candidates or the absence of skills specific to the workplace. Based on the latest studies on international databases have built a set of questions that, through secondary analysis, we tried to find answers. Questions that we try to give answer

  19. A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

  20. Measurement errors in multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzers with and without impedance electrode mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to compare measurement errors in two commercially available multi-frequency bioimpedance analyzers, a Xitron 4000B and an ImpediMed SFB7, including electrode impedance mismatch. The comparison was made using resistive electrical models and in ten human volunteers. We used three different electrical models simulating three different body segments: the right-side, leg and thorax. In the electrical models, we tested the effect of the capacitive coupling of the patient to ground and the skin–electrode impedance mismatch. Results showed that both sets of equipment are optimized for right-side measurements and for moderate skin–electrode impedance mismatch. In right-side measurements with mismatch electrode, 4000B is more accurate than SFB7. When an electrode impedance mismatch was simulated, errors increased in both bioimpedance analyzers and the effect of the mismatch in the voltage detection leads was greater than that in current injection leads. For segments with lower impedance as the leg and thorax, SFB7 is more accurate than 4000B and also shows less dependence on electrode mismatch. In both devices, impedance measurements were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the capacitive coupling to ground

  1. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals

  2. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  3. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch---near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the w...

  4. Migrant Educational Mismatch and the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Piracha, Matloob; Vadean, Florin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on educational mismatch of immigrants in the labour market of destination countries. It draws on the theoretical arguments postulated in the labour economics literature and discusses their extension in the analysis of the causes and effects of immigrants' educational mismatch in the destination country. Relevant empirical approaches have been presented which show that immigrants are in general more over-educated than natives and that the reasons for those ran...

  5. Vehicle Detection Research Based on USILTP Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a uniform SILTP operator based on the SILTP operator. In the vehicle detection, SILTP can solve the problems caused by the change of sunshine, the shadow of vehicle and the noise in the surrounding environment. But the algorithm has high dimensionality which can lead to error because of the deviation of the texture characteristics. The USILTP operator can reduce the dimensionality of the detection data which adapts to the problems caused by illumination variations and the noise in the surrounding environment. First, the method uses the SILTP operator to extract the vehicle image texture characteristics and reduce the dimensionality of the detection data, and then it uses the Gauss mixture model to do background modeling, and uses the texture characteristics of the new image to update background dynamically. At last, it gets the vehicle by contracting with the background model. It has been proved that this detection algorithm has a good performance with the test of the vehicle on public roads.

  6. Title Based Duplicate Detection of Web Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. M. Kiruthika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the concept of web crawling has received remarkable significance owing to extreme development of the World Wide Web. Very large amounts of web documents are swarming the web making the search engines less appropriate to the users. Among the vast number of web documents are many duplicates and near duplicates i.e. variants derived from the same original web document due to which additional overheads are created for search engines by which their performance and quality is significantly affected. Web crawling research community has extensively recognized the need for detection of duplicate and near duplicate web pages. Providing the users with relevant results for their queries in the first page without duplicates and redundant results is a vital requisite. Also, this problem of duplication should be avoided to save storage as well as to improve search quality. The near duplicate web pages are detected followed by the storage of crawled web pages in to repositories. The detection of near duplicates conserves network bandwidth, brings down storage cost and enhances the quality of search engines. In this paper, we have discussed a feasible method for detection of near-duplicate web documents based on the title of the documents which will help to reduce the overhead of search engines and improve their performance.

  7. QRS detection based ECG quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although immediate feedback concerning ECG signal quality during recording is useful, up to now not much literature describing quality measures is available. We have implemented and evaluated four ECG quality measures. Empty lead criterion (A), spike detection criterion (B) and lead crossing point criterion (C) were calculated from basic signal properties. Measure D quantified the robustness of QRS detection when applied to the signal. An advanced Matlab-based algorithm combining all four measures and a simplified algorithm for Android platforms, excluding measure D, were developed. Both algorithms were evaluated by taking part in the Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2011. Each measure's accuracy and computing time was evaluated separately. During the challenge, the advanced algorithm correctly classified 93.3% of the ECGs in the training-set and 91.6 % in the test-set. Scores for the simplified algorithm were 0.834 in event 2 and 0.873 in event 3. Computing time for measure D was almost five times higher than for other measures. Required accuracy levels depend on the application and are related to computing time. While our simplified algorithm may be accurate for real-time feedback during ECG self-recordings, QRS detection based measures can further increase the performance if sufficient computing power is available. (paper)

  8. An immune based dynamic intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    With the dynamic description method for self and antigen, and the concept of dynamic immune tolerance for lymphocytes in network-security domain presented in this paper, a new immune based dynamic intrusion detection model (Idid) is proposed. In Idid, the dynamic models and the corresponding recursive equations of the lifecycle of mature lymphocytes, and the immune memory are built. Therefore, the problem of the dynamic description of self and nonself in computer immune systems is solved, and the defect of the low efficiency of mature lymphocyte generating in traditional computer immune systems is overcome. Simulations of this model are performed, and the comparison experiment results show that the proposed dynamic intrusion detection model has a better adaptability than the traditional methods.

  9. A Microcontroller Based Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewunonu Toochi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Microcontroller based Intrusion Detection System is designed and implemented. Rampant, Okintrusion to restricted zones have highlighted the need for embedded systems that can effectively monitor, instantly alert personnel of any breach in security and retrieve graphic evidence of any such activity in the secured area. At the heart of the intrusion detection system is the PIC 168F77A Microcontroller that transmits pulses at 38 KHz. It is suitably interfaced to a GSM modem that can send SMS on sight of infringement and a webcam that can take snapshots. The report also presents the system software which has been developed in two parts: one in C++ Language using MPLAB KIT and the other written in AT COMMAND resident in the GSM modem. The system is very cost-effective, uses easily available components and is adaptable to control systems.

  10. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool.

  11. Electrochemical biosensor for detection of PML/RARα fusion gene based on eriochrome cyanine R film modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication reports on a novel biosensor to study the hybridization specificity based on eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) monolayer film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor the hybridization reaction on the ECR-modified electrode. The decrease of the peak current of methylene blue (MB), an electroactive indicator, was observed upon hybridization of the probe with the target DNA. Electrochemical investigations indicated that ECR modified biosensor displayed a wide linear range of 5.0–200 pM with a detection limit of 0.982 pM. This new biosensor exhibited good selectivity for one-base mismatch and complementary sequence after hybridization in detecting promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).

  12. Chemiluminescence imaging for microRNA detection based on cascade exponential isothermal amplification machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjie; Li, Dandan; Cheng, Wei; Hu, Rong; Sang, Ye; Yin, Yibing; Ding, Shijia; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-09-14

    A novel G-quadruplex DNAzyme-driven chemiluminescence (CL) imaging method was developed for ultrasensitive and specific detection of miRNA based on the cascade exponential isothermal amplification reaction (EXPAR) machinery. A structurally tailored hairpin probe switch was designed to selectively recognise miRNA and form hybridisation products to trigger polymerase and nicking enzyme machinery, resulting in the generation of product I, which was complementary to a region of the functional linear template. Then, the response of the functional linear template to the generated product I further activated the exponential isothermal amplification machinery, leading to synthesis of numerous horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme units for CL signal transduction. The amplification paradigm generated a linear response from 10 fM to 100 pM, with a low detection limit of 2.91 fM, and enabled discrimination of target miRNA from a single-base mismatched target. The developed biosensing platform demonstrated the advantages of isothermal, homogeneous, visual detection for miRNA assays, offering a promising tool for clinical diagnosis. PMID:27566360

  13. Plagiarism Detection Using Graph-Based Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, Ahmed Hamza; Binwahlan, Mohammed Salem

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism of material from the Internet is a widespread and growing problem. Several methods used to detect the plagiarism and similarity between the source document and suspected documents such as fingerprint based on character or n-gram. In this paper, we discussed a new method to detect the plagiarism based on graph representation; however, Preprocessing for each document is required such as breaking down the document into its constituent sentences. Segmentation of each sentence into separated terms and stop word removal. We build the graph by grouping each sentence terms in one node, the resulted nodes are connected to each other based on order of sentence within the document, all nodes in graph are also connected to top level node "Topic Signature". Topic signature node is formed by extracting the concepts of each sentence terms and grouping them in such node. The main advantage of the proposed method is the topic signature which is main entry for the graph is used as quick guide to the relevant nodes. ...

  14. SVM multiuser detection based on heuristic kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Tao; Hu Bo

    2007-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM) based multiuser detection (MUD) scheme in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system is proposed. In this scheme, the equivalent support vector (SV) is obtained through a kernel sparsity approximation algorithm, which avoids the conventional costly quadratic programming (QP) procedure in SVM. Besides, the coefficient of the SV is attained through the solution to a generalized eigenproblem. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has almost the same bit error rate (BER) as the standard SVM and is better than minimum mean square error (MMSE) scheme. Meanwhile, it has a low computation complexity.

  15. DNA & Protein detection based on microbead agglutination

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-06-06

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microparticles in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Agglutination-based tests are most often used to explore the antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for mode protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin two-component system, as well as a hybridization based two-component assay; however, as our work shows, two-component systems are prone to self-termination of the linking analyte and thus have a lower sensitivity. Three component systems have also been used with DNA hybridization, as in our work; however, their assay requires 48 hours for incubation, while our assay is performed in 5 minutes making it a real candidate for POC testing. We demonstrate three assays: a two-component biotin/streptavidin assay, a three-component hybridization assay using single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules and a stepped three-component hybridization assay. The comparison of these three assays shows our simple stepped three-component agglutination assay to be rapid at room temperature and more sensitive than the two-component version by an order of magnitude. An agglutination assay was also performed in a PDMS microfluidic chip where agglutinated beads were trapped by filter columns for easy observation. We developed a rapid (5 minute) room temperature assay, which is based on microbead agglutination. Our three-component assay solves the linker self-termination issue allowing an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over two–component assays. Our stepped version of the three-component assay solves the issue with probe site saturation thus enabling a wider range of detection. Detection of the agglutinated beads with the naked eye by trapping in microfluidic channels has been shown.

  16. Asymmetric response of demand-supply mismatch to investor's sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Marcato, Gianluca; Nanda, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    We look through both the demand and supply side information to understand dynamics of price determination in the real estate market and examine how accurately investors’ attitudes predict the market returns and thereby flagging off extent of any demand-supply mismatch. Our hypothesis is based on the possibility that investors’ call for action in terms of their buy/sell decision and adjustment in reservation/offer prices may indicate impending demand-supply imbalances in the market. In the pro...

  17. SKILL MISMATCH OF GRADUATES IN A LOCAL LABOUR MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Marelli; Dario Sciulli; Marcello Signorelli

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we first review the (potential and actual) role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education) in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial) labour market in order to...

  18. Nonspinning searches for spinning binaries in ground-based detector data: Amplitude and mismatch predictions in the constant precession cone approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D; O'Shaughnessy, R

    2012-01-01

    Current searches for compact binary mergers by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors assume for simplicity the two bodies are not spinning. If the binary contains compact objects with significant spin, then this can reduce the sensitivity of these searches, particularly for black hole--neutron star binaries. In this paper we investigate the effect of neglecting precession on the sensitivity of searches for spinning binaries using non-spinning waveform models. We demonstrate that in the sensitive band of Advanced LIGO, the angle between the binary's orbital angular momentum and its total angular momentum is approximately constant. Under this \\emph{constant precession cone} approximation, we show that the gravitational-wave phasing is modulated in two ways: a secular increase of the gravitational-wave phase due to precession and an oscillation around this secular increase. We show that this secular evolution occurs in precisely three ways, corresponding to physically different apparent evolutions of the bin...

  19. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  20. Overlapping Community Detection based on Network Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  1. Towards automatic identification of mismatched image pairs through loop constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibol, Armagan; Kim, Jinwhan; Gracias, Nuno; Garcia, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining image sequences has become easier and easier thanks to the rapid progress on optical sensors and robotic platforms. Processing of image sequences (e.g., mapping, 3D reconstruction, Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM)) usually requires 2D image registration. Recently, image registration is accomplished by detecting salient points in two images and nextmatching their descriptors. To eliminate outliers and to compute a planar transformation (homography) between the coordinate frames of images, robust methods (such as Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) and Least Median of Squares (LMedS)) are employed. However, image registration pipeline can sometimes provide sufficient number of inliers within the error bounds even when images do not overlap. Such mismatches occur especially when the scene has repetitive texture and shows structural similarity. In this study, we present a method to identify the mismatches using closed-loop (cycle) constraints. The method exploits the fact that images forming a cycle should have identity mapping when all the homographies between images in the cycle multiplied. Cycles appear when the camera revisits an area that was imaged before, which is a common practice especially for mapping purposes. Our proposal extracts several cycles to obtain error statistics for each matched image pair. Then, it searches for image pairs that have extreme error histogram comparing to the other pairs. We present experimental results with artificially added mismatched image pairs on real underwater image sequences.

  2. Genome instability of mis-match repair and its role in carcinogenesis due to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homologue genes, mutS and mutL have been known as a key gene for mismatch repair in E. coli. In this study, identification of such homologue genes in the nematode was attempted using caenorhabditis elegans and three kinds of mutS homologues (mshG, mshZ and mshF) and 2 kinds of mutL ones were identified. From after isolation of these genes, base sequences were analyzed. Then, an insertion mutant in which Tcl transposon is inserted in Exon 13 positioned at the center of mshF was screened and its homozygote where breakage of transposon in somatic cells occurred frequently was obtained and its morphological changes were not significant. In the nematoda, we detected a highly conserved domain in mutS family gene, which is commonly present in yeast and human genes. Based on the amino acid sequence of this domain, four kinds of primers were constructed for PCR reaction using the whole DNA from the nematoda as a template and four DNA fragments of which sizes were almost corresponding to the homologue proteins were produced. From screening of Tc1 insertion mutant for 8 mismatch repair genes, three strains; mshF, rqhW and RqhY were obtained and the gene structures and the positions of Tc1 insertion in these strains were determined. The sensitivities to ionizing radiation, UV and alkyl reagent of these strains were not significantly different from those of the wild strain. (M.N.)

  3. Network Intrusion Detection based on GMKL Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the 31th statistical reports of China Internet network information center (CNNIC, by the end of December 2012, the number of Chinese netizens has reached 564 million, and the scale of mobile Internet users also reached 420 million. But when the network brings great convenience to people's life, it also brings huge threat in the life of people. So through collecting and analyzing the information in the computer system or network we can detect any possible behaviors that can damage the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the computer resource, and make timely treatment to these behaviors which have important research significance to improve the operation environment of network and network service. At present, the Neural Network, Support Vector machine (SVM and Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy inference and Genetic Algorithms are introduced into the research of network intrusion detection, trying to build a healthy and secure network operation environment. But most of these algorithms are based on the total sample and it also hypothesizes that the number of the sample is infinity. But in the field of network intrusion the collected data often cannot meet the above requirements. It often shows high latitudes, variability and small sample characteristics. For these data using traditional machine learning methods are hard to get ideal results. In view of this, this paper proposed a Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method to applied to network intrusion detection. The Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method can be well applied to large scale sample data, dimension complex, containing a large number of heterogeneous information and so on. The experimental results show that applying GMKL to network attack detection has high classification precision and low abnormal practical precision.

  4. Point pattern match-based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, David W.

    2016-06-07

    A method and system is provided that applies attribute- and topology-based change detection to objects that were detected on previous scans of a medium. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, detection strength, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The locations define a three-dimensional network topology forming a constellation of previously detected objects. The change detection system stores attributes of the previously detected objects in a constellation database. The change detection system detects changes by comparing the attributes and topological consistency of newly detected objects encountered during a new scan of the medium to previously detected objects in the constellation database. The change detection system may receive the attributes of the newly detected objects as the objects are detected by an object detection system in real time.

  5. Use of a Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay PCR Method to Detect the Complex Vertebral Malformation in Some Chinese Holstein Sires%部分中国荷斯坦种公牛脊柱畸形综合征携带状况的检测和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 赵学明; 朱化彬; 杜卫华; 王栋; 郝海生; 王宗礼

    2011-01-01

    摘本研究旨在对部分中国荷斯坦种公牛脊柱畸形综合征(Complex vertebral malformation,CVM)致病基因的携带状况进行筛查.应用错配PCR突变分析技术(PCR mismatch amplification mutation assay,PCR-MAMA)建立了针对CVM致病基因的特异性检测方法.利用PCR-MAMA法检测了154头荷斯坦种公牛,发现了24头CVM阳性个体,阳性率为15.58%.结果显示,应对中国荷斯坦种公牛进行全面的针对CVM的检测.%This experiment was conducted to test some Chinese Holstein sires for complex vertebral malformation (CVM). In this study, a simple, rapid PCR mismatch amplification mutation assay (PCR- MAMA) was developed to detect the mutation allele. Out of 154 tested Holstein sires, 24 sires (15. 58%) were identified to be CVM carriers by PCR- MAMA. The results indicate that all the Chinese Holstein sires should be tested for CVM.

  6. A label-free electrochemical sensor for detection of mercury(II) ions based on the direct growth of guanine nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan Li; Gao, Zhong Feng; Jia, Jing; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-05-01

    A simple, sensitive and label-free electrochemical sensor is developed for detection of Hg(2+) based on the strong and stable T-Hg(2+)-T mismatches. In the presence of Mg(2+), the parallel G-quadruplex structures could be specifically recognized and precipitated in parallel conformation. Therefore, the guanine nanowire was generated on the electrode surface, triggering the electrochemical H2O2-mediated oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). In this research, a new method of signal amplification for the quantitative detection of Hg(2+) was described based on the direct growth of guanine nanowire via guanine nanowire. Under optimum conditions, Hg(2+) was detected in the range of 100pM-100nM, and the detection limit is 33pM. Compared to the traditional single G-quadruplex label unit, this electrochemical sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Hg(2+). PMID:26835893

  7. In Situ Measurement of the γ/ γ' Lattice Mismatch Evolution of a Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Superalloy During Non-isothermal Very High-Temperature Creep Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Graverend, Jean-Briac; Dirand, Laura; Jacques, Alain; Cormier, Jonathan; Ferry, Olivier; Schenk, Thomas; Gallerneau, Franck; Kruch, Serge; Mendez, José

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of the γ/ γ' lattice mismatch of the AM1 single-crystal superalloy was measured during in situ non-isothermal very high-temperature creep tests under X-ray synchrotron radiation. The magnitude of the effective lattice mismatch in the 1273 K to 1323 K (1000 °C to 1050 °C) temperature range always increased after overheatings performed at temperatures lower than 1403 K (1130 °C). In contrast, a decrease of its magnitude was observed after overheatings at temperatures greater than 1453 K (1180 °C) due to massive dislocation recovery processes occurring at very high temperature.

  8. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  9. Fuzzy Backstepping Sliding Mode Control for Mismatched Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Hou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mode controllers have succeeded in many control problems that the conventional control theories have difficulties to deal with; however it is practically impossible to achieve high-speed switching control. Therefore, in this paper an adaptive fuzzy backstepping sliding mode control scheme is derived for mismatched uncertain systems. Firstly fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using backstepping method based on the Lyapunov function approach, which is capable of handling mismatched problem. Then fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using T-S fuzzy model method, it can improve the performance of the control systems and their robustness. Finally this method of control is applied to nonlinear system as a case study; simulation results are also provided the performance of the proposed controller.

  10. Detection of a Specific Biomarker for Epstein-Barr Virus Using a Polymer-Based Genosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. A. Balvedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes methodology for direct and indirect detections of a specific oligonucleotide for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV using electrochemical techniques. The sequence of oligonucleotide probe (EBV1 revealed a high sequence identity (100% with the EBV genome. For the development of the genosensor, EBV1 was grafted to the platform sensitized with poly(4-aminothiophenol. After that, the hybridization reaction was carried out with the complementary target (EBV2 on the modified electrode surface using ethidium bromide as DNA intercalator. The oxidation peak currents of ethidium bromide increased linearly with the values of the concentration of the complementary sequences in the range from 3.78 to 756 µmol·L−1. In nonstringent experimental conditions, this genosensor can detect 17.32 nmol·L−1 (three independent experiments of oligonucleotide target, discriminating between complementary and non-complementary oligonucleotides, as well as differentiating one-base mismatch, as required for detection of genetic diseases caused by point mutations. The biosensor also displayed high specificity to the EBV target with elimination of interference from mix (alanine, glucose, uric acid, ascorbic acid, bovine serum albumin (BSA, glutamate and glycine and good stability (120 days. In addition, it was possible to observe differences between hybridized and non-hybridized surfaces through atomic force microscopy.

  11. Label-free nucleic acids detection based on DNA templated silver nanoclusters fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Wei, Haiping; Jiang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Based on DNA templated Ag NCs (DNA/Ag NCs) fluorescent probe, a label-free fluorescent method was developed for the detection of clinical significant DNA fragments from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA. Firstly, a hairpin probe, containing target DNA recognition sequence and guanine-rich sequence, was designed to hybridize with the target DNA and form a blunt 3'-terminus DNA duplex. Then, exonuclease III (Exo III) was employed to stepwise hydrolyze the mononucleotides from formed blunt 3'-terminus DNA duplex, releasing the target DNA and guanine-rich sequence. Finally, DNA/Ag NCs fluorescent probe was introduced to hybridize with the guanine-rich sequence, leading to an enhanced fluorescence signal for detection. The proposed method could detect as low as 2.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) HIV-1 DNA and exhibited excellent selectivity against mismatched target DNA. Furthermore, the method possessed perfect recoveries in cells lysate and human serum, showing potential to be used in biological samples. PMID:25863386

  12. Electrochemical detection of glutathione based on Hg(2+)-mediated strand displacement reaction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yun; Yang, Lili; Mao, Xiaoxia; Lu, Mengjia; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Yongmei

    2016-11-15

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in numerous cellular functions, and the abnormal GSH expression is closely related with many dangerous human diseases. In this work, we have proposed a simple but sensitive electrochemical method for quantitative detection of GSH based on an Hg(2+)-mediated strand displacement reaction. Owing to the specific binding of Hg(2+) with T-T mismatches, helper DNA can bind to 3' terminal of probe DNA 1 and initiate the displacement of probe DNA 2 immobilized on an electrode surface. However, Hg(2+)-mediated strand displacement reaction can be inhibited by the chelation of GSH with Hg(2+), thereby leading to an obvious electrochemical response obtained from methylene blue that is modified onto the probe DNA. Our method can sensitively detect GSH in a wide linear range from 0.5nM to 5μM with a low detection limit of 0.14nM, which can also easily distinguish target molecules in complex serum samples and even cell extractions. Therefore, this method may have great potential to monitor GSH in the physiological and pathological condition in the future. PMID:27240014

  13. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch-near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  14. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch---near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  15. Edge detection based on directional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wei-qi; LI De-sheng

    2006-01-01

    A new method for edge detection based on directional space is proposed.The principle is that:firstly,the directional differential space is set up in which the ridge edge pixels and valley edge pixels are abstracted with the help of the method of logical judgments along the direction of differential function,forming a directional roof edge map;secondly,step edge pixels are abstracted between the neighboring directional ridge edge and directional valley edge along the direction of differential function;finally,the ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map gained along different directions are combined into corresponding ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map.This method is different from classical algorithms in which the gray differential values of the mutual vertical direction are combined into one gradient value.The experiment of edge detection is made for the images of nature scenery,human body and accumulative raw material,whose result is compared with the one of classical algorithms and showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  16. Self-Oscillation-Based Frequency Tracking for the Drive and Detection of Resonance Magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zheng; Ren, Dahai; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a drive and detection method for Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS)-based Lorentz-force resonance magnetometers. Based on the proposed MEMS magnetometer, a drive and detection method was developed by using self-oscillation to adjust the mismatch between the mechanical resonance frequency and the coil drive frequency as affected by temperature fluctuations and vibration amplitude changes. Not only was the signal-to-noise ratio enhanced by the proposed method compared to the traditional method, but the test system automatically reached resonance frequency very rapidly when powered on. Moreover, the linearity and the measurement range were improved by the magnetic feedback generated by the coil. Test results indicated that the sensitivity of the proposed magnetometer is 59.6 mV/μT and its noise level is 0.25 μT. When operating in ±65 μT, its nonlinearity is 2.5‰-only one-tenth of the former prototype. Its power consumption is only about 250 mW and its size is only 28 mm × 28 mm × 10 mm, or about one-eighth of the original sensor; further, unlike the former device, it can distinguish both positive and negative magnetic fields. The proposed method can also be applied in other MEMS sensors such as gyroscopes and micromirrors to enhance their frequency tracking ability. PMID:27213401

  17. Frequency-based Vehicle Idling Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chao Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increases in fuel prices and environmental awareness have raised the importance of reducing vehicle emissions, with many national governments passing anti-idling laws. To reduce air pollution and fuel consumption, we propose a frequency-based vehicle idling detection method to remind drivers to turn off the engine vehicle idling exceeds a certain time threshold. The method is implemented in existing handheld devices without any modification to the car or engine, making the solution cheap and simple to implement in any type of motor vehicle. Experimental results show the proposed method can effectively differentiate idling, engine-off, and moving conditions. Two implementation cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed method.

  18. Detecting Soft Errors in Stencil based Computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gopalkrishnan, G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Given the growing emphasis on system resilience, it is important to develop software-level error detectors that help trap hardware-level faults with reasonable accuracy while minimizing false alarms as well as the performance overhead introduced. We present a technique that approaches this idea by taking stencil computations as our target, and synthesizing detectors based on machine learning. In particular, we employ linear regression to generate computationally inexpensive models which form the basis for error detection. Our technique has been incorporated into a new open-source library called SORREL. In addition to reporting encouraging experimental results, we demonstrate techniques that help reduce the size of training data. We also discuss the efficacy of various detectors synthesized, as well as our future plans.

  19. Texture-Based Polyp Detection in Colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameling, Stefan; Wirth, Stephan; Paulus, Dietrich; Lacey, Gerard; Vilarino, Fernando

    Colonoscopy is one of the best methods for screening colon cancer. A variety of research groups have proposed methods for automatic detection of polyps in colonoscopic images to support the doctors during examination. However, the problem can still not be assumed as solved. The major drawback of many approaches is the amount and quality of images used for classifier training and evaluation. Our database consists of more than four hours of high resolution video from colonoscopies which were examined and labeled by medical experts. We applied four methods of texture feature extraction based on Grey-Level-Co-occurence and Local-Binary-Patterns. Using this data, we achieved classification results with an area under the ROC-curve of up to 0.96.

  20. Comic image understanding based on polygon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luyuan; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Liu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Comic image understanding aims to automatically decompose scanned comic page images into storyboards and then identify the reading order of them, which is the key technique to produce digital comic documents that are suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic image understanding method based on polygon detection. First, we segment a comic page images into storyboards by finding the polygonal enclosing box of each storyboard. Then, each storyboard can be represented by a polygon, and the reading order of them is determined by analyzing the relative geometric relationship between each pair of polygons. The proposed method is tested on 2000 comic images from ten printed comic series, and the experimental results demonstrate that it works well on different types of comic images.

  1. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  2. Probe-beam diffraction in a pulsed top-hat beam thermal lens with a mode-mismatched configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Welsch, E

    1999-08-20

    The Fresnel diffraction integral is used directly to describe the thermal lens (TL) effect with a mode-mismatched collinear configuration. The TL amplitudes obtained with Gaussian, Airy, and top-hat beam excitations are computed and compared. Numerical results for beam geometries optimized for both near- and far-field detection schemes are presented, and the analytical results developed by Bialkowski and Chartier [Appl. Opt. 36, 6711 (1997)] for a Gaussian beam TL effect are summarized in simplified form. Both the numerical and the analytical results demonstrate that, under a beam geometry optimized for either near- or far-field detection, the Gaussian beam TL experiment has approximately the same maximum signal amplitude as does the photothermal-interference scheme. A comparison between the optimum near- and far-field detection beam geometries indicates that a practical mode-mismatched TL instrument should be based on the far-field detection geometry. The computation results further demonstrate that the optimum beam geometry and the TL amplitude depend largely on the excitation-beam profile. The top-hat beam TL experiment is approximately twice as sensitive as the Gaussian beam TL scheme. PMID:18324024

  3. Do anticodons of misacylated tRNAs preferentially mismatch codons coding for the misloaded amino acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seligmann Hervé

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate amino acid insertion during peptide elongation requires tRNAs loaded by cognate amino acids and that anticodons match codons. However, tRNA misloading does not necessarily cause misinsertions: misinsertion is avoided when anticodons mismatch codons coding for misloaded amino acids. Presentation of the hypothesis Occasional compensation of misacylation by codon-anticodon mismatch necessarily occurs. Putatively, occasional error compensation may be enhanced beyond the random combination of independent errors in tRNA loading and codon-anticodon interactions: tRNA misacylation might alter potentials for codon-anticodon mismatches, perhaps specifically increasing potentials for mismatching those codons coding for the misacylated non-cognate amino acid. This hypothetical phenomenon is called 'error coordination', in distinction from 'error compensation' that assumes independence between misacylation and mismatch. Testing the hypothesis Eventually, the hypothesis should be tested for each combination of amino acid misacylation and codon-anticodon mismatch, by comparing stabilities or frequencies of mismatched codon-anticodon duplexes formed by tRNAs loaded by their cognate amino acid with stabilities formed by that tRNA when misloaded with the amino acid coded by the mismatched codon. Competitive mismatching experiments between misloaded and correctly loaded tRNAs could also be useful, yet more sophisticated experiments. Implications of the hypothesis Detecting error coordination implies estimating error compensation, which also promotes protein synthesis accuracy. Hence even in the absence of evidence for error coordination, experiments would yield very useful insights into misacylation and mismatch processes. In case experiments consider post-transcriptional RNA modifications (especially at wobble positions, results on codon-anticodon mismatches would enable significant improvements and sophistications of secondary

  4. New Spectral Method for Halo Particle Definition in Intense Mis-matched Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced spectral analysis of a mis-matched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

  5. Analysis of the injection-locked magnetron with a mismatched circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the scatter matrix of the four-port lossless mismatched circulator, the phase differential equation of the injection-locked magnetron is derived by comparing different effects of the mismatched and perfect circulator on the injection ratio. Besides, the locking range of the injection-locked magnetron with the mismatched circulator is deduced by functional operation. In addition, the phase differential equation and the locked bandwidth of the injection-locked system with a mismatched circulator are compared with those of the small injection-ratio case with a perfect circulator. The influence of the circulator reflection coefficient on the injection-locked magnetron is also analyzed by numerical calculation. Theoretical analysis shows that the decrement of the locked bandwidth is less than 1% and decrement of the stable phase difference is less than 1.2% when the reflection coefficient is less than 0.1. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters via sampled position data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Huang, Chunli; Lü, Jinhu; Li, Xiong; Chen, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    Power systems are special multi-agent systems with nonlinear coupling function and symmetric structures. This paper extends these systems to a class of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters, linear coupling function, and asymmetric structures and investigates their velocity synchronization via sampled position data. The dynamics of the agents is adopted as that of generators with mismatched parameters, while the system structures are supposed to be complex. Two distributed linear consensus protocols are designed, respectively, for multi-agent systems without or with communication delay. Necessary and sufficient conditions based on the sampling period, the mismatched parameters, the delay, and the nonzero eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix are established. It is shown that velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters can be achieved if the sampled period is chosen appropriately. Simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  7. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  8. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2002-01-01

    Limiting dilution analysis has been used in the context of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation to determine anti-recipient interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequencies, which in several studies have been predictive of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently......S bioassay detects 5 pg/ml of human recombinant IL-4 with no detection of IL-2 in concentrations below 500 pg/ml. We have found 72 h of culture optimal for detection of IL-2 and IL-4 produced by human mononuclear cells (MNC) in response to stimulation with phytohaemaglutinin and for detection of IL...

  9. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows

  10. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  11. Biomimetic visual detection based on insect neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, David C.

    2001-11-01

    With a visual system that accounts for as much as 30% of the lifted mass, flying insects such as dragonflies and hoverflies invest more in vision than any other animal. Impressive visual performance is subserved by a surprisingly simple visual system. In a typical insect eye, between 2,000 and 30,000 pixels in the image are analyzed by fewer than 200,000 neurons in underlying neural circuits. The combination of sophisticated visual processing with an approachable level of complexity has made the insect visual system a leading model for biomimetic approaches to computer vision. Much neurobiological research has focused on neural circuits used for detection of moving patterns (e.g. optical flow during flight) and moving targets (e.g. prey). Research from several labs has led to great advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved, and has spawned neuromorphic hardware based on key processes identified in neurobiological experiments. Despite its attractions, the highly non-linear nature of several key stages in insect visual processing presents a challenge to understanding. I will describe examples of adaptive elements of neural circuits in the fly visual system which analyze the direction and velocity of wide-field optical flow patterns and the result of experiments that suggest that these non-linearities may contribute to robust responses to natural image motion.

  12. Neutron detection based on superheated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental and radiation responses of the Active Personnel Dosimeter/Superheated Drop Detector (APD/SDD) combination have been evaluated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's Neutron Measurement and Evaluation Program. This paper provides results of the evaluation and discusses possible improvements for the current system. Radiation detection based on the radiation sensitivity of superheated liquids has been studied for some time. A liquid is superheated if it exists as a liquid at a temperature-pressure state normally associated with the vapor phase of that material. The liquid does not vaporize because there are no bubble nucleation sites in the sample. These sites usually exist (1) in microscopic cracks on solid container surfaces, (2) in crevices of imperfectly wetted solid particles suspended in the liquid, or (3) as a result of the radiation-matter interaction producing a microbubble that is large enough for bubble growth to be thermodynamically favorable. By suspending small drops of superheated liquid in an immiscible, inert, impurity-free medium, potential for bubble nucleation by the first two mechanisms is eliminated. Therefore, each drop becomes a miniature radiation detector

  13. Neutron detection based on superheated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental and radiation responses of the Active Personnel Dosimeter/Superheated Drop Detector (APD/SDD) combination have been evaluated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's Neutron Measurement and Evaluation Program. This paper provides results of the evaluation and discusses possible improvements for the current system. Radiation detection based on the radiation sensitivity of superheated liquids has been studied for some time. A liquid is superheated if it exists as a liquid at a temperature-pressure state normally associated with the vapor phase of that material. The liquid does not vaporize because there are no bubble nucleation sits in the sample. These sites usually exist in microscopic cracks on solid container surfaces, in crevices of imperfectly wetted solid particles suspended in the liquid, or as a result of the radiation-matter interaction producing a microbubble that is large enough for bubble growth to be thermodynamically favorable. By suspending small drops of superheated liquid in an immiscible, inert, impurity-free medium, potential for bubble nucleation by the first two mechanisms is eliminated. Therefore, each drop becomes a miniature radiation detector

  14. DNA hybridization in nanostructural molecular assemblies enables detection of gene mutations without a fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tatsuo; Park, Lian-Chun; Shinohara, Toshimitsu; Goto, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a simple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis utilizing DNA hybridization in nanostructural molecular assemblies. The novel technique enables the detection of a single-base mismatch in a DNA sequence without a fluorescent probe. This report describes for the first time that DNA hybridization occurs in the nanostructural molecular assemblies (termed reverse micelles) formed in an organic medium. The restricted nanospace in the reverse micelles amplifies the differences in the hybridization rate between mismatched and perfectly matched DNA probes. For a model system, we hybridized a 20-mer based on the p53 gene sequence to 20-mer complementary oligonucleotides with various types of mismatches. Without any DNA labeling or electrochemical apparatus, we successfully detected the various oligonucleotide mismatches by simply measuring the UV absorbance at 260 nm. PMID:14715007

  15. Electrochemical detection of a Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence-specific gene based on a gold electrode modified with a single stranded probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor for specific-sequences detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) was fabricated.A singlestranded 20-mer oligonucleotide (ssDNA) and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) were immobilized via a thiol linker on gold disk electrodes by self-assembling.The ssDNA underwent hybridization in a hybridization solution containing complementary or non-complementary or single base pair mismatched DNA sequences of VP.Examination of changes in response to these three target DNAs showed that the developed biosensor had a high selectivity and sensitivity.

  16. Effective Steganography Detection Based On Data Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Nechta, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes novel text steganalysis method. The archiver "Bzip2" used for detection stegotext generated by Texto stegosystem. Experiments show that proposed approach gets better performance than typical existing methods. The detection accuracy exceeds 99.98% for text segments with size 400 bytes.

  17. Network Anomaly Detection Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Ghorbani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detecting network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. In this paper, we propose a new network signal modelling technique for detecting network anomalies, combining the wavelet approximation and system identification theory. In order to characterize network traffic behaviors, we present fifteen features and use them as the input signals in our system. We then evaluate our approach with the 1999 DARPA intrusion detection dataset and conduct a comprehensive analysis of the intrusions in the dataset. Evaluation results show that the approach achieves high-detection rates in terms of both attack instances and attack types. Furthermore, we conduct a full day's evaluation in a real large-scale WiFi ISP network where five attack types are successfully detected from over 30 millions flows.

  18. Network Anomaly Detection Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Ghorbani, Ali A.

    2008-12-01

    Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detecting network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. In this paper, we propose a new network signal modelling technique for detecting network anomalies, combining the wavelet approximation and system identification theory. In order to characterize network traffic behaviors, we present fifteen features and use them as the input signals in our system. We then evaluate our approach with the 1999 DARPA intrusion detection dataset and conduct a comprehensive analysis of the intrusions in the dataset. Evaluation results show that the approach achieves high-detection rates in terms of both attack instances and attack types. Furthermore, we conduct a full day's evaluation in a real large-scale WiFi ISP network where five attack types are successfully detected from over 30 millions flows.

  19. A network-based realtime intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first reviews the background of Intrusion Detection (ID), then discusses the models and classifications of Intrusion Detection System (IDS). After detail the basic concepts to realize network-based realtime IDS, the analysis of authors' work are presented

  20. Improving seroreactivity-based detection of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Nicole; Keller, Andreas; Heisel, Sabrina; Leidinger, Petra; Klein, Veronika; Rheinheimer, Stefanie; Andres, Claudia U; Stephan, Bernhard; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo; Graf, Norbert M; Burgeth, Bernhard; Weickert, Joachim; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Meese, Eckart

    2009-12-01

    Seroreactivity profiling emerges as valuable technique for minimal invasive cancer detection. Recently, we provided first evidence for the applicability of serum profiling of glioma using a limited number of immunogenic antigens. Here, we screened 57 glioma and 60 healthy sera for autoantibodies against 1827 Escherichia coli expressed clones, including 509 in-frame peptide sequences. By a linear support vector machine approach, we calculated mean specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of 100 repetitive classifications. We were able to differentiate glioma sera from sera of the healthy controls with a specificity of 90.28%, a sensitivity of 87.31% and an accuracy of 88.84%. We were also able to differentiate World Health Organization grade IV glioma sera from healthy sera with a specificity of 98.45%, a sensitivity of 80.93%, and an accuracy of 92.88%. To rank the antigens according to their information content, we computed the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve value for each clone. Altogether, we found 46 immunogenic clones including 16 in-frame clones that were informative for the classification of glioma sera versus healthy sera. For the separation of glioblastoma versus healthy sera, we found 91 informative clones including 26 in-frame clones. The best-suited in-frame clone for the classification glioma sera versus healthy sera corresponded to the vimentin gene (VIM) that was previously associated with glioma. In the future, autoantibody signatures in glioma not only may prove useful for diagnosis but also offer the prospect for a personalized immune-based therapy. PMID:20019846

  1. Improving Seroreactivity-Based Detection of Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ludwig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Seroreactivity profiling emerges as valuable technique for minimal invasive cancer detection. Recently, we provided first evidence for the applicability of serum profiling of glioma using a limited number of immunogenic antigens. Here, we screened 57 glioma and 60 healthy sera for autoantibodies against 1827 Escherichia coli expressed clones, including 509 in-frame peptide sequences. By a linear support vector machine approach, we calculated mean specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of 100 repetitive classifications. We were able to differentiate glioma sera from sera of the healthy controls with a specificity of 90.28%, a sensitivity of 87.31% and an accuracy of 88.84%. We were also able to differentiate World Health Organization grade IV glioma sera from healthy sera with a specificity of 98.45%, a sensitivity of 80.93%, and an accuracy of 92.88%. To rank the antigens according to their information content, we computed the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve value for each clone. Altogether, we found 46 immunogenic clones including 16 in-frame clones that were informative for the classification of glioma sera versus healthy sera. For the separation of glioblastoma versus healthy sera, we found 91 informative clones including 26 in-frame clones. The best-suited in-frame clone for the classification glioma sera versus healthy sera corresponded to the vimentin gene (VIM that was previously associated with glioma. In the future, autoantibody signatures in glioma not only may prove useful for diagnosis but also offer the prospect for a personalized immune-based therapy.

  2. Circuit mismatch influence on performance of paralleling silicon carbide MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Pham, Cam;

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on circuit mismatch influence on performance of paralleling SiC MOSFETs. Power circuit mismatch and gate driver mismatch influences are analyzed in detail. Simulation and experiment results show the influence of circuit mismatch and verify the analysis. This paper aims to give...... suggestions on paralleling discrete SiC MOSFETs and designing layout of power modules with paralleled SiC MOSFETs dies....

  3. Effects of carrier phase estimation on front-end IQ mismatch compensation in mode division multiplexed MIMO coherent receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of carrier phase estimation on IQ mismatch compensation are investigated and compared for coherent MIMO optical receiver. We investigate the impacts of phase IQ mismatch on required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for coherent MIMO detection. The impacts of number of modes and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution are also evaluated. The results show that decision-directed carrier phase estimator could compensate significant amount of IQ mismatch without employing additional compensation technique, and relaxes requirement of ADC resolution.

  4. Anomica: Fast Support Vector Based Novelty Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we propose ν-Anomica, a novel anomaly detection technique that can be trained on huge data sets with much reduced running time compared to the...

  5. Improving Spam Detection Based on Structural Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Luiz H.; Castro, Fernando D. O.; Almeida, Rodrigo B.; Bettencourt, Luis M. A.; VIRGILIO A. F. ALMEIDA; Almeida, Jussara M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new detection algorithm that uses structural relationships between senders and recipients of email as the basis for the identification of spam messages. Users and receivers are represented as vectors in their reciprocal spaces. A measure of similarity between vectors is constructed and used to group users into clusters. Knowledge of their classification as past senders/receivers of spam or legitimate mail, comming from an auxiliary detection algorithm, is then used to label these...

  6. Detection of Atmospheric Composition Based on Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinye; Tong Yala; Yang Xiaoling; Gong Jiaoli [School of science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Gong Wei, E-mail: yezi.zh@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A summary overview about the types of lidar and their own applications on atmosphere detection is presented. Measurement of atmospheric aerosols by Mie lidar and Raman lidar is focused. The vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere are retrieved. And at the same time, through analyzing aerosol vertical content distribution, the atmosphere boundary layer and the cloud are also observed. All the results show that the lidar has good performance on detecting the atmospheric composition.

  7. Detection of Atmospheric Composition Based on Lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary overview about the types of lidar and their own applications on atmosphere detection is presented. Measurement of atmospheric aerosols by Mie lidar and Raman lidar is focused. The vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere are retrieved. And at the same time, through analyzing aerosol vertical content distribution, the atmosphere boundary layer and the cloud are also observed. All the results show that the lidar has good performance on detecting the atmospheric composition.

  8. Blind ICA detection based on second-order cone programming for MC-CDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Chih-Wei; Jou, Shyh-Jye

    2014-12-01

    The multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) technique has received considerable interest for its potential application to future wireless communication systems due to its high data rate. A common problem regarding the blind multiuser detectors used in MC-CDMA systems is that they are extremely sensitive to the complex channel environment. Besides, the perturbation of colored noise may negatively affect the performance of the system. In this paper, a new coherent detection method will be proposed, which utilizes the modified fast independent component analysis (FastICA) algorithm, based on approximate negentropy maximization that is subject to the second-order cone programming (SOCP) constraint. The aim of the proposed coherent detection is to provide robustness against small-to-medium channel estimation mismatch (CEM) that may arise from channel frequency response estimation error in the MC-CDMA system, which is modulated by downlink binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) under colored noise. Noncoherent demodulation schemes are preferable to coherent demodulation schemes, as the latter are difficult to implement over time-varying fading channels. Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) is therefore the natural choice for an alternative modulation scheme. Furthermore, the new blind differential SOCP-based ICA (SOCP-ICA) detection without channel estimation and compensation will be proposed to combat Doppler spread caused by time-varying fading channels in the DPSK-modulated MC-CDMA system under colored noise. In this paper, numerical simulations are used to illustrate the robustness of the proposed blind coherent SOCP-ICA detector against small-to-medium CEM and to emphasize the advantage of the blind differential SOCP-ICA detector in overcoming Doppler spread.

  9. Dynamics of beam halo in mismatched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-power proton linacs for nuclear materials transmutation and production, and new accelerator-driven neutron spallation sources must be designed to control beam-halo formation, which leads to beam loss. The study of particle-core models is leading to a better understanding of the causes and characteristics of beam halo produced by space-charge forces in rms mismatched beams. Detailed studies of the models have resulted in predictions of the dependence of the maximum amplitude of halo particles on a mismatch parameter and on the space-charge tune-depression ratio. Scaling formulas have been derived which will provide guidance for choosing the aperture radius to contain the halo without loss. (author)

  10. Is it time to move mismatch negativity into the clinic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Since its inception in the 1970s, the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential has improved our understanding of pre-attentive detection of rule violations, which is a fundamental cognitive process considered by some a form of "primitive intelligence". The body of research to date ranges from animal studies (i.e. when investigating the neural mechanisms and pharmacological properties of MMN generation) to researching the psychophysiological nature of human consciousness. MMN therefore offers the possibility to detect abnormal functioning in the neural system involved in MMN generation, such as it occurs in some neurodevelopmental disorders or patients in vegetative state. While the clinical research data holds considerable promise for translation into clinical practice, standardization and normative data of an optimized (i.e. disorder-specific) MMN recording algorithm is needed in order for MMN to become a valuable clinical investigation tool. PMID:26342995

  11. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  12. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  13. Education, Social Mobility, and Talent Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki Uchida

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a two-class, overlapping-generation model featuring social mobility inhibited by the mismatch of talents. Mobility decreases as the private education gap between the two classes widens, whereas it increases with an increased public education spending. Within this framework, we consider the redistributive politics of public education and show that the private education gap provides the government with an incentive to increase public education. We also show that social mobil...

  14. Social Networks and the Labour Market Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Kalfa, Eleni; Piracha, Matloob

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which social contacts and ethnic concentration affect the education-occupation mismatch of natives and immigrants. Using Australian panel data and employing a dynamic random effects probit model, we show that social capital exacerbates the incidence of over-education, particularly for females. Furthermore, for the foreign-born, ethnic concentration significantly increases the incidence of over-education. Using an alternative index, we also show that social pa...

  15. Model based traffic congestion detection in optical remote sensing imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Palubinskas, Gintautas; Kurz, Franz; Reinartz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A new model based approach for the traffic congestion detection in time series of airborne optical digital camera images is proposed. Methods It is based on the estimation of the average vehicle speed on road segments. The method puts various techniques together: the vehicle detection on road segments by change detection between two images with a short time lag, the usage of a priori information such as road data base, vehicle sizes and road parameters and a si...

  16. Nanopore-Based Target Sequence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Trevor J; Shropshire, Tyler; Liu, Xu; Briggs, Kyle; Huynh, Cindy; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Wang, Hongyun; Dunbar, William B

    2016-01-01

    The promise of portable diagnostic devices relies on three basic requirements: comparable sensitivity to established platforms, inexpensive manufacturing and cost of operations, and the ability to survive rugged field conditions. Solid state nanopores can meet all these requirements, but to achieve high manufacturing yields at low costs, assays must be tolerant to fabrication imperfections and to nanopore enlargement during operation. This paper presents a model for molecular engineering techniques that meets these goals with the aim of detecting target sequences within DNA. In contrast to methods that require precise geometries, we demonstrate detection using a range of pore geometries. As a result, our assay model tolerates any pore-forming method and in-situ pore enlargement. Using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes modified for conjugation with synthetic bulk-adding molecules, pores ranging 15-50 nm in diameter are shown to detect individual PNA-bound DNA. Detection of the CFTRΔF508 gene mutation, a codon deletion responsible for ∼66% of all cystic fibrosis chromosomes, is demonstrated with a 26-36 nm pore size range by using a size-enhanced PNA probe. A mathematical framework for assessing the statistical significance of detection is also presented. PMID:27149679

  17. Nanopore-Based Target Sequence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Trevor J.; Shropshire, Tyler; Liu, Xu; Briggs, Kyle; Huynh, Cindy; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Wang, Hongyun; Dunbar, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of portable diagnostic devices relies on three basic requirements: comparable sensitivity to established platforms, inexpensive manufacturing and cost of operations, and the ability to survive rugged field conditions. Solid state nanopores can meet all these requirements, but to achieve high manufacturing yields at low costs, assays must be tolerant to fabrication imperfections and to nanopore enlargement during operation. This paper presents a model for molecular engineering techniques that meets these goals with the aim of detecting target sequences within DNA. In contrast to methods that require precise geometries, we demonstrate detection using a range of pore geometries. As a result, our assay model tolerates any pore-forming method and in-situ pore enlargement. Using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes modified for conjugation with synthetic bulk-adding molecules, pores ranging 15-50 nm in diameter are shown to detect individual PNA-bound DNA. Detection of the CFTRΔF508 gene mutation, a codon deletion responsible for ∼66% of all cystic fibrosis chromosomes, is demonstrated with a 26-36 nm pore size range by using a size-enhanced PNA probe. A mathematical framework for assessing the statistical significance of detection is also presented. PMID:27149679

  18. Association of common variants in mismatch repair genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a multigene study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MMR is responsible for the repair of base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion loops. Besides this, MMR is also associated with an anti-recombination function, suppressing homologous recombination. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability have been detected in a large number of skin samples from breast cancer patients, suggesting a potential role of MMR in breast cancer susceptibility. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in a Caucasian Portuguese population (287 cases and 547 controls) to estimate the susceptibility to non-familial breast cancer associated with some polymorphisms in mismatch repair genes (MSH3, MSH4, MSH6, MLH1, MLH3, PMS1 and MUTYH). Using unconditional logistic regression we found that MLH3 (L844P, G>A) polymorphism GA (Leu/Pro) and AA (Pro/Pro) genotypes were associated with a decreased risk: OR = 0.65 (0.45-0.95) (p = 0.03) and OR = 0.62 (0.41-0.94) (p = 0.03), respectively. Analysis of two-way SNP interaction effects on breast cancer revealed two potential associations to breast cancer susceptibility: MSH3 Ala1045Thr/MSH6 Gly39Glu - AA/TC [OR = 0.43 (0.21-0.83), p = 0.01] associated with a decreased risk; and MSH4 Ala97Thr/MLH3 Leu844Pro - AG/AA [OR = 2.35 (1.23-4.49), p = 0.01], GG/AA [OR = 2.11 (1.12-3,98), p = 0.02], and GG/AG [adjusted OR = 1.88 (1.12-3.15), p = 0.02] all associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. It is possible that some of these common variants in MMR genes contribute significantly to breast cancer susceptibility. However, further studies with a large sample size will be needed to support our results

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A rare cause of scintigraphic ventilation-perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with multiple areas of mismatch on ventilation-perfusion lung imaging in the absence of pulmonary embolism is presented. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of the few nonembolic diseases producing a pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In this condition, chest radiographs may not detect the full extent of disease, and xenon-133 ventilation imaging may be relatively insensitive to morbid changes in small airways. Thus, when examining patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, one should be aware that abnormal perfusion imaging patterns without matching ventilation abnormalities are not always due to embolism. In this setting, contrast pulmonary angiography is often needed for accurate differential diagnosis

  20. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A rare cause of scintigraphic ventilation-perfusion mismatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochis, W.T.; Krasnow, A.Z.; Collier, B.D.; Mewissen, M.W.; Almagro, U.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Isitman, A.T. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A case of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with multiple areas of mismatch on ventilation-perfusion lung imaging in the absence of pulmonary embolism is presented. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of the few nonembolic diseases producing a pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In this condition, chest radiographs may not detect the full extent of disease, and xenon-133 ventilation imaging may be relatively insensitive to morbid changes in small airways. Thus, when examining patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, one should be aware that abnormal perfusion imaging patterns without matching ventilation abnormalities are not always due to embolism. In this setting, contrast pulmonary angiography is often needed for accurate differential diagnosis.

  1. Adaptive skin detection based on online training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  2. Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho M. Strömmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.

  3. Model Based Fault Detection in a Centrifugal Pump Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Cocquempot, Vincent; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2006-01-01

    A model based approach for fault detection in a centrifugal pump, driven by an induction motor, is proposed in this paper. The fault detection algorithm is derived using a combination of structural analysis, observer design and Analytical Redundancy Relation (ARR) design. Structural considerations...... the algorithm is capable of detecting four different faults in the mechanical and hydraulic parts of the pump....

  4. Flow-Based Detection of DNS Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ellens; P. Żuraniewski; A. Sperotto; H. Schotanus; M. Mandjes; E. Meeuwissen

    2013-01-01

    DNS tunnels allow circumventing access and security policies in firewalled networks. Such a security breach can be misused for activities like free web browsing, but also for command & control traffic or cyber espionage, thus motivating the search for effective automated DNS tunnel detection techniq

  5. Contour Detection Operators Based on Surround Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve contour detection in images of natural scenes. We augment a Gabor energy operator with non-CRF inhibition. The resulting contour operator responds strongly to isolated lines,

  6. Flow-based detection of DNS tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Sperotto, A.; Schotanus, H.A.; Mandjes, M.; Meeuwissen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    DNS tunnels allow circumventing access and security policies in firewalled networks. Such a security breach can be misused for activities like free web browsing, but also for command & control traffic or cyber espionage, thus motivating the search for effective automated DNS tunnel detection techniq

  7. A Novel Datamining Based Approach for Remote Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Deepti.S, Loshma.G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, as information systems are more open to the Internet,attacks and intrusions are also increasing rapidly so the importance of secure networks is also vital. New intelligent Intrusion Detection Systems which are based on sophisticated algorithms are in demand.Intrusion Detection System (IDS is an important detection used as a countermeasure to preserve data integrity and system availability from attacks. It is a combination of software and hardware that attempts to perform intrusion detection.In data mining based intrusion detection system, we should make use of particular domain knowledge in relation to intrusion detection in order to efficiently extract relative rules from large amounts of records.This paper proposes boosting method for intrusion detection and it is possible to detect the intrusions in all the Systems, without installing the Software in client System (like client-server via Web service (Apache tomcat by using the ip address of the client system.

  8. The switch rail detection system based on laser sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa Ji Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a carrier, turnout is an extremely important part of transport, when railways is operating. So the detection of turnout should meet the requirement. However, the detection effort is mainly completed manually at the present stage, which is low accuracy. Thus the study of the switch rail detection system based on laser sensor is necessary. In this paper, we discuss the scheme of the switch rail detection by using Gocator 2030 laser sensor and SIMENS 840D numerical control system. We study the algorithm and data collection of the switch rail detection based on laser sensor. This detection system provides accurate data collection and information display for the enterprise of producing turnout. After the test, the system has a faster detection speed and higher detection accuracy.

  9. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Kleinberg

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24, and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262 tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  10. Generalization of GLRT-Based Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Pepe, Pascal; Zozor, Steeve; Rouve, Laure-Line; Coulomb, Jean-Louis; Servière, Christine; Muley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    International audience Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) refers to a passive method used to reveal hidden magnetic masses and is most commonly based on a dipolar target model. This paper proposes a generalization of the MAD through a multipolar model that provides a more precise description of the anomaly and serves a twofold objective: to improve the detection performance , and to widen the variety of detectable targets. The dipole detection strategy – namely an orthonormal decomposition o...

  11. Hybrid Collision Detection Algorithm based on Image Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XueLi Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Collision detection is an important application in the field of virtual reality, and efficiently completing collision detection has become the research focus. For the poorly real-time defect of collision detection, this paper has presented an algorithm based on the hybrid collision detection, detecting the potential collision object sets quickly with the mixed bounding volume hierarchy tree, and then using the streaming pattern collision detection algorithm to make an accurate detection. With the above methods, it can achieve the purpose of balancing load of the CPU and GPU and speeding up the detection rate. The experimental results show that compared with the classic Rapid algorithm, this algorithm can effectively improve the efficiency of collision detection.

  12. Label-Free Dengue Detection Utilizing PNA/DNA Hybridization Based on the Aggregation Process of Unmodified Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsulida Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A label-free optical detection method based on PNA/DNA hybridization using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs for dengue virus detection has been successfully developed. In this study, no immobilization method is involved and the hybridization of PNA/DNA occurs directly in solution. Unmodified AuNPs undergo immediate aggregation in the presence of neutral charge peptide nucleic acid (PNA due to the coating of PNA on AuNPs surface. However, in the presence of complementary targets DNA, the hybridization of PNA probe with target DNA forms negatively charged complexes due to the negatively charged phosphate backbone of the target DNA. The negatively charged complexes adsorbed onto the AuNPs surface ensure sufficient charge repulsion, need for AuNPs dispersion, and stability in solution. The detection procedure is a naked eye method based on immediate color changes and also through UV-vis adsorption spectra. The selectivity of the proposed method was studied successfully by single base mismatch and noncomplementary target DNA.

  13. An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user’s command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  14. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  15. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xudong Fan; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Hongying Zhu

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer as receptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface is modified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectral position of the microsphere's whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on the order of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments...

  16. Testing radar-based hail detection criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skripniková, Kateřina; Řezáčová, Daniela

    Toulouse : Météo France, 2012. [ERAD 2012 - European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology /7./. Toulouse (FR), 24.06.2012-29.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2045; GA MŠk LD11044 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hail detection * weather radar * damaging hailstorms Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.meteo.fr/cic/meetings/2012/ERAD/extended_abs/NOW_367_ext_abs.pdf

  17. Improving Seroreactivity-Based Detection of Glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Ludwig; Andreas Keller; Sabrina Heisel; Petra Leidinger; Veronika Klein; Stefanie Rheinheimer; Andres, Claudia U; Bernhard Stephan; Wolf-Ingo Steudel; Graf, Norbert M; Bernhard Burgeth; Joachim Weickert; Hans-Peter Lenhof; Eckart Meese

    2009-01-01

    Seroreactivity profiling emerges as valuable technique for minimal invasive cancer detection. Recently, we provided first evidence for the applicability of serum profiling of glioma using a limited number of immunogenic antigens. Here, we screened 57 glioma and 60 healthy sera for autoantibodies against 1827 Escherichia coli expressed clones, including 509 in-frame peptide sequences. By a linear support vector machine approach, we calculated mean specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of 100 ...

  18. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BASED ON EDGE DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoming; Cheng, Wushan

    2015-01-01

    Relational Over the last two decades, the advances in computer vision and pattern recognition power have opened the door to new opportunity of automatic facial expression recognition system[1]. This paper use Canny edge detection method for facial expression recognition. Image color space transformation in the first place and then to identify and locate human face .Next pick up the edge of eyes and mouth's features extraction. Last we judge the facial expressions after compared wi...

  19. Fuzzy Based Anomaly Intrusion Detection System for Clustered WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathy Murugan; Sundara Rajan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the intrusion detection technique may result in increased computational cost, packet loss, performance degradation and so on. In order to overcome these issues, in this study, we propose a fuzzy based anomaly intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Initially the cluster heads are selected based on the parameters such as link quality, residual energy and coverage. Then the anomaly intrusion is detected using fuzzy logic technique. This technique conside...

  20. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  1. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory

  2. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET. Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions.

  3. Seizure Onset Detection based on one sEMG channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Hoppe, Karsten; Wolf, Peter; Sams, Thomas; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    We present a new method to detect seizure onsets of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography (sEMG) data. The proposed method is generic and based on a single channel making it ideal for a small detection or monitoring device. The sEMG signal is high-pass filtered with a...

  4. Brief Communication: Contrast stretching and histogram smoothness based flood detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar images used for flood detection often have degraded contrast, which consequently leads to inaccurate flood maps. A technique for flood detection based on contrast stretching and histogram smoothing is proposed. The proposed technique applies different processing steps (based on contrast stretching and histogram smoothness on pre, post and difference images to improve visualization by maintaining the natural smoothness.

  5. Brief Communication: Contrast stretching and histogram smoothness based flood detection

    OpenAIRE

    F. Nazir; Riaz, M. M.; GHAFOOR, A.; F. Arif

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar images used for flood detection often have degraded contrast, which consequently leads to inaccurate flood maps. A technique for flood detection based on contrast stretching and histogram smoothing is proposed. The proposed technique applies different processing steps (based on contrast stretching and histogram smoothness) on pre, post and difference images to improve visualization by maintaining the natural smoothness.

  6. Kinetics and binding of the thymine-DNA mismatch glycosylase, Mig-Mth, with mismatch-containing DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Thomas J; Haas, Brian J; Morales, Juan C; Kool, Eric T; Cunningham, Richard P

    2003-01-01

    We have examined the removal of thymine residues from T-G mismatches in DNA by the thymine-DNA mismatch glycosylase from Methanobacterium thermoautrophicum (Mig-Mth), within the context of the base excision repair (BER) pathway, to investigate why this glycosylase has such low activity in vitro. Using single-turnover kinetics and steady-state kinetics, we calculated the catalytic and product dissociation rate constants for Mig-Mth, and determined that Mig-Mth is inhibited by product apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) provide evidence that the specificity of product binding is dependent upon the base opposite the AP site. The binding of Mig-Mth to DNA containing the non-cleavable substrate analogue difluorotoluene (F) was also analyzed to determine the effect of the opposite base on Mig-Mth binding specificity for substrate-like duplex DNA. The results of these experiments support the idea that opposite strand interactions play roles in determining substrate specificity. Endonuclease IV, which cleaves AP sites in the next step of the BER pathway, was used to analyze the effect of product removal on the overall rate of thymine hydrolysis by Mig-Mth. Our results support the hypothesis that endonuclease IV increases the apparent activity of Mig-Mth significantly under steady-state conditions by preventing reassociation of enzyme to product. PMID:12509271

  7. Background Subtraction Algorithm Based Human Behavior Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. D. D. Dighe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Consider all the features of subset information in video streaming there is a tremendous processes with real time applications. In this paper we introduce and develop a new video surveillance system. Using this technique we detect human normal and exponential behaviors in realistic format, and also we categories data event generation of human tracking in real time applications. In this technique we apply differencing, threshold segmentation, morphological operations and object tracking. The experimental result show efficient human tracking in video streaming operations.

  8. GLRT Based Anomaly Detection for Sensor Network Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-12-07

    Proper operation of antenna arrays requires continuously monitoring their performances. When a fault occurs in an antenna array, the radiation pattern changes and can significantly deviate from the desired design performance specifications. In this paper, the problem of fault detection in linear antenna arrays is addressed within a statistical framework. Specifically, a statistical fault detection method based on the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) principle is utilized for detecting potential faults in linear antenna arrays. The proposed method relies on detecting deviations in the radiation pattern of the monitored array with respect to a reference (fault-free) one. To assess the abilities of the GLR based fault detection method, three case studies involving different types of faults have been performed. The simulation results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the GLR-based fault detection method in monitoring the performance of linear antenna arrays.

  9. A Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision based vehicle detection is a critical technology that plays an important role in not only vehicle active safety but also road video surveillance application. Traditional shallow model based vehicle detection algorithm still cannot meet the requirement of accurate vehicle detection in these applications. In this work, a novel deep learning based vehicle detection algorithm with 2D deep belief network (2D-DBN is proposed. In the algorithm, the proposed 2D-DBN architecture uses second-order planes instead of first-order vector as input and uses bilinear projection for retaining discriminative information so as to determine the size of the deep architecture which enhances the success rate of vehicle detection. On-road experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than state-of-the-art vehicle detection algorithm in testing data sets.

  10. A vehicle detection algorithm based on deep belief network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long

    2014-01-01

    Vision based vehicle detection is a critical technology that plays an important role in not only vehicle active safety but also road video surveillance application. Traditional shallow model based vehicle detection algorithm still cannot meet the requirement of accurate vehicle detection in these applications. In this work, a novel deep learning based vehicle detection algorithm with 2D deep belief network (2D-DBN) is proposed. In the algorithm, the proposed 2D-DBN architecture uses second-order planes instead of first-order vector as input and uses bilinear projection for retaining discriminative information so as to determine the size of the deep architecture which enhances the success rate of vehicle detection. On-road experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than state-of-the-art vehicle detection algorithm in testing data sets. PMID:24959617

  11. Visual mismatch negativity: A predictive coding view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor eStefanics

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies investigate the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN or use the vMMN as a tool to probe various aspects of human cognition. This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of vMMN in the light of methodological considerations and provides recommendations for measuring and interpreting the vMMN. The following key issues are discussed from the experimentalist’s point of view in a predictive coding framework: 1 experimental protocols and procedures to control ‘refractoriness’ effects; 2 methods to control attention; 3 vMMN and veridical perception.

  12. Barbed Congruence of Asymmetry and Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ju Dong; Yu-Xi Fu

    2007-01-01

    The X calculus is a model of concurrent and mobile systems. It emphasizes that communications are information exchanges. In the paper, two constructions are incorporated into the framework of the chi calculus, which are asymmetric communication and mismatch condition widely used in applications. Since the barbed bisimilarity has proved its generality and gained its popularity as an effective approach to generating a reasonable observational equivalence, we study both the operational and algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity in this enriched calculus. The investigation supports an improved understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model. It also gives a general picture of how the two constructions affect the observational theory.

  13. SNP discovery by mismatch-targeting of Mu transposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luisa; Pajunen, Maria; Hanski, Ilkka; Savilahti, Harri

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent a valuable resource for the mapping of human disease genes and induced mutations in model organisms. SNPs may become the markers of choice also for population ecology and evolutionary studies, but their isolation for non-model organisms with unsequenced genomes is often difficult. Here, we describe a rapid and cost-effective strategy to isolate SNPs that exploits the property of the bacteriophage Mu transposition machinery to target mismatched DNA sites and thereby to effectively detect polymorphic loci. To demonstrate the methodology, we isolated 164 SNPs from the unsequenced genome of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), a much-studied species in population biology, and we validated 24 of them. The strategy involves standard molecular biology techniques as well as undemanding MuA transposase-catalyzed in vitro transposition reactions, and it is applicable to any organism. PMID:17311815

  14. Multi-features Based Approach for Moving Shadow Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ning; ZHOU Man-li; XU Yi-ping; FANG Bao-hong

    2004-01-01

    In the video-based surveillance application, moving shadows can affect the correct localization and detection of moving objects. This paper aims to present a method for shadow detection and suppression used for moving visual object detection. The major novelty of the shadow suppression is the integration of several features including photometric invariant color feature, motion edge feature, and spatial feature etc. By modifying process for false shadow detected, the averaging detection rate of moving object reaches above 90% in the test of Hall-Monitor sequence.

  15. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  16. Intrusion Detection Systems Based On Packet Sniffing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushus Maria Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era of networks, security of network systems is becoming increasingly important, as more and more sensitive information is being stored and manipulated online. The paper entitled ’Packet Sniffing’ is a IDS where it monitors packets on the network wire and attempts to the discovery of hacker/cracker who is attempting to break into system. Packet Sniffing also finds the contents and tracks the data packet in the network system. This sniffing is being performed by comparing the captured packet with the intruder details stored in the database .If the packet is found to be an intruder it is then forwarded to the firewall with the respective message for blocking. The Emotional Ants module contains the sender and receiver .The sender will inform all the other Ants running in other machines about the detection of intruder through his pheromone (Messages. The receiver in Ants will listen for the messages from other Ants

  17. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  18. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, Thiago; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The TileCal hadronic calorimeter provides a muon signal which can be used to assist in muon tagging at the ATLAS level-one trigger. Originally, the muon signal was conceived to be combined with the RPC trigger in order to reduce unforeseen high trigger rates due to cavern background. Nevertheless, the combined trigger cannot significantly deteriorate the muon detection performance at the barrel region. This paper presents preliminary studies concerning the impact in muon identification at the ATLAS level-one trigger, through the use of Monte Carlo simulations with single muons with 40 GeV/c momentum. Further, different trigger scenarios were proposed, together with an approach for matching both TileCal and RPC geometries.

  19. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  20. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  1. Research on moving object detection based on frog's eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongwei; Li, Dongguang; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of object's information processing mechanism with frog's eyes, this paper discussed a bionic detection technology which suitable for object's information processing based on frog's vision. First, the bionics detection theory by imitating frog vision is established, it is an parallel processing mechanism which including pick-up and pretreatment of object's information, parallel separating of digital image, parallel processing, and information synthesis. The computer vision detection system is described to detect moving objects which has special color, special shape, the experiment indicates that it can scheme out the detecting result in the certain interfered background can be detected. A moving objects detection electro-model by imitating biologic vision based on frog's eyes is established, the video simulative signal is digital firstly in this system, then the digital signal is parallel separated by FPGA. IN the parallel processing, the video information can be caught, processed and displayed in the same time, the information fusion is taken by DSP HPI ports, in order to transmit the data which processed by DSP. This system can watch the bigger visual field and get higher image resolution than ordinary monitor systems. In summary, simulative experiments for edge detection of moving object with canny algorithm based on this system indicate that this system can detect the edge of moving objects in real time, the feasibility of bionic model was fully demonstrated in the engineering system, and it laid a solid foundation for the future study of detection technology by imitating biologic vision.

  2. What Do Educational Mismatches Tell Us About Skill Mismatches? A Cross-country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Jim; Weert, de Egbert

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between higher education and employment is commonly interpreted in terms of the extent to which the higher education sector is providing graduates with the knowledge and skills to match employment needs. It is assumed that a mismatch between working in a job and level or field of ed

  3. Memory Detection 2.0: The First Web-Based Memory Detection Test

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinberg, B; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262) tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin) and...

  4. Mismatch responses in the awake rat: evidence from epidural recordings of auditory cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Jung

    Full Text Available Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs, reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for clinical applications, establishing valid animal models that allow for detailed investigation of its neurophysiological mechanisms is important. Rodent studies, so far almost exclusively under anesthesia, have not provided decisive evidence whether an MMN analogue exists in rats. This may be due to several factors, including the effect of anesthesia. We therefore used epidural recordings in awake black hooded rats, from two auditory cortical areas in both hemispheres, and with bandpass filtered noise stimuli that were optimized in frequency and duration for eliciting MMN in rats. Using a classical oddball paradigm with frequency deviants, we detected mismatch responses at all four electrodes in primary and secondary auditory cortex, with morphological and functional properties similar to those known in humans, i.e., large amplitude biphasic differences that increased in amplitude with decreasing deviant probability. These mismatch responses significantly diminished in a control condition that removed the predictive context while controlling for presentation rate of the deviants. While our present study does not allow for disambiguating precisely the relative contribution of adaptation and prediction error processing to the observed mismatch responses, it demonstrates that MMN-like potentials can be obtained in awake and unrestrained rats.

  5. Experiments on Adaptive Techniques for Host-Based Intrusion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research explores four experiments of adaptive host-based intrusion detection (ID) techniques in an attempt to develop systems that can detect novel exploits. The technique considered to have the most potential is adaptive critic designs (ACDs) because of their utilization of reinforcement learning, which allows learning exploits that are difficult to pinpoint in sensor data. Preliminary results of ID using an ACD, an Elman recurrent neural network, and a statistical anomaly detection technique demonstrate an ability to learn to distinguish between clean and exploit data. We used the Solaris Basic Security Module (BSM) as a data source and performed considerable preprocessing on the raw data. A detection approach called generalized signature-based ID is recommended as a middle ground between signature-based ID, which has an inability to detect novel exploits, and anomaly detection, which detects too many events including events that are not exploits. The primary results of the ID experiments demonstrate the use of custom data for generalized signature-based intrusion detection and the ability of neural network-based systems to learn in this application environment

  6. Shape-Based Plagiarism Detection for Flowchart Figures in Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senosy Arrish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection is well known phenomenon in the academic arena. Copying other people is considered as serious offence that needs to be checked. There are many plagiarism detection systems such as turn-it-in that has been developed to provide this checks. Most, if not all, discard the figures and charts before checking for plagiarism. Discarding the figures and charts results in look holes that people can take advantage. That means people can plagiarized figures and charts easily without the current plagiarism systems detecting it. There are very few papers which talks about flowcharts plagiarism detection. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system that will detect plagiarism in figures and charts. This paper presents a method for detecting flow chart figure plagiarism based on shape-based image processing and multimedia retrieval. The method managed to retrieve flowcharts with ranked similarity according to different matching sets.

  7. GNSS Spoofing Detection Based on Signal Power Measurements: Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A threat to GNSS receivers is posed by a spoofing transmitter that emulates authentic signals but with randomized code phase and Doppler values over a small range. Such spoofing signals can result in large navigational solution errors that are passed onto the unsuspecting user with potentially dire consequences. An effective spoofing detection technique is developed in this paper, based on signal power measurements and that can be readily applied to present consumer grade GNSS receivers with minimal firmware changes. An extensive statistical analysis is carried out based on formulating a multihypothesis detection problem. Expressions are developed to devise a set of thresholds required for signal detection and identification. The detection processing methods developed are further manipulated to exploit incidental antenna motion arising from user interaction with a GNSS handheld receiver to further enhance the detection performance of the proposed algorithm. The statistical analysis supports the effectiveness of the proposed spoofing detection technique under various multipath conditions.

  8. A frontal attention mechanism in the visual mismatch negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Craig; Stothart, George; Todd Jones, Jenna; Rojas Frías, Priscila; Magee, Kristopher Lundy; Brooks, Jonathan C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Automatic detection of environmental change is a core component of attention. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological marker of this mechanism, has been studied prominently in the auditory domain, with cortical generators identified in temporal and frontal regions. Here, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether the underlying frontal regions associated with auditory change detection also play a role in visual change detection. Twenty healthy young adults completed a visual MMN task in separate EEG and fMRI sessions. Region of interest analyses were conducted on left and right middle frontal (MFG) and inferior frontal (IFG) gyri, i.e., the frontal areas identified as potential auditory MMN generators. A significant increase in activation was observed in the left IFG and MFG in response to blocks containing deviant stimuli. These findings suggest that a frontal mechanism is involved in the detection of change in the visual MMN. Our results support the notion that frontal mechanisms underlie attention switching, as measured via MMN, across multiple modalities. PMID:26183650

  9. Parallelization Research of Circle Detection Based on Hough Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Suping Wu; Xiangjiao Liu

    2012-01-01

    There is a problem of too long computation time in Circle detection of Hough transform. In this paper, two paralleled methods are given based on Threading Building Blocks (TBB) and CUDA, by utilizing multi-core and GPU, the most timeconsuming part of circle detection is coped with parallelization. Experimental results show that the circle detection algorithms proposed in this paper has extremely good result of acceleration.

  10. Evidence-based detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: the DETECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coghlan, J.G.; Denton, C.P.; Grunig, E.; Bonderman, D.; Distler, O.; Khanna, D.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Pope, J.E.; Vonk, M.C.; Doelberg, M.; Chadha-Boreham, H.; Heinzl, H.; Rosenberg, D.M.; McLaughlin, V.V.; Seibold, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Earlier detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), facilitates earlier treatment. The objective of this study was to develop the first evidence-based detection algorithm for PAH in SSc. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, intern

  11. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  12. How relevant is job mismatch for German graduates?

    OpenAIRE

    Berlingieri, Francesco; Erdsiek, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the incidence and direct consequences of job mismatch for German graduates. Beyond measuring job mismatch by the comparison of qualification obtained by employees and required for a job, we employ self-reported skill mismatch variables concerning overall skills and more detailed information about the surplus or deficit in specific competences. The results indicate that a substantial share of graduates underutilizes own skills in the job. The rate of overqualification...

  13. Quantum noise in parametric amplification under phase-mismatched conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies quantum noise in parametric amplification under phase-mismatched conditions. The equations of motion of the quantum-mechanical field operators, which include phase mismatch under unsaturated conditions are first derived from the Heisenberg equation. Next, the noise figure is evaluated using the solutions of the derived equations. The results indicate that phase mismatch scarcely affects noise property in phase-insensitive amplification while it has a notable effect in case of phase-sensitive amplification.

  14. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Liguo, Zhou; Heng, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Zhi, Fang; Yin, Shi

    2014-08-01

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression.

  15. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. EMAIL - A Highly Sensitive Tool for Specific Mutation Detection in Plant Improvement Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a useful tool for discovery of specific point mutations in genes of interest to plant breeders. It employs mismatch cleavage detection using endonucleases, particularly CEL I and CEL II. However, conventional protocols are limited in their ability to detect mismatch cleavage due to non-specific removal, by the nuclease, of 5' end-labelled termini. Mutation detection is further limited by the high background characteristic of PCR-based end-labelling mismatch scanning techniques. Here we show that, as nuclease activity increased, internal signal was maintained while 5' signal decayed and that internal labelling reduced the background signal. A new mismatch scanning assay called 'Endonucleolytic Mutation Analysis by Internal Labelling' (EMAIL), was developed using capillary electrophoresis, involving internal amplicon labelling by PCR incorporation of fluorescently-labelled deoxynucleotides. Multiple mutations amongst allelic pools were detected when EMAIL was applied with the mismatch nucleases CEL I and CEL II. This technique offers greatly increased sensitivity in the detection of mutations in specific genes in pooled samples, enabling enlarged pool sizes and improving throughput and efficiency. We are investigating the limits of pool sizes to deliver a highly efficient mutation detection and analysis strategy for plant breeders and geneticists. (author)

  17. SCREEN photometric property detection system based on area CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu-cai; Ye, Wei; Xu, Yu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yu-wei

    2011-08-01

    The photometric property detection of screen display is crucial for screen display quality test. Traditional photometry detection technologies were based on photoelectric sensors such as silicon photocell, photo-electric multiplier and CdS, which can detect only some isolated points. To break the limitation of randomness, incompleteness and detection accuracy in current technologies, we designed a screen photometric detection system based on area CCD. The system consists of photometric image sensor, photometric image acquisition hardware and photometric image analyzing software. The photometric image sensor, which adopts optical lens, optical filters and area CCD, adapts its spectrum response property to fit the spectrum luminous efficiency curve V (λ) by adjusting the thickness and quantity of appropriate optical filters. photometric image acquisition hardware adopts the DSP as a core processor to drive the area CCD, to sample, acquire , process and save the image from image sensor, to transmit the image to computer. For real-time performance of transmitting, the hardware system adopts the transmission protocol of USB2.0. The uploaded image will be processed by photometric image analyzing software, and then displayed in real time with detection results. The screen photometric detection technology based on area CCD can detect specifications of the whole screen such as luminance, contrast, onoff ratio and uniformity, breaks the limitation of randomness and incompleteness in current detection technology, exactly and fully reflects the integrated display quality of the whole screen. According to the test results, the accuracy of this system has reached the accuracy level one in China.

  18. Multifeature Fusion Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Choquet Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based multivehicle detection plays an important role in Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS and Blind Spot Detection Systems (BSDS. The performance of these systems depends on the real-time capability, accuracy, and robustness of vehicle detection methods. To improve the accuracy of vehicle detection algorithm, we propose a multifeature fusion vehicle detection algorithm based on Choquet integral. This algorithm divides the vehicle detection problem into two phases: feature similarity measure and multifeature fusion. In the feature similarity measure phase, we first propose a taillight-based vehicle detection method, and then vehicle taillight feature similarity measure is defined. Second, combining with the definition of Choquet integral, the vehicle symmetry similarity measure and the HOG + AdaBoost feature similarity measure are defined. Finally, these three features are fused together by Choquet integral. Being evaluated on public test collections and our own test images, the experimental results show that our method has achieved effective and robust multivehicle detection in complicated environments. Our method can not only improve the detection rate but also reduce the false alarm rate, which meets the engineering requirements of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS.

  19. Weak Signal Frequency Detection Method Based on Generalized Duffing Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Si-Hong; YUAN Yong; WANG Hui-Qi; LUO Mao-Kang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The sensitive characteristic to the initial value of chaos system sufficiently demonstrates the superiority in weak signal parameters detection.Analyzing the current chaos-based frequency detection method, a novel generalized Duffing equation is proposed to detect weak signal frequency.By choosing a suitable adjusting factor, when the outside driving force frequency is equal to that of the detected signal, the generalized Duffing oscillator is in great period state, which can obtain the frequency information of the detected signal.The simulation results indicate this method is rapidly convenient and shows better accuracy.%The sensitive characteristic to the initial value of chaos system sufficiently demonstrates the superiority in weak signal parameters detection. Analyzing the current chaos-based frequency detection method, a novel generalized Duffing equation is proposed to detect weak signal frequency. By choosing a suitable adjusting factor, when the outside driving force frequency is equal to that of the detected signal, the generalized Duffing oscillator is in great period state, which can obtain the frequency information of the detected signal. The simulation results indicate this method is rapidly convenient and shows better accuracy.

  20. Fabrication of an electrochemical DNA-based biosensor for Bacillus cereus detection in milk and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Zahra; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Ensafi, Ali A; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2016-06-15

    This paper describes fabrication of a DNA-based Au-nanoparticle modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) biosensor for detection of Bacillus cereus, causative agent of two types of food-borne disease, i.e., emetic and diarrheal syndrome. The sensing element of the biosensor was comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) self-assembled with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) of nheA gene immobilized with thiol linker on the GNPs modified PGE. The size, shape and dispersion of the GNPs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Detection of B. cereus was carried out based on an increase in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the biosensor due to hybridization of the ss-DNA with target DNA. An Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to confirm the hybridization. The biosensor sensitivity in pure cultures of B. cereus was found to be 10(0) colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) with a detection limit of 9.4×10(-12)molL(-1). The biosensor could distinguish complementary from mismatch DNA sequence. The proposed biosensor exhibited a rapid detection, low cost, high sensitivity to bacterial contamination and could exclusively and specifically detect the target DNA sequence of B. cereus from other bacteria that can be found in dairy products. Moreover, the DNA biosensor exhibited high reproducibility and stability, thus it may be used as a suitable biosensor to detect B. cereus and to become a portable system for food quality control. PMID:26896793

  1. Nonlinear Model-Based Fault Detection for a Hydraulic Actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eykeren, L.; Chu, Q.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection algorithm for a specific fault scenario of the ADDSAFE project. The fault considered is the disconnection of a control surface from its hydraulic actuator. Detecting this type of fault as fast as possible helps to operate an aircraft more cost effect

  2. Pixel based skin detection: asurvey and suggestions for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Skin detection is one of the building blocks of many image processing and computer vision algorithms. Within the Video Processing group at Philips Research we are investigating the use of skin detection algorithms for a number of core applications. In this report we focus on skin color based methods

  3. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  4. Algorithms for Speeding up Distance-Based Outlier Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The problem of distance-based outlier detection is difficult to solve efficiently in very large datasets because of potential quadratic time complexity. We address...

  5. G-quadruplex based two-stage isothermal exponential amplification reaction for label-free DNA colorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ji; Zhang, De-Wen; Tie, Cai; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2014-06-15

    A novel G-quadruplex based two-stage isothermal exponential amplification reaction (GQ-EXPAR) was developed for label-free DNA colorimetric detection in this work. The exponential amplified trigger DNA in the first stage can convert into G-quadruplex sequence EAD2 by a linear amplification circuit in the second stage. Created EAD2 can form G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme to act as a direct signal readout element. The GQ-EXPAR combines the exponential amplification of DNA sequence and the peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme induced signal amplification, which achieves tandem dual-amplification. Taking advantages of isothermal incubation, this label-free homogeneous assay obviates the need of thermal cycling . As no complex synthesis or extra downstream operation is needed, the whole easy handling procedure can be finished in no more than 1h. This assay allows the sensing of the model DNA with the limit of detection to be 2.5pM. Moreover, it demonstrates good discrimination of mismatched sequences. The strategy has also been successfully implemented to sensitively detect Tay-Sachs genetic disorder mutant. PMID:24508547

  6. Upconversion based continuous-wave mid-infrared detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental work on upconversion based mid-wavelength infrared detection using silicon detectors without the need for cryogenic cooling. We consider both multi-spectral imaging and point spectroscopy targeting several specific applications.......We present theoretical and experimental work on upconversion based mid-wavelength infrared detection using silicon detectors without the need for cryogenic cooling. We consider both multi-spectral imaging and point spectroscopy targeting several specific applications....

  7. Metamorphic computer virus detection by Case- Based Reasoning (CBR) methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-01-01

    Metamorphic virus employs code obfuscation techniques to mutate itself. It absconds from signaturebaseddetection system by modifying internal structure without compromising original functionality.In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting metamorphic computer viruses, that is based on thetechnique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). In this method:-Can detect similar viruses with high probability.- The updating of the virus database is done automatically without connecting to the Intern...

  8. Deep Feature-based Face Detection on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sayantan; Patel, Vishal M.; Chellappa, Rama

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deep feature-based face detector for mobile devices to detect user's face acquired by the front facing camera. The proposed method is able to detect faces in images containing extreme pose and illumination variations as well as partial faces. The main challenge in developing deep feature-based algorithms for mobile devices is the constrained nature of the mobile platform and the non-availability of CUDA enabled GPUs on such devices. Our implementation takes into account the speci...

  9. Vehicle Detection Based on Probability Hypothesis Density Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feihu; Knoll, Alois

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the developments of vehicle detection have been significantly improved. By utilizing cameras, vehicles can be detected in the Regions of Interest (ROI) in complex environments. However, vision techniques often suffer from false positives and limited field of view. In this paper, a LiDAR based vehicle detection approach is proposed by using the Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter. The proposed approach consists of two phases: the hypothesis generation phase to detect potential objects and the hypothesis verification phase to classify objects. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in complex scenarios, compared with the state-of-the-art. PMID:27070621

  10. Abnormal traffic flow data detection based on wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the traffic flow data of non-stationary, the abnormal data detection is difficult.proposed basing on the wavelet analysis and least squares method of abnormal traffic flow data detection in this paper.First using wavelet analysis to make the traffic flow data of high frequency and low frequency component and separation, and then, combined with least square method to find abnormal points in the reconstructed signal data.Wavelet analysis and least square method, the simulation results show that using wavelet analysis of abnormal traffic flow data detection, effectively reduce the detection results of misjudgment rate and false negative rate.

  11. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection: An observer based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.;

    1999-01-01

    This paper consider the problem of fault detection and isolation in continuous- and discrete-time systems while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detections and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability...... conditions are given for the formulated design problems together with methods for appropriate design of observer based fault detectors. The l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems . Moreover, certain indirect fault detection methods such as unknown input observers...

  12. Vehicle Detection Based on Probability Hypothesis Density Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feihu; Knoll, Alois

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the developments of vehicle detection have been significantly improved. By utilizing cameras, vehicles can be detected in the Regions of Interest (ROI) in complex environments. However, vision techniques often suffer from false positives and limited field of view. In this paper, a LiDAR based vehicle detection approach is proposed by using the Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter. The proposed approach consists of two phases: the hypothesis generation phase to detect potential objects and the hypothesis verification phase to classify objects. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in complex scenarios, compared with the state-of-the-art. PMID:27070621

  13. Analysis of fault detection method based on predictive filter approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji; ZHANG Hongyue

    2005-01-01

    A new detection method for component faults based on predictive filters together with the fault detectability, false alarm rate, missed alarm rate and upper bound of detection time are proposed. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by a simulation example of a second-order system. It is shown that the fault detection method using predictive filters has a small delay, a low false alarm rate and a low missed alarm rate. Furthermore the filter can give accurate estimates of states even after a fault occurs. The real-time estimation provided by this method can also be used for fault tolerant control.

  14. Using Morphlet-Based Image Representation for Object Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsevich, V. S.; Vizilter, Yu. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an original method for objects detection based on a special tree-structured image representation - the trees of morphlets. The method provides robust detection of various types of objects in an image without employing a machine learning procedure. Along with a bounding box creation on a detection step, the method makes pre-segmentation, which can be further used for recognition purposes. Another important feature of the proposed approach is that there are no needs to use a running window as well as a features pyramid in order to detect the objects of different sizes.

  15. Fluorescence Detection of H5N1 Virus Gene Sequences Based on Optical Tweezers with Two-Photon Excitation Using a Single Near Infrared Nanosecond Pulse Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yu; Cao, Di; Kang, Ya-Feng; Lin, Yi; Cui, Ran; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2016-04-19

    We present an analytical platform by combining near-infrared optical tweezers with two-photon excitation for fluorescence detection of H5N1 virus gene sequences. A heterogeneous enrichment strategy, which involved polystyrene (PS) microsphere and quantum dots (QDs), was adopted. The final hybrid-conjugate microspheres were prepared by a facile one-step hybridization procedure by using PS microspheres capturing target DNA and QDs tagging, respectively. Quantitative detection was achieved by the optical tweezers setup with a low-cost 1064 nm nanosecond pulse laser for both optical trapping and two-photon excitation for the same hybrid-conjugate microsphere. The detection limits for both neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences and hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences are 16-19 pM with good selectivity for one-base mismatch, which is approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the most existing fluorescence-based analysis method. Besides, because of the fact that only signal from the trapped particle is detected upon two-photon excitation, this approach showed extremely low background in fluorescence detection and was successfully applied to directly detect target DNA in human whole serum without any separation steps and the corresponding results are very close to that in buffer solution, indicating the strong anti-interference ability of this method. Therefore, it can be expected to be an emerging alternative for straightforward detecting target species in complex samples with a simple procedure and high-throughput. PMID:27023254

  16. Theoretical detection ranges for acoustic based manatee avoidance technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2006-07-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. To reduce the number of collisions, warning systems based upon detecting manatee vocalizations have been proposed. One aspect of the feasibility of an acoustically based warning system relies upon the distance at which a manatee vocalization is detectable. Assuming a mixed spreading model, this paper presents a theoretical analysis of the system detection capabilities operating within various background and watercraft noise conditions. This study combines measured source levels of manatee vocalizations with the modeled acoustic properties of manatee habitats to develop a method for determining the detection range and hydrophone spacing requirements for acoustic based manatee avoidance technologies. In quiet environments (background noise approximately 70 dB) it was estimated that manatee vocalizations are detectable at approximately 250 m, with a 6 dB detection threshold, In louder environments (background noise approximately 100dB) the detection range drops to 2.5 m. In a habitat with 90 dB of background noise, a passing boat with a maximum noise floor of 120 dB would be the limiting factor when it is within approximately 100 m of a hydrophone. The detection range was also found to be strongly dependent on the manatee vocalization source level. PMID:16875213

  17. Gold Nanoparticles-Based Barcode Analysis for Detection of Norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode amplification analysis offers an innovative approach for detecting neurotransmitters. We evaluated the efficacy of this method for detecting norepinephrine in normal and oxidative-stress damaged dopaminergic cells. Our approach use a combination of DNA barcodes and bead-based immunoassays for detecting neurotransmitters with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and provides polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-like sensitivity. This method relies on magnetic Dynabeads containing antibodies and nanoparticles that are loaded both with DNA barcords and with antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the Dynabead-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from the solution and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes are then identified by SERS and PCR analysis. The concentration of norepinephrine in dopaminergic cells can be readily detected using the bio-barcode assay, which is a rapid, high-throughput screening tool for detecting neurotransmitters. PMID:27305769

  18. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  19. A Smartphone Malware Detection Framework Based on Artificial Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the sharp increase in the number of smartphones, the Android platform pose to becoming a market leader that makes the need for malware analysis on this platform an urgent issue. The current Artificial Immune-Based malware detection systems research focus on traditional computers that uses information from OS or network, but the smartphone software behavior has its own structure and semantics. Current research cannot detect malware in smartphone exactly and efficiently. To address these problems, in this paper, we capitalize on earlier approaches for dynamic analysis of application behavior as a means for detecting malware in the smartphone. An Artificial Immune-Based Smartphone Malware Detection Framework is brought forwards and a prototype system is implemented, the experiment result show that the system can obtain higher detection rate and decrease the false positive rate.

  20. Node Attribute Behavior Based Intrusion Detection in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Baskar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Security is one of the important problem in wireless sensor networks. With limited energy resources and processing resources, this paper focus on node attribute behavior based anomaly detection system and deals only with attributes of layered sensor node. It introduces node attribute behavioral index. The detection uses genetic algorithm which evaluates the behavior of sensor node with node attributes and threshold technique have been used to detect abnormal behavior of sensor node based on behavioral index. The performance has been evaluated for MAC and network layer feature set of wireless nodes.

  1. Using Case-Based Reasoning for detecting computer virus

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-01-01

    The typical antivirus approach consists of waiting for a number of computers to be infected, detecting the virus, designing a solution, delivering and deploying a solution. In such a situation, it is very difficult to prevent every machine from being compromised by viruses. In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting computer viruses, that is based on the technique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). In this method: (1) even new viruses that do not exist in the database can be detected (...

  2. Computer-based instrumentation for partial discharge detection in GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial discharge is one of the prominent indicators of defects and insulation degradation in a Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS). Partial discharges (PD) have a harmful effect on the life of insulation of high voltage equipment. The PD detection using acoustic technique and subsequent analysis is currently an efficient method of performing non-destructive testing of GIS apparatus. A low cost PC-based acoustic PD detection instrument has been developed for the non-destructive diagnosis of GIS. This paper describes the development of a PC-based instrumentation system for partial discharge detection in GIS and some experimental results have also presented. (Author)

  3. Outlier Mining Based Abnormal Machine Detection in Intelligent Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; CAO Qi-xin; LEE Jay

    2009-01-01

    Assessing machine's performance through comparing the same or similar machines is important to implement intelligent maintenance for swarm machine. In this paper, an outlier mining based abnormal machine detection algorithm is proposed for this purpose. Firstly, the outlier mining based on clustering is introduced and the definition of cluster-based global outlier factor (CBGOF) is presented. Then the modified swarm intelligence clustering(MSIC) algorithm is suggested and the outlier mining algorithm based on MSIC is proposed. The algorithm can not only cluster machines according to their performance but also detect possible abnormal machines. Finally, a comparison of mobile soccer robots' performance proves the algorithm is feasible and effective.

  4. Image Fakery Detection Based on Singular Value Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Basaruddin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing of image processing technology nowadays make it easier for user to modify and fake the images. Image fakery is a process to manipulate part or whole areas of image either in it content or context with the help of digital image processing techniques. Image fakery is barely unrecognizable because the fake image is looking so natural. Yet by using the numerical computation technique it is able to detect the evidence of fake image. This research is successfully applied the singular value decomposition method to detect image fakery. The image preprocessing algorithm prior to the detection process yields two vectors orthogonal to the singular value vector which are important to detect fake image. The result of experiment to images in several conditions successfully detects the fake images with threshold value 0.2. Singular value decomposition-based detection of image fakery can be used to investigate fake image modified from original image accurately.

  5. Anomalous cross-linking by mechlorethamine of DNA duplexes containing C-C mismatch pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R M; Mitas, M; Haworth, I S

    1999-03-23

    Nitrogen mustards such as mechlorethamine have previously been shown to covalently cross-link DNA through the N7 position of the two guanine bases of a d[GXC].d[GYC] duplex sequence, a so-called 1,3 G-G-cross-link, when X-Y = C-G or T-A. Here, we report the formation of a new mechlorethamine cross-link with the d[GXC].d[GYC] fragment when X-Y is a C-C mismatch pair. Mechlorethamine cross-links this fragment preferentially between the two mismatched cytosine bases, rather than between the guanine bases. The cross-link also forms when one or both of the guanine bases of the d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment are replaced by N7-deazaguanine, and, more generally, forms with any C-C mismatch, regardless of the flanking base pairs. Piperidine cleavage of the cross-link species containing the d[GCC].d[GCC] sequence gives DNA fragments consistent with alkylation at the mismatched cytosine bases. We also provide evidence that the cross-link reaction occurs between the N3 atoms of the two cytosine bases by showing that the formation of the C-C cross-link is pH dependent for both mechlorethamine and chlorambucil. Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) probing of the cross-linked d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment showed that the major groove of the guanine adjacent to the C-C mismatch is still accessible to DMS. In contrast, the known minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 inhibits the cross-link formation with a C-C mismatch pair flanked by A-T base pairs. These results suggest that the C-C mismatch is cross-linked by mechlorethamine in the minor groove. Since C-C pairs may be involved in unusual secondary structures formed by the trinucleotide repeat sequence d[CCG]n, and associated with triplet repeat expansion diseases, mechlorethamine may serve as a useful probe for these structures. PMID:10090751

  6. Labour Market Mismatch among UK Graduates: An Analysis Using REFLEX Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…

  7. The mouse mismatch repair protein, MSH3, is a nucleoplasmic protein that aggregates into denser nuclear bodies under conditions of stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holt, I.; Thanh Lam, L.; Tome, S.; Wansink, D.G.; Riele, H. te; Gourdon, G.; Morris, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    The mismatch repair protein, MSH3, together with MSH2, forms the MutSbeta heterodimer which recognizes and repairs base pair mismatches and larger insertion/deletion loops in DNA. Lack of specific antibodies against mouse MSH3 has hampered studies of its expression and localization. Mouse MSH3 is no

  8. A new approach toward object-based change detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Object-based change detection has been the hotspot in remote sensing image processing.A new approach toward object-based change detection is proposed.The two different temporal images are unitedly segmented using the mean shift procedure to obtain corresponding objects.Then change detection is implemented based on the integration of corresponding objects’ intensity and texture differences.Experiments are conducted on both panchromatic images and multispectral images and the results show that the integrated measure is robust with respect to illumination changes and noise.Supplementary color detection is conducted to determine whether the color of the unchanged objects changes or not when dealing with multispectral images.Some verification work is carried out to show the accuracy of the proposed approach.

  9. Signalprint-Based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rob; Chen, Ing-Ray; Eltoweissy, Mohamed

    Wireless networks are a critical part of global communication for which intrusion detection techniques should be applied to secure network access, or the cost associated with successful attacks will overshadow the benefits that wireless networks offer. In this paper we investigate a new scheme called Nodeprints to extend the existing centralized Signalprints design for authentication to a distributed voting-based design for intrusion detection. We analyze the effect of voting-based intrusion detection designs, the probability of an individual node voting incorrectly, the ratio of mobile nodes to base stations, and the rate at which nodes are compromised, on the system performance measured by the probability that the intrusion detection system yields a false result. We develop a performance model for evaluating our Nodeprints design and identify conditions under which Nodeprints outperforms the existing Signalprints design.

  10. An Efficient Fuzzy Clustering-Based Approach for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huu Hoa; Darmont, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase accuracy in detecting sophisticated cyber attacks poses a great challenge not only to the research community but also to corporations. So far, many approaches have been proposed to cope with this threat. Among them, data mining has brought on remarkable contributions to the intrusion detection problem. However, the generalization ability of data mining-based methods remains limited, and hence detecting sophisticated attacks remains a tough task. In this thread, we present a novel method based on both clustering and classification for developing an efficient intrusion detection system (IDS). The key idea is to take useful information exploited from fuzzy clustering into account for the process of building an IDS. To this aim, we first present cornerstones to construct additional cluster features for a training set. Then, we come up with an algorithm to generate an IDS based on such cluster features and the original input features. Finally, we experimentally prove that our method outperform...

  11. Moving Foreground Detection Based On Spatio-temporal Saliency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving foreground in video is very important for many applications, such as visual surveillance, object-based video coding, etc. When objects move with different speeds and under illumination changes, the robustness of moving object detection methods proposed so far is still not satisfactory. In this paper, we use the semantic information to adjust the pixel-wise learning rate adaptively for more robust detection performance, which are obtained by spatial saliency map based on Gaussian mixture model (GMM in luma space and temporal saliency map obtained by background subtraction. In addition, we design a two-pass background estimation framework, in which the initial estimation is used for temporal saliency estimation, and the other is to detect foreground and update model parameters. The experimental results show that our method can achieve better moving object extraction performance than the existing background subtraction method based on GMM.

  12. Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Feng, Shaolong; Teh, Yi Chen; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-15

    Heavy metal pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide. Current methods for the detection of heavy metals require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Various microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have been developed recently as simple, cheap and disposable alternatives to conventional ones for on-site detection of heavy metals. In this review, we first summarize current development of paper-based analytical devices and discuss the selection of paper substrates, methods of device fabrication, and relevant theories in these devices. We then compare and categorize recent reports on detection of heavy metals using paper-based microfluidic devices on the basis of various detection mechanisms, such as colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical methods. To finalize, the future development and trend in this field are discussed. PMID:27131999

  13. Smart phone based bacterial detection using bio functionalized fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 105 cfu mL−1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)

  14. Local approach to strength mis-match effect on cleavage fracture of notched material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the strength mis-match effect on cleavage fracture of notched materials based on the local approach. The aim of the study is to verify the independence of the critical Weibull stress at fracture on the strength mis-match condition. Diffusion bonded joints were made with two materials S and H different in strength level. Two types of 3-point bend specimen were extracted. One had a notch in the lower strength material S near the bonded interface, and another in the higher strength material H. Homogeneous specimens were also made for each material. The critical CTOD value at cleavage fracture for the overmatched specimen with a notch in the material S was smaller than that of the homogeneous specimen of the material S. By contrast, the undermatched specimen with a notch in the material H showed apparently larger critical CTOD value than the homogeneous specimen of the material H. The strength mis-match effect on the CTOD results was explained in terms of the constraint effect on the near-tip stress field. Namely, the near-tip stress is elevated by strength overmatching and relaxed by strength undermatching. The Weibull stresses for the homogeneous and mis-matched specimens were evaluated in the light of the near-tip stress fields. The critical Weibull stress at fracture did not depend on the strength mis-match condition near the notch. By using the critical Weibull stress obtained for the homogeneous specimen, the strength mis-match effect on the CTOD results can be predicted. Close agreement was observed between the critical CTOD value predicted and that obtained by the experiment. (orig.)

  15. Knowledge-Based Detection and Assessment of Damaged Roads Using Post-Disaster High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Road damage detection and assessment from high-resolution remote sensing image is critical for natural disaster investigation and disaster relief. In a disaster context, the pairing of pre-disaster and post-disaster road data for change detection and assessment is difficult to achieve due to the mismatch of different data sources, especially for rural areas where the pre-disaster data (i.e., remote sensing imagery or vector map are hard to obtain. In this study, a knowledge-based method for road damage detection and assessment solely from post-disaster high-resolution remote sensing image is proposed. The road centerline is firstly extracted based on the preset road seed points. Then, features such as road brightness, standard deviation, rectangularity, and aspect ratio are selected to form a knowledge model. Finally, under the guidance of the road centerline, the post-disaster roads are extracted and the damaged roads are detected by applying the knowledge model. In order to quantitatively assess the damage degree, damage assessment indicators with their corresponding standard of damage grade are also proposed. The newly developed method is evaluated using a WorldView-1 image over Wenchuan, China acquired three days after the earthquake on 15 May 2008. The results show that the producer’s accuracy (PA and user’s accuracy (UA reached about 90% and 85%, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is effective for road damage detection and assessment. This approach also significantly reduces the need for pre-disaster remote sensing data.

  16. Heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: cloning and expression of the hexA gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations affecting heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae were localized in two genes, hexA and hexB, by fractionation of restriction fragments carrying mutant alleles. A fragment containing the hexA4 allele was cloned in the S. pneumoniae cloning system, and the hexA+ allele was introduced into the recombinant plasmid by chromosomal facilitation of plasmid transfer. Subcloning localized the functional hexA gene to a 3.5-kilobase segment of the cloned pneumococcal DNA. The product of this gene was shown in Bacillus subtilis minicells to be a polypeptide with an M/sub r/ of 86,000. Two mutant alleles of hexA showed partial expression of the repair system when present in multicopy plasmids. A model for mismatch repair, which depends on the interaction of two protein components to recognize the mismatched base pair and excise a segment of DNA between strand breaks surrounding the mismatch, is proposed

  17. Supply-demand mismatch transients in susceptible peri-infarct hot zones explain the origin of spreading injury depolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bornstädt, Daniel; Houben, Thijs; Seidel, Jessica; Zheng, Yi; Dilekoz, Ergin; Qin, Tao; Sandow, Nora; Kura, Sreekanth; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Endres, Matthias; Boas, David A.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Lo, Eng H.; Dreier, Jens P.; Woitzik, Johannes; Sakadžić, Sava; Ayata, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) are seemingly spontaneous spreading depression-like waves that negatively impact tissue outcome in both experimental and human stroke. Factors triggering PIDs are unknown. Here, we show that somatosensory activation of peri-infarct cortex triggers PIDs when the activated cortex is within a critical range of ischemia. We show that the mechanism involves increased oxygen utilization within the activated cortex, worsening the supply-demand mismatch. We support the concept by clinical data showing that mismatch predisposes to PIDs in human stroke as well. Conversely, transient worsening of mismatch by episodic hypoxemia or hypotension also reproducibly triggers PIDs. Therefore, PIDs are triggered upon supply-demand mismatch transients in metastable peri-infarct hot zones due to increased demand or reduced supply. Based on the data, we propose that minimizing sensory stimulation and hypoxic or hypotensive transients in stroke and brain injury would reduce PID incidence and their adverse impact on outcome. PMID:25741731

  18. Skill Mismatch of Graduates in a Local Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first review the (potential and actual role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial labour market in order to reconstruct the characteristics of the university-to-work transitions of graduates. Our results have important policy implications, since for local development it is crucial, among other things, to make the best use of all human resources and especially those with the highest educational level.

  19. A physiology-based seizure detection system for multichannel EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ping Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. METHODOLOGY: This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn, statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. CONCLUSION: We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system.

  20. Multicriteria Similarity-Based Anomaly Detection Using Pareto Depth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Xu, Kevin S; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of identifying patterns in a data set that exhibits anomalous behavior, often referred to as anomaly detection. Similarity-based anomaly detection algorithms detect abnormally large amounts of similarity or dissimilarity, e.g., as measured by the nearest neighbor Euclidean distances between a test sample and the training samples. In many application domains, there may not exist a single dissimilarity measure that captures all possible anomalous patterns. In such cases, multiple dissimilarity measures can be defined, including nonmetric measures, and one can test for anomalies by scalarizing using a nonnegative linear combination of them. If the relative importance of the different dissimilarity measures are not known in advance, as in many anomaly detection applications, the anomaly detection algorithm may need to be executed multiple times with different choices of weights in the linear combination. In this paper, we propose a method for similarity-based anomaly detection using a novel multicriteria dissimilarity measure, the Pareto depth. The proposed Pareto depth analysis (PDA) anomaly detection algorithm uses the concept of Pareto optimality to detect anomalies under multiple criteria without having to run an algorithm multiple times with different choices of weights. The proposed PDA approach is provably better than using linear combinations of the criteria, and shows superior performance on experiments with synthetic and real data sets. PMID:26336154

  1. Mismatch-Shaping Serial Digital-to-Analog Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, Un-Ku; Temes, Gabor C.

    1999-01-01

    A simple but accurate pseudo-passive mismatch-shaping D/A converter is described. A digital state machine is used to control the switching sequence of a symmetric two-capacitor network that performs the D/A conversion. The error caused by capacitor mismatch is uncorrelated with the input signal a...

  2. Mismatch-Shaped Pseudo-Passive Two-Capacitor DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, Un-Ku; Temes, Gabor C.

    1999-01-01

    A simple mismatch-shaping scheme is proposed for a two-capacitor DAC. Unlike in other mismatch-shaping systems, the shaped error is generated by direct filtering of a well-defined bounded signal, which can be generated as white noise. The operation is closely related to a specific digital interpo...

  3. The mismatch between job openings and job seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Canon, Maria E.; Mingyu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Today's high unemployment rate is often linked to a structural imbalance—a mismatch between the skills and location required to fill vacant jobs and the skills and geographical preferences of the unemployed. But the evidence downplays the role of this mismatch.

  4. A visual saliency based method for vehicle logo detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Shen, Yiping; Chang, Hongxing

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method based on visual saliency and template matching for detecting vehicle logo from images captured by cross-road cameras. To detect the logo, such method first generates a saliency map based on the modified Itti's saliency model, and then obtains regions of interest (ROI) by thresholding the saliency map, at last performs an edge-based template matching to locate the logo. Experiments on more than 2400 images validate both high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, and demonstrates our method suitable for real-time application.

  5. Energy detection based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform and its application in magnetic anomaly detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Nie

    Full Text Available Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT, the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter α is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

  6. Parametric roll resonance monitoring using signal-based detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Falkenberg, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    detection algorithms in real conditions, and to evaluate the frequency of parametric roll events on the selected vessels. Detection performance is scrutinised through the validation of the detected events using owners’ standard methods, and supported by available wave radar data. Further, a bivariate...... a curiosity, others have concerns. This study employs novel signalbased detection algorithms to analyse logged motion data from a container vessel (2800 TEU) and a large car and truck carrier (LCTC) during one year at sea. The scope of the study is to assess the performance and robustness of the...... statistical analysis of the outcome of the signal-based detectors is performed to assess the real life false alarm probability. It is shown that detection robustness and very low false warning rates are obtained. The study concludes that small parametric roll events are occurring, and that the proposed signal...

  7. Graph-based pigment network detection in skin images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M.; Razmara, M.; Ester, M.; Lee, T. K.; Atkins, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Detecting pigmented network is a crucial step for melanoma diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel graphbased pigment network detection method that can find and visualize round structures belonging to the pigment network. After finding sharp changes of the luminance image by an edge detection function, the resulting binary image is converted to a graph, and then all cyclic sub-graphs are detected. Theses cycles represent meshes that belong to the pigment network. Then, we create a new graph of the cyclic structures based on their distance. According to the density ratio of the new graph of the pigment network, the image is classified as "Absent" or "Present". Being Present means that a pigment network is detected in the skin lesion. Using this approach, we achieved an accuracy of 92.6% on five hundred unseen images.

  8. Edge detection of noisy images based on cellular neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Hongyu; Li, Chaojie

    2011-09-01

    This paper studies a technique employing both cellular neural networks (CNNs) and linear matrix inequality (LMI) for edge detection of noisy images. Our main work focuses on training templates of noise reduction and edge detection CNNs. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, we derive a criterion for global asymptotical stability of a unique equilibrium of the noise reduction CNN. Then we design an approach to train edge detection templates, and this approach can detect the edge precisely and efficiently, i.e., by only one iteration. Finally, we illustrate performance of the proposed methodology from the aspect of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) through computer simulations. Moreover, some comparisons are also given to prove that our method outperforms classical operators in gray image edge detection.

  9. Multi-core Processors based Network Intrusion Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqian Wan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly hard to build an intrusion detection system (IDS, because of the higher traffic throughput and the rising sophistication of attacking. Scale will be an important issue to address in the intrusion detection area. For hardware, tomorrow’s performance gains will come from multi-core architectures in which a number of CPU executes concurrently. We take the advantage of multi-core processors’ full power for intrusion detection in this work. We present an intrusion detection system based on the Snort open-source IDS that exploits the computational power of MIPS multi-core architecture to offload the costly pattern matching operations from the CPU, and thus increase the system’s processing throughput. A preliminary experiment demonstrates the potential of this system. The experiment results indicate that this method can be used effectively to speed up intrusion detection systems.

  10. Efficient Detection of Sybil attack Based on Cryptography in Vanet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Rahbari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communications play a substantial role in providing safety transportation by means of safetymessage exchange. Researchers have proposed several solutions for securing safety messages. Protocols based on a fixed key infrastructure are more efficient in implementation and maintain stronger security in comparison with dynamic structures. The purpose of this paper present a method based on a fixed keyinfrastructure for detection impersonation attack, in other words, Sybil attack, in the vehicular adhoc network. This attack, puts a great impact on performance of the network. The proposed method, using an cryptography mechanism to detection Sybil attack. Finally, using Mat lab simulator the results of this approach are reviewed, This method it has low delay for detection Sybil attack, because most operations are done in Certification Authority, so this proposed schema is a efficient method for detection Sybil attack.

  11. Stratification-Based Outlier Detection over the Deep Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Xuefeng; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Fang, Ligang; Gu, Caidong; Yang, Yuanfeng; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    For many applications, finding rare instances or outliers can be more interesting than finding common patterns. Existing work in outlier detection never considers the context of deep web. In this paper, we argue that, for many scenarios, it is more meaningful to detect outliers over deep web. In the context of deep web, users must submit queries through a query interface to retrieve corresponding data. Therefore, traditional data mining methods cannot be directly applied. The primary contribution of this paper is to develop a new data mining method for outlier detection over deep web. In our approach, the query space of a deep web data source is stratified based on a pilot sample. Neighborhood sampling and uncertainty sampling are developed in this paper with the goal of improving recall and precision based on stratification. Finally, a careful performance evaluation of our algorithm confirms that our approach can effectively detect outliers in deep web. PMID:27313603

  12. Stratification-Based Outlier Detection over the Deep Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Xuefeng; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Fang, Ligang; Gu, Caidong; Yang, Yuanfeng; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    For many applications, finding rare instances or outliers can be more interesting than finding common patterns. Existing work in outlier detection never considers the context of deep web. In this paper, we argue that, for many scenarios, it is more meaningful to detect outliers over deep web. In the context of deep web, users must submit queries through a query interface to retrieve corresponding data. Therefore, traditional data mining methods cannot be directly applied. The primary contribution of this paper is to develop a new data mining method for outlier detection over deep web. In our approach, the query space of a deep web data source is stratified based on a pilot sample. Neighborhood sampling and uncertainty sampling are developed in this paper with the goal of improving recall and precision based on stratification. Finally, a careful performance evaluation of our algorithm confirms that our approach can effectively detect outliers in deep web. PMID:27313603

  13. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  14. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  15. Statistical detection of structural damage based on model reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YIN; Heung-fai LAM; Hong-ping ZHU

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical method for damage detection based on the finite element (FE) model reduction technique that utilizes measured modal data with a limited number of sensors.A deterministic damage detection process is formulated based on the model reduction technique.The probabilistic process is integrated into the deterministic damage detection process using a perturbation technique,resulting in a statistical structural damage detection method.This is achieved by deriving the firstand second-order partial derivatives of uncertain parameters,such as elasticity of the damaged member,with respect to the measurement noise,which allows expectation and covariance matrix of the uncertain parameters to be calculated.Besides the theoretical development,this paper reports numerical verification of the proposed method using a portal frame example and Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  17. Using Case-Based Reasoning for detecting computer virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The typical antivirus approach consists of waiting for a number of computers to be infected, detecting the virus, designing a solution, delivering and deploying a solution. In such a situation, it is very difficult to prevent every machine from being compromised by viruses. In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting computer viruses, that is based on the technique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR. In this method: (1 even new viruses that do not exist in the database can be detected (2 The updating of the virus database is done automatically without connecting to the Internet. Whenever a new virus is detected, it will be automatically added to the database used by our application. This presents a major advantage

  18. Human Object Detection based on Context Awareness in the Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance system has been applied in providing public security for many complex places like railway stations, bus stops, etc. In most cases, human object detection is an important task in surveillance system. In the case that human objects are occlusion or outdoor environment, human objects detection is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a method to implement for human object detection based on context awareness in new wavelet generation domain in outdoor environment. We use curvelet transform based on context awareness combined with support vector machines as a classifier for human detection. The proposed method was tested on a standard dataset like PEST2001 dataset. For demonstrating the superiority of the proposed method, we have compared the results with the other recent methods available in literature.

  19. A Detection Scheme for Cavity-based Dark Matter Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhari, M H S

    2016-01-01

    We present here proposal of a scheme and some useful ideas for resonant cavity-based detection of cold dark matter axions with hope to improve the existing endeavors. The scheme is based upon our idea of a detector, which incorporates an integrated tunnel diode and a GaAs HEMT or HFET, High Electron Mobility Transistor or Heterogenous FET, for resonance detection and amplification from a resonant cavity (in a strong transverse magnetic field from a cylindrical array of halbach magnets). The idea of a TD-oscillator-amplifier combination could possibly serve as a more sensitive and viable resonance detection regime while maintaining an excellent performance with low noise temperature, whereas the halbach magnets array may offer a compact and permanent solution replacing the conventional electromagnets scheme. We believe that all these factors could possibly increase the sensitivity and accuracy of axion detection searches and reduce complications (and associated costs) in the experiments, in addition to help re...

  20. Efficient Detection of Sybil Attack Based on Cryptography in Vanet

    CERN Document Server

    Rahbari, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular communications play a substantial role in providing safety transportation by means of safety message exchange. Researchers have proposed several solutions for securing safety messages. Protocols based on a fixed key infrastructure are more efficient in implementation and maintain stronger security in comparison with dynamic structures. The purpose of this paper present a method based on a fixed key infrastructure for detection impersonation attack, in other words, Sybil attack, in the vehicular ad hoc network. This attack, puts a great impact on performance of the network. The proposed method, using an cryptography mechanism to detection Sybil attack. Finally, using Mat lab simulator the results of this approach are reviewed, This method it has low delay for detection Sybil attack, because most operations are done in Certification Authority, so this proposed schema is a efficient method for detection Sybil attack.

  1. The Mismatch Negativity: An Indicator of Perception of Regularities in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Xide Yu; Tao Liu; Dingguo Gao

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews music research using Mismatch Negativity (MMN). MMN is a deviation-specific component of auditory event-related potential (EPR), which detects a deviation between a sound and an internal representation (e.g., memory trace). Recent studies have expanded the notion and the paradigms of MMN to higher-order music processing such as those involving short melodies, harmony chord, and music syntax. In this vein, we firstly reviewed the evolution of MMN from sound to music and then...

  2. Acoustic Event Detection Based on MRMR Selected Feature Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    VOZARIKOVA Eva; Juhar, Jozef; CIZMAR Anton

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the detection of potentially dangerous acoustic events such as gun shots and breaking glass in the urban environment. Various feature extraction methods can be used forrepresenting the sound in the detection system based on Hidden Markov Models of acoustic events. Mel – frequency cepstral coefficients, low - level descriptors defined in MPEG-7 standard and another time andspectral features were considered in the system. For the selection of final subset of features Mi...

  3. Wavelet Based QRS Complex Detection of ECG Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayantan; Biswas, Shouvik; Roy, Anamitra Bardhan; Dey, Nilanjan

    2012-01-01

    The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a sensitive diagnostic tool that is used to detect various cardiovascular diseases by measuring and recording the electrical activity of the heart in exquisite detail. A wide range of heart condition is determined by thorough examination of the features of the ECG report. Automatic extraction of time plane features is important for identification of vital cardiac diseases. This paper presents a multi-resolution wavelet transform based system for detection 'P', '...

  4. Edge Detection of Concrete Mesostructure Based on DIS Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bin; Xu, Zicheng; Xia, Jin; Jin, Shijie; Jin, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate edge detection is the basis of creating concrete mesoscale model, which is applied to analyze concrete mesoscale characteristics. A concrete digital image edge detection method using DIS operator is presented in this paper. Mean filter, multi-scale filter, and Gaussian filter are compared on the effect of concrete image noise reduction. Based on the result, Gaussian filter is the most optimum method to reduce image noise and remain aggregate edge distinct. Sobel operator, Laplacian ...

  5. Pulse Onset Detection using Neighbor Pulse-Based Signal Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng; Bergsneider, Marvin; Hu, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Detecting onsets of cardiovascular pulse wave signals is an important prerequisite for successfully conducting various analysis tasks involving the concept of pulse wave velocity. However, pulse onsets are frequently influenced by inherent noise and artifacts in signals continuously acquired in a clinical environment. The present work proposed and validated a neighbor pulse-based signal enhancement algorithm for reducing error in the detected pulse onset locations from noise-contaminated puls...

  6. An algorithm for UWB radar-based human detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, SangHyun; Mitsumoto, Naoki; Burdick, Joel W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for human presence detection in urban environments using an ultra-wide-band (UWB) impulse-based mono-static radar. A specular multi-path model (SMPM) is used to characterize human body scattered UWB waveforms. The SMPM parameters are used within a classical likelihood ratio detector framework to detect the presence of humans via gait, with the aid of a multi-target tracking technique (MTT). Experimental results on a simple human gait detec...

  7. Development of a Wearable-Sensor-Based Fall Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Falin Wu; Hengyang Zhao; Yan Zhao; Haibo Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall detection is a major challenge in the public healthcare domain, especially for the elderly as the decline of their physical fitness, and timely and reliable surveillance is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of falls. This paper develops a novel fall detection system based on a wearable device. The system monitors the movements of human body, recognizes a fall from normal daily activities by an effective quaternion algorithm, and automatically sends request for help to the caregi...

  8. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas B. S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren; Hansen, Lars Kai; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expect...

  9. QRS Detection Based on an Advanced Multilevel Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Jenkal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced multilevel algorithm used for the QRS complex detection. This method is based on three levels. The first permits the extraction of higher peaks using an adaptive thresholding technique. The second allows the QRS region detection. The last level permits the detection of Q, R and S waves. The proposed algorithm shows interesting results compared to recently published methods. The perspective of this work is the implementation of this method on an embedded system for a real time ECG monitoring system.

  10. Research and Implementation of Unsupervised Clustering-Based Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoMin; ZhangHuan-guo; WangLi-na

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised clustering-based intrusion detection algorithm is discussed in this paper. The basic idea of the algorithm is to produce the cluster by comparing the distances of unlabeled training data sets. With the classified data instances, anomaly data clusters can be easily identified by normal duster ratio and the identified cluster can be used in real data detection. The benefit of the algorithm is that it doesn't need labeled training data sets. The experiment coneludes that this approach can detect unknown intrusions efficiently in the real network connections via using the data sets of KDD99.

  11. Sonoclot(®)-based method to detect iron enhanced coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Henderson, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Thrombelastographic methods have been recently introduced to detect iron mediated hypercoagulability in settings such as sickle cell disease, hemodialysis, mechanical circulatory support, and neuroinflammation. However, these inflammatory situations may have heme oxygenase-derived, coexistent carbon monoxide present, which also enhances coagulation as assessed by the same thrombelastographic variables that are affected by iron. This brief report presents a novel, Sonoclot-based method to detect iron enhanced coagulation that is independent of carbon monoxide influence. Future investigation will be required to assess the sensitivity of this new method to detect iron mediated hypercoagulability in clinical settings compared to results obtained with thrombelastographic techniques. PMID:26497986

  12. Inverse Problem Solution in Landmines Detection Based on Active Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Szymanik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Landmines still affect numerous territories in the whole world and pose a serious threat, mostly to civilians. Widely used non-metallic landmines are undetectable using metal detector. Therefore, there is an urging need to improve methods of detecting such objects. In the present study we introduce relatively new method of landmines' detection: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation. In this paper we present the optimization based method of solving inverse problem for microwave heating. This technique will be used in the reconstruction of detected landmines geometric and material properties.

  13. Hough Forest-based Corner Detection for Cervical Spine Radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Arif, S. M.; Asad, M; Knapp, K.; Gundry, M.; Slabaugh, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cervical spine (neck region) is highly sensitive to trauma related injuries, which must be analysed carefully by emergency physicians. In this work, we propose a Hough Forest-based corner detection method for cervical spine radiographs, as a first step towards a computer-aided diagnostic tool. We propose a novel patch-based model based on two-stage supervised learning (classification and regression) to estimate the corners of cervical vertebral bodies. Our method is evaluated using 106 ce...

  14. Using LBG quantization for particle-based collision detection algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAENGHAENGTHAM Nida; KANONGCHAIYOS Pizzanu

    2006-01-01

    Most collision detection algorithms can be efficiently used only with solid and rigid objects, for instance, Hierarchical methods which must have their bounding representation recalculated every time deformation occurs. An alternative algorithm using particle-based method is then proposed which can detect the collision among non-rigid deformable polygonal models.However, the original particle-based collision detection algorithm might not be sufficient enough in some situations due to the improper particle dispersion. Therefore, this research presents an improved algorithm which provides a particle to detect in each separated area so that particles always covered all over the object. The surface partitioning can be efficiently performed by using LBG quantization since it can classify object vertices into several groups base on a number of factors as required. A particle is then assigned to move between vertices in a group by the attractive forces received from other particles on neighbouring objects.Collision is detected when the distance between a pair of corresponding particles becomes very small. Lastly, the proposed algorithm has been implemented to show that collision detection can be conducted in real-time.

  15. Vision-Based People Detection System for Heavy Machine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fremont

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based people detection system for improving safety in heavy machines. We propose a perception system composed of a monocular fisheye camera and a LiDAR. Fisheye cameras have the advantage of a wide field-of-view, but the strong distortions that they create must be handled at the detection stage. Since people detection in fisheye images has not been well studied, we focus on investigating and quantifying the impact that strong radial distortions have on the appearance of people, and we propose approaches for handling this specificity, adapted from state-of-the-art people detection approaches. These adaptive approaches nevertheless have the drawback of high computational cost and complexity. Consequently, we also present a framework for harnessing the LiDAR modality in order to enhance the detection algorithm for different camera positions. A sequential LiDAR-based fusion architecture is used, which addresses directly the problem of reducing false detections and computational cost in an exclusively vision-based system. A heavy machine dataset was built, and different experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. The results are promising, in terms of both processing speed and performance.

  16. Vision-Based People Detection System for Heavy Machine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Vincent; Bui, Manh Tuan; Boukerroui, Djamal; Letort, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a vision-based people detection system for improving safety in heavy machines. We propose a perception system composed of a monocular fisheye camera and a LiDAR. Fisheye cameras have the advantage of a wide field-of-view, but the strong distortions that they create must be handled at the detection stage. Since people detection in fisheye images has not been well studied, we focus on investigating and quantifying the impact that strong radial distortions have on the appearance of people, and we propose approaches for handling this specificity, adapted from state-of-the-art people detection approaches. These adaptive approaches nevertheless have the drawback of high computational cost and complexity. Consequently, we also present a framework for harnessing the LiDAR modality in order to enhance the detection algorithm for different camera positions. A sequential LiDAR-based fusion architecture is used, which addresses directly the problem of reducing false detections and computational cost in an exclusively vision-based system. A heavy machine dataset was built, and different experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. The results are promising, in terms of both processing speed and performance. PMID:26805838

  17. Reducing measurement scale mismatch to improve surface energy flux estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwema, Joost; Rosolem, Rafael; Rahman, Mostaquimur; Blyth, Eleanor; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture importantly controls land surface processes such as energy and water partitioning. A good understanding of these controls is needed especially when recognizing the challenges in providing accurate hyper-resolution hydrometeorological simulations at sub-kilometre scales. Soil moisture controlling factors can, however, differ at distinct scales. In addition, some parameters in land surface models are still often prescribed based on observations obtained at another scale not necessarily employed by such models (e.g., soil properties obtained from lab samples used in regional simulations). To minimize such effects, parameters can be constrained with local data from Eddy-Covariance (EC) towers (i.e., latent and sensible heat fluxes) and Point Scale (PS) soil moisture observations (e.g., TDR). However, measurement scales represented by EC and PS still differ substantially. Here we use the fact that Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) estimate soil moisture at horizontal footprint similar to that of EC fluxes to help answer the following question: Does reduced observation scale mismatch yield better soil moisture - surface fluxes representation in land surface models? To answer this question we analysed soil moisture and surface fluxes measurements from twelve COSMOS-Ameriflux sites in the USA characterized by distinct climate, soils and vegetation types. We calibrated model parameters of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) against PS and CRNS soil moisture data, respectively. We analysed the improvement in soil moisture estimation compared to uncalibrated model simulations and then evaluated the degree of improvement in surface fluxes before and after calibration experiments. Preliminary results suggest that a more accurate representation of soil moisture dynamics is achieved when calibrating against observed soil moisture and further improvement obtained with CRNS relative to PS. However, our results also suggest that a more accurate

  18. Investigation on the influence of BBO thermal-induced phase mismatching in 266nm UV laser conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Jin, Guangyong; Yu, Miao; Huang, Zhulong; Zhai, Ruizhi; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    266nm UV laser has a wide range of applications in many fields, such as laser medical treatment, laser processing, precision measure and other applications for the reason of its advantages in wavelength, small diffraction effects, high single-photon energy, and high resolution and so on. BBO crystals absorb parts of the fundamental laser energy and second harmonic laser energy are unavoidable, and thus the temperature raise, so that the existing crystal phase matching conditions change, resulting in phase mismatching in the high-power frequency doubling, greatly influence the 266nm UV laser conversion efficiency. To further study the effect of phase mismatching to conversion efficiency, and improve the conversion efficiency, output power and other output characteristics of 266nm laser, the article mainly describe from the following three aspects. Firstly, took the use of three-dimensional nonlinear crystal temperature distribution which is obtained, the process of BBO crystal thermal-induced phase mismatching is analyzed. Secondly, based on frequency doubling theory, the effects of the thermal-induced phase mismatching affected of conversion in crystals are analyzed. Combining with the phase mismatching of the three-dimensional distributions, the fourth harmonic conversion efficiency with thermal phase mismatching changes of BBO 266nm UV laser are simulated for the first time. Thirdly, by using MATLAB software, the effects of phase mismatching to conversion efficiency in crystal for different waist radius, 532nm laser power and the fundamental beam quality are simulated. The results indicate a good physical interpretation of reasons of high power laser frequency doubling system. It shows that the model established explains the reason of the reduction of conversion efficiency, output power and the beam quality excellently. All results make a leading sense to the research on the compensating of the phase mismatching and on the improvement of conversion efficiency.

  19. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. DNA methylation detection based on difference of base content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinobu; Ohtsuka, Keiichi; Honda, Satoshi; Sato, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2016-04-01

    Methylation frequently occurs in cytosines of CpG sites to regulate gene expression. The identification of aberrant methylation of certain genes is important for cancer marker analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the methylation frequency in DNA samples of unknown length and/or concentration. Unmethylated cytosine is known to be converted to thymine following bisulfite treatment and subsequent PCR. For this reason, the AT content in DNA increases with an increasing number of methylation sites. In this study, the fluorescein-carrying bis-acridinyl peptide (FKA) molecule was used for the detection of methylation frequency. FKA contains fluorescein and two acridine moieties, which together allow for the determination of the AT content of double-stranded DNA fragments. Methylated and unmethylated human genomes were subjected to bisulfide treatment and subsequent PCR using primers specific for the CFTR, CDH4, DBC1, and NPY genes. The AT content in the resulting PCR products was estimated by FKA, and AT content estimations were found to be in good agreement with those determined by DNA sequencing. This newly developed method may be useful for determining methylation frequencies of many PCR products by measuring the fluorescence in samples excited at two different wavelengths.

  1. Sequential Bayesian Detection: A Model-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V

    2008-12-08

    Sequential detection theory has been known for a long time evolving in the late 1940's by Wald and followed by Middleton's classic exposition in the 1960's coupled with the concurrent enabling technology of digital computer systems and the development of sequential processors. Its development, when coupled to modern sequential model-based processors, offers a reasonable way to attack physics-based problems. In this chapter, the fundamentals of the sequential detection are reviewed from the Neyman-Pearson theoretical perspective and formulated for both linear and nonlinear (approximate) Gauss-Markov, state-space representations. We review the development of modern sequential detectors and incorporate the sequential model-based processors as an integral part of their solution. Motivated by a wealth of physics-based detection problems, we show how both linear and nonlinear processors can seamlessly be embedded into the sequential detection framework to provide a powerful approach to solving non-stationary detection problems.

  2. Land-based infrared imagery for marine mammal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Joseph; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Jessup, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    A land-based infrared (IR) camera is used to detect endangered Southern Resident killer whales in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. The observations are motivated by a proposed tidal energy pilot project, which will be required to monitor for environmental effects. Potential monitoring methods also include visual observation, passive acoustics, and active acoustics. The effectiveness of observations in the infrared spectrum is compared to observations in the visible spectrum to assess the viability of infrared imagery for cetacean detection and classification. Imagery was obtained at Lime Kiln Park, Washington from 7/6/10-7/9/10 using a FLIR Thermovision A40M infrared camera (7.5-14μm, 37°HFOV, 320x240 pixels) under ideal atmospheric conditions (clear skies, calm seas, and wind speed 0-4 m/s). Whales were detected during both day (9 detections) and night (75 detections) at distances ranging from 42 to 162 m. The temperature contrast between dorsal fins and the sea surface ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 °C. Differences in emissivity from sea surface to dorsal fin are shown to aid detection at high incidence angles (near grazing). A comparison to theory is presented, and observed deviations from theory are investigated. A guide for infrared camera selection based on site geometry and desired target size is presented, with specific considerations regarding marine mammal detection. Atmospheric conditions required to use visible and infrared cameras for marine mammal detection are established and compared with 2008 meteorological data for the proposed tidal energy site. Using conservative assumptions, infrared observations are predicted to provide a 74% increase in hours of possible detection, compared with visual observations.

  3. A Digital PCR-Based Method for Efficient and Highly Specific Screening of Genome Edited Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Findlay, Scott D.; Vincent, Krista M.; Jennifer R. Berman; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The rapid adoption of gene editing tools such as CRISPRs and TALENs for research and eventually therapeutics necessitates assays that can rapidly detect and quantitate the desired alterations. Currently, the most commonly used assay employs “mismatch nucleases” T7E1 or “Surveyor” that recognize and cleave heteroduplexed DNA amplicons containing mismatched base-pairs. However, this assay is prone to false positives due to cancer-associated mutations and/or SNPs and requires large amounts of st...

  4. Obstacle detection of mobile robot based on data fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xin; SU Li; SUN Li-ning

    2009-01-01

    To study the problem of obstacle detection based on multi-sensors data fusion, the multi-target track-ing theory and techniques are introduced into obstacle detection systems, and the exact position of obstacle can be determined. Data fusion problems are discussed directly based on achievable data from some sensors without considering the specific structure of each individual sensor. With respect to normal linear systems and nonlinear systems, the corresponding algorithms are proposed. The validity of the method is confirmed by simulation re-suits.

  5. An Improved Retransmission-based Network Steganography: Design and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Network steganography is a covert communication technique that uses redundancies in network protocols to transfer secret information. The retransmission-based steganography (RSTEG embeds covert messages into the payload field of the intentionally retransmission packets. So its capacity is higher than most of the existing methods. Because TCP checksum field of the original packet is different from that of the retransmitted packet, RSTEG is not stealthy in fact. An improved method named IRSTEG is presented to resolve the flaw by introducing the payload compensation. Further, a method is proposed to detect IRSTEG based the payload segment comparison. Experiments show that the method can detect IRSTEG well.

  6. Mismatching Perspectives and Pacific Transculturality”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased critical consciousness and awareness of interculturality in a global and glocal context at the beginning of the twenty - first century has increasingly used the concept of transculturation when discussing modernities. Politically transculturation can be used to describe processes of negotiation in contemporary society that lead to social awareness and solidarity, as well as ensuring the continuity of societies. The fusing of cultural forms leads to a mismatching of perspectives, hence some critics have preferred to use the terms translation and/or transliteracy to describe this concept. Transculturation is related to the “normal processes of artistic borrowing and influence, by which any cul ture makes part of its contribution to the conversation of mankind,” as Les Murray maintained, and “it engages multiple lines of difference simultaneous ly” with overlapping boundaries (Rogers 491. Referring to various authors and linking it to cultural ap propriation and border crossings, this article examines how the narrative expression of Both Sides of the Moon, to cite the title of Alan Duff’s book, is a key feature of Pacific writing, in an area where centuries of migration from near and far have expos ed different cultures to each other on social, political, linguistic and aesthetic levels. These ‘contact zones’, to use Mary Pratt’s words, provide the reader with constantly moving translated identities, cultural hybridity and a use of language that has a highly local significance in a global context.

  7. Association of common variants in mismatch repair genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a multigene study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Julieta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MMR is responsible for the repair of base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion loops. Besides this, MMR is also associated with an anti-recombination function, suppressing homologous recombination. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability have been detected in a large number of skin samples from breast cancer patients, suggesting a potential role of MMR in breast cancer susceptibility. Methods We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in a Caucasian Portuguese population (287 cases and 547 controls to estimate the susceptibility to non-familial breast cancer associated with some polymorphisms in mismatch repair genes (MSH3, MSH4, MSH6, MLH1, MLH3, PMS1 and MUTYH. Results Using unconditional logistic regression we found that MLH3 (L844P, G>A polymorphism GA (Leu/Pro and AA (Pro/Pro genotypes were associated with a decreased risk: OR = 0.65 (0.45-0.95 (p = 0.03 and OR = 0.62 (0.41-0.94 (p = 0.03, respectively. Analysis of two-way SNP interaction effects on breast cancer revealed two potential associations to breast cancer susceptibility: MSH3 Ala1045Thr/MSH6 Gly39Glu - AA/TC [OR = 0.43 (0.21-0.83, p = 0.01] associated with a decreased risk; and MSH4 Ala97Thr/MLH3 Leu844Pro - AG/AA [OR = 2.35 (1.23-4.49, p = 0.01], GG/AA [OR = 2.11 (1.12-3,98, p = 0.02], and GG/AG [adjusted OR = 1.88 (1.12-3.15, p = 0.02] all associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. Conclusion It is possible that some of these common variants in MMR genes contribute significantly to breast cancer susceptibility. However, further studies with a large sample size will be needed to support our results.

  8. Real-time fault detection method based on belief rule base for aircraft navigation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xin; Wang Shicheng; Zhang Jinsheng; Fan Zhiliang; Min Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Real-time and accurate fault detection is essential to enhance the aircraft navigation system's reliability and safety.The existent detection methods based on analytical model draws back at simultaneously detecting gradual and sudden faults.On account of this reason,we propose an online detection solution based on non-analytical model.In this article,the navigation system fault detection model is established based on belief rule base (BRB),where the system measuring residual and its changing rate are used as the inputs of BRB model and the fault detection function as the output.To overcome the drawbacks of current parameter optimization algorithms for BRB and achieve online update,a parameter recursive estimation algorithm is presented for online BRB detection model based on expectation maximization (EM) algorithm.Furthermore,the proposed method is verified by navigation experiment.Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to effectively realize online parameter evaluation in navigation system fault detection model.The output of the detection model can track the fault state very well,and the faults can be diagnosed in real time and accurately.In addition,the detection ability,especially in the probability of false detection,is superior to offline optimization method,and thus the system reliability has great improvement.

  9. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  10. Video Shot Boundary Detection based on Multifractal Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Reljin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracting video shots is an essential preprocessing step to almost all video analysis, indexing, and other content-based operations. This process is equivalent to detecting the shot boundaries in a video. In this paper we presents video Shot Boundary Detection (SBD based on Multifractal Analysis (MA. Low-level features (color and texture features are extracted from each frame in video sequence. Features are concatenated in feature vectors (FVs and stored in feature matrix. Matrix rows correspond to FVs of frames from video sequence, while columns are time series of particular FV component. Multifractal analysis is applied to FV component time series, and shot boundaries are detected as high singularities of time series above pre defined treshold. Proposed SBD method is tested on real video sequence with 64 shots, with manually labeled shot boundaries. Detection accuracy depends on number FV components used. For only one FV component detection accuracy lies in the range 76-92% (depending on selected threshold, while by combining two FV components all shots are detected completely (accuracy of 100%.

  11. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions. PMID:26213928

  12. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Casilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources to fall detection solutions.

  13. Semantic-based technique for thai documents plagiarism detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorawat Prapanitisatian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the act of taking another person's writing or idea without referring to the source of information. This is one of major problems in educational institutes. There is a number of plagiarism detection software available on the Internet. However, a few numbers of them works. Typically, they use a simple method for plagiarism detection e.g. string matching. The main weakness of this method is it cannot detect the plagiarism when the author replaces some words using synonyms. As such, this paper presents a new technique for a semantic-based plagiarism detection using Semantic Role Labeling (SRL and term weighting. SRL is deployed in order to calculate the semantic-based similarity. The main different from the existing framework is terms in a sentence are weighted dynamically depending on their roles in the sentence e.g. subject, verb or object. This technique enhances the plagiarism detection mechanism more efficiently than existing system although positions of terms in a sentence are reordered. The experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the plagiarism document more effective than the existing methods, Anti-kobpae, Turnit-in and Traditional Semantic Role Labeling.

  14. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequency analysis techniques such as the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT used in signal processing to the design of intrusion detection algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-based detection strategy by running synthetic network intrusion data in simulated networks using the OPNET software. The simulation results indicate that the proposed intrusion detection strategy is effective in detecting anomalous traffic data that exhibit patterns over time, which include several types of DOS and probe attacks. The significance of this new strategy is that it does not depend on the prior knowledge of attack signatures, thus it has the potential to be a useful supplement to existing signature-based IDS and firewalls.

  15. aTrunk—An ALS-Based Trunk Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lamprecht

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid multi-return ALS-based (Airborne Laser Scanning tree trunk detection approach. The multi-core Divide & Conquer algorithm uses a CBH (Crown Base Height estimation and 3D-clustering approach to isolate points associated with single trunks. For each trunk, a principal-component-based linear model is fitted, while a deterministic modification of LO-RANSAC is used to identify an optimal model. The algorithm returns a vector-based model for each identified trunk while parameters like the ground position, zenith orientation, azimuth orientation and length of the trunk are provided. The algorithm performed well for a study area of 109 trees (about 2/3 Norway Spruce and 1/3 European Beech, with a point density of 7.6 points per m2, while a detection rate of about 75% and an overall accuracy of 84% were reached. Compared to crown-based tree detection methods, the aTrunk approach has the advantages of a high reliability (5% commission error and its high tree positioning accuracy (0.59m average difference and 0.78m RMSE. The usage of overlapping segments with parametrizable size allows a seamless detection of the tree trunks.

  16. An EEG-Based Fatigue Detection and Mitigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Chih; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; King, Jung-Tai; Wang, Yu-Kai; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Research has indicated that fatigue is a critical factor in cognitive lapses because it negatively affects an individual's internal state, which is then manifested physiologically. This study explores neurophysiological changes, measured by electroencephalogram (EEG), due to fatigue. This study further demonstrates the feasibility of an online closed-loop EEG-based fatigue detection and mitigation system that detects physiological change and can thereby prevent fatigue-related cognitive lapses. More importantly, this work compares the efficacy of fatigue detection and mitigation between the EEG-based and a nonEEG-based random method. Twelve healthy subjects participated in a sustained-attention driving experiment. Each participant's EEG signal was monitored continuously and a warning was delivered in real-time to participants once the EEG signature of fatigue was detected. Study results indicate suppression of the alpha- and theta-power of an occipital component and improved behavioral performance following a warning signal; these findings are in line with those in previous studies. However, study results also showed reduced warning efficacy (i.e. increased response times (RTs) to lane deviations) accompanied by increased alpha-power due to the fluctuation of warnings over time. Furthermore, a comparison of EEG-based and nonEEG-based random approaches clearly demonstrated the necessity of adaptive fatigue-mitigation systems, based on a subject's cognitive level, to deliver warnings. Analytical results clearly demonstrate and validate the efficacy of this online closed-loop EEG-based fatigue detection and mitigation mechanism to identify cognitive lapses that may lead to catastrophic incidents in countless operational environments. PMID:27121994

  17. Hydrocarbon microseepage mapping using signature based target detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Hilal; Koz, Alper; Şebnem Düzgün, H.; Aydin Alatan, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we compare the conventional methods in hydrocarbon seepage anomalies with the signature based detection algorithms. The Crosta technique [1] is selected as a basement in the experimental comparisons for the conventional approach. The Crosta technique utilizes the characteristic bands of the searched target for principal component transformation in order to determine the components characterizing the target in interest. Desired Target Detection and Classification Algorithm (DTDCA), Spectral Matched Filter (SMF), and Normalized Correlation (NC) are employed for signature based target detection. Signature based target detection algorithms are applied to the whole spectrum benefiting from the information stored in all spectral bands. The selected methods are applied to a multispectral Advanced SpaceBorne Thermal Emission and Radiometer (ASTER) image of the study region, with an atmospheric correction prior to the realization of the algorithms. ASTER provides multispectral bands covering visible, short wave, and thermal infrared region, which serves as a useful tool for the interpretation of the areas with hydrocarbon anomalies. The exploration area is selected as Gemrik Anticline which is located in South East Anatolia, Adıyaman, Bozova Oil Field, where microseeps can be observed with almost no vegetation cover. The spectral signatures collected with Analytical Spectral Devices Inc. (ASD) spectrometer from the reference valley [2] have been utilized as an input to the signature based detection algorithms. The experiments have indicated that DTDCA and MF outperforms the Crosta technique by locating the microseepage patterns along the mitigation pathways with a better contrast. On the other hand, NC has not been able to map the searched target with a visible distinction. It is concluded that the signature based algorithms can be more effective than the conventional methods for the detection of microseepage induced anomalies.

  18. R-peaks detection based on stationary wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merah, M; Abdelmalik, T A; Larbi, B H

    2015-10-01

    Automatic detection of the QRS complexes/R-peaks in an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is the most important step preceding any kind of ECG processing and analysis. The performance of these systems heavily relies on the accuracy of the QRS detector. The objective of present work is to drive a new robust method based on stationary wavelet transform (SWT) for R-peaks detection. The decimation of the coefficients at each level of the transformation algorithm is omitted, more samples in the coefficient sequences are available and hence a better outlier detection can be performed. Using the information of local maxima, minima and zero crossings of the fourth SWT coefficient detail, the proposed algorithm identifies the significant points for detection and delineation of the QRS complexes, as well as detection and identification of the QRS individual waves peaks of the pre-processed ECG signal. Various experimental results show that the proposed algorithm exhibits reliable QRS detection as well as accurate ECG delineation, achieving excellent performance on different databases, on the MIT-BIH database (Se=99.84%, P=99.88%), on the QT Database (Se=99.94%, P=99.89%) and on MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database, (Se=95.30%, P=93.98%). Reliability and accuracy are close to the highest among the ones obtained in other studies. Experiments results being satisfactory, the SWT may represent a novel QRS detection tool, for a robust ECG signal analysis. PMID:26105724

  19. An FPGA-Based Rapid Wheezing Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheezing is often treated as a crucial indicator in the diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. A rapid wheezing detection system may help physicians to monitor patients over the long-term. In this study, a portable wheezing detection system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA is proposed. This system accelerates wheezing detection, and can be used as either a single-process system, or as an integrated part of another biomedical signal detection system. The system segments sound signals into 2-second units. A short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the relationship between the time and frequency components of wheezing sound data. A spectrogram was processed using 2D bilateral filtering, edge detection, multithreshold image segmentation, morphological image processing, and image labeling, to extract wheezing features according to computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA standards. These features were then used to train the support vector machine (SVM and build the classification models. The trained model was used to analyze sound data to detect wheezing. The system runs on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 platform. The experimental results revealed that the system offered excellent wheezing recognition performance (0.912. The detection process can be used with a clock frequency of 51.97 MHz, and is able to perform rapid wheezing classification.

  20. A stereo vision-based obstacle detection system in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kunsoo; Park, Jaehak; Hwang, Junyeon; Hong, Daegun

    2008-02-01

    Obstacle detection is a crucial issue for driver assistance systems as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance function and it has to be performed with high reliability to avoid any potential collision with the front vehicle. The vision-based obstacle detection systems are regarded promising for this purpose because they require little infrastructure on a highway. However, the feasibility of these systems in passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. In this paper, an obstacle detection system using stereo vision sensors is developed. This system utilizes feature matching, epipoplar constraint and feature aggregation in order to robustly detect the initial corresponding pairs. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the obstacles. The proposed system can detect a front obstacle, a leading vehicle and a vehicle cutting into the lane. Then, the position parameters of the obstacles and leading vehicles can be obtained. The proposed obstacle detection system is implemented on a passenger car and its performance is verified experimentally.

  1. PCA-HOG symmetrical feature based diseased cell detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min-jie

    2016-04-01

    A histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature is applied to the field of diseased cell detection, which can detect diseased cells in high resolution tissue images rapidly, accurately and efficiently. Firstly, motivated by symmetrical cellular forms, a new HOG symmetrical feature based on the traditional HOG feature is proposed to meet the condition of cell detection. Secondly, considering the high feature dimension of traditional HOG feature leads to plenty of memory resources and long runtime in practical applications, a classical dimension reduction method called principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimension of high-dimensional HOG descriptor. Because of that, computational speed is increased greatly, and the accuracy of detection can be controlled in a proper range at the same time. Thirdly, support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained with PCA-HOG symmetrical features proposed above. At last, practical tissue images is detected and analyzed by SVM classifier. In order to verify the effectiveness of this new algorithm, it is practically applied to conduct diseased cell detection which takes 200 pieces of H&E (hematoxylin & eosin) high resolution staining histopathological images collected from 20 breast cancer patients as a sample. The experiment shows that the average processing rate can be 25 frames per second and the detection accuracy can be 92.1%.

  2. Novel Rx IQ mismatch compensation considering laser phase noise for CO-OFDM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiurong; Ding, Zhaocai; Li, Kun; Wang, Xiao

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel compensation scheme for receiver (Rx) in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mismatch is proposed in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system in the presence of laser phase noise. In this scheme, laser phase noise and channel distortion were combined as a new channel transfer factor, the IQ mismatch factor and initial channel transfer factor can be estimated independently based on the relationship of IQ mismatch factors. And the channel transfer factor can be updated on a symbol-by-symbol basis which retrieves an estimation of the phase noise value by extracting and averaging the phase drift of all OFDM sub-channels. Numerical results indicate that when the phase and amplitude mismatch are 10° and 2 dB respectively, a 1.6 dB optical signal-to noise ratio is improved at laser linewidth of 60 kHz. Furthermore, the complexity of the proposed method is analyzed in terms of the number of required complex multiplications per bit.

  3. Effects of GA mismatches on the structure and thermodynamics of RNA internal loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV melting, CD and NMR studies indicate rGCGAGCG and rGCAGGCG from unusually stable duplexes of type a and b. The observed ΔG degree 37's in 1 M NaCl are -6.7 and -6.3 kcal/mol, respectively. For the related duplex, c,ΔG degree 37 is -4.2kcal/mol. The predicted ΔG degree 37 from nearest-neighbor parameters for all three duplexes is -4.7 kcal/mol. The results suggest a special interaction in the duplexes containing GA mismatches. Presumably, this is hydrogen bonding between G and A. While the thermodynamics for (rGCGAGCG)2 and (rGCAGGCG)2 are similar, CD and the imino region of the proton NMR spectra indicate their structures are different. The NMR spectrum of (rGCAGGCG)2 has a resonance corresponding to a hydrogen-bonded GA mismatch, while for (rGCGAGCG)2 no hydrogen-bonded imino proton is observed for the mismatch. The glycosidic torsion angles of the bases in the GA mismatches of (rGCAGGCG)2 and (rCGCAGGCG)2 are anti. Duplexes of type d, where X is A, G, or U, are more stable than e, and the stability differences are similar to those observed for f versus g. Thus, 3'-dangling ends in this system make contributions to duplex stability that are similar to contributions observed with fully paired duplexes

  4. Violence detection based on histogram of optical flow orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhijie; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Jie; Wu, Qiang; Bai, Li; Yao, Lixiu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for violence detection and localization in a public scene. Currently, violence detection is considerably under-researched compared with the common action recognition. Although existing methods can detect the presence of violence in a video, they cannot precisely locate the regions in the scene where violence is happening. This paper will tackle the challenge and propose a novel method to locate the violence location in the scene, which is important for public surveillance. The Gaussian Mixed Model is extended into the optical flow domain in order to detect candidate violence regions. In each region, a new descriptor, Histogram of Optical Flow Orientation (HOFO), is proposed to measure the spatial-temporal features. A linear SVM is trained based on the descriptor. The performance of the method is demonstrated on the publicly available data sets, BEHAVE and CAVIAR.

  5. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library

  6. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. S., E-mail: jingsong-li@ahu.edu.cn; Yu, B. [Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation of Ministry of Education, Anhui University, Hefei (China); Fischer, H. [Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Chen, W. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie de l’Atmosphére, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, Dunkerque (France); Yalin, A. P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1374 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  7. Contributed review: quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J S; Yu, B; Fischer, H; Chen, W; Yalin, A P

    2015-03-01

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade. PMID:25832204

  8. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trambitckii, K.; Anding, K.; Musalimov, V.; Linß, G.

    2015-02-01

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library.

  9. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade

  10. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. S.; Yu, B.; Fischer, H.; Chen, W.; Yalin, A. P.

    2015-03-01

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  11. Sparsity-based algorithm for detecting faults in rotating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wangpeng; Ding, Yin; Zi, Yanyang; Selesnick, Ivan W.

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the detection of periodic transients in vibration signals so as to detect faults in rotating machines. For this purpose, we present a method to estimate periodic-group-sparse signals in noise. The method is based on the formulation of a convex optimization problem. A fast iterative algorithm is given for its solution. A simulated signal is formulated to verify the performance of the proposed approach for periodic feature extraction. The detection performance of comparative methods is compared with that of the proposed approach via RMSE values and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to single fault diagnosis of a locomotive bearing and compound faults diagnosis of motor bearings. The processed results show that the proposed approach can effectively detect and extract the useful features of bearing outer race and inner race defect.

  12. FPGA-based amplitude and phase detection in DLLRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rong; WANG Zheng; PAN Wei-Min; WANG Guang-Wei; LIN Hai-Ying; SHA Peng; ZENG Ri-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The new generation particle accelerator requires a highly stable radio frequency (RF) system. The stability of the RF system is realized by the Low Level RF (LLRF) subsystem which controls the amplitude and phase of the RF signal. The detection of the RF signal's amplitude and phase is fundamental to LLRF controls. High-speed ADC (Analog to Digital Converter), DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) play very important roles in digital LLRF control systems. This paper describes the implementation of real-time amplitude and phase detection based of the FPGA with an analysis of the main factors that affect the detection accuracy such as jitter, algorithm's defects and non-linearity of devices, which is helpful for future work on high precision detection and control.

  13. Edge Detection Operators: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio Based Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Poobathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is the vital task in digital image processing. It makes the image segmentation and pattern recognition more comfort. It also helps for object detection. There are many edge detectors available for pre-processing in computer vision. But, Canny, Sobel, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG, Robert’s and Prewitt are most applied algorithms. This paper compares each of these operators by the manner of checking Peak signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and Mean Squared Error (MSE of resultant image. It evaluates the performance of each algorithm with Matlab and Java. The set of four universally standardized test images are used for the experimentation. The PSNR and MSE results are numeric values, based on that, performance of algorithms identified. The time required for each algorithm to detect edges is also documented. After the Experimentation, Canny operator found as the best among others in edge detection accuracy.

  14. Functional distance between recipient and donor HLA-DPB1 determines nonpermissive mismatches in unrelated HCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Pietro; Heinold, Andreas; Rebmann, Vera; Ottinger, Hellmut D; Horn, Peter A; Beelen, Dietrich W; Fleischhauer, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    The role of HLA amino acid (AA) polymorphism for the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is controversial, in particular for HLA class II. Here, we investigated this question in nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 T-cell epitope (TCE) mismatches reflected by numerical functional distance (FD) scores, assignable to all HLA-DPB1 alleles based on the combined impact of 12 polymorphic AAs. We calculated the difference in FD scores (ΔFD) of mismatched HLA-DPB1 alleles in patients and their 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors of 379 HCTs performed at our center for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Receiver-operator curve-based stratification into 2 ΔFD subgroups showed a significantly higher percentage of nonpermissive TCE mismatches for ΔFD >2.665, compared with ΔFD ≤2.665 (88% vs 25%, P 2.665 was significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.87; P TCE mismatches. There was a marked but not statistically significant increase in the hazards of relapse and nonrelapse mortality in the high ΔFD subgroup, whereas no differences were observed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Seven nonconservative AA substitutions in peptide-binding positions had a significantly stronger impact on ΔFD compared with 5 others (P = .0025), demonstrating qualitative differences in the relative impact of AA polymorphism in HLA-DPB1. The novel concept of ΔFD sheds new light onto nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in unrelated HCT. PMID:27162243

  15. Test Mismatch in Switched-Current Circuits Using Wavelet Analysis"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jierong; HE Yigang; LIU Meirong; TANG Shengxue; LI Hongmin

    2007-01-01

    Errors of mismatch and currents calibration caused by channel geometrical variety in switched-current are investigated in this paper. The relation and computing of mismatch and sensitivity are discussed also, and then a measure method of switched current mismatch using wavelet decomposition is proposed. A selected group of same transconductance is choosing as a cohort firstly, and the sensitivities of cohort in relation to the variation of transconductance are computed. Compared with the nominal deviation and tolerance borderline, the optimization and testing can be performed. As an example, a sixth order chebyshev low-pass filter is simulated and tested. The results have justified the reliability and feasibility of the method.

  16. Electrochemiluminescence detection in microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenrong; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun

    2016-01-15

    This work describes the first approach at combining microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. Wax screen-printing is employed to make cloth-based microfluidic chambers which are patterned with carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) to create truly disposable, simple, inexpensive sensors which can be read with a low-cost, portable charge coupled device (CCD) imaging sensing system. And, the two most commonly used ECL systems of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/tri-n-propylamine (Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA) and 3-aminophthalhydrazide/hydrogen peroxide (luminol/H2O2) are applied to demonstrate the quantitative ability of the ECL μCADs. In this study, the proposed devices have successfully fulfilled the determination of TPA with a linear range from 2.5 to 2500μM with a detection limit of 1.265μM. In addition, the detection of H2O2 can be performed in the linear range of 0.05-2.0mM, with a detection limit of 0.027mM. It has been shown that the ECL emission on the wax-patterned cloth device has an acceptable sensitivity, stability and reproducibility. Finally, the applicability of cloth-based ECL is demonstrated for determination of glucose in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and artificial urine (AU) samples, with the detection limits of 0.032mM and 0.038mM, respectively. It can be foreseen, therefore, that μCADs with ECL detection could provide a new sensing platform for point-of-care testing, public health, food safety detection and environmental monitoring in remote regions, developing or developed countries. PMID:26319168

  17. Nanoparticles based DNA conjugates for detection of pathogenic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdagni, Pragati; Khatri, Poonam; Rana, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases have been on rise in the recent past. Early diagnosis plays a role as important as proper treatment and prophylaxis. The current practices of detection are time consuming which may result in unnecessary delays in treatment. Advances in nanodiagnostic approaches have been in focus lately. The rising interest and better understanding of nanoparticles have led to opening up of new frontiers in the concerned area. Optical properties of nanoparticles are being exploited to design detection systems that can provide fast, one-step and reliable results. Based on conserved DNA sequences unique to the target organism, the results offer accuracy comparable to conventional tests. Further, visual or spectrophotometric analysis omits the need of costly apparatus for result interpretation. The present review aims at putting together the information on nanoparticles based DNA conjugate systems for detection of pathogenic microorganisms.

  18. SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively. (paper)

  19. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION METHOD BASED ON RS-MSVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun; Han Chongzhao; Zheng Qinghua; Zhang Junjie

    2006-01-01

    A new method called RS-MSVM (Rough Set and Multi-class Support Vector Machine) is proposed for network intrusion detection. This method is based on rough set followed by MSVM for attribute reduction and classification respectively. The number of attributes of the network data used in this paper is reduced from 41 to 30 using rough set theory. The kernel function of HVDM-RBF (Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric Radial Basis Function), based on the heterogeneous value difference metric of heterogeneous datasets, is constructed for the heterogeneous network data. HVDM-RBF and one-against-one method are applied to build MSVM. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) intrusion detection evaluating data were used in the experiment. The testing results show that our method outperforms other methods mentioned in this paper on six aspects: detection accuracy, number of support vectors, false positive rate, false negative rate, training time and testing time.

  20. GPR-Based Landmine Detection and Identification Using Multiple Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hee Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to identify landmines in various burial conditions. A ground penetration radar is used to generate data set, which is then processed to reduce the ground effect and noise to obtain landmine signals. Principal components and Fourier coefficients of the landmine signals are computed, which are used as features of each landmine for detection and identification. A database is constructed based on the features of various types of landmines and the ground conditions, including the different levels of moisture and types of ground and the burial depths of the landmines. Detection and identification is performed by searching for features in the database. For a robust decision, the counting method and the Mahalanobis distance-based likelihood ratio test method are employed. Four landmines, different in size and material, are considered as examples that demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method for detecting and identifying landmines.

  1. Ensemble method: Community detection based on game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.

  2. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  3. PRIORITY BASED CONGESTION DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Beulah Jayakumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of event driven wireless sensor networks is to route the detected or monitored data at the earliest to the base station depending on their degree of priority since the data generated in a sensor network has different importance. In order to avoid indiscriminate dropping of data during congestion we propose a novel congestion protocol named priority based congestion detection and avoidance in wireless sensor networks. It aims to provide differentiated data delivery during congestion which comprises of packet priority assignment based on data value, dual queue scheduler for scheduling the next packet to forward based on priority and finally a dynamic dual path congestion aware routing protocol is developed. Our simulation results and analysis shows that this new protocol provides better performance than existing protocols in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and packet loss.

  4. Two-Stage Part-Based Pedestrian Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.;

    2012-01-01

    gained a special place among the different approaches presented. This work presents a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection system based on a two stages classifier. Candidates are extracted with a Haar cascade classifier trained with the DaimlerDB dataset and then validated through part-based HOG......Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...... classifier with the aim of lowering the number of false positives. The surviving candidates are then filtered with a feature-based tracking to enhance the recognition robustness and improve the results' stability. The system has been implemented on a prototype vehicle and offers high performance in terms of...

  5. Low Noise, High Detectivity Photodetectors based on Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fawen

    Organic photodetectors (OPDs) are potentially useful in many applications because of their light weight, flexibility and good form factors. Despite the high detectivities that have been frequently reported for OPDs recently, the application of these OPDs for weak light detection has been rarely demonstrated. In this thesis, low noise, high gain photodetectors based on organic and ZnO nanoparticles were proposed and demonstrated for highly sensitive UV light detection. The nanocomposite photodetector works in a hybrid mode of photodiode and photoconductor with the transition controlled by the UV light illumination. The nanocomposite detector shows two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than silicon detectors in the UV range, which is the first time an organic, solution-processed detector has been shown to significantly outperform the inorganic photonic devices. In the fullerene-based photodetector, the dark-current has been successfully reduced by a cross-linked TPD (C-TPD) buffer layer. The high detectivity of 3.6 x 1011 cm Hz½ W-1 (Jones) at 370 nm and the wide Linear dynamic range (LDR) of 90 dB, along with a response speed faster than 20 kHz, suggests that the fullerene-based organic photodetectors proposed here can open the way for many potential applications. The ZnO nanoparticles have been introduced into the C-TPD buffer layer of the fullerene-based photodetector to increase the photoconductive gain and reduce the noise current. The peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) value of approximately 400% and the peak specific detectivity of 6.5 x 10 12 Jones at the wavelength of 390 nm, along with the record high LDR of 120 dB, enable the photodetector to be used in wide range of applications such as imaging, communication, and defense. The extremely high sensitivity of the photodetector also makes it particularly attractive for very weak light detection.

  6. Statistics and Machine Learning based Outlier Detection Techniques for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Amit; Montgomery, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Architectures of planetary systems are observable snapshots in time that can indicate formation and dynamic evolution of planets. The observable key parameters that we consider are planetary mass and orbital period. If planet masses are significantly less than their host star masses, then Keplerian Motion is defined as P^2 = a^3 where P is the orbital period in units of years and a is the orbital period in units of Astronomical Units (AU). Keplerian motion works on small scales such as the size of the Solar System but not on large scales such as the size of the Milky Way Galaxy. In this work, for confirmed exoplanets of known stellar mass, planetary mass, orbital period, and stellar age, we analyze Keplerian motion of systems based on stellar age to seek if Keplerian motion has an age dependency and to identify outliers. For detecting outliers, we apply several techniques based on statistical and machine learning methods such as probabilistic, linear, and proximity based models. In probabilistic and statistical models of outliers, the parameters of a closed form probability distributions are learned in order to detect the outliers. Linear models use regression analysis based techniques for detecting outliers. Proximity based models use distance based algorithms such as k-nearest neighbour, clustering algorithms such as k-means, or density based algorithms such as kernel density estimation. In this work, we will use unsupervised learning algorithms with only the proximity based models. In addition, we explore the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques by validating the outliers. The validation criteria for the outliers is if the ratio of planetary mass to stellar mass is less than 0.001. In this work, we present our statistical analysis of the outliers thus detected.

  7. Pathfinding Based on Edge Detection and Infrared Distance Measuring Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Kuljić; János Simon; Tibor Szakáll

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes that pathfinding for mobile robots, in unknown environment,be based on extracting 3D features of an object using 2D image edge detection andinfrared (IR) distance measuring sensor. Standard VGA color camera gives very goodresults only in environment that is very well illuminated. Our solution is based on IRcamera which enables robot to navigate between obstacles even in complete darkness.

  8. Cauchy Based Matched Filter for Retinal Vessels Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zolfagharnasab, Hooshiar; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel matched filter based on a new kernel function with Cauchy distribution is introduced to improve the accuracy of the automatic retinal vessel detection compared with other available matched filter-based methods, most notably, the methods built on Gaussian distribution function. Several experiments are conducted to pick the best values of the parameters for the new designed filter, including both Cauchy function parameters as well as the matched filter parameters such as ...

  9. Video Event Detection Based on Over-segmented STV Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Jing WANG; Xu, Zhijie

    2011-01-01

    Real-world environment introduces many variations into video recordings such as changing illumination and object dynamics. In this paper, a technique for abstracting useful spatio-temporal features from graph-based segmentation operations has been proposed. A spatio-temporal volume (STV)-based shape matching algorithm is then devised by using the intersection theory to facilitate the definition and detection of video events. To maintain system efficiency, this research has integrated an innov...

  10. A Vision-based Approach to Fire Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Gomes; Pedro Santana; José Barata

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a vision-based method for fire detection from fixed surveillance smart cameras. The method integrates several well-known techniques properly adapted to cope with the challenges related to the actual deployment of the vision system. Concretely, background subtraction is performed with a context-based learning mechanism so as to attain higher accuracy and robustness. The computational cost of a frequency analysis of potential fire regions is reduced by means of focusing its ...

  11. A vision-based approach to fire detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Pedro; Santana, Pedro; Barata, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a vision-based method for fire detection from fixed surveillance smart cameras. The method integrates several well-known techniques properly adapted to cope with the challenges related to the actual deployment of the vision system. Concretely, background subtraction is performed with a context-based learning mechanism so as to attain higher accuracy and robustness. The computational cost of a frequency analysis of potential fire regions is reduced by means of focusing its ...

  12. Singularity Detection of Signals Based on their Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a multiresolution decomposition of signals based on their wavelet transform. The different behaviors of the wavelet transform between the signal and the noise are compared. An algorithm of singularity detection and processing in signals is proposed by the modulus maximum of the wavelet transform.

  13. An Astigmatic Detection System for Polymeric Cantilever-based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwu, En-Te; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Bosco, Filippo; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja; Huang, Kuang-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic detection system (ADS) for resonance frequency identification of polymer microcantilever sensors. The ADS technology is based on a DVD optical head combined with an optical microscope (OM). The optical head has a signal bandwidth of 80 MHz, allowing thermal...

  14. Corner Detection Based on Human Visual System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiaoguang; ZHOU Jie

    2001-01-01

    Corners are useful features in computer vision tasks.In this paper,we present an algorithm for corner detection based on a human visual system model.Experimental results proved that it ismore effective than conventional corner detector under uneven illumination conditions.

  15. PILOT-BASED FREQUENCY OFFSET DETECTION SCHEME IN OFDM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Zheng; Zhu Jinkang

    2003-01-01

    The frequency offset information is extracted from local pilot amplitude characteristics, which suffer much less distortion in frequency-selective fading channels than those utilizing frequency domain correlation techniques. Simulation shows that the performance of this scheme has better performance than the existing frequency domain pilot-based frequency offset detection scheme.

  16. Skin Color Detection Using Region-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra PK Poudel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin color provides a powerful cue for complex computer vision applications. Although skin color detection has been an active research area for decades, the mainstream technology is based on the individual pixels. This paper, which extended our previous work [1], presented a new region- based technique for skin color detection which outperformed the current state-of-the-art pixel- based skin color detection technique on the popular Compaq dataset [2]. Color and spatial distance based clustering technique is used to extract the regions from the images, also known as superpixels followed by a state-of-the-art non-parametric pixel-based skin color classifier called the basic skin color classifier. The pixel-based skin color evidence is then aggregated to classify the superpixels. Finally, the Conditional Random Field (CRF is applied to further improve the results. As CRF operates over superpixels, the computational overhead is minimal. Our technique achieved 91.17% true positive rate with 13.12% false negative rate on the Compaq dataset tested over approximately 14,000 web images.

  17. AN EFFICIENT PEAK VALLEY DETECTION BASED VAD ALGORITHM FOR ROBUST DETECTION OF SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice Activity Detection (VAD problem considers detecting the presence of speech in a noisy signal. The speech/non-speech classification task is not as trivial as it appears, and most of the VAD algorithms fail when the level of background noise increases. In this research we are presenting a new technique for Voice Activity Detection (VAD in EEG collected brain stem speech evoked potentials data [7, 8, 9]. This one is spectral subtraction method in which we have developed our own mathematical formula for the peak valley detection (PVD of the frequency spectra to detect the voice activity [1]. The purpose of this research is to compare the performance of this SNR based PVD (SNRPVD method over Zero-Crossing rate detector [5] and statistical analysis based algorithms [10]. We have put into application of these three algorithms on these particular data sets of this experiment [7, 8, 9] and VAD is verified and compared the results of these three. MATLAB routines were developed on these particular methodologies. Finally we concluded that the method of SNRPVD surely performing better than the ZCR and statistical algorithms.

  18. Myocardial perfusion/metabolism mismatch and ventricular arrhythmias in the chronic post infarction state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Ventricular arrhythmias have been shown to originate in the myocardial peri-infarct region due to irregular heterotopic conduction. Hypoperfused but viable myocardium is often localised in those areas and may be involved in the pathogenesis of arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that these myocardial perfusion/metabolism mismatches (MM) are significantly associated with ventricular arrhythmias in the chronic post infarction state. Patients, methods: 47 post infarction patients were included in the study. 33 suffered from ventricular arrhythmia whereas 14 did not. All patients underwent 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT and 18F-FDG PET. A region-of-interest(ROI)-analysis was used to assess viable myocardium based on predefined MM-criteria. Univariate analyses as well as a logistic regression model for the multivariate analysis were carried out. Results: 94% of the arrhythmic patients displayed at least one MM-segment as compared to 64% of the non-arrhythmic patients. MM-segments and arrhythmia showed a statistically significant relation (p=0.018). The logistic regression model predicted the occurrence or absence of arrhythmia in 85% of all cases. Multivariate analysis gave consistent results, after adjusting for symptomatic chronic heart failure (CHF), aneurysms and age. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that hypoperfused but viable myocardium represents an arrhyhmogenic substrate and is a relevant risk factor for developing ventricular arrhythmias following myocardial infarction. Therefore, the detection of MM-segments allows the identification of patients with a higher risk for future cardiac events. (orig.)

  19. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  20. L-band AlGaN/GaN Power Amplifier with Protection Against Load Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Heijningen , M. van; Bent, G. van der; Houwen, E.H. van de; A Chowdhary; Vliet, F.E. van

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state power amplifiers need protection at the output to handle high reflections due to mismatch. Normally this is implemented by using a ferrite-based isolator. These are however large and bulky components. This paper presents a Gallium-Nitride power amplifier module with automatic protection against large reflections based on fold-back protection, by sensing the reflected power. Measurements have been performed on a 100 W L-band power amplifier module at full reflection (short at the o...

  1. A Simulated Multiagent-Based Architecture for Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onashoga S. Adebukola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Multiagent-based architecture for Intrusion Detection System (MIDS is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of current Mobile Agent-based Intrusion Detection System. MIDS is divided into three major phases namely: Data gathering, Detection and the Response phases. The data gathering stage involves data collection based on the features in the distributed system and profiling. The data collection components are distributed on both host and network. Closed Pattern Mining (CPM algorithm is introduced for profiling users’ activities in network database. The CPM algorithm is built on the concept of Frequent Pattern-growth algorithm by mining a prefix-tree called CPM-tree, which contains only the closed itemsets and its associated support count. According to the administrator’s specified thresholds, CPM-tree maintains only closed patterns online and incrementally outputs the current closed frequent pattern of users’ activities in real time. MIDS makes use of mobile and static agents to carry out the functions of intrusion detection. Each of these agents is built with rule-based reasoning to autonomously detect intrusions. Java 1.1.8 is chosen as the implementation language and IBM’s Java based mobile agent framework, Aglet 1.0.3 as the platform for running the mobile and static agents. In order to test the robustness of the system, a real-time simulation is carried out on University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB network dataset and the results showed an accuracy of 99.94%, False Positive Rate (FPR of 0.13% and False Negative Rate (FNR of 0.04%. This shows an improved performance of MIDS when compared with other known MA-IDSs.

  2. Digital Signal Processing Based Real Time Vehicular Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoxuan; LIN Tao; LI Xiangping; LIU Chunyi; GAO Jian

    2005-01-01

    Traffic monitoring is of major importance for enforcing traffic management policies.To accomplish this task,the detection of vehicle can be achieved by exploiting image analysis techniques.In this paper,a solution is presented to obtain various traffic parameters through vehicular video detection system(VVDS).VVDS exploits the algorithm based on virtual loops to detect moving vehicle in real time.This algorithm uses the background differencing method,and vehicles can be detected through luminance difference of pixels between background image and current image.Furthermore a novel technology named as spatio-temporal image sequences analysis is applied to background differencing to improve detection accuracy.Then a hardware implementation of a digital signal processing (DSP) based board is described in detail and the board can simultaneously process four-channel video from different cameras. The benefit of usage of DSP is that images of a roadway can be processed at frame rate due to DSP′s high performance.In the end,VVDS is tested on real-world scenes and experiment results show that the system is both fast and robust to the surveillance of transportation.

  3. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art.

  4. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyu; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2015-01-01

    Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art. PMID:26610514

  5. Micro-vibration-based slip detection in tactile force sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Raul; Payo, Ismael; Vazquez, Andres S; Becedas, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Tactile sensing provides critical information, such as force, texture, shape or temperature, in manipulation tasks. In particular, tactile sensors traditionally used in robotics are emphasized in contact force determination for grasping control and object recognition. Nevertheless, slip detection is also crucial to successfully manipulate an object. Several approaches have appeared to detect slipping, the majority being a combination of complex sensors with complex algorithms. In this paper, we deal with simplicity, analyzing how a novel, but simple, algorithm, based on micro-vibration detection, can be used in a simple, but low-cost and durable, force sensor. We also analyze the results of using the same principle to detect slipping in other force sensors based on flexible parts. In particular, we show and compare the slip detection with: (i) a flexible finger, designed by the authors, acting as a force sensor; (ii) the finger torque sensor of a commercial robotic hand; (iii) a commercial six-axis force sensor mounted on the wrist of a robot; and (iv) a fingertip piezoresistive matrix sensor. PMID:24394598

  6. Micro-Vibration-Based Slip Detection in Tactile Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensing provides critical information, such as force, texture, shape or temperature, in manipulation tasks. In particular, tactile sensors traditionally used in robotics are emphasized in contact force determination for grasping control and object recognition. Nevertheless, slip detection is also crucial to successfully manipulate an object. Several approaches have appeared to detect slipping, the majority being a combination of complex sensors with complex algorithms. In this paper, we deal with simplicity, analyzing how a novel, but simple, algorithm, based on micro-vibration detection, can be used in a simple, but low-cost and durable, force sensor. We also analyze the results of using the same principle to detect slipping in other force sensors based on flexible parts. In particular, we show and compare the slip detection with: (i a flexible finger, designed by the authors, acting as a force sensor; (ii the finger torque sensor of a commercial robotic hand; (iii a commercial six-axis force sensor mounted on the wrist of a robot; and (iv a fingertip piezoresistive matrix sensor.

  7. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  8. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Palmerini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the “prototype fall”.In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms.

  9. PDM-16QAM vector signal generation and detection based on intensity modulation and direct detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel and simple method to generate and detect high speed polarization-division-multiplexing 16-ary quadrature-amplitude-modulation (PDM-16QAM) vector signal enabled by Mach-Zehnder modulator-based (MZM-based) optical-carrier-suppression (OCS) intensity modulation and direct detection. Due to the adoption of OCS intensity modulation, carrier beating can be avoided at the receiver, and thus polarization de-multiplexing can be implemented by digital-signal-processing-based (DSP-based) cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization instead of a polarization tracking system. The change of both amplitude and phase information due to the adoption of OCS modulation can be equalized by DSP-based amplitude and phase precoding at the transmitter. Up to 64-Gb/s PDM-16QAM vector signal is generated and detected after 2-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) or 20-km large-effective-area fiber (LEAF) transmission with a bit-error-ratio (BER) less than the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  10. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 104 cfu.mL−1 and 103 cfu.mL−1, respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  11. Disposable amperometric biosensor based on nanostructured bacteriophages for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Ri; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Nam, Chang Hoon; Kim, Soo Won

    2010-10-01

    The selection of electrode material profoundly influences biosensor science and engineering, as it heavily influences biosensor sensitivity. Here we propose a novel electrochemical detection method using a working electrode consisting of bio-nanowires from genetically modified filamentous phages and nanoparticles. fd-tet p8MMM filamentous phages displaying a three-methionine (MMM) peptide on the major coat protein pVIII (designated p8MMM phages) were immobilized on the active area of an electrochemical sensor through physical adsorption and chemical bonding. Bio-nanowires composed of p8MMM phages and silver nanoparticles facilitated sensitive, rapid and selective detection of particular molecules. We explored whether the composite electrode with bio-nanowires was an effective platform to detect the glucose oxidase. The current response of the bio-nanowire sensor was high at various glucose concentrations (0.1 µm-0.1 mM). This method provides a considerable advantage to demonstrate analyte detection over low concentration ranges. Especially, phage-enabled bio-nanowires can serve as receptors with high affinity and specificity for the detection of particular biomolecules and provide a convenient platform for designing site-directed multifunctional scaffolds based on bacteriophages and may serve as a simple method for label-free detection.

  12. Disposable amperometric biosensor based on nanostructured bacteriophages for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of electrode material profoundly influences biosensor science and engineering, as it heavily influences biosensor sensitivity. Here we propose a novel electrochemical detection method using a working electrode consisting of bio-nanowires from genetically modified filamentous phages and nanoparticles. fd-tet p8MMM filamentous phages displaying a three-methionine (MMM) peptide on the major coat protein pVIII (designated p8MMM phages) were immobilized on the active area of an electrochemical sensor through physical adsorption and chemical bonding. Bio-nanowires composed of p8MMM phages and silver nanoparticles facilitated sensitive, rapid and selective detection of particular molecules. We explored whether the composite electrode with bio-nanowires was an effective platform to detect the glucose oxidase. The current response of the bio-nanowire sensor was high at various glucose concentrations (0.1 µm–0.1 mM). This method provides a considerable advantage to demonstrate analyte detection over low concentration ranges. Especially, phage-enabled bio-nanowires can serve as receptors with high affinity and specificity for the detection of particular biomolecules and provide a convenient platform for designing site-directed multifunctional scaffolds based on bacteriophages and may serve as a simple method for label-free detection

  13. Using Satellite Based Techniques to Combine Volcanic Ash Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, B. T.; Kessinger, C.; Herzegh, P.; Blackburn, G.; Cowie, J.; Williams, E.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic ash poses a serious threat to aircraft avionics due to the corrosive nature of the silicate particles. Aircraft encounters with ash have resulted in millions of dollars in damage and loss of power to aircraft engines. Accurate detection of volcanic ash for the purpose of avoiding these hazardous areas is of the utmost importance to ensure aviation safety as well as to minimize economic loss. Satellite-based detection of volcanic ash has been used extensively to warn the aviation community of its presence through the use of multi-band detection algorithms. However, these algorithms are generally used individually rather than in combination and require the intervention of a human analyst. Automation of the detection and warning of the presence of volcanic ash for the aviation community is a long term goal of the Federal Aviation Administration Oceanic Weather Product Development Team. We are exploring the use of data fusion techniques within a fuzzy logic framework to perform a weighted combination of several multi-band detection algorithms. Our purpose is to improve the overall performance of volcanic ash detection and to test whether automation is feasible. Our initial focus is on deep, stratospheric eruptions.

  14. A Viola-Jones based hybrid face detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas M.; Broussard, Randy; Schultz, Robert; Rakvic, Ryan; Ngo, Hau

    2013-12-01

    Improvements in face detection performance would benefit many applications. The OpenCV library implements a standard solution, the Viola-Jones detector, with a statistically boosted rejection cascade of binary classifiers. Empirical evidence has shown that Viola-Jones underdetects in some instances. This research shows that a truncated cascade augmented by a neural network could recover these undetected faces. A hybrid framework is constructed, with a truncated Viola-Jones cascade followed by an artificial neural network, used to refine the face decision. Optimally, a truncation stage that captured all faces and allowed the neural network to remove the false alarms is selected. A feedforward backpropagation network with one hidden layer is trained to discriminate faces based upon the thresholding (detection) values of intermediate stages of the full rejection cascade. A clustering algorithm is used as a precursor to the neural network, to group significant overlappings. Evaluated on the CMU/VASC Image Database, comparison with an unmodified OpenCV approach shows: (1) a 37% increase in detection rates if constrained by the requirement of no increase in false alarms, (2) a 48% increase in detection rates if some additional false alarms are tolerated, and (3) an 82% reduction in false alarms with no reduction in detection rates. These results demonstrate improved face detection and could address the need for such improvement in various applications.

  15. Traffic Flow Detection Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-juan Liang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Detecting traffic flow by in-road inductive loop is the most common methods, but inductive loop is physically large, it is hard to install and maintain, also the classification rate is low. The inductive loops cannot communicate with each other, so they cannot share traffic data with each other. The wireless sensor network has these features: real-time, fault tolerance, scalability and coordination. Applying wireless sensor network into traffic area for traffic flow detection is easier to install, and provide real-time traffic flow for coordinate traffic control, also it can improve the classification rate. A lot of researchers applied the wireless sensor network for traffic flow detection, but no one referred to the coordinate traffic flow detection method. In this paper, we provided a coordinate traffic flow detection framework. Based on this framework, we set up a simple traffic flow detection platform by wireless sensor nodes produced by cross box company to verify this method. We selected four periods, for each period, we got a more than 90% classification rate.

  16. Local community detection based on modularity metric G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhengyou; Gao, Xiangying; Zhang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    In complex network analysis, the local community detection problem is getting more and more attention. Because of the difficulty to get complete information of the network, such as the World Wide Web, the local community detection has been proposed by researcher. That is, we can detect a community from a certain source vertex with limited knowledge of an entire graph. The previous methods of local community detection now are more or less inadequate in some places. In this paper, we have proposed a new local modularity metric G and based on it, a two-phase algorithm is proposed. The method we have taken is a greedy addition algorithm which means adding vertices into the community until G does not increase. Compared with the previous methods, when our method is calculating the modularity metric, the range of vertices what we considered may affect the quality of the community detection wider. The results of experiments show that whether in computer-generated random graph or in the real networks, our method can effectively solve the problem of the local community detection.

  17. Citation-based plagiarism detection detecting disguised and cross-language plagiarism using citation pattern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gipp, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a problem with far-reaching consequences for the sciences. However, even today's best software-based systems can only reliably identify copy & paste plagiarism. Disguised plagiarism forms, including paraphrased text, cross-language plagiarism, as well as structural and idea plagiarism often remain undetected. This weakness of current systems results in a large percentage of scientific plagiarism going undetected. Bela Gipp provides an overview of the state-of-the art in plagiarism detection and an analysis of why these approaches fail to detect disguised plagiarism forms. The aut

  18. Capacitance-based damage detection sensing for aerospace structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, P.; Yamamoto, N.; Chen, Y.; Manohara, H.

    2014-04-01

    Damage detection technology needs improvement for aerospace engineering application because detection within complex composite structures is difficult yet critical to avoid catastrophic failure. Damage detection is challenging in aerospace structures because not all the damage detection technology can cover the various defect types (delamination, fiber fracture, matrix crack etc.), or conditions (visibility, crack length size, etc.). These defect states are expected to become even more complex with future introduction of novel composites including nano-/microparticle reinforcement. Currently, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods with X-ray, ultrasound, or eddy current have good resolutions (analysis currently requires excessive wiring and complex signal analysis. Here, we present a capacitance sensor-based, structural defect detection technology with improved sensing capability. Thin dielectric polymer layer is integrated as part of the structure; the defect in the structure directly alters the sensing layer's capacitance, allowing full-coverage sensing capability independent of defect size, orientation or location. In this work, capacitance-based sensing capability was experimentally demonstrated with a 2D sensing layer consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched by electrodes. These sensing layers were applied on substrate surfaces. Surface indentation damage (~1mm diameter) and its location were detected through measured capacitance changes: 1 to 250 % depending on the substrates. The damage detection sensors are light weight, and they can be conformably coated and can be part of the composite structure. Therefore it is suitable for aerospace structures such as cryogenic tanks and rocket fairings for example. The sensors can also be operating in space and harsh environment such as high temperature and vacuum.

  19. Detection of influenza A virus based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer from quantum dots to carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Junping [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Huimin, E-mail: zhaohuim@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu Meng; Chen Yaqiong; Quan Xie [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum dots-ssDNA probe was designed for the determination of virus DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of quantum dots was effectively quenched by carbon nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of target H5N1 DNA restored the quenched fluorescence of quantum dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for H5N1 DNA. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple and sensitive approach for H5N1 DNA detection was described based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from quantum dots (QDs) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a QDs-ssDNA/oxCNTs system, in which the QDs (CdTe) modified with ssDNA were used as donors. In the initial stage, with the strong interaction between ssDNA and oxCNTs, QDs fluorescence was effectively quenched. Upon the recognition of the target, the effective competitive bindings of it to QDs-ssDNA occurred, which decreased the interactions between the QDs-ssDNA and oxCNTs, leading to the recovery of the QDs fluorescence. The recovered fluorescence of QDs was linearly proportional to the concentration of the target in the range of 0.01-20 {mu}M with a detection limit of 9.39 nM. Moreover, even a single-base mismatched target with the same concentration of target DNA can only recover a limited low fluorescence of QDs, illustrating the good anti-interference performance of this QDs-ssDNA/oxCNTs system. This FRET platform in the QDs-ssDNA/oxCNTs system was facilitated to the simple, sensitive and quantitative detection of virus nucleic acids and could have a wide range of applications in molecular diagnosis.

  20. Protein-protein interactions in DNA mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedhoff, Peter; Li, Pingping; Gotthardt, Julia

    2016-02-01

    The principal DNA mismatch repair proteins MutS and MutL are versatile enzymes that couple DNA mismatch or damage recognition to other cellular processes. Besides interaction with their DNA substrates this involves transient interactions with other proteins which is triggered by the DNA mismatch or damage and controlled by conformational changes. Both MutS and MutL proteins have ATPase activity, which adds another level to control their activity and interactions with DNA substrates and other proteins. Here we focus on the protein-protein interactions, protein interaction sites and the different levels of structural knowledge about the protein complexes formed with MutS and MutL during the mismatch repair reaction. PMID:26725162

  1. Understanding the Consequences of Property Rights Mismatches: a Case Study of New Zealand's Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Yandle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Within fisheries and natural resource management literature, there is considerable discussion about the key roles that property rights can play in building biologically and socially sustainable resource management regimes. A key point of agreement is that secure long-term property rights provide an incentive for resource users to manage the resource sustainably. However, property rights mismatches create ambiguity and conflict in resource use. Though the term mismatches is usually associated with problems in matching temporal and spatial resource characteristics with institutional characteristics, I expand it here to include problems that can arise when property rights are incompletely defined or incompletely distributed. Property rights mismatches are particularly likely to occur over marine resources, for which multiple types of resource and resource user can be engaged and managed under a variety of regulatory regimes. I used New Zealand's marine resources to examine the causes and consequences of these property rights mismatches. New Zealand is particularly interesting because its property-rights-based commercial fishing regime, in the form of individual transferable quotas, has attracted considerable positive attention. However, my review of the marine natural resource management regime from a broader property rights perspective highlights a series of problems caused by property rights mismatches, including competition for resources among commercial, customary, and recreational fishers; spatial conflict among many marine resource users; and conflicting incentives and objectives for the management of resources over time. The use of a property rights perspective also highlights some potential solutions such as the layering of institutional arrangements and the improvement of how property rights are defined to encourage long-term sustainability.

  2. Convolutional Neural Network Based Fault Detection for Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Olivier; Slavkovikj, Viktor; Vervisch, Bram; Stockman, Kurt; Loccufier, Mia; Verstockt, Steven; Van de Walle, Rik; Van Hoecke, Sofie

    2016-09-01

    Vibration analysis is a well-established technique for condition monitoring of rotating machines as the vibration patterns differ depending on the fault or machine condition. Currently, mainly manually-engineered features, such as the ball pass frequencies of the raceway, RMS, kurtosis an crest, are used for automatic fault detection. Unfortunately, engineering and interpreting such features requires a significant level of human expertise. To enable non-experts in vibration analysis to perform condition monitoring, the overhead of feature engineering for specific faults needs to be reduced as much as possible. Therefore, in this article we propose a feature learning model for condition monitoring based on convolutional neural networks. The goal of this approach is to autonomously learn useful features for bearing fault detection from the data itself. Several types of bearing faults such as outer-raceway faults and lubrication degradation are considered, but also healthy bearings and rotor imbalance are included. For each condition, several bearings are tested to ensure generalization of the fault-detection system. Furthermore, the feature-learning based approach is compared to a feature-engineering based approach using the same data to objectively quantify their performance. The results indicate that the feature-learning system, based on convolutional neural networks, significantly outperforms the classical feature-engineering based approach which uses manually engineered features and a random forest classifier. The former achieves an accuracy of 93.61 percent and the latter an accuracy of 87.25 percent.

  3. Asynchronous event-based corner detection and matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clady, Xavier; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces an event-based luminance-free method to detect and match corner events from the output of asynchronous event-based neuromorphic retinas. The method relies on the use of space-time properties of moving edges. Asynchronous event-based neuromorphic retinas are composed of autonomous pixels, each of them asynchronously generating "spiking" events that encode relative changes in pixels' illumination at high temporal resolutions. Corner events are defined as the spatiotemporal locations where the aperture problem can be solved using the intersection of several geometric constraints in events' spatiotemporal spaces. A regularization process provides the required constraints, i.e. the motion attributes of the edges with respect to their spatiotemporal locations using local geometric properties of visual events. Experimental results are presented on several real scenes showing the stability and robustness of the detection and matching. PMID:25828960

  4. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  5. Detecting peripheral-based attacks on the host memory

    CERN Document Server

    Stewin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses stealthy peripheral-based attacks on host computers and presents a new approach to detecting them. Peripherals can be regarded as separate systems that have a dedicated processor and dedicated runtime memory to handle their tasks. The book addresses the problem that peripherals generally communicate with the host via the host’s main memory, storing cryptographic keys, passwords, opened files and other sensitive data in the process – an aspect attackers are quick to exploit.  Here, stealthy malicious software based on isolated micro-controllers is implemented to conduct an attack analysis, the results of which provide the basis for developing a novel runtime detector. The detector reveals stealthy peripheral-based attacks on the host’s main memory by exploiting certain hardware properties, while a permanent and resource-efficient measurement strategy ensures that the detector is also capable of detecting transient attacks, which can otherwise succeed when the applied strategy only me...

  6. Theoretical Performance Analysis of Eigenvalue-based Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, Federico

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop a complete analytical framework based on Random Matrix Theory for the performance evaluation of Eigenvalue-based Detection. While, up to now, analysis was limited to false-alarm probability, we have obtained an analytical expression also for the probability of missed detection, by using the theory of spiked population models. A general scenario with multiple signals present at the same time is considered. The theoretical results of this paper allow to predict the error probabilities, and to set the decision threshold accordingly, by means of a few mathematical formulae. In this way the design of an eigenvalue-based detector is made conceptually identical to that of a traditional energy detector. As additional results, the paper discusses the conditions of signal identifiability for single and multiple sources. All the analytical results are validated through numerical simulations, covering also convergence, identifiabilty and non-Gaussian practical modulations.

  7. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  8. A novel interacting multiple model based network intrusion detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruichi; Venkatasubramanian, Vijay; Leung, Henry

    2006-04-01

    In today's information age, information and network security are of primary importance to any organization. Network intrusion is a serious threat to security of computers and data networks. In internet protocol (IP) based network, intrusions originate in different kinds of packets/messages contained in the open system interconnection (OSI) layer 3 or higher layers. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems observe the layer 3 packets (or layer 4 to 7 messages) to screen for intrusions and security threats. Signature based methods use a pre-existing database that document intrusion patterns as perceived in the layer 3 to 7 protocol traffics and match the incoming traffic for potential intrusion attacks. Alternately, network traffic data can be modeled and any huge anomaly from the established traffic pattern can be detected as network intrusion. The latter method, also known as anomaly based detection is gaining popularity for its versatility in learning new patterns and discovering new attacks. It is apparent that for a reliable performance, an accurate model of the network data needs to be established. In this paper, we illustrate using collected data that network traffic is seldom stationary. We propose the use of multiple models to accurately represent the traffic data. The improvement in reliability of the proposed model is verified by measuring the detection and false alarm rates on several datasets.

  9. Radioactive threat detection using scintillant-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alex

    2004-09-01

    An update to the performance of AS&E's Radioactive Threat Detection sensor technology. A model is presented detailing the components of the scintillant-based RTD system employed in AS&E products aimed at detecting radiological WMD. An overview of recent improvements in the sensors, electrical subsystems and software algorithms are presented. The resulting improvements in performance are described and sample results shown from existing systems. Advanced and future capabilities are described with an assessment of their feasibility and their application to Homeland Defense.

  10. Detection of unexploded ordnance by PGNAA based borehole-logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a borehole-logging system, based on prompt-gamma-neutron-activation-analysis (PGNAA), for explosive detection was studied by Monte-Carlo simulations. The prompt gamma of nitrogen, which is a constituent of common explosive, was used to identify the unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our results show that the minimum counting time depends on the soil moisture, the cladding thickness and the explosive composition. In conjunction with the standard detection by magnetometry, the PGNAA is a promising analytical technique for definitive identification of deep buried UXOs. (author)

  11. Detection of bacterial concentration variations based on dielectric magnetic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyao; Cai, Jie; Huang, Xingjian; Yi, Tian; Wang, Kexing; Pan, Siyi

    2016-02-01

    This study is based on the development of bacterial count quantification generated by medium dielectric variations and consequent polarization material release. The proposed approach is an action method for the fast detection of bacterial concentration in orange juice. The sensing method relies on bacterial attachment up to biofilm formation. Furthermore, different media provide more oxygen group content to enhance capacitance and self-discharge. The test took only 30 min and it provided the means for rapid bacterial detection in the juice industry. PMID:26304394

  12. An immunity-based model for dynamic distributed intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peili; Wang, Tong; Su, Jie

    2008-03-01

    The traditional intrusion detection systems mostly adopt the analysis engine of the concentrating type, so the misinformation rate is higher and lack of self-adaptability, which is already difficult to meet increasing extensive security demand of the distributed network environment. An immunity-based model combining immune theory, data mining and data fusion technique for dynamic distributed intrusion detection is proposed in this paper. This system presents the method of establishing and evolving the set of early gene, and defines the sets of Self, Nonself and Immunity cells. Moreover, a detailed description is given to the architecture and work mechanism of the model, and the characters of the model are analyzed.

  13. Gear Fault Detection Based on Teager-Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gear fault detection based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Teager Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO technique is presented. This novel method is named as Teager-Huang transform (THT. EMD can adaptively decompose the vibration signal into a series of zero mean Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs. TKEO can track the instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency of the Intrinsic Mode Functions at any instant. The experimental results provide effective evidence that Teager-Huang transform has better resolution than that of Hilbert-Huang transform. The Teager-Huang transform can effectively diagnose the fault of the gear, thus providing a viable processing tool for gearbox defect detection and diagnosis.

  14. Research and Implementation of Unsupervised Clustering-Based Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Min; Zhang Huan-guo; Wang Li-na

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised clustering-based intrusion de tection algorithm is discussed in this paper. The basic idea of the algorithm is to produce the cluster by comparing the distances of unlabeled training data sets. With the classified data instances, anomaly data clusters can be easily identified by normal cluster ratio and the identified cluster can be used in real data detection. The benefit of the algorithm is that it doesnt need labeled training data sets. The experiment concludes that this approach can detect unknown intrusions efficiently in the real network connections via using the data sets of KDD99.

  15. Kernel based orthogonalization for change detection in hyperspectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Kernel versions of principal component analysis (PCA) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) analysis are applied to change detection in hyperspectral image (HyMap) data. The kernel versions are based on so-called Q-mode analysis in which the data enter into the analysis via inner products in the Gram...... the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. An example shows the successful application of (kernel PCA and) kernel MNF analysis to change detection in HyMap data covering a small agricultural area near Lake Waging-Taching, Bavaria, in Southern Germany. In the change...

  16. Development of a Wearable-Sensor-Based Fall Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fall detection is a major challenge in the public healthcare domain, especially for the elderly as the decline of their physical fitness, and timely and reliable surveillance is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of falls. This paper develops a novel fall detection system based on a wearable device. The system monitors the movements of human body, recognizes a fall from normal daily activities by an effective quaternion algorithm, and automatically sends request for help to the caregivers with the patient’s location.

  17. Evaluation of Wind Farm Controller based Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    detection and isolation and fault tolerant control has previously been proposed. Based on this model, and international competition on wind farm FDI was organized. The contributions were presented at the IFAC World Congress 2014. In this paper the top three contributions to this competition are shortly......In the process of lowering cost of energy of power generated by wind turbines, some focus has been drawn towards fault detection and isolation and as well as fault tolerant control of wind turbines with the purpose of increasing reliability and availability of the wind turbines. Most modern wind...

  18. Automated Signature Creator for a Signature Based Intrusion Detection System with Network Attack Detection Capabilities (Pancakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Bernadette C. De Ocampo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Signature-based Intrusion Detection System (IDS helps in maintaining the integrity of data in a network controlled environment. Unfortunately, this type of IDS depends on predetermined intrusion patterns that are manually created. If the signature database of the Signature-based IDS is not updated, network attacks just pass through this type of IDS without being noticed. To avoid this, an Anomaly-based IDS is used in order to countercheck if a network traffic that is not detected by Signature-based IDS is a true malicious traffic or not. In doing so, the Anomaly-based IDS might come up with several numbers of logs containing numerous network attacks which could possibly be a false positive. This is the reason why the Anomaly-based IDS is not perfect, it would readily alarm the system that a network traffic is an attack just because it is not on its baseline. In order to resolve the problem between these two IDSs, the goal is to correlate data between the logs of the Anomaly-based IDS and the packet that has been captured in order to determine if a network traffic is really malicious or not. With the supervision of a security expert, the malicious network traffic would be verified as malicious. Using machine learning, the researchers can identify which algorithm is better than the other algorithms in classifying if a certain network traffic is really malicious. Upon doing so, the creation of signatures would follow by basing the automated creation of signatures from the detected malicious traffic.

  19. Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Turčičová, Hana; Divoký, Martin; Huynh, Jaroslav; Straka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), 1-7. ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0814; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase matching * phase mismatch * beam mismatch * broadband amplification * parametric amplifiers * OPCPA * iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 2.458, year: 2014

  20. A Trainable Neuromorphic Integrated Circuit that Exploits Device Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Chetan Singh; Wang, Runchun; Hamilton, Tara Julia; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Random device mismatch that arises as a result of scaling of the CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semi-conductor) technology into the deep submicron regime degrades the accuracy of analogue circuits. Methods to combat this increase the complexity of design. We have developed a novel neuromorphic system called a Trainable Analogue Block (TAB), which exploits device mismatch as a means for random projections of the input to a higher dimensional space. The TAB framework is inspired by the princip...

  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma in patients with constitutional mismatch-repair-deficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kratz, Christian P; Holter, Spring; Etzler, Julia; Lauten, Melchior; Pollett, Aaron; Charlotte M. Niemeyer; Gallinger, Steven; Wimmer, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Biallelic germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 cause a recessive childhood cancer syndrome characterized by early-onset malignancies and signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Alluding to the underlying genetic defect we refer to this syndrome as constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome. The tumor spectrum of CMMR-D syndrome includes hematological neoplasias, brain tumors and Lynch syndrome as...

  2. The effects of nucleotides on MutS-DNA binding kinetics clarify the role of MutS ATPase activity in mismatch repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs-Palmer, Emily; Hingorani, Manju M.

    2006-01-01

    MutS protein initiates mismatch repair with recognition of a non-Watson-Crick base pair or base insertion/deletion site in DNA, and its interactions with DNA are modulated by ATPase activity. Here we present a kinetic analysis of these interactions, including the effects of ATP binding and hydrolysis, reported directly from the mismatch site by 2-aminopurine fluorescence. When free of nucleotides, the T. aquaticus MutS dimer binds a mismatch rapidly (kON = 3 x 106 M−1s−1) and forms a stable c...

  3. Protein Remote Homology Detection Based on an Ensemble Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjie; Liu, Bingquan; Huang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Protein remote homology detection is one of the central problems in bioinformatics. Although some computational methods have been proposed, the problem is still far from being solved. In this paper, an ensemble classifier for protein remote homology detection, called SVM-Ensemble, was proposed with a weighted voting strategy. SVM-Ensemble combined three basic classifiers based on different feature spaces, including Kmer, ACC, and SC-PseAAC. These features consider the characteristics of proteins from various perspectives, incorporating both the sequence composition and the sequence-order information along the protein sequences. Experimental results on a widely used benchmark dataset showed that the proposed SVM-Ensemble can obviously improve the predictive performance for the protein remote homology detection. Moreover, it achieved the best performance and outperformed other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27294123

  4. An algorithm for detecting startle state based on physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kohzoh; Edamatsu, Motonari; Yoshida, Masaki; Matsuoka, Katsunori

    2007-03-01

    To construct safe workspaces or daily life environments, it is important to develop a technology for automatically recording dangerous environmental situations. Based on increased finger skin conductance and decreased instantaneous heart (pulse) rate, we developed an algorithm for detecting the startle state of humans when encountering dangerous situations. The parameter values in the algorithm were optimized by tuning them with experimental results obtained in a virtual reality system, in which dangerous scenarios were presented to 21 subjects. The detection sensitivity of the optimized algorithm was 100% during a static standing condition and also while cycling. The detection specificity attained 90% and 87% for the static and exercising conditions, respectively. The optimized algorithm was applied to a real world situation such as car driving, and relatively high sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 80% were obtained. PMID:17045231

  5. Observer Based Detection of Sensor Faults in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Nielsen, R.;

    2009-01-01

    An observer based scheme is proposed to detect sensor faults in wind  turbines. In the example used for the proposed scheme the wind turbine  drive train is considered. A model of the drive train is used to  design the observer, and in this model the wind speed is an important  input, however, if...... an unknown input observer the fault detection  scheme can be non dependent on the actual wind speed. The scheme  is validated on data from a more advanced and detailed simulation  model. The proposed scheme detects the sensor faults a few samples  after the beginning of the faults....

  6. A Cooperative Network Intrusion detection Based on Fuzzy SVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Teng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of noise in the data obtained from network, which deteriorates intrusion detection performance. To delete the noise data, data preprocessing is done before the construction of hyperplane in support vector machine (SVM. By introducing fuzzy theory into SVM, a new method is proposed for network intrusion detection.  Because the attack behavior is different for different network protocol, a different fuzzy membership function is formatted, such that for each class of protocol there is a SVM. To implement this approach, a fuzzy SVM-based cooperative network intrusion detection system with multi-agent architecture is presented. It is composed of three types of agents corresponding to TCP, UDP, and ICMP protocols, respectively. Simulation experiments are done by using KDD CUP 1999 data set, results show that the training time is significantly shortened, storage space requirement is reduced, and classification accuracy is improved.

  7. Performance of a community detection algorithm based on semidefinite programming

    CERN Document Server

    Javanmard, Adel; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The problem of detecting communities in a graph is maybe one the most studied inference problems, given its simplicity and widespread diffusion among several disciplines. A very common benchmark for this problem is the stochastic block model or planted partition problem, where a phase transition takes place in the detection of the planted partition by changing the signal-to-noise ratio. Optimal algorithms for the detection exist which are based on spectral methods, but we show these are extremely sensible to slight modification in the generative model. Recently Javanmard, Montanari and Ricci-Tersenghi (arXiv:1511.08769) have used statistical physics arguments, and numerical simulations to show that finding communities in the stochastic block model via semidefinite programming is quasi optimal. Further, the resulting semidefinite relaxation can be solved efficiently, and is very robust with respect to changes in the generative model. In this paper we study in detail several practical aspects of this new algori...

  8. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiai Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid search algorithm, the classification results of watermelon seeds exterior quality achieved by genetic algorithm were analyzed in detail. Meanwhile machine vision grid laser was applied to detect the surface irregularities defects of watermelon seeds. This study demonstrated the feasible of detecting the watermelon seeds exterior quality by machine vision.

  9. Model-Based Design of Tree WSNs for Decentralized Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Tantawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical decentralized detection problem of finding the optimal decision rules at the sensor and fusion center, as well as variants that introduce physical channel impairments have been studied extensively in the literature. The deployment of WSNs in decentralized detection applications brings new challenges to the field. Protocols for different communication layers have to be co-designed to optimize the detection performance. In this paper, we consider the communication network design problem for a tree WSN. We pursue a system-level approach where a complete model for the system is developed that captures the interactions between different layers, as well as different sensor quality measures. For network optimization, we propose a hierarchical optimization algorithm that lends itself to the tree structure, requiring only local network information. The proposed design approach shows superior performance over several contentionless and contention-based network design approaches.

  10. Improved Minimum Detectable Velocity in Bistatic Space-Based Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; TANG Jun; PENG Yingning

    2008-01-01

    Single orbit bistatic space-based radar (SBR) is composed of two radars in the same orbit. The characteristics of the clutter Doppler-angle spectrum of a single orbit bistatic SBR show that the slope of the mainbeam clutter spectrum is highly sensitive to the cone angles. Therefore, the minimum detectable veloc-ity of the bistatic system is dependent on the cone angle. Then a new combined working mode of single-orbit bistatic SBR system was developed in which one radar will act as the transmitter and another as the receiver to improve detection performance for all angles. Simulation results by space-time adaptive process-ing verify the improved detection performance. The new design also reduces the average power of each ra-dar system and the size and weight of the on-board solar array-battery system.

  11. Features Extraction for Object Detection Based on Interest Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed Ahsan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In computer vision, object detection is an essential process for further processes such as object tracking, analyzing and so on. In the same context, extraction features play important role to detect the object correctly. In this paper we present a method to extract local features based on interest point which is used to detect key-points within an image, then, compute histogram of gradient (HOG for the region surround that point. Proposed method used speed-up robust feature (SURF method as interest point detector and exclude the descriptor. The new descriptor is computed by using HOG method. The proposed method got advantages of both mentioned methods. To evaluate the proposed method, we used well-known dataset which is Caltech101. The initial result is encouraging in spite of using a small data for training.

  12. Efficient detection of internal infestation in wheat based on biophotonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiya; Jiao, Keke; Liang, Yitao; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the process of grain storage, there are many losses of grain quantity and quality for the sake of insects. As a result, it is necessary to find a rapid and economical method for detecting insects in the grain. The paper innovatively proposes a model of detecting internal infestation in wheat by combining pattern recognition and BioPhoton Analytical Technology (BPAT). In this model, the spontaneous ultraweak photons emitted from normal and insect-contaminated wheat are firstly measured respectively. Then, position, distribution and morphological characteristics can be extracted from the measuring data to construct wheat feature vector. Backpropagation (BP) neural network based on genetic algorithm is employed to take decision on whether wheat kernel has contaminated by insects. The experimental results show that the proposed model can differentiate the normal wheat from the insect-contaminated one at an average accuracy of 95%. The model can also offer a novel thought for detecting internal infestation in the wheat. PMID:26774558

  13. Risk-based fault detection using Self-Organizing Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of modern systems is increasing rapidly and the dominating relationships among system variables have become highly non-linear. This results in difficulty in the identification of a system's operating states. In turn, this difficulty affects the sensitivity of fault detection and imposes a challenge on ensuring the safety of operation. In recent years, Self-Organizing Maps has gained popularity in system monitoring as a robust non-linear dimensionality reduction tool. Self-Organizing Map is able to capture non-linear variations of the system. Therefore, it is sensitive to the change of a system's states leading to early detection of fault. In this paper, a new approach based on Self-Organizing Map is proposed to detect and assess the risk of fault. In addition, probabilistic analysis is applied to characterize the risk of fault into different levels according to the hazard potential to enable a refined monitoring of the system. The proposed approach is applied on two experimental systems. The results from both systems have shown high sensitivity of the proposed approach in detecting and identifying the root cause of faults. The refined monitoring facilitates the determination of the risk of fault and early deployment of remedial actions and safety measures to minimize the potential impact of fault. - Highlights: • A new approach based on Self-Organizing Map is proposed to detect faults. • Integration of fault detection with risk assessment methodology. • Fault risk characterization into different levels to enable focused system monitoring

  14. Magnetic Bead Based Immunoassay for Autonomous Detection of Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y; Hara, C A; Knize, M G; Hwang, M H; Venkatesteswaran, K S; Wheeler, E K; Bell, P M; Renzi, R F; Fruetel, J A; Bailey, C G

    2008-05-01

    As a step towards toward the development of a rapid, reliable analyzer for bioagents in the environment, we are developing an automated system for the simultaneous detection of a group of select agents and toxins. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag{trademark} reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag{trademark} through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads coupled to a photo-activatable porphyrin complex. In the presence of antigen, a molecular complex is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactivable group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags{trademark}. Released eTags{trademark} are analyzed using capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 ng/mL (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated on a flow-through format with higher LODs of 125 ng/mL (or 2.5 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.

  15. Shearlet-based edge detection: flame fronts and tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Emily J.; Reisenhofer, Rafael; Kiefer, Johannes; Lim, Wang-Q.; Li, Zhen; Heygster, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Shearlets are wavelet-like systems which are better suited for handling geometric features in multi-dimensional data than traditional wavelets. A novel method for edge and line detection which is in the spirit of phase congruency but is based on a complex shearlet transform will be presented. This approach to detection yields an approximate tangent direction of detected discontinuities as a byproduct of the computation, which then yields local curvature estimates. Two applications of the edge detection method will be discussed. First, the tracking and classification of flame fronts is a critical component of research in technical thermodynamics. Quite often, the flame fronts are transient or weak and the images are noisy. The standard methods used in the field for the detection of flame fronts do not handle such data well. Fortunately, using the shearlet-based edge measure yields good results as well as an accurate approximation of local curvature. Furthermore, a modification of the method will yield line detection, which is important for certain imaging modalities. Second, the Wadden tidal flats are a biodiverse region along the North Sea coast. One approach to surveying the delicate region and tracking the topographical changes is to use pre-existing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Unfortunately, SAR data suffers from multiplicative noise as well as sensitivity to environmental factors. The first large-scale mapping project of that type showed good results but only with a tremendous amount of manual interaction because there are many edges in the data which are not boundaries of the tidal flats but are edges of features like fields or islands. Preliminary results will be presented.

  16. Experimental investigation of thermal neutron analysis based landmine detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Recently, the prompt gamma-rays neutron activation analysis method is wildly used in coal analysis and explosive detection, however there were less application about landmine detection using neutron method especially in the domestic research. Purpose: In order to verify the feasibility of Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) method used in landmine detection, and explore the characteristic of this technology. Methods: An experimental system of TNA landmine detection was built based on LaBr3 (Ce) fast scintillator detector and 252Cf isotope neutron source. The system is comprised of the thermal neutron transition system, the shield system, and the detector system. Results: On the basis of the TNA, the wide energy area calibration method especially to the high energy area was investigated, and the least detection time for a typical mine was defined. In this study, the 72-type anti-tank mine, the 500 g TNT sample and several interferential objects are tested in loess, red soil, magnetic soil and sand respectively. Conclusions: The experimental results indicate that TNA is a reliable demining method, and it can be used to confirm the existence of Anti-Tank Mines (ATM) and large Anti-Personnel Mines (APM) in complicated condition. (authors)

  17. Single molecule transistor based nanopore for the detection of nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. J., E-mail: ray.sjr@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science, Technical University of Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-12-28

    A nanopore based detection methodology was proposed and investigated for the detection of Nicotine. This technique uses a Single Molecular Transistor working as a nanopore operational in the Coulomb Blockade regime. When the Nicotine molecule is pulled through the nanopore area surrounded by the Source(S), Drain (D), and Gate electrodes, the charge stability diagram can detect the presence of the molecule and is unique for a specific molecular structure. Due to the weak coupling between the different electrodes which is set by the nanopore size, the molecular energy states stay almost unaffected by the electrostatic environment that can be realised from the charge stability diagram. Identification of different orientation and position of the Nicotine molecule within the nanopore area can be made from specific regions of overlap between different charge states on the stability diagram that could be used as an electronic fingerprint for detection. This method could be advantageous and useful to detect the presence of Nicotine in smoke which is usually performed using chemical chromatography techniques.

  18. A Behavior Based Intrusion Detection System Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat OĞUZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are consistently referred to as the weakest link in information security. Human factors such as individual differences, cognitive abilities and personality traits can impact on behavior and play a significant role in information security. The purpose of this study is to identify, describe and classify the human factors affecting Information Security and develop a model to reduce the risk of insider misuse and assess the use and performance of the best-suited artificial intelligence techniques in detection of misuse. More specifically, this study provides a comprehensive view of the human related information security risks and threats, classification study of the human related threats in information security, a methodology developed to reduce the risk of human related threats by detecting insider misuse by a behavior-based intrusion detection system using machine learning algorithms, and the comparison of the numerical experiments for analysis of this approach. Specifically, by using the machine learning algorithm with the best learning performance, the detection rates of the attack types defined in the organized five dimensional human threats taxonomy were determined. Lastly, the possible human factors affecting information security as linked to the detection rates were sorted upon the evaluation of the taxonomy.

  19. Target detection and recognition in SAR imagery based on KFDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Gao; Jingyuan Mei; Jinping Sun; Jun Wang; Erfu Yang; Amir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Current research on target detection and recognition from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is usual y carried out separately. It is difficult to verify the ability of a target recognition algorithm for adapting to changes in the environment. To realize the whole process of SAR automatic target recognition (ATR), es-pecial y for the detection and recognition of vehicles, an algorithm based on kernel fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA) is proposed. First, in order to make a better description of the difference be-tween the background and the target, KFDA is extended to the detection part. Image samples are obtained with a dual-window approach and features of the inner and outer window samples are extracted by using KFDA. The difference between the features of inner and outer window samples is compared with a threshold to determine whether a vehicle exists. Second, for the target area, we propose an improved KFDA-IMED (image Euclidean distance) combined with a support vector machine (SVM) to recognize the vehicles. Experimental results validate the performance of our method. On the detection task, our proposed method obtains not only a high detection rate but also a low false alarm rate without using any prior information. For the recognition task, our method overcomes the SAR image aspect angle sensitivity, reduces the requirements for image preprocessing and improves the recogni-tion rate.

  20. Wavelet Based Image Fusion for Detection of Brain Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CYN Dwith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumor, is one of the major causes for the increase in mortality among children and adults. Detecting the regions of brain is the major challenge in tumor detection. In the field of medical image processing, multi sensor images are widely being used as potential sources to detect brain tumor. In this paper, a wavelet based image fusion algorithm is applied on the Magnetic Resonance (MR images and Computed Tomography (CT images which are used as primary sources to extract the redundant and complementary information in order to enhance the tumor detection in the resultant fused image. The main features taken into account for detection of brain tumor are location of tumor and size of the tumor, which is further optimized through fusion of images using various wavelet transforms parameters. We discuss and enforce the principle of evaluating and comparing the performance of the algorithm applied to the images with respect to various wavelets type used for the wavelet analysis. The performance efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated on the basis of PSNR values. The obtained results are compared on the basis of PSNR with gradient vector field and big bang optimization. The algorithms are analyzed in terms of performance with respect to accuracy in estimation of tumor region and computational efficiency of the algorithms.