WorldWideScience

Sample records for base extension technique

  1. A discrimination technique for extensive air showers based on multiscale, lacunarity and neural network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliaro, Antonio; D'Ali Staiti, G.; D'Anna, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for the identification of extensive air showers initiated by different primaries. The method uses the multiscale concept and is based on the analysis of multifractal behaviour and lacunarity of secondary particle distributions together with a properly designed and trained artificial neural network. In the present work the method is discussed and applied to a set of fully simulated vertical showers, in the experimental framework of ARGO-YBJ, to obtain hadron to gamma primary separation. We show that the presented approach gives very good results, leading, in the 1-10 TeV energy range, to a clear improvement of the discrimination power with respect to the existing figures for extended shower detectors.

  2. Field theoretic extensions of TDHF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    A possible extension of time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) techniques to relativistic quantum field theories is discussed. A set of extended TDHF equations which incorporates naturally relativistic kinematics and treats the mesons, the effects of which are in ordinary TDHF represented by a nonindependent mean field, as independent dynamical degrees of freedom. In a simple model field theory in one space and one time dimension the extended TDHF equations are solved analytically for certain static field configurations and numerically for the time-dependent scattering configuration. Qualitative features of the scattering solutions as observed in preliminary numerical studies are discussed, and the conclusion is reached by mentioning a number of problems for further research. 22 references

  3. A comparison of four streamflow record extension techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    One approach to developing time series of streamflow, which may be used for simulation and optimization studies of water resources development activities, is to extend an existing gage record in time by exploiting the interstation correlation between the station of interest and some nearby (long-term) base station. Four methods of extension are described, and their properties are explored. The methods are regression (REG), regression plus noise (RPN), and two new methods, maintenance of variance extension types 1 and 2 (MOVE.l, MOVE.2). MOVE.l is equivalent to a method which is widely used in psychology, biometrics, and geomorphology and which has been called by various names, e.g., ‘line of organic correlation,’ ‘reduced major axis,’ ‘unique solution,’ and ‘equivalence line.’ The methods are examined for bias and standard error of estimate of moments and order statistics, and an empirical examination is made of the preservation of historic low-flow characteristics using 50-year-long monthly records from seven streams. The REG and RPN methods are shown to have serious deficiencies as record extension techniques. MOVE.2 is shown to be marginally better than MOVE.l, according to the various comparisons of bias and accuracy.

  4. Two Extension Block Kirschner Wires’ Technique for Bony Mallet Thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Mifune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mallet fingers with an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx or rupture of the terminal tendon of the extensor mechanism is known as a common injury, while mallet thumb is very rare. In this paper, the case of a 19-year-old woman with a sprained left thumb sustained while playing basketball is presented. Plain radiographs and computed tomography revealed an avulsion fracture involving more than half of the articular surface at the base of the distal phalanx. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation were performed using the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique under digital block anesthesia. At 4 months postoperatively, the patient had achieved excellent results according to Crawford’s evaluation criteria and had no difficulties in working or playing basketball. Various conservative and operative treatment strategies have been reported for management of mallet thumb. We chose the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique to minimize invasion of the extensor mechanism and nail bed and to stabilize the large fracture fragment.

  5. Evaluation of an omental pedicle extension technique in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, W E; Pardo, A D

    1993-01-01

    A two-step omental pedicle extension technique was performed on 10 dogs. Step 1 of the pedicle extension involved release of the dorsal leaf of the omentum from its pancreatic attachment, whereas step 2 consisted of an inverse L-shaped incision to double the length of the pedicle. The pedicle dimensions were measured and the distance reached when extended toward the hind limb, forelimb, and the muzzle recorded after each stage of the procedure. The vascular patency of the pedicle was determined by intravenous injection of fluorescein dye after the second stage of omental extension. Mean pedicle lengths were 44.5 cm with the first stage of extension and 82.0 cm after full extension. The mean width at the caudal extent of the pedicles after dorsal and full extension was 30.4 cm and 17.2 cm, respectively. Eight of the 10 pedicles were patent after full extension. The fully extended omental pedicles reached and, in most cases, extended beyond the distal extremities and the muzzle. The findings in this study suggest that the canine omentum can be extended to any part of the body without being detached from its vascular supply.

  6. Highly Conformal Craniospinal Radiotherapy Techniques Can Underdose the Cranial Clinical Target Volume if Leptomeningeal Extension through Skull Base Exit Foramina is not Contoured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, D J; Ajithkumar, T; Lambert, J; Gleeson, I; Williams, M V; Jefferies, S J

    2017-07-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) remains a crucial treatment for patients with medulloblastoma. There is uncertainty about how to manage meningeal surfaces and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that follows cranial nerves exiting skull base foramina. The purpose of this study was to assess plan quality and dose coverage of posterior cranial fossa foramina with both photon and proton therapy. We analysed the radiotherapy plans of seven patients treated with CSI for medulloblastoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours and three with ependymoma (total n = 10). Four had been treated with a field-based technique and six with TomoTherapy™. The internal acoustic meatus (IAM), jugular foramen (JF) and hypoglossal canal (HC) were contoured and added to the original treatment clinical target volume (Plan_CTV) to create a Test_CTV. This was grown to a test planning target volume (Test_PTV) for comparison with a Plan_PTV. Using Plan_CTV and Plan_PTV, proton plans were generated for all 10 cases. The following dosimetry data were recorded: conformity (dice similarity coefficient) and homogeneity index (D 2  - D 98 /D 50 ) as well as median and maximum dose (D 2% ) to Plan_PTV, V 95% and minimum dose (D 99.9% ) to Plan_CTV and Test_CTV and Plan_PTV and Test_PTV, V 95% and minimum dose (D 98% ) to foramina PTVs. Proton and TomoTherapy™ plans were more conformal (0.87, 0.86) and homogeneous (0.07, 0.04) than field-photon plans (0.79, 0.17). However, field-photon plans covered the IAM, JF and HC PTVs better than proton plans (P = 0.002, 0.004, 0.003, respectively). TomoTherapy™ plans covered the IAM and JF better than proton plans (P = 0.000, 0.002, respectively) but the result for the HC was not significant. Adding foramen CTVs/PTVs made no difference for field plans. The mean D min dropped 3.4% from Plan_PTV to Test_PTV for TomoTherapy™ (not significant) and 14.8% for protons (P = 0.001). Highly conformal CSI techniques may underdose meninges and CSF in the dural

  7. Paramecium: An Extensible Object-Based Kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, L.; Homburg, P.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of an extensible kernel, called Paramecium. This kernel uses an object-based software architecture which together with instance naming, late binding and explicit overrides enables easy reconfiguration. Determining which components reside in the kernel protection

  8. Pricing of brand extensions based on perceptions of brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Arsenos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the role of brand equity when pricing hypothetical brand extensions. Companies tend to use different pricing techniques for their products, and their pricing decisions are based on many factors, including image and category fit of the product with the existing image and products of the company. Brand extensions are usually investigated from a consumer perspective, focusing on the extension attitude, however, it is essential to understand the corporate decision-making process regarding pricing. Exploring this matter using quantitative research methods, the study provides empirical evidence that companies that have invested heavily in marketing actions in the past and have built strong brand equity over-time, show flexibility in the mark-up during the cost decision-making process of a hypothetical brand extensions. Variations in mark-up percentages are also observed when there is a difference in image and category fit of the extension to the original brand. However, companies characterized by greater brand equity exhibited greater flexibility in the mark-up percentages, even for low fit extensions.

  9. Flexible use and technique extension of logistics management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Furong

    2011-10-01

    As we all know, the origin of modern logistics was in the United States, developed in Japan, became mature in Europe, and expanded in China. This is a historical development of the modern logistics recognized track. Due to China's economic and technological development, and with the construction of Shanghai International Shipping Center and Shanghai Yangshan International Deepwater development, China's modern logistics industry will attain a leap-forward development of a strong pace, and will also catch up with developed countries in the Western modern logistics level. In this paper, the author explores the flexibility of China's modern logistics management techniques to extend the use, and has certain practical and guidance significances.

  10. Two-step tunneling technique of deep brain stimulation extension wires-a description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Denys; Vandersteen, Clair; Saleh, Christian; von Langsdorff, Daniel; Poissonnet, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    While a significant body of literature exists on the intracranial part of deep brain stimulation surgery, the equally important second part of the intervention related to the subcutaneous tunneling of deep brain stimulation extension wires is rarely described. The tunneling strategy can consist of a single passage of the extension wires from the frontal incision site to the subclavicular area, or of a two-step approach that adds a retro-auricular counter-incision. Each technique harbors the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. At our center, we perform a two-step tunneling procedure that we developed based on a cadaveric study. In 125 consecutive patients operated since 2002, we did not encounter any complication related to our tunneling method. Insufficient data exist to fully evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each tunneling technique. It is of critical importance that authors detail their tunneling modus operandi and report the presence or absence of complications. This gathered data pool may help to formulate a definitive conclusions on the safest method for subcutaneous tunneling of extension wires in deep brain stimulation.

  11. Novel Repair Technique for Life-Extension of Hydraulic Turbine Components in Hydroelectric Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Ishii, Jun; Funato, Kazuhiro

    A significant number of hydraulic turbines operated in Japan were installed in the first half of the 20th century. Today, aging degradation and flaws are observed in these turbine equipments. So far, Japanese engineers have applied NDI technology of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) to detect the flaws, and after empirical evaluation of the remaining life they decided an adequate moment to replace the equipments. Since the replacement requires a large-scale field site works and high-cost, one of the solutions for life-extension of the equipments is introduction of repair services. We have been working in order to enhance the accuracy of results during the detection of flaws and flaws dimensioning, in particular focusing on the techniques of Tip-echo, TOFD and Phased-Array UT, accompanied by the conventional UT. These NDI methods made possible to recognize the entire image of surface and embedded flaws with complicated geometry. Then, we have developed an evaluation system of these flaws based on the theory of crack propagation, of the logic of crack growth driven by the stress-intensity factor of the crack tip front. The sophisticated evaluation system is constituted by a hand-made software and database of stress-intensity factor. Based on these elemental technologies, we propose a technique of repair welding to provide a life-extension of hydraulic turbine components.

  12. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Perry, W.H.; King, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented

  13. GCCS Spatial Data Base Module Extensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... JMTK is divided into three primary areas: (1) Visual, (2) Analysis (nonvisual), and (3) Spatial Data Base (SDBM). The primary objective of the SDBM effort is to define, design, develop and test mapping, charting and geodesy...

  14. Biomechanical analysis of press-extension technique on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and staggered facet joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-gen Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a new Chinese massage technique named “press-extension” on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation, and provides a biomechanical explanation of this massage technique. Self-developed biomechanical software was used to establish a normal L1–S1 lumbar 3D FE model, which integrated the spine CT and MRI data-based anatomical structure. Then graphic technique is utilized to build a degenerative lumbar FE model with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation. According to the actual press-extension experiments, mechanic parameters are collected to set boundary condition for FE analysis. The result demonstrated that press-extension techniques bring the annuli fibrosi obvious induction effect, making the central nucleus pulposus forward close, increasing the pressure in front part. Study concludes that finite element modelling for lumbar spine is suitable for the analysis of press-extension technique impact on lumbar intervertebral disc biomechanics, to provide the basis for the disease mechanism of intervertebral disc herniation using press-extension technique.

  15. Monitoring extensions for component-based distributed software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakov, N.K.; Papir, Z.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, Dick

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a generic class of monitoring extensions to component-based distributed enterprise software. Introducing a monitoring extension to a legacy application system can be very costly. In this paper, we identify the minimum support for application monitoring within the generic

  16. Research on Customer Value Based on Extension Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Yan, Yang; Wei-Hua, Li

    Extenics is a new discipline for dealing with contradiction problems with formulize model. Extension data mining (EDM) is a product combining Extenics with data mining. It explores to acquire the knowledge based on extension transformations, which is called extension knowledge (EK), taking advantage of extension methods and data mining technology. EK includes extensible classification knowledge, conductive knowledge and so on. Extension data mining technology (EDMT) is a new data mining technology that mining EK in databases or data warehouse. Customer value (CV) can weigh the essentiality of customer relationship for an enterprise according to an enterprise as a subject of tasting value and customers as objects of tasting value at the same time. CV varies continually. Mining the changing knowledge of CV in databases using EDMT, including quantitative change knowledge and qualitative change knowledge, can provide a foundation for that an enterprise decides the strategy of customer relationship management (CRM). It can also provide a new idea for studying CV.

  17. SEM-based characterization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope is now a common instrument in materials characterization laboratories. The basic role of the SEM as a topographic imaging system has steadily been expanding to include a variety of SEM-based analytical techniques. These techniques cover the range of basic semiconductor materials characterization to live-time device characterization of operating LSI or VLSI devices. This paper introduces many of the more commonly used techniques, describes the modifications or additions to a conventional SEM required to utilize the techniques, and gives examples of the use of such techniques. First, the types of signals available from a sample being irradiated by an electron beam are reviewed. Then, where applicable, the type of spectroscopy or microscopy which has evolved to utilize the various signal types are described. This is followed by specific examples of the use of such techniques to solve problems related to semiconductor technology. Techniques emphasized include: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron beam induced current (EBIC), stroboscopic voltage analysis, cathodoluminescnece and electron beam IC metrology. Current and future trends of some of the these techniques, as related to the semiconductor industry are discussed

  18. Novel Technique for Rebubbling DMEK Grafts at the Slit Lamp Using Intravenous Extension Tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáles, Christopher S; Straiko, Michael D; Terry, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    To describe a novel technique for rebubbling DMEK grafts at the slit lamp using a cannula coupled to a syringe with intravenous (IV) extension tubing. We present a retrospective case series of eyes that underwent rebubbling using a novel technique at the slit lamp. The rebubbling apparatus is assembled using a standard 43-inch IV extension tube, a 5-cc luer lock syringe, and a 27-gauge cannula. The cannula is screwed onto one end of the extension tubing, and a 5-cc syringe that has been filled with air is screwed onto the opposite end. With the patient seated at the slit lamp, the cannula is positioned in the anterior chamber by the surgeon with one hand while the other hand operates the syringe and the joystick. We performed 5 rebubbling procedures at the slit lamp using a standard syringe and cannula. Despite suboptimal ergonomics with this approach, all of these cases achieved sufficient air fills without any complications. Four rebubbling procedures were subsequently performed at the slit lamp using our novel rebubbling technique. All of these cases also attained sufficient air fills without complications, but they were noted to be much easier to perform by the surgeon. Using IV extension tubing to couple a syringe to a cannula for rebubbling DMEK grafts at the slit lamp is ergonomically superior to the conventional alternative of using a standard cannula on a syringe. The technique is also simple and inexpensive to adopt.

  19. Designing and application of SAN extension interface based on CWDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Leihua; Yu, Shengsheng; Zhou, Jingli

    2005-11-01

    As Fibre Channel (FC) becomes the protocol of choice within corporate data centers, enterprises are increasingly deploying SANs in their data central. In order to mitigate the risk of losing data and improve the availability of data, more and more enterprises are increasingly adopting storage extension technologies to replicate their business critical data to a secondary site. Transmitting this information over distance requires a carrier grade environment with zero data loss, scalable throughput, low jitter, high security and ability to travel long distance. To address this business requirements, there are three basic architectures for storage extension, they are Storage over Internet Protocol, Storage over Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) and Storage over Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM). Each approach varies in functionality, complexity, cost, scalability, security, availability , predictable behavior (bandwidth, jitter, latency) and multiple carrier limitations. Compared with these connectiviy technologies,Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) is a Simplified, Low Cost and High Performance connectivity solutions for enterprises to deploy their storage extension. In this paper, we design a storage extension connectivity over CWDM and test it's electrical characteristic and random read and write performance of disk array through the CWDM connectivity, testing result show us that the performance of the connectivity over CWDM is acceptable. Furthermore, we propose three kinds of network architecture of SAN extension based on CWDM interface. Finally the credit-Based flow control mechanism of FC, and the relationship between credits and extension distance is analyzed.

  20. Extension of ERIM multispectral data processing capabilities through improved data handling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The improvement and extension of the capabilities of the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan processing facility in handling multispectral data are discussed. Improvements consisted of implementing hardware modifications which permitted more rapid access to the recorded data through improved numbering and indexing of such data. In addition, techniques are discussed for handling data from sources other than the ERIM M-5 and M-7 scanner systems.

  1. Bases of technique of sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Druz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the biomechanical consistent patterns of a movement of a body providing the highest speed of sprinting. Material and Methods: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the considered problem, the anthropometrical characteristics of the surveyed contingent of sportsmen, the analysis of high-speed shootings of the leading runners of the world. Results: the biomechanical bases of technique of sprinting make dispersal and movement of the general center of body weight of the sportsman on a parabolic curve in a start phase taking into account the initial height of its stay in a pose of a low start. Its further movement happens on a cycloidal trajectory which is formed due to a pendulum movement of the extremities creating the lifting power which provides flight duration more in a running step, than duration of a basic phase. Conclusions: the received biomechanical regularities of technique of sprinting allow increasing the efficiency of training of sportsmen in sprinting.

  2. Fatigue life extension techniques for weldments via mechanical surface post treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Cho, In Ho

    2008-01-01

    In many welded structures, fatigue failures are often occurred at welded joints in which stress concentrations due to the joint geometry are relatively high. Although employing good detail design practices by upgrading the welded detail class enables to improve the fatigue performance, in many cases, the modification of the detail may not be practicable. As an alternative, fatigue life extension techniques, that reduce the severity of the stress concentration at the weld toe region, remove imperfections, and introduce local compressive welding residual stress, can be applied. These techniques are also used as remedial measures to extend the fatigue life of critical welds that have failed prematurely and have been repaired. This paper introduces peening techniques via a pneumatic hammer peening and ultrasonic impact which make it possible to give the weld not only a favorable shape reducing the local stress concentration, but also a beneficial compressive residual stress into material surface

  3. Corporate brand extensions based on the purchase likelihood: governance implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Goumas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is examining the purchase likelihood of hypothetical service brand extensions from product companies focusing on consumer electronics based on sector categorization and perceptions of fit between the existing product category and image of the company. Prior research has recognized that levels of brand knowledge eases the transference of associations and affect to the new products. Similarity to the existing products of the parent company and perceived image also influence the success of brand extensions. However, sector categorization may interfere with this relationship. The purpose of this study is to examine Greek consumers’ attitudes towards hypothetical brand extensions, and how these are affected by consumers’ existing knowledge about the brand, sector categorization and perceptions of image and category fit of cross-sector extensions. This aim is examined in the context of technological categories, where less-known companies exhibited significance in purchase likelihood, and contradictory with the existing literature, service companies did not perform as positively as expected. Additional insights to the existing literature about sector categorization are provided. The effect of both image and category fit is also examined and predictions regarding the effect of each are made.

  4. Support vector machines optimization based theory, algorithms, and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Naiyang; Zhang, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Support Vector Machines: Optimization Based Theory, Algorithms, and Extensions presents an accessible treatment of the two main components of support vector machines (SVMs)-classification problems and regression problems. The book emphasizes the close connection between optimization theory and SVMs since optimization is one of the pillars on which SVMs are built.The authors share insight on many of their research achievements. They give a precise interpretation of statistical leaning theory for C-support vector classification. They also discuss regularized twi

  5. DDH-Like Assumptions Based on Extension Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kiltz, Eike

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and study a new type of DDH-like assumptions based on groups of prime order q. Whereas standard DDH is based on encoding elements of $\\mathbb{F}_{q}$ “in the exponent” of elements in the group, we ask what happens if instead we put in the exponent elements of the extension ring $R_f=......-Reingold style pseudorandom functions, and auxiliary input secure encryption. This can be seen as an alternative to the known family of k-LIN assumptions....

  6. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  7. Radon reduction techniques for suspended timber floors and pressure field extension assessment of hardcore specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, T.J.; Stephen, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper comprises two case studies. The first describes a series of mitigation measures carried out in a small primary school fitted with a suspended timber floor. Radon levels had been successfully reduced but the floor subsequently collapsed due to an outbreak of dry-rot. The floor was replaced with a ground-bearing concrete slab fitted with a typical example of one of 200 or so sump-and-fan systems fitted by Cornwall County Council (CCC). Following consultation with the Building Research Establishment (BRE) a network of small bore pipes was fitted below the floor during construction to record variations in radon levels and pressures. The second case study describes the floor replacement at a second, similar school but with a permeable layer of material under the concrete slab and more pressure measurement points. The pressure measurements and their subsequent analysis are described and the performance of the two installations compared. Using BRE and CCC expertise, this technique is now being applied to a number of other replacement floors in order to assess pressure field extension in a variety of hardcore and blinding materials. It is hoped that by careful selection of hardcore and blinding specifications the increased pressure field extension obtained could result in a new-build properties requiring fewer underfloor suction points and/or a reduction in fan power consumption with a greater degree of confidence of success than at present. The selection and design of suction systems to date has been on a very pragmatic basis. (author)

  8. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  9. An Extension of the Fuzzy Possibilistic Clustering Algorithm Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elid Rubio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an extension of the Fuzzy Possibilistic C-Means (FPCM algorithm using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Techniques is presented, and this is done in order to improve the efficiency of FPCM algorithm. With the purpose of observing the performance of the proposal against the Interval Type-2 Fuzzy C-Means algorithm, several experiments were made using both algorithms with well-known datasets, such as Wine, WDBC, Iris Flower, Ionosphere, Abalone, and Cover type. In addition some experiments were performed using another set of test images to observe the behavior of both of the above-mentioned algorithms in image preprocessing. Some comparisons are performed between the proposed algorithm and the Interval Type-2 Fuzzy C-Means (IT2FCM algorithm to observe if the proposed approach has better performance than this algorithm.

  10. Automatic assessment of mitral regurgitation severity based on extensive textural features on 2D echocardiography videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hanie; Nourian, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    Heart disease is the major cause of death as well as a leading cause of disability in the developed countries. Mitral Regurgitation (MR) is a common heart disease which does not cause symptoms until its end stage. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease is of crucial importance in the treatment process. Echocardiography is a common method of diagnosis in the severity of MR. Hence, a method which is based on echocardiography videos, image processing techniques and artificial intelligence could be helpful for clinicians, especially in borderline cases. In this paper, we introduce novel features to detect micro-patterns of echocardiography images in order to determine the severity of MR. Extensive Local Binary Pattern (ELBP) and Extensive Volume Local Binary Pattern (EVLBP) are presented as image descriptors which include details from different viewpoints of the heart in feature vectors. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Template Matching techniques are used as classifiers to determine the severity of MR based on textural descriptors. The SVM classifier with Extensive Uniform Local Binary Pattern (ELBPU) and Extensive Volume Local Binary Pattern (EVLBP) have the best accuracy with 99.52%, 99.38%, 99.31% and 99.59%, respectively, for the detection of Normal, Mild MR, Moderate MR and Severe MR subjects among echocardiography videos. The proposed method achieves 99.38% sensitivity and 99.63% specificity for the detection of the severity of MR and normal subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 3-D thermal weight function method and multiple virtual crack extension technique for thermal shock problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanlin; Zhou Xiao; Qu Jiadi; Dou Yikang; He Yinbiao

    2005-01-01

    An efficient scheme, 3-D thermal weight function (TWF) method, and a novel numerical technique, multiple virtual crack extension (MVCE) technique, were developed for determination of histories of transient stress intensity factor (SIF) distributions along 3-D crack fronts of a body subjected to thermal shock. The TWF is a universal function, which is dependent only on the crack configuration and body geometry. TWF is independent of time during thermal shock, so the whole history of transient SIF distributions along crack fronts can be directly calculated through integration of the products of TWF and transient temperatures and temperature gradients. The repeated determinations of the distributions of stresses (or displacements) fields for individual time instants are thus avoided in the TWF method. An expression of the basic equation for the 3-D universal weight function method for Mode I in an isotropic elastic body is derived. This equation can also be derived from Bueckner-Rice's 3-D WF formulations in the framework of transformation strain. It can be understood from this equation that the so-called thermal WF is in fact coincident with the mechanical WF except for some constants of elasticity. The details and formulations of the MVCE technique are given for elliptical cracks. The MVCE technique possesses several advantages. The specially selected linearly independent VCE modes can directly be used as shape functions for the interpolation of unknown SIFs. As a result, the coefficient matrix of the final system of equations in the MVCE method is a triple-diagonal matrix and the values of the coefficients on the main diagonal are large. The system of equations has good numerical properties. The number of linearly independent VCE modes that can be introduced in a problem is unlimited. Complex situations in which the SIFs vary dramatically along crack fronts can be numerically well simulated by the MVCE technique. An integrated system of programs for solving the

  12. Extension of instance search technique by geometric coding and quantization error compensation

    OpenAIRE

    García Del Molino, Ana

    2013-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] This PFC analyzes two ways of improving the video retrieval techniques for instance search problem. In one hand, "Pairing Interest Points for a better Signature using Sparse Detector's Spatial Information", allows the Bag-of-Words model to keep some spatial information. In the other, "Study of the Hamming Embedding Signature Symmetry in Video Retrieval" provides binary signatures that refine the matching based on visual words, and aims to find the best way of matching taking into acc...

  13. Outcomes of Orbital Floor Reconstruction After Extensive Maxillectomy Using the Computer-Assisted Fabricated Individual Titanium Mesh Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Bo; Mao, Chi; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Chuan-Bin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Peng, Xin

    2015-10-01

    Orbital floor defects after extensive maxillectomy can cause severe esthetic and functional deformities. Orbital floor reconstruction using the computer-assisted fabricated individual titanium mesh technique is a promising method. This study evaluated the application and clinical outcomes of this technique. This retrospective study included 10 patients with orbital floor defects after maxillectomy performed from 2012 through 2014. A 3-dimensional individual stereo model based on mirror images of the unaffected orbit was obtained to fabricate an anatomically adapted titanium mesh using computer-assisted design and manufacturing. The titanium mesh was inserted into the defect using computer navigation. The postoperative globe projection and orbital volume were measured and the incidence of postoperative complications was evaluated. The average postoperative globe projection was 15.91 ± 1.80 mm on the affected side and 16.24 ± 2.24 mm on the unaffected side (P = .505), and the average postoperative orbital volume was 26.01 ± 1.28 and 25.57 ± 1.89 mL, respectively (P = .312). The mean mesh depth was 25.11 ± 2.13 mm. The mean follow-up period was 23.4 ± 7.7 months (12 to 34 months). Of the 10 patients, 9 did not develop diplopia or a decrease in visual acuity and ocular motility. Titanium mesh exposure was not observed in any patient. All patients were satisfied with their postoperative facial symmetry. Orbital floor reconstruction after extensive maxillectomy with an individual titanium mesh fabricated using computer-assisted techniques can preserve globe projection and orbital volume, resulting in successful clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immediate effects of Graston Technique on hamstring muscle extensibility and pain intensity in patients with nonspecific low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jong Hoon; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Won, Young Sik; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Graston Technique on hamstring extensibility and pain intensity in patients with nonspecific low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients with nonspecific low back pain (27?46 years of age) enrolled in the study. All participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Graston technique group (n=12) and a static stretching group (n=12). The Graston Technique was used on the hamstring muscles of the experimenta...

  15. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir; Tessmer, Ekkehart; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an

  16. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir

    2016-09-06

    The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an

  17. Microprocessor based techniques at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, G.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor based systems succesfully used in connection with the High Energy Physics experimental program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring are described. The multiprocessor calibration system for the CUSB calorimeter is analyzed in view of present and future applications. (orig.)

  18. Bases en technique du vide

    CERN Document Server

    Rommel, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...

  19. Immediate effects of Graston Technique on hamstring muscle extensibility and pain intensity in patients with nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong Hoon; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Won, Young Sik; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Graston Technique on hamstring extensibility and pain intensity in patients with nonspecific low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients with nonspecific low back pain (27-46 years of age) enrolled in the study. All participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Graston technique group (n=12) and a static stretching group (n=12). The Graston Technique was used on the hamstring muscles of the experimental group, while the static stretching group performed static stretching. Hamstring extensibility was recorded using the sit and reach test, and a visual analog scale was used to measure pain intensity. [Results] Both groups showed a significant improvement after intervention. In comparison to the static stretching group, the Graston technique group had significantly more improvement in hamstring extensibility. [Conclusion] The Graston Technique is a simple and effective intervention in nonspecific low back pain patients to improve hamstring extensibility and lower pain intensity, and it would be beneficial in clinical practice.

  20. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  1. Imaging techniques in evaluation of juvenile angiofibroma with lateral extension in the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska, A.; Pietura, R.; Drelich-Zbroja, A.; Trojanowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a benign tumour arising in the nasopharynx and penetrating laterally into the pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and orbit. Precise preoperative evaluation of the presence and extension of its lateral spread is crucial for choosing the best surgical approach and performing radical operation. The aim of the study was to assess usefulness of imaging methods in diagnosis and evaluation of lateral extension of juvenile angiofibroma. In a group of 39 patients operated on from 1973 to 2002 due to juvenile angiofibroma in 21 (54%) cases a lateral extension of the tumor was diagnosed. All patients underwent carotid angiography (CA) and lateral plain skull X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18,and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 4 patients. In all cases the extension of the tumor and its lateral spread was verified during surgery. A widening of the pterygopalatine fossa on lateral plain X-ray was present in 13 (62%) patients. CT and MRI demonstrated the presence of lateral extension in all patients diagnosed with these methods. In 9 cases, lateral CA revealed dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery by the tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa. The presence of big lateral extension of the juvenile angiofibroma is demonstrated on lateral plain X-ray as anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus (Holman-Miller sign). MRI shows better than CT the extent and margins of the tumor in soft tissues. Lateral CA shows dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery and its course in relation to the lateral extension of the tumor, which is important for surgical planning. (author)

  2. Initial Effect of Taping Technique on Wrist Extension and Grip Strength and Pain of Individuals with Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shamsoddini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of this study is to investigate the initial effect of taping technique on wrist extension and grip strength and pain of Individuals with tennis elbow. Methods: fifteen patients (10 men and 5 women with 42.53 years on their dominant arm participated in this study. Outcome measures were wrist extension and grip strength and pain taken before and immediately after application of tape. The unaffected arm served as a control. Used of hand-held dynamometer and jammar dynamometer for evaluated of wrist extension and grip strength. Also, visual analog scale (VAS used for evaluated of pain Results: Among the variables, significant differences were found in wrist extension strength between effected and unaffected arm (P=0.006. Also, changes in grip strength shows statically significant improve in effect arm than unaffected arm (P=0.001. Changes in pain in impaired arm were positive. Discussion: Taping technique, as applied in this study demonstrated an impressive effect on wrist extension and grip strength and pain in individuals with tennis elbow. Therefore, it is recommended that this method may be useful in the management of this condition during exercise and functional rehabilitation.

  3. Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleyer, Paul J; O'Doherty, Michael J; Marsden, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

  4. The determination of acoustic reflection coefficients by using cepstral techniques, II: Extensions of the technique and considerations of accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, J. S.; Gold, E.

    1986-10-01

    In a companion paper the cepstral technique for the measurement of reflection coefficients was described. In particular the concepts of extraction noise and extraction delay were introduced. They are considered further here, and, in addition, a means of extending the cepstral technique to accommodate surfaces having lengthy impulse responses is described. The character of extraction noise, a cepstral component which interferes with reflection measurements, is largely determined by the spectrum of the signal radiated from the source loudspeaker. Here the origin and effects of extraction noise are discussed and it is shown that inverse filtering techniques may be used to reduce extraction noise without making impractical demands of the electrical test signal or the source loudspeaker. The extraction delay, a factor which is introduced when removing the reflector impulse response from the power cepstrum, has previously been estimated by a cross-correlation technique. Here the importance of estimating the extraction delay accurately is emphasized by showing the effect of small spurious delays on the calculation of the normal impedance of a reflecting surface. The effects are shown to accord with theory, and it was found that the real part of the estimated surface normal impedance is very nearly maximized when the spurious delay is eliminated; this has suggested a new way of determining the extraction delay itself. Finally, the basic cepstral technique is suited only to the measurement of surfaces whose impulse responses are shorter than τ, the delay between the arrival of the direct and specularly reflected components at the measurement position. Here it is shown that this restriction can be eliminated, by using a process known as cepstral inversion, when the direct cepstrum has a duration less than τ and cepstral aliasing is insignificant. It is also possible to use this technique to deconvolve a signal from an echo sequence in the time domain, an operation

  5. An Examination of the Feasibility of Integrating Motivational Interviewing Techniques into FCS Cooperative Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunovich, Heidi Liss; Ellis, Sarah; Spangler, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Demonstrating program impact through behavior change is critical for the continued success of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Cooperative Extension programming. However, the literature suggests that simply providing information to participants does not necessarily lead to behavior change. This study pilot tested the integration of Motivational…

  6. Extensive Characterisation of Copper-clad Plates, Bonded by the Explosive Technique, for ITER Electrical Joints

    CERN Document Server

    Langeslag, S A E; Libeyre, P; Gung, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors will be extensively implemented in the large superconducting magnet coils foreseen to confine the plasma in the ITER experiment. The design of the various magnet systems imposes the use of electrical joints to connect unit lengths of superconducting coils by inter-pancake coupling. These twin-box lap type joints, produced by compacting each cable end in into a copper - stainless steel bimetallic box, are required to be highly performing in terms of electrical and mechanical prop- erties. To ascertain the suitability of the first copper-clad plates, recently produced, the performance of several plates is studied. Validation of the bonded interface is carried out by determining microstructural, tensile and shear characteristics. These measure- ments confirm the suitability of explosion bonded copper-clad plates for an overall joint application. Additionally, an extensive study is conducted on the suitability of certain copper purity grades for the various joint types.

  7. Composite Techniques Based Color Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ibrahim Abood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compression for color image is now necessary for transmission and storage in the data bases since the color gives a pleasing nature and natural for any object, so three composite techniques based color image compression is implemented to achieve image with high compression, no loss in original image, better performance and good image quality. These techniques are composite stationary wavelet technique (S, composite wavelet technique (W and composite multi-wavelet technique (M. For the high energy sub-band of the 3rd level of each composite transform in each composite technique, the compression parameters are calculated. The best composite transform among the 27 types is the three levels of multi-wavelet transform (MMM in M technique which has the highest values of energy (En and compression ratio (CR and least values of bit per pixel (bpp, time (T and rate distortion R(D. Also the values of the compression parameters of the color image are nearly the same as the average values of the compression parameters of the three bands of the same image.

  8. Use of environmental qualification data and techniques for life extension purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnappan, J.

    1991-01-01

    As several nuclear power plants in the United States now reach or exceed the midpoint of their original 40-year design life, efforts are underway to identify techniques and methods to demonstrate that the actual useful life of these plants exceeds the original design life. Some surveillance and monitoring programs for safety-related components are being developed to determine the actual consumed life and predict the remaining life. These data are useful for showing that plant components actually have a longer qualified life, which is the basis for the license renewal of nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes a proposed methodology using existing environmental qualification (EQ) data for safety-related Class 1E equipment and the results of surveillance and monitoring techniques to assess the actual consumed life and, consequently, predict the remaining life. It also discusses several techniques that can be used to address various aging degradation mechanisms to demonstrate longer qualified life of safety-related components. Examples of how these techniques can be used on components are shown

  9. Development of stress corrosion techniques for structural integrity evaluation and life extension of PWR facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Pedro A.L.D.L. Pinheiro; Vilela, Jeferson J.; Lorenzo, Roberto F. Di; Lopes, Jadir A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The stress corrosion is a mechanism of degradation present in the nuclear plants. To extend the life of the plants components, this corrosion type it should be known. An evaluation for the implantation of methodologies of stress corrosion study in CDTN/CNEN, shows that the technique of slow deformation can be used in the evaluation of integrity structural nuclear power stations. This technique consists of straining a sample slowly, usually, in strain rate between 10 -4 and 10- 8 s -1 and in conditions that simulate the reactivity of the metal in environment (pressure, temperature, chemical composition of the water and etc) similar to the found at the nuclear power power stations. This simulation allows evaluating susceptibility the stress corrosion of components mechanical and structure that operate in central nuclear. (author)

  10. Five years' experience of the modified Meek technique in the management of extensive burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chun-Sheng; Schuong, Jen-Yu; Huang, W S; Huang, Ted T

    2008-05-01

    The Meek technique of skin expansion is useful for covering a large open wound with a small piece of skin graft, but requires a carefully followed protocol. Over the past 5 years, a skin graft expansion technique following the Meek principle was used to treat 37 individuals who had sustained third degree burns involving more than 40% of the body surface. A scheme was devised whereby the body was divided into six areas, in order to clarify the optimal order of wound debridements and skin grafting procedures as well as the regimen of aftercare. The mean body surface involvement was 72.9% and the mean area of third degree burns was 41%. The average number of operations required was 1.84. There were four deaths among in this group of patients. The Meek technique of skin expansion and the suggested protocol are together efficient and effective in covering an open wound, particularly where there is a paucity of skin graft donor sites.

  11. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  12. An Extensible, Ontology-based, Distributed Information System Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao, Alan I; Krikeles, Basil C; Lusignan, Angela E; Starczewski, Edward

    2003-01-01

    ...), which facilitates the construction of scalable, flexible distributed systems. XDA is based on a simple ontology mechanism that enables the definition and maintenance of high-level object models to capture the shared semantics necessary for interoperability...

  13. The tracer technique, an extensive field of application for research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1980-10-01

    First the principle of the tracer technique is described. Then the most important applications are reported as there are measurements of velocities of flow and of running through, of charges of amount, of durations and of volumes, investigations of intermixtures, distributions and of corrosion, wear and lubricant phenomenous, locatings of leakages, checkings of tightnesses and determinations of the efficiencies of destilling and purifying plants. For each field of application examples are given, most of them investigations of the DEPARTMENT FOR ISOTOPE APPLICATION of the AUSTRIAN RESEARCH CENTRE SEIBERSDORF Ges.m.b.H. Further applications in chemistry, metallurgy, medicine, biology and agriculture are mentioned. (author)

  14. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Thomas James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  15. Stent tunnel technique to save thrombosed native hemodialysis fistula with extensive venous aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabellino M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Martin Rabellino,1 Guillermo J Rosa-Diez,2 Sergio A Shinzato,1 Pablo Rodriguez,1 Oscar A Peralta,1 Maria S Crucelegui,2 Rosario Luxardo,2 Agustina Heredia-Martinez,2 Mariela I Bedini-Rocca,2 Ricardo D García-Mónaco1 1Department of Angiography and Endovascular Therapy, 2Department of Nephrology, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Introduction and purpose: The increasing number of patients undergoing hemodialysis and the limited number of access sites have resulted in an increasing number of techniques to maintain vascular access for hemodialysis. Thrombosed arteriovenous (AV fistulas with large venous aneurysms have poor treatment results, with both endovascular and surgical techniques, leading to a high rate of definitive AV access loss. The purpose of this study was to review the feasibility and initial results of this novel endovascular treatment of thrombosed AV fistulas with large venous aneurysms.Materials and methods: A novel endovascular treatment technique of inserting nitinol auto-expandable uncovered stents stretching through the whole puncture site area, thus creating a tunnel inside the thrombus, was retrospectively analyzed and described.Results: A total of 17 stents were placed in 10 hemodialysis fistulas, with a mean venous coverage length of 17.8 cm. In all the cases, 100% technical success was achieved, with complete restoration of blood flow in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. The mean follow-up was 167 days (range 60–420 days, with a primary and assisted patency of 80% and 100%, respectively. No multiple trans-stent struts-related complications were observed. Three stent fractures were diagnosed with plain films at the site of puncture without consequence in the venous access permeability.Conclusion: The “stent tunnel technique” is a feasible, safe and effective alternative to salvage native hemodialysis access, thus extending the function of the venous access with

  16. A Nakanishi-based model illustrating the covariant extension of the pion GPD overlap representation and its ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouika, N.; Mezrag, C.; Moutarde, H.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.

    2018-05-01

    A systematic approach for the model building of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), based on their overlap representation within the DGLAP kinematic region and a further covariant extension to the ERBL one, is applied to the valence-quark pion's case, using light-front wave functions inspired by the Nakanishi representation of the pion Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes (BSA). This simple but fruitful pion GPD model illustrates the general model building technique and, in addition, allows for the ambiguities related to the covariant extension, grounded on the Double Distribution (DD) representation, to be constrained by requiring a soft-pion theorem to be properly observed.

  17. [Extensive tumor of the skull base: sphenoid sinus adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Souha; Sellami, Moncef

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the sphenoid sinus manifesting as extended skull base tumor. The patient included in the study was a 42-year old woman presenting with unilateral right symptomatology consisting of nasal obstruction, diplopia and hemifacial neuralgias. Clinical examination showed paralysis of the cranial nerve pairs V and VI. Brain scanner showed voluminous heterogeneous sphenoid and clival mass reaching the right cavernous sinus, with a peripheral tissue component at the level of the sphenoid sinus. Biopsy was performed under general anesthesia, through endonasal sphenoidotomy approach. Histological examination showed non-intestinal adenocarcinoma. The patient died due to impaired general condition occurred during examinations. Skull base adenocarcinomas mainly occur in the ethmoid bone. Sphenoid origin is exceptional. Radiological appearance is not specific and suggests malignancy. Diagnosis should be suspected in patients with aggressive tumor, even when it occurs in the midline skull base.

  18. Extension and application of a scaling technique for duplication of in-flight aerodynamic heat flux in ground test facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    To enable direct experimental duplication of the inflight heat flux distribution on supersonic and hypersonic vehicles, an aerodynamic heating scaling technique has been developed. The scaling technique is based on the analytical equations for convective heat transfer for laminar and turbulent

  19. Analytical research using synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2015-01-01

    There are many Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), SR-Fourier-transform Infrared (SRFTIR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. which are increasingly being employed worldwide in analytical research. With advent of modern synchrotron sources these analytical techniques have been further revitalized and paved ways for new techniques such as microprobe XRF and XAS, FTIR microscopy, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. The talk will cover mainly two techniques illustrating its capability in analytical research namely XRF and XAS. XRF spectroscopy: XRF spectroscopy is an analytical technique which involves the detection of emitted characteristic X-rays following excitation of the elements within the sample. While electron, particle (protons or alpha particles), or X-ray beams can be employed as the exciting source for this analysis, the use of X-ray beams from a synchrotron source has been instrumental in the advancement of the technique in the area of microprobe XRF imaging and trace level compositional characterisation of any sample. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, has become competitive with the earlier microprobe and nanoprobe techniques following the advancements in manipulating and detecting these X-rays. There are two important features that contribute to the superb elemental sensitivities of microprobe SR induced XRF: (i) the absence of the continuum (Bremsstrahlung) background radiation that is a feature of spectra obtained from charged particle beams, and (ii) the increased X-ray flux on the sample associated with the use of tunable third generation synchrotron facilities. Detection sensitivities have been reported in the ppb range, with values of 10 -17 g - 10 -14 g (depending on the particular element and matrix). Keeping in mind its demand, a microprobe XRF beamline has been setup by RRCAT at Indus-2 synchrotron

  20. Extension of POA based on Fiber Element to Girder Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenxin; Qiang Shizhong

    2010-01-01

    Because of its main advantage of simplicity, practicality, lower computational cost and relative good results Pushover analysis (POA) has become an effective analytical tool during the last decade for the seismic assessment of buildings. But such work on bridges has been very limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to adapt POA for nonlinear seismic analysis of girder bridges, and investigate its applicability in the case of an existing river-spanning approach bridge. To three different types bridge models the nonlinear POA, which adopts fiber model nonlinear beam-column element based on flexibility approach, with return period about 2500 years is carried out. It can be concluded that POA is applicable for bridges, with some shortcomings associated with the method in general, even when it is applied for buildings. Finally the applicable selection for monitoring point and lateral load pattern is suggested according to dynamic characteristic of girder bridges.

  1. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  2. Low-cost computer classification of land cover in the Portland area, Oregon, by signature extension techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    Computer-aided techniques for interpreting multispectral data acquired by Landsat offer economies in the mapping of land cover. Even so, the actual establishment of the statistical classes, or "signatures," is one of the relatively more costly operations involved. Analysts have therefore been seeking cost-saving signature extension techniques that would accept training data acquired for one time or place and apply them to another. Opportunities to extend signatures occur in preprocessing steps and in the classification steps that follow. In the present example, land cover classes were derived by the simplest and most direct form of signature extension: Classes statistically derived from a Landsat scene for the Puget Sound area, Wash., were applied to the Portland area, Oreg., using data for the next Landsat scene acquired less than 25 seconds down orbit. Many features can be recognized on the reduced-scale version of the Portland land cover map shown in this report, although no statistical assessment of its accuracy is available.

  3. XSemantic: An Extension of LCA Based XML Semantic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supasitthimethee, Umaporn; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Porkaew, Kriengkrai

    One of the most convenient ways to query XML data is a keyword search because it does not require any knowledge of XML structure or learning a new user interface. However, the keyword search is ambiguous. The users may use different terms to search for the same information. Furthermore, it is difficult for a system to decide which node is likely to be chosen as a return node and how much information should be included in the result. To address these challenges, we propose an XML semantic search based on keywords called XSemantic. On the one hand, we give three definitions to complete in terms of semantics. Firstly, the semantic term expansion, our system is robust from the ambiguous keywords by using the domain ontology. Secondly, to return semantic meaningful answers, we automatically infer the return information from the user queries and take advantage of the shortest path to return meaningful connections between keywords. Thirdly, we present the semantic ranking that reflects the degree of similarity as well as the semantic relationship so that the search results with the higher relevance are presented to the users first. On the other hand, in the LCA and the proximity search approaches, we investigated the problem of information included in the search results. Therefore, we introduce the notion of the Lowest Common Element Ancestor (LCEA) and define our simple rule without any requirement on the schema information such as the DTD or XML Schema. The first experiment indicated that XSemantic not only properly infers the return information but also generates compact meaningful results. Additionally, the benefits of our proposed semantics are demonstrated by the second experiment.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Extension Education Centers in Universities Based on the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance…

  5. New Virginia Cooperative Extension website connects citizens with research-based knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension has revamped its online presence with a new and improved website that connects citizens with the research-based knowledge at Virginia's land-grant universities, Virginia Tech and Virginia State University.

  6. On HTML and XML based web design and implementation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, B.; Kalita, M.

    2006-05-01

    Web implementation is truly a multidisciplinary field with influences from programming, choosing of scripting languages, graphic design, user interface design, and database design. The challenge of a Web designer/implementer is his ability to create an attractive and informative Web. To work with the universal framework and link diagrams from the design process as well as the Web specifications and domain information, it is essential to create Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) or other software and multimedia to accomplish the Web's objective. In this article we will discuss Web design standards and the techniques involved in Web implementation based on HTML and Extensible Markup Language (XML). We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HTML over its successor XML in designing and implementing a Web. We have developed two Web pages, one utilizing the features of HTML and the other based on the features of XML to carry out the present investigation. (author)

  7. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenoghena, C. O.; Emagbetere, J. O.; Aibinu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out.

  8. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenoghena, C O; Emagbetere, J O; 1 Minna (Nigeria))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Telecommunications Engineering, Federal University of Techn.1 Minna (Nigeria))" >Aibinu, A M

    2013-01-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out

  9. CT imaging techniques for describing motions of the cervicothoracic junction and cervical spine during flexion, extension, and cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Scott; Davis, Martin; Odhner, Dewey; Udupa, Jayaram; Winkelstein, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Computerized tomographic study of human cadavers undergoing traction and flexion-extension bending. To investigate the feasibility of using computerized tomography techniques to quantify relative vertebral motions of the cervical spine and cervicothoracic junction (CTJ), and to define normative CTJ kinematics. Despite developing an understanding of the mechanical behavior of the cervical spine, little remains known about the cervicothoracic junction. The CTJ is more difficult to image than other cervical regions given the anatomic features of the surrounding bones obstructing CTJ visualization. As such, limited data have been reported describing the responses of the CTJ for motions and loading in the sagittal plane, confounding the clinical assessment of its injuries and surgical treatments used at this region. Helical CT images of the cervical spine and CTJ were acquired incrementally during each of flexion, extension, and cervical traction. Vertebral surfaces were reconstructed using the specialized image analysis software, 3DVIEWNIX. A mathematical description of relative vertebral motions was derived by computing rigid transformations. Euler angles and translations were calculated. Regional spine stiffness was defined for traction. The CTJ was found to be much stiffer (779 N/mm) than the cervical spine (317 N/mm) in tension. In flexion-extension bending, the CTJ was similar to the lower cervical spine. The CTJ demonstrated significantly less coupled motion than the cervical spine. The CTJ, as a transition region between the cervical and thoracic spines, has unique kinematic characteristics. This application of kinematic CT methods is useful for quantifying unreported normative ranges of motion for the CTJ, difficult by other conventional radiologic means.

  10. Factors affecting the longevity of interim ILW stores, monitoring methods and techniques supporting store life extension - 59151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Jenny; Wickham, Stephen; Hicks, Tim; Richardson, Phil; McKinney, James; Morris, Darrell; Brownridge, Melanie; Tearle, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Life-limiting features of stores (i.e. components of a typical Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) store that are vulnerable to failure) can be separated into those related to store design, the continuing operation of the store and equipment and store management. Environmental factors, including temperature, humidity, atmospheric pollutants and radiation fields also affect the longevity of ILW storage buildings and the integrity of the waste packages within the store. The current condition of the store and the causes and rates of any observed deterioration need to be determined to estimate the current operating life of the store and to analyse the costs and benefits associated with life extension. Suitable monitoring techniques and methods for extending the operating life of stores, either by remediation or replacement of identified life-limiting features, have also been assessed. Techniques including visual inspection (directly or by use of CCTV or inspection cells), corrosion coupons, crane monitoring and a wide range of indirect measurement methods can be used to monitor the condition of life-limiting features and the store environment. Methods for extending store life include the application of paint or coatings to retard degradation, use of electro-chemical treatments and repair of the concrete structure or replacement of components. Life-limiting features and environmental factors that affect the longevity of facilities for the interim storage of ILW have been identified through a literature review and Expert Workshop. Monitoring techniques are available for the key life-limiting feature of structural integrity of reinforced concrete, and for the atmospheric or surface concentration of corrosion-accelerating substances. Methods for remediating the reinforced concrete structure or crane rails to increase the expected lifetime of the store are also reviewed. Many of these techniques have previously been used at radioactive waste stores or other nuclear facilities in

  11. Web-Based Geographic Information Systems: Experience and Perspectives of Planners and the Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Z. Asligül

    2016-01-01

    Web-based geographic information system (GIS) technology, or web-based GIS, offers many opportunities for public planners and Extension educators who have limited GIS backgrounds or resources. However, investigation of its use in planning has been limited. The study described here examined the use of web-based GIS by public planning agencies. A…

  12. [Extension of health coverage and community based health insurance schemes in Africa: Myths and realities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidin, B

    2015-02-01

    This article tackles the perspectives and limits of the extension of health coverage based on community based health insurance schemes in Africa. Despite their strong potential contribution to the extension of health coverage, their weaknesses challenge their ability to play an important role in this extension. Three limits are distinguished: financial fragility; insufficient adaptation to characteristics and needs of poor people; organizational and institutional failures. Therefore lessons can be learnt from the limits of the institutionalization of community based health insurance schemes. At first, community based health insurance schemes are to be considered as a transitional but insufficient solution. There is also a stronger role to be played by public actors in improving financial support, strengthening health services and coordinating coverage programs.

  13. The Knowledge Base as an Extension of Distance Learning Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores knowledge bases as extension of reference services for distance learners. Through a survey and follow-up interviews with distance learning librarians, this paper discusses their interest in creating and maintaining a knowledge base as a resource for reference services to distance learners. It also investigates their perceptions…

  14. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  15. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation A Simulation Code Based on the Non-Linear Extension of the Operator Splitting Method

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is one of the main problems limiting the performance of high intensity electron accelerators. A code devoted to the analysis of this type of problems should be fast and reliable: conditions that are usually hardly achieved at the same time. In the past, codes based on Lie algebraic techniques have been very efficient to treat transport problem in accelerators. The extension of these method to the non-linear case is ideally suited to treat CSR instability problems. We report on the development of a numerical code, based on the solution of the Vlasov equation, with the inclusion of non-linear contribution due to wake field effects. The proposed solution method exploits an algebraic technique, using exponential operators implemented numerically in C++. We show that the integration procedure is capable of reproducing the onset of an instability and effects associated with bunching mechanisms leading to the growth of the instability itself. In addition, parametric studies a...

  16. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  17. Phase difference estimation method based on data extension and Hilbert transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yan-lin; Tu, Ya-qing; Chen, Lin-jun; Shen, Ting-ao

    2015-01-01

    To improve the precision and anti-interference performance of phase difference estimation for non-integer periods of sampling signals, a phase difference estimation method based on data extension and Hilbert transform is proposed. Estimated phase difference is obtained by means of data extension, Hilbert transform, cross-correlation, auto-correlation, and weighted phase average. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed method suppresses the end effects of Hilbert transform effectively. The results of simulations and field experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves the anti-interference performance of phase difference estimation and has better performance of phase difference estimation than the correlation, Hilbert transform, and data extension-based correlation methods, which contribute to improving the measurement precision of the Coriolis mass flowmeter. (paper)

  18. Chromosome copy analysis by single-cell comparative genomic hybridization technique based on primer extension preamplification and degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR%引物延伸预扩增结合简并引物PCR在单细胞比较基因组杂交分析染色体异常中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭珂; 狄玉芬; 程德华; 徐芳; 卢光绣; 谭跃球

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a single-cell whole genome amplification (WGA) technique, in combination with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), for analyzing chromosomal copy number changes, and to explore its clinical application in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Methods Twelve single cell samples with known karyotypes, including 5 chorionic villus samples, 4 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) samples and 3 peripheral lymphocyte samples, and 4 single blastomere samples carrying chromosomal abnormalities detected by PGD, were collected for whole genome amplification by combining primer extension preamplification (PEP) with degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR (DOP-PCR)amplification. The amplified products labeled by red fluorescence were mixed with control DNA labeled by green fluorescence, and then the mixture was analyzed by CGH. As a comparison, 10 single cell samples were amplified by DOP-PCR only and then CGH analysis was performed. Results The amplification using PEP-DOP-PCR was more stable than traditional DOP-PCR. The products of PEP-DOP-PCR range from 100 bp to 1000 bp, with the mean size being about 400 bp. The CGH results were consistent with analyses by other methods. However, only 6 out of 10 single cell samples were successfully amplified by DOP-PCR,and CGH analysis showed a high background and 2 samples showed inconsistent results from other methods. Conclusion PEP-DOP-PCR can effectively amplify the whole genome DNA of single cell.Combined with CGH, this WGA method can successfully detect single-cell chromosomal copy number changes, while DOP-PCR was easy to fail to amplify and amplify inhomogeneousty, and CGH analysis using this PCR product usually showed high background. These results suggest that PEP-DOP-CGH is a promising method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.%目的 建立一种可信的单细胞全基因组扩增(whole genome amplification.WGA)技术,结合比较基因组杂交(comparative genomic hybridization,CGH)分析单细

  19. The Dynamics of Project-Based Learning Extension Courses: The "Laboratory of Social Projects" Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, Joao Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In this case study we discuss the dynamics that drive a free-of-charge project-based learning extension course. We discuss the lessons learned in the course, "Laboratory of Social Projects." The course aimed to teach project management skills to the participants. It was conducted from August to November of 2015, at Federal University of…

  20. Strategic Partnerships that Strengthen Extension's Community-Based Entrepreneurship Programs: An Example from Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassano, Louis V.; McConnon, James C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article explains how Extension can enhance and expand its nationwide community-based entrepreneurship programs by developing strategic partnerships with other organizations to create highly effective educational programs for rural entrepreneurs. The activities and impacts of the Down East Micro-Enterprise Network (DEMN), an alliance of three…

  1. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  2. Light based techniques for improving health care: studies at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.; Patel, H.S.; Ahlawat, S.

    2015-01-01

    The invention of Lasers in 1960, the phenomenal advances in photonics as well as the information processing capability of the computers has given a major boost to the R and D activity on the use of light for high resolution biomedical imaging, sensitive, non-invasive diagnosis and precision therapy. The effort has resulted in remarkable progress and it is widely believed that light based techniques hold great potential to offer simpler, portable systems which can help provide diagnostics and therapy in a low resource setting. At Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) extensive studies have been carried out on fluorescence spectroscopy of native tissue. This work led to two important outcomes. First, a better understanding of tissue fluorescence and insights on the possible use of fluorescence spectroscopy for screening of cancer and second development of diagnostic systems that can serve as standalone tool for non-invasive screening of the cancer of oral cavity. The optical coherence tomography setups and their functional extensions (polarization sensitive, Doppler) have also been developed and used for high resolution (∼10 µm) biomedical imaging applications, in particular for non-invasive monitoring of the healing of wounds. Chlorophyll based photo-sensitisers and their derivatives have been synthesized in house and used for photodynamic therapy of tumors in animal models and for antimicrobial applications. Various variants of optical tweezers (holographic, Raman etc.) have also been developed and utilised for different applications notably Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped red blood cells. An overview of these activities carried out at RRCAT is presented in this article. (author)

  3. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  4. Downward Price-Based Brand Line Extensions Effects on Luxury Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Royo-Vela, Marcelo; Voss, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to examine the brand concept consistency, the self-concept congruence and the resulting loyalty status of the consumers in order to evaluate whether a downward price-based line extensions in the luxury goods market has any negative or positive effect on them. By conducting focus group and in-depth interviews it was tried to filter out how brand concepts of luxury brands are perceived before and after a line extension. Results revealed that a crucial aspect for the evaluation ...

  5. Coupling Empowerment Based Application of Extension Method for Geothermal Potential Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plenty of mathematics researches provide feasibility to calculate the weights of geothermal controlling factors and have been applied in geothermal potential assessment. In order to avoid the disadvantages of subjective and objective weighting calculation methods, an extension theory integrated weighting method was put forward, by combining with the process of AHP and mean variance method. The improved method can reach an agreement on subjective understanding of impact factors’ roles and data-based calculation weights. Then by replacing the point values with intervals, the extension theory was used in classification of geothermal assessment, according to extension judgment matrix. The evaluation results showed perfect performance in classification of impact factors, especially in Wudalianchi area, where 10 out of 11 selected impact factors agreed well with the actual evaluation grades. The study can provide a guidance for primary stage of geothermal investigation including the impact factor selection, weights calculation for impact factors, and the factors’ classification in geothermal assessment.

  6. Extensive Evaluation of a Diffusion Denuder Technique for the Quantification of Atmospheric Stable and Radioactive Molecular Iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Hou, Xiaolin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the evaluation and optimization of a new approach for the quantification of gaseous molecular iodine (I2) for laboratory- and field-based studies and its novel application for the measurement of radioactive molecular iodine. α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD) in combination with 129I......, and condition of release and derivatization of iodine, is extensively evaluated and optimized. The collection efficiency is larger than 98% and the limit of detection (LOD) obtained is 0.17 parts-per-trillion-by-volume (pptv) for a sampling duration of 30 min at 500 mL min−1. Furthermore, the potential use...... of this protocol for the determination of radioactive I2 at ultra trace level is also demonstrated when 129I− used in the coating is replaced by 127I− and a multiple denuder system is used. Using the present method we observed 25.7−108.6 pptv 127I2 at Mweenish Bay, Ireland and 108 molecule m−3 129I2 at Mainz...

  7. Physics based modeling of a series parallel battery pack for asymmetry analysis, predictive control and life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Yeo, Taejung; Sohn, Dong Kee; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-08-01

    Lithium-Ion batteries used for electric vehicle applications are subject to large currents and various operation conditions, making battery pack design and life extension a challenging problem. With increase in complexity, modeling and simulation can lead to insights that ensure optimal performance and life extension. In this manuscript, an electrochemical-thermal (ECT) coupled model for a 6 series × 5 parallel pack is developed for Li ion cells with NCA/C electrodes and validated against experimental data. Contribution of the cathode to overall degradation at various operating conditions is assessed. Pack asymmetry is analyzed from a design and an operational perspective. Design based asymmetry leads to a new approach of obtaining the individual cell responses of the pack from an average ECT output. Operational asymmetry is demonstrated in terms of effects of thermal gradients on cycle life, and an efficient model predictive control technique is developed. Concept of reconfigurable battery pack is studied using detailed simulations that can be used for effective monitoring and extension of battery pack life.

  8. Model extension and improvement for simulator-based software safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.-W. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University (NTHU), 101 Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China) and Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000 Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hwhwang@iner.gov.tw; Shih Chunkuan [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University (NTHU), 101 Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yih Swu [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Ching Yun University, 229 Chien-Hsin Road, Jung-Li, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-H. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-M. [Taiwan Power Company (TPC), 242 Roosevelt Road, Section 3, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2007-05-15

    One of the major concerns when employing digital I and C system in nuclear power plant is digital system may introduce new failure mode, which differs with previous analog I and C system. Various techniques are under developing to analyze the hazard originated from software faults in digital systems. Preliminary hazard analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, and fault tree analysis are the most extensive used techniques. However, these techniques are static analysis methods, cannot perform dynamic analysis and the interactions among systems. This research utilizes 'simulator/plant model testing' technique classified in (IEEE Std 7-4.3.2-2003, 2003. IEEE Standard for Digital Computers in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations) to identify hazards which might be induced by nuclear I and C software defects. The recirculation flow system, control rod system, feedwater system, steam line model, dynamic power-core flow map, and related control systems of PCTran-ABWR model were successfully extended and improved. The benchmark against ABWR SAR proves this modified model is capable to accomplish dynamic system level software safety analysis and better than the static methods. This improved plant simulation can then further be applied to hazard analysis for operator/digital I and C interface interaction failure study, and the hardware-in-the-loop fault injection study.

  9. Structural reliability analysis based on the cokriging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Wang Wei; Dai Hongzhe; Xue Guofeng

    2010-01-01

    Approximation methods are widely used in structural reliability analysis because they are simple to create and provide explicit functional relationships between the responses and variables in stead of the implicit limit state function. Recently, the kriging method which is a semi-parameter interpolation technique that can be used for deterministic optimization and structural reliability has gained popularity. However, to fully exploit the kriging method, especially in high-dimensional problems, a large number of sample points should be generated to fill the design space and this can be very expensive and even impractical in practical engineering analysis. Therefore, in this paper, a new method-the cokriging method, which is an extension of kriging, is proposed to calculate the structural reliability. cokriging approximation incorporates secondary information such as the values of the gradients of the function being approximated. This paper explores the use of the cokriging method for structural reliability problems by comparing it with the Kriging method based on some numerical examples. The results indicate that the cokriging procedure described in this work can generate approximation models to improve on the accuracy and efficiency for structural reliability problems and is a viable alternative to the kriging.

  10. Using Neutron-based techniques to investigate battery behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, James C.; Goonetilleke, Damien; Sharma, Neeraj; Peterson, Vanessa K.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of portable electronic devices has given rise to increasing demand for reliable high energy density storage in the form of batteries. Today, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the leading technology as they offer high energy density and relatively long lifetimes. Despite their widespread adoption, Li-ion batteries still suffer from significant degradation in their performance over time. The most obvious degradation in lithium-ion battery performance is capacity fade – where the capacity of the battery reduces after extended cycling. This talk will focus on how in situ time-resolved neutron powder diffraction (NPD) can be used to gain a better understanding of the structural changes which contribute to the observed capacity fade. The commercial batteries studied each feature different electrochemical and storage histories that are precisely known, allowing us to elucidate the tell-tale signs of battery degradation using NPD and relate these to battery history. Moreover, this talk will also showcase the diverse use of other neutron-based techniques such as neutron imaging to study electrolyte concentrations in lead-acid batteries, and the use of quasi-elastic neutron scattering to study Na-ion dynamics in sodium-ion batteries.

  11. Synchrotron radiation based analytical techniques (XAS and XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2014-01-01

    A brief description of the principles of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques is given in this article with emphasis on the advantages of using synchrotron radiation-based instrumentation/beamline. XAS technique is described in more detail to emphasize the strength of the technique as a local structural probe. (author)

  12. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  13. Work-based learning and role extension: A match made in heaven?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents, and discusses the findings from an exploratory study which examined a cohort of postgraduate therapeutic radiographer students' experiences of undertaking work-based learning to support role extension. The findings showed that three themes emerged which impacted on individual experiences: organisational issues, role and practice issues related to competence development and the individual's background and experience. The conclusions are that new models must emerge, and be evaluated, to offer appropriate support to those individuals who demonstrate the skills and ability to progress to advanced and consultant levels. Departments need to deliberate how they can effectively introduce and support role extension, giving specific consideration to study time, the number of higher level practitioners in training, as well as how to offer effective clinical supervision. Collaboration between higher education institutes and departments should enable the development of tripartite agreements to facilitate effective support for the learners.

  14. Accelerator based techniques for contraband detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourvopoulos, George

    1994-05-01

    It has been shown that narcotics, explosives, and other contraband materials, contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, P, S, and Cl in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from other innocuous substances. Neutrons and γ-rays have the ability to penetrate through various materials at large depths. They are thus able, in a non-intrusive way, to interrogate volumes ranging from suitcases to Sea-Land containers, and have the ability to image the object with an appreciable degree of reliability. Neutron induced reactions such as (n, γ), (n, n') (n, p) or proton induced γ-resonance absorption are some of the reactions currently investigated for the identification of the chemical elements mentioned above. Various DC and pulsed techniques are discussed and their advantages, characteristics, and current progress are shown. Areas where use of these methods is currently under evaluation are detection of hidden explosives, illicit drug interdiction, chemical war agents identification, nuclear waste assay, nuclear weapons destruction and others.

  15. A repository based on a dynamically extensible data model supporting multidisciplinary research in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Luca; Porro, Ivan; Schenone, Andrea; Momeni, Parastoo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Ferrara, Michela; Arnulfo, Gabriele; Fato, Marco M

    2012-10-08

    Robust, extensible and distributed databases integrating clinical, imaging and molecular data represent a substantial challenge for modern neuroscience. It is even more difficult to provide extensible software environments able to effectively target the rapidly changing data requirements and structures of research experiments. There is an increasing request from the neuroscience community for software tools addressing technical challenges about: (i) supporting researchers in the medical field to carry out data analysis using integrated bioinformatics services and tools; (ii) handling multimodal/multiscale data and metadata, enabling the injection of several different data types according to structured schemas; (iii) providing high extensibility, in order to address different requirements deriving from a large variety of applications simply through a user runtime configuration. A dynamically extensible data structure supporting collaborative multidisciplinary research projects in neuroscience has been defined and implemented. We have considered extensibility issues from two different points of view. First, the improvement of data flexibility has been taken into account. This has been done through the development of a methodology for the dynamic creation and use of data types and related metadata, based on the definition of "meta" data model. This way, users are not constrainted to a set of predefined data and the model can be easily extensible and applicable to different contexts. Second, users have been enabled to easily customize and extend the experimental procedures in order to track each step of acquisition or analysis. This has been achieved through a process-event data structure, a multipurpose taxonomic schema composed by two generic main objects: events and processes. Then, a repository has been built based on such data model and structure, and deployed on distributed resources thanks to a Grid-based approach. Finally, data integration aspects have been

  16. A repository based on a dynamically extensible data model supporting multidisciplinary research in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corradi Luca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust, extensible and distributed databases integrating clinical, imaging and molecular data represent a substantial challenge for modern neuroscience. It is even more difficult to provide extensible software environments able to effectively target the rapidly changing data requirements and structures of research experiments. There is an increasing request from the neuroscience community for software tools addressing technical challenges about: (i supporting researchers in the medical field to carry out data analysis using integrated bioinformatics services and tools; (ii handling multimodal/multiscale data and metadata, enabling the injection of several different data types according to structured schemas; (iii providing high extensibility, in order to address different requirements deriving from a large variety of applications simply through a user runtime configuration. Methods A dynamically extensible data structure supporting collaborative multidisciplinary research projects in neuroscience has been defined and implemented. We have considered extensibility issues from two different points of view. First, the improvement of data flexibility has been taken into account. This has been done through the development of a methodology for the dynamic creation and use of data types and related metadata, based on the definition of “meta” data model. This way, users are not constrainted to a set of predefined data and the model can be easily extensible and applicable to different contexts. Second, users have been enabled to easily customize and extend the experimental procedures in order to track each step of acquisition or analysis. This has been achieved through a process-event data structure, a multipurpose taxonomic schema composed by two generic main objects: events and processes. Then, a repository has been built based on such data model and structure, and deployed on distributed resources thanks to a Grid-based approach

  17. Animal-Based Measures to Assess the Welfare of Extensively Managed Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Paul; Doyle, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and practicality of 10 animal-based welfare measures for extensively managed ewes, which were derived from the scientific literature, previous welfare protocols and through consultation with veterinarians and animal welfare scientists. Measures were examined on 100 Merino ewes, which were individually identified and repeatedly examined at mid-pregnancy, mid-lactation and weaning. Body condition score, fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score and lameness are proposed for on-farm use in welfare assessments of extensive sheep production systems. These six welfare measures, which address the main welfare concerns for extensively managed ewes, can be reliably and feasibly measured in the field. Abstract The reliability and feasibility of 10 animal-based measures of ewe welfare were examined for use in extensive sheep production systems. Measures were: Body condition score (BCS), rumen fill, fleece cleanliness, fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score, foot-wall integrity, hoof overgrowth and lameness, and all were examined on 100 Merino ewes (aged 2–4 years) during mid-pregnancy, mid-lactation and weaning by a pool of nine trained observers. The measures of BCS, fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score and lameness were deemed to be reliable and feasible. All had good observer agreement, as determined by the percentage of agreement, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) and Kappa (k) values. When combined, these nutritional and health measures provide a snapshot of the current welfare status of ewes, as well as evidencing previous or potential welfare issues. PMID:29295551

  18. An Authentication Technique Based on Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel watermarking approach based on classification for authentication, in which a watermark is embedded into the host image. When the marked image is modified, the extracted watermark is also different to the original watermark, and different kinds of modification lead to different extracted watermarks. In this paper, different kinds of modification are considered as classes, and we used classification algorithm to recognize the modifications with high probability. Simulation results show that the proposed method is potential and effective.

  19. Laser-based techniques for combustion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, N.

    1997-04-01

    Two-photon-induced Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing, DFWM, was applied for the first time to the detection of CO, and NH{sub 3} molecules. Measurements were performed in a cell, and in atmospheric-pressure flames. In the cell measurements, the signal dependence on the pressure and on the laser beam intensity was studied. The possibility of simultaneous detection of NH{sub 3} and OH was investigated. Carbon monoxide and ammonia were also detected employing two-photon-induced Polarization Spectroscopy, PS. In the measurements performed in a cold gas flow, the signal strength dependence on the laser intensity, and on the polarization of the pump beam, was investigated. An approach to improve the spatial resolution of the Amplified Stimulated Emission, ASE, was developed. In this approach, two laser beams at different frequencies were crossed in the sample. If the sum of the frequencies of the two laser beams matches a two photon resonance of the investigated species, only the molecules in the intersection volume will be excited. NH{sub 3} molecules and C atoms were studied. The potential of using two-photon LIF for two-dimensional imaging of combustion species was investigated. Although LIF is species specific, several species can be detected simultaneously by utilizing spectral coincidences. Combining one- and two-photon process, OH, NO, and O were detected simultaneously, as well as OH, NO, and NH{sub 3}. Collisional quenching is the major source of uncertainty in quantitative applications of LIF. A technique for two-dimensional, absolute species concentration measurements, circumventing the problems associated with collisional quenching, was developed. By applying simple mathematics to the ratio of two LIF signals generated from two counterpropagating laser beams, the absolute species concentration could be obtained. 41 refs

  20. THE DYNAMICS OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING EXTENSION COURSES: THE “LABORATORY OF SOCIAL PROJECTS” CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Alberto Arantes do Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case study we discuss the dynamics that drive a free-of-charge project-based learning extension course. We discuss the lessons learned in the course, “Laboratory of Social Projects.” The course aimed to teach project management skills to the participants. It was conducted from August to November of 2015, at Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp, Osasco Campus, Brazil. The course had 72 participants (41 community members and 31 university students. The participants worked in teams of four members (on average and developed 13 projects on behalf of eight NGOs that help people in need. In our research, we followed a mixed methods approach, using unstructured questionnaires and project reports as sources of information. We made use of system thinking analysis to reveal the dynamics that unfolded during the course. Our main findings are: 1 free-of-charge extension courses can be much more challenging to manage than traditional courses; the bureaucracy of getting the university’s approval and problems related to dropouts are issues to consider; 2 the workload of the professors involved can be substantially higher than the workload of similar regular courses; 3 the use of project-based learning techniques can be very effective; 4 the courses can provide a very rich experience to the participants, promoting intense knowledge-sharing among all involved.

  1. Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles: Novel synthesis by exploding wire technique and extensive characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Anshuman [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Goswami, Navendu, E-mail: navendugoswami@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Kaushik, S.D. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research Mumbai Centre, R5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Shilpa [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore, M.P. (India)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: The salient features of this research article are following: • Mixed phase synthesis of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles prepared by Exploding Wire Technique (EWT). • Predominant Cu/Cu{sub 2}O phases along with minor CuO phase revealed through XRD, TEM, Raman, FTIR, UV–Visible and PL analyses. • XPS analysis provided direct evidences of Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} along with O deficiency for prepared nanoparticles. • Room temperature weak ferromagnetic behaviour was demonstrated for Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this article, we explore potential of Exploding Wire Technique (EWT) to synthesize the copper nanoparticles using the copper metal in a plate and wire geometry. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared material indicates presence of mixed phases of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O). Agglomerates of copper and copper oxide comprised of ∼20 nm average size nanoparticles observed through high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-Raman (μR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies of prepared nanoparticles reveal existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD and TEM analysis. μR investigations vividly reveal cubic Cu{sub 2}O and monoclinic CuO phases based on the difference of space group symmetries. In good agreement with μRaman analysis, FTIR stretching modes corresponding to Cu{sub 2}-O and Cu-O were also distinguished. Investigations of μR and FTIR vibrational modes are in accordance and affirm concurrence of CuO phases besides predominant Cu and Cu{sub 2}O phase. Quantum confinement effects along with increase of band gaps for direct and indirect optical transitions of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles are reflected through UV–vis (UV–vis) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy spots the electronic levels of each phase and optical transitions processes

  2. Extensions of the Johnson-Neyman Technique to Linear Models with Curvilinear Effects: Derivations and Analytical Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason W.; Stromeyer, William R.; Schwieterman, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed renewed interest in the use of the Johnson-Neyman (J-N) technique for calculating the regions of significance for the simple slope of a focal predictor on an outcome variable across the range of a second, continuous independent variable. Although tools have been developed to apply this technique to probe 2- and 3-way…

  3. Field of view extension and truncation correction for MR-based human attenuation correction in simultaneous MR/PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, Jan O.; Ladebeck, Ralf; Fenchel, Matthias; Braun, Harald; Quick, Harald H.; Faul, David; Scheffler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In quantitative PET imaging, it is critical to accurately measure and compensate for the attenuation of the photons absorbed in the tissue. While in PET/CT the linear attenuation coefficients can be easily determined from a low-dose CT-based transmission scan, in whole-body MR/PET the computation of the linear attenuation coefficients is based on the MR data. However, a constraint of the MR-based attenuation correction (AC) is the MR-inherent field-of-view (FoV) limitation due to static magnetic field (B 0 ) inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. Therefore, the MR-based human AC map may be truncated or geometrically distorted toward the edges of the FoV and, consequently, the PET reconstruction with MR-based AC may be biased. This is especially of impact laterally where the patient arms rest beside the body and are not fully considered. Methods: A method is proposed to extend the MR FoV by determining an optimal readout gradient field which locally compensates B 0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. This technique was used to reduce truncation in AC maps of 12 patients, and the impact on the PET quantification was analyzed and compared to truncated data without applying the FoV extension and additionally to an established approach of PET-based FoV extension. Results: The truncation artifacts in the MR-based AC maps were successfully reduced in all patients, and the mean body volume was thereby increased by 5.4%. In some cases large patient-dependent changes in SUV of up to 30% were observed in individual lesions when compared to the standard truncated attenuation map. Conclusions: The proposed technique successfully extends the MR FoV in MR-based attenuation correction and shows an improvement of PET quantification in whole-body MR/PET hybrid imaging. In comparison to the PET-based completion of the truncated body contour, the proposed method is also applicable to specialized PET tracers with little uptake in the arms and might reduce the

  4. A New Method to Measure Crack Extension in Nuclear Graphite Based on Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigang Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite components, used as moderators, reflectors, and core-support structures in a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, play an important role in the safety of the reactor. Specifically, they provide channels for the fuel elements, control rods, and coolant flow. Fracture is the main failure mode for graphite, and breaching of the above channels by crack extension will seriously threaten the safety of a reactor. In this paper, a new method based on digital image correlation (DIC is introduced for measuring crack extension in brittle materials. Cross-correlation of the displacements measured by DIC with a step function was employed to identify the advancing crack tip in a graphite beam specimen under three-point bending. The load-crack extension curve, which is required for analyzing the R-curve and tension softening behaviors, was obtained for this material. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the threshold value employed for the cross-correlation parameter in the crack identification process was conducted. Finally, the results were verified using the finite element method.

  5. Conflict Resolution for Product Performance Requirements Based on Propagation Analysis in the Extension Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional product data mining methods are mainly focused on the static data. Performance requirements are generally met as possible by finding some cases and changing their structures. However, when one is satisfied with the structures changed, the other effects are not taken into account by analyzing the correlations; that is, design conflicts are not identified and resolved. An approach to resolving the conflict problems is proposed based on propagation analysis in Extension Theory. Firstly, the extension distance is improved to better fit evaluating the similarity among cases, then, a case retrieval method is developed. Secondly, the transformations that can be made on selected cases are formulated by understanding the conflict natures in the different performance requirements, which leads to the extension transformation strategy development for coordinating conflicts using propagation analysis. Thirdly, the effects and levels of propagation are determined by analyzing the performance values before and after the transformations, thus the co-existing conflict coordination strategy of multiple performances is developed. The method has been implemented in a working prototype system for supporting decision-making. And it has been demonstrated the feasible and effective through resolving the conflicts of noise, exhaust, weight and intake pressure for the screw air compressor performance design.

  6. Multiple Kernel Sparse Representation based Orthogonal Discriminative Projection and Its Cost-Sensitive Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Huaijiang; Xia, Guiyu; Sun, Quansen

    2016-07-07

    Sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been developed and shown great potential for real-world application. Based on SRC, Yang et al. [10] devised a SRC steered discriminative projection (SRC-DP) method. However, as a linear algorithm, SRC-DP cannot handle the data with highly nonlinear distribution. Kernel sparse representation-based classifier (KSRC) is a non-linear extension of SRC and can remedy the drawback of SRC. KSRC requires the use of a predetermined kernel function and selection of the kernel function and its parameters is difficult. Recently, multiple kernel learning for SRC (MKL-SRC) [22] has been proposed to learn a kernel from a set of base kernels. However, MKL-SRC only considers the within-class reconstruction residual while ignoring the between-class relationship, when learning the kernel weights. In this paper, we propose a novel multiple kernel sparse representation-based classifier (MKSRC), and then we use it as a criterion to design a multiple kernel sparse representation based orthogonal discriminative projection method (MK-SR-ODP). The proposed algorithm aims at learning a projection matrix and a corresponding kernel from the given base kernels such that in the low dimension subspace the between-class reconstruction residual is maximized and the within-class reconstruction residual is minimized. Furthermore, to achieve a minimum overall loss by performing recognition in the learned low-dimensional subspace, we introduce cost information into the dimensionality reduction method. The solutions for the proposed method can be efficiently found based on trace ratio optimization method [33]. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm when compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Cu/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles: Novel synthesis by exploding wire technique and extensive characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Anshuman; Goswami, Navendu; Kaushik, S. D.; Tripathi, Shilpa

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we explore potential of Exploding Wire Technique (EWT) to synthesize the copper nanoparticles using the copper metal in a plate and wire geometry. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared material indicates presence of mixed phases of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (Cu2O). Agglomerates of copper and copper oxide comprised of ∼20 nm average size nanoparticles observed through high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-Raman (μR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies of prepared nanoparticles reveal existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD and TEM analysis. μR investigations vividly reveal cubic Cu2O and monoclinic CuO phases based on the difference of space group symmetries. In good agreement with μRaman analysis, FTIR stretching modes corresponding to Cu2-O and Cu-O were also distinguished. Investigations of μR and FTIR vibrational modes are in accordance and affirm concurrence of CuO phases besides predominant Cu and Cu2O phase. Quantum confinement effects along with increase of band gaps for direct and indirect optical transitions of Cu/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles are reflected through UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy spots the electronic levels of each phase and optical transitions processes occurring therein. Iterative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) fitting of core level spectra of Cu (2p3/2) and O (1s), divulges presence of Cu2+ and Cu+ in the lattice with an interesting evidence of O deficiency in the lattice structure and surface adsorption. Magnetic analysis illustrates that the prepared nanomaterial demonstrates ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature.

  8. A frequency domain radar interferometric imaging (FII) technique based on high-resolution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Helal, D.; Crochet, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, we propose a frequency-domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique for a better knowledge of the vertical distribution of the atmospheric scatterers detected by MST radars. This is an extension of the dual frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) technique to multiple frequencies. Its objective is to reduce the ambiguity (resulting from the use of only two adjacent frequencies), inherent with the FDI technique. Different methods, commonly used in antenna array processing, are first described within the context of application to the FII technique. These methods are the Fourier-based imaging, the Capon's and the singular value decomposition method used with the MUSIC algorithm. Some preliminary simulations and tests performed on data collected with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan) are also presented. This work is a first step in the developments of the FII technique which seems to be very promising.

  9. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2010-09-01

    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  10. Microprocessor-based data acquisition system for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, G.K.D.; Kalita, P.M.; Bordoloi, T.C.; Pathak, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on electromagnetic radiation from large extensive air showers (Esub(p) ≥> 10 16 eV) have been of recent importance in the investigation of properties of EAS in problems involving mass composition, arrival time, radio emission. Cerenkov radiation etc. Such studies need fast electronic circuitry preferably for digitisation. A microprocessor based data acquisition system having scintillation counters, PA, MA, Pd, S/H and control unit has been developed and is being used in the EAS studies at Gauhati University Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory. Description of the different units along with their functioning and method of standardisation is presented in this paper. (author). 3 figs

  11. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  12. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  13. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  14. Evidence-Based Programming within Cooperative Extension: How Can We Maintain Program Fidelity While Adapting to Meet Local Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Welsh, Janet A.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the recent movement towards evidence-based programming has impacted Extension. We review how the emphasis on implementing such programs with strict fidelity to an underlying program model may be at odds with Extension's strong history of adapting programming to meet the unique needs of children, youth, families,…

  15. Base Oils Biodegradability Prediction with Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Trabelsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply various data mining techniques including continuous numeric and discrete classification prediction models of base oils biodegradability, with emphasis on improving prediction accuracy. The results show that highly biodegradable oils can be better predicted through numeric models. In contrast, classification models did not uncover a similar dichotomy. With the exception of Memory Based Reasoning and Decision Trees, tested classification techniques achieved high classification prediction. However, the technique of Decision Trees helped uncover the most significant predictors. A simple classification rule derived based on this predictor resulted in good classification accuracy. The application of this rule enables efficient classification of base oils into either low or high biodegradability classes with high accuracy. For the latter, a higher precision biodegradability prediction can be obtained using continuous modeling techniques.

  16. An extension theory-based maximum power tracker using a particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) approach for PV systems. • Transient and steady state performances in tracking process are improved. • The proposed MPPT can automatically tune tracking step size along a P–V curve. • A PSO algorithm is used to determine the weighting values of extension theory. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to present an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) approach for photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. Integrating the extension theory as well as the conventional perturb and observe method, an maximum power point (MPP) tracker is made able to automatically tune tracking step size by way of the category recognition along a P–V characteristic curve. Accordingly, the transient and steady state performances in tracking process are improved. Furthermore, an optimization approach is proposed on the basis of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the complexity reduction in the determination of weighting values. At the end of this work, a simulated improvement in the tracking performance is experimentally validated by an MPP tracker with a programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) based controller

  17. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase-mediated extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Liu, Zhoujie; Peng, Huaping; Zheng, Yanjie; Lin, Zhen; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Wei; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-12-15

    Previously reported electrochemical DNA biosensors based on in-situ polymerization approach reveal that terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdTase) has good amplifying performance and promising application in the design of electrochemical DNA biosensor. However, this method, in which the background is significantly affected by the amount of TdTase, suffers from being easy to produce false positive result and poor stability. Herein, we firstly present a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of TdTase-mediated extension, in which DNA targets are polymerized in homogeneous solution and then hybridized with DNA probes on BSA-based DNA carrier platform. It is surprising to find that the background in the grafting-to mode of TdTase-based electrochemical DNA biosensor have little interference from the employed TdTase. Most importantly, the proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows greatly improved detection performance over the in-situ polymerization approach-based electrochemical DNA biosensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. improvement of digital image watermarking techniques based on FPGA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Hadedy, M.E

    2006-01-01

    digital watermarking provides the ownership of a piece of digital data by marking the considered data invisibly or visibly. this can be used to protect several types of multimedia objects such as audio, text, image and video. this thesis demonstrates the different types of watermarking techniques such as (discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and their characteristics. then, it classifies these techniques declaring their advantages and disadvantages. an improved technique with distinguished features, such as peak signal to noise ratio ( PSNR) and similarity ratio (SR) has been introduced. the modified technique has been compared with the other techniques by measuring heir robustness against differ attacks. finally, field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) based implementation and comparison, for the proposed watermarking technique have been presented and discussed

  19. A Review On Segmentation Based Image Compression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Thayammal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract -The storage and transmission of imagery become more challenging task in the current scenario of multimedia applications. Hence, an efficient compression scheme is highly essential for imagery, which reduces the requirement of storage medium and transmission bandwidth. Not only improvement in performance and also the compression techniques must converge quickly in order to apply them for real time applications. There are various algorithms have been done in image compression, but everyone has its own pros and cons. Here, an extensive analysis between existing methods is performed. Also, the use of existing works is highlighted, for developing the novel techniques which face the challenging task of image storage and transmission in multimedia applications.

  20. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.; Archuleta, F.L.; Dilworth, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed

  1. Fault Diagnosis of Car Engine by Using a Novel GA-Based Extension Recognition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the passenger’s security, the recognized hidden faults in car engines are the most important work for a maintenance engineer, so they can regulate the engines to be safe and improve the reliability of automobile systems. In this paper, we will present a novel fault recognition method based on the genetic algorithm (GA and the extension theory and also apply this method to the fault recognition of a practical car engine. The proposed recognition method has been tested on the Nissan Cefiro 2.0 engine and has also been compared to other traditional classification methods. Experimental results are of great effect regarding the hidden fault recognition of car engines, and the proposed method can also be applied to other industrial apparatus.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the potential environmental consequences of constructing a new heavy parking apron and runway extension at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  3. Extension of car-to-X-communication by radiolocation techniques; Erweiterung der Fahrzeug-zu-Fahrzeug-Kommunikation mit Funkortungstechniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Daniel [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Konzepte ' ' Aktive und Integrale Sicherheit' '

    2012-10-15

    A transponder, carried by vulnerable road users, e.g. pedestrians or bicyclists, and integrated in a smartphone, enables localisation from the vehicle side. A connected driver assistant system can detect movements, predict a possible collision and take preventive actions like informing the driver, braking or steering. In the research project Ko-TAG (Cooperative Transponder) within the research initiative Ko-FAS (Cooperative Vehicle Safety) new sensor technologies are developed. BMW, as Ko-TAG project manager, explains the cooperative sensor technology and the automatic control technique of the preventive safety system. (orig.)

  4. Protein-Protein Interactions Prediction Based on Iterative Clique Extension with Gene Ontology Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cliques (maximal complete subnets in protein-protein interaction (PPI network are an important resource used to analyze protein complexes and functional modules. Clique-based methods of predicting PPI complement the data defection from biological experiments. However, clique-based predicting methods only depend on the topology of network. The false-positive and false-negative interactions in a network usually interfere with prediction. Therefore, we propose a method combining clique-based method of prediction and gene ontology (GO annotations to overcome the shortcoming and improve the accuracy of predictions. According to different GO correcting rules, we generate two predicted interaction sets which guarantee the quality and quantity of predicted protein interactions. The proposed method is applied to the PPI network from the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP and most of the predicted interactions are verified by another biological database, BioGRID. The predicted protein interactions are appended to the original protein network, which leads to clique extension and shows the significance of biological meaning.

  5. Comparison Between Laser Scanning and Automated 3d Modelling Techniques to Reconstruct Complex and Extensive Cultural Heritage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassi, F.; Fregonese, L.; Ackermann, S.; De Troia, V.

    2013-02-01

    In Cultural Heritage field, the necessity to survey objects in a fast manner, with the ability to repeat the measurements several times for deformation or degradation monitoring purposes, is increasing. In this paper, two significant cases, an architectonical one and an archaeological one, are presented. Due to different reasons and emergency situations, the finding of the optimal solution to enable quick and well-timed survey for a complete digital reconstruction of the object is required. In both cases, two survey methods have been tested and used: a laser scanning approach that allows to obtain high-resolution and complete scans within a short time and a photogrammetric one that allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the object from images. In the last months, several methodologies, including free or low cost techniques, have arisen. These kinds of software allow the fully automatically three-dimensional reconstruction of objects from images, giving back a dense point cloud and, in some case, a surfaced mesh model. In this paper some comparisons between the two methodologies above mentioned are presented, using the example of some real cases of study. The surveys have been performed by employing both photogrammetry and laser scanner techniques. The methodological operational choices, depending on the required goal, the difficulties encountered during the survey with these methods, the execution time (that is the key parameter), and finally the obtained results, are fully described and examinated. On the final 3D model, an analytical comparison has been made, to analyse the differences, the tolerances, the possibility of accuracy improvement and the future developments.

  6. Power system stabilizers based on modern control techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, O P; Chen, G P; Zhang, Y; El-Metwally, K [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Developments in digital technology have made it feasible to develop and implement improved controllers based on sophisticated control techniques. Power system stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and artificial networks are being developed. Each of these control techniques possesses unique features and strengths. In this paper, the relative performance of power systems stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and neural network, both in simulation studies and real time tests on a physical model of a power system, is presented and compared to that of a fixed parameter conventional power system stabilizer. (author) 16 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  8. Evaluation of the performance of three tenodesis techniques for the treatment of scapholunate instability: flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Zhang, Qing-Hang; Jimenez-Cruz, David; Bailey, Colin; Pinder, Elizabeth; Mandaleson, Avanthi; Talwalkar, Sumedh

    2017-11-25

    Chronic scapholunate ligament (SL) injuries are difficult to treat and can lead to wrist dysfunction. Whilst several tendon reconstruction techniques have been employed in the management of SL instability, SL gap reappearance after surgery has been reported. Using a finite element model and cadaveric study data, we investigated the performance of the Corella, scapholunate axis (SLAM) and modified Brunelli tenodesis (MBT) techniques. Scapholunate dorsal and volar gap and angle were obtained following virtual surgery undertaken using each of the three reconstruction methods with the wrist positioned in flexion, extension, ulnar deviation and radial deviation, in addition to the ulnar-deviated clenched fist and neutral positions. From the study, it was found that, following simulated scapholunate interosseous ligament rupture, the Corella technique was better able to restore the SL gap and angle close to the intact ligament for all wrist positions investigated, followed by SLAM and MBT. The results suggest that for the tendon reconstruction techniques, the use of multiple junction points between scaphoid and lunate may be of benefit. Graphical abstract The use of multiple junction points between scaphoid and lunate may be of benefit for tendon reconstruction techniques.

  9. Community-based Ontology Development, Annotation and Discussion with MediaWiki extension Ontokiwi and Ontokiwi-based Ontobedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Edison; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of biological and biomedical ontologies have been developed to support data standardization, integration and analysis. Although ontologies are typically developed for community usage, community efforts in ontology development are limited. To support ontology visualization, distribution, and community-based annotation and development, we have developed Ontokiwi, an ontology extension to the MediaWiki software. Ontokiwi displays hierarchical classes and ontological axioms. Ontology classes and axioms can be edited and added using Ontokiwi form or MediaWiki source editor. Ontokiwi also inherits MediaWiki features such as Wikitext editing and version control. Based on the Ontokiwi/MediaWiki software package, we have developed Ontobedia, which targets to support community-based development and annotations of biological and biomedical ontologies. As demonstrations, we have loaded the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) and the Cell Line Ontology (CLO) into Ontobedia. Our studies showed that Ontobedia was able to achieve expected Ontokiwi features. PMID:27570653

  10. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  11. Memory Based Machine Intelligence Techniques in VLSI hardware

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    We briefly introduce the memory based approaches to emulate machine intelligence in VLSI hardware, describing the challenges and advantages. Implementation of artificial intelligence techniques in VLSI hardware is a practical and difficult problem. Deep architectures, hierarchical temporal memories and memory networks are some of the contemporary approaches in this area of research. The techniques attempt to emulate low level intelligence tasks and aim at providing scalable solutions to high ...

  12. The Research of Histogram Enhancement Technique Based on Matlab Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Histogram enhancement technique has been widely applied as a typical pattern in digital image processing. The paper is based on Matlab software, through the two ways of histogram equalization and histogram specification technologies to deal with the darker images, using two methods of partial equilibrium and mapping histogram to transform the original histograms, thereby enhanced the image information. The results show that these two kinds of techniques both can significantly improve the image quality and enhance the image feature.

  13. Product and process effectiveness using performance-based auditing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Focus is the backbone of genius. Focus is the lifeblood of adequate products and effective processes. Focus is the theme of Performance-Based Audits (PBA). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program is using the PBA tool extensively to focus on the evaluation of product adequacy and process effectiveness. The term Performance-Based Audit has been around for several years. however, the approach presented here for the systematic end-product selection, planning, and measurement of adequacy and effectiveness is new and innovative

  14. Fundamentally Flawed: Extension Administrative Practice (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Extension's current administrative techniques are based on the assumptions of classical management from the early 20th century. They are fundamentally flawed and inappropriate for the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  15. A Formative Evaluation with Extension Educators: Exploring Implementation Approaches Using Web-based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne M. Duke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the formative evaluation of a bullying prevention program called Be SAFE from the perspective of Extension educators. Twelve regional and county educators from Family and Child Development and 4-H Youth Development participated in our study. We used a web-based, mixed methods approach, utilizing both Qualtrics, an online survey software platform, and Scopia, a video conferencing application, to collect survey data and do a focus group. The results of the survey show that three activities, Clear Mind, Mud Mind, Take a Stand, and The Relationship Continuum, were perceived as garnering the most participation from students. However, focus group data indicated that while there was often a high level of participation, the subject matter of the curriculum was too advanced for students in the fifth grade and that classroom size affected how well educators could teach lessons. Furthermore, school access was not an implementation challenge, but the amount of days available to implement the full curriculum was sometimes limited. The data collected through this formative evaluation were used to improve implementation efforts. The process outlined in this article can be used as a model to help program leaders who are interested in using web-based tools to evaluate implementation processes.

  16. Extensions of the lost letter technique to divisive issues of creationism, darwinism, sex education, and gay and lesbian affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Anzalone, Debra A; Ryan, Stuart W; Anzalone, Fanancy L

    2002-04-01

    Two field studies using 1,004 "lost letters" were designed to test the hypotheses that returned responses would be greater in small towns than from a city, that addressees' affiliation with a group either (1) opposed to physical education in schools, (2) supporting gay and lesbian teachers, or (3) advocating Creationism or Darwinism would reduce the return rate. Of 504 letters "lost" in Study A, 163 (32.3%) were returned in the mail from residents of southeast Louisiana and indicated across 3 addressees and 2 sizes of community, addressees' affiLiations were not associated with returned responses. Community size and addressees' affiliations were associated with significantly different rates of return in the city. Return rates from sites within a city were lower when letters were addressed to an organization which opposed (teaching) health education in the schools than to one supporting daily health education. Of 500 letters "lost" in Study B, 95 (19.0%) were returned from residents of northwest Florida and indicated across 5 addressees and 2 sizes of community, addressees' affiliations were significantly associated with returned responses overall (5 addressees) and in small towns (control, Creationism, Darwinism addressees), but not with community size. Community size and addressees' affiliations were associated with significantly different rates of return in small towns, with returns greater than or equal to those in the city (except for the addressee advocating teaching Darwinism in public schools). The present findings appear to show that applications of the lost letter technique to other divisive social issues are useful in assessing public opinion.

  17. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T [Biomedical Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Huang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY (United States); Chrisey, Douglas B, E-mail: schien@rpi.ed, E-mail: chrisd@rpi.ed [Material Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location ({+-}5 {mu}m) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  18. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  19. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  20. The Role of Extension Specialists in Helping Entrepreneurs Develop Successful Food-Based Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Rodney; Muske, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Three areas in which extension specialists can assist food industry entrepreneurs include (1) awareness of the components of a business plan, (2) pro forma financial analysis, and (3) legal issues affecting the food industry. In addition to specialized expertise, extension professionals can help with making contacts, objectively review business…

  1. Contraction-based classification of supersymmetric extensions of kinematical lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study supersymmetric extensions of classical kinematical algebras from the point of view of contraction theory. It is shown that contracting the supersymmetric extension of the anti-de Sitter algebra leads to a hierarchy similar in structure to the classical Bacry-Levy-Leblond classification.

  2. Extending Driving Vision Based on Image Mosaic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Car cameras have been used extensively to assist driving by make driving visible. However, due to the limitation of the Angle of View (AoV, the dead zone still exists, which is a primary origin of car accidents. In this paper, we introduce a system to extend the vision of drivers to 360 degrees. Our system consists of four wide-angle cameras, which are mounted at different sides of a car. Although the AoV of each camera is within 180 degrees, relying on the image mosaic technique, our system can seamlessly integrate 4-channel videos into a panorama video. The panorama video enable drivers to observe everywhere around a car as far as three meters from a top view. We performed experiments in a laboratory environment. Preliminary results show that our system can eliminate vision dead zone completely. Additionally, the real-time performance of our system can satisfy requirements for practical use.

  3. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjing; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Xidong; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-04-19

    Sign language recognition (SLR) can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG) sensors, accelerometers (ACC), and gyroscopes (GYRO). In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL) sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set) suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2)% and (79.7 ± 13.4)% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7)% and (86.3 ± 13.7)% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set). The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user's training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  4. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjing Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language recognition (SLR can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG sensors, accelerometers (ACC, and gyroscopes (GYRO. In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2% and (79.7 ± 13.4% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7% and (86.3 ± 13.7% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set. The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user’s training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  5. Muscle activity and masticatory efficiency with bilateral extension base removable partial dentures with different cusp angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2018-03-01

    Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures. Twelve participants with RPDs were selected to perform masticatory efficiency and electromyographic tests. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were used to record the activities of the masseter and temporalis muscles during the mastication of different types of test foods. The maximal voltage and duration were measured on the integrated EMG signal in each muscle during food mastication, and the mean reading of both sides was then recorded. Analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used to perform statistical analyses (α=.05). The masticatory efficiency of RPDs with nonanatomic teeth was significantly inferior to that of RPDs with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P.05). Also, muscle activity (according to EMG) with RPDs with NA teeth was significantly higher than that with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P<.05). RPDs with NA teeth were associated with higher EMG muscle activity and reduced masticatory efficiency than anatomic or semianatomic teeth. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Brown, Tom; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is first demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be robust and convergent. It is then applied to the European power system in order to find its cost-optimal development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions until 2050.

  7. Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faude, D.

    1994-12-01

    The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

  8. CDAPubMed: a browser extension to retrieve EHR-based biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Rey David

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few decades, the ever-increasing output of scientific publications has led to new challenges to keep up to date with the literature. In the biomedical area, this growth has introduced new requirements for professionals, e.g., physicians, who have to locate the exact papers that they need for their clinical and research work amongst a huge number of publications. Against this backdrop, novel information retrieval methods are even more necessary. While web search engines are widespread in many areas, facilitating access to all kinds of information, additional tools are required to automatically link information retrieved from these engines to specific biomedical applications. In the case of clinical environments, this also means considering aspects such as patient data security and confidentiality or structured contents, e.g., electronic health records (EHRs. In this scenario, we have developed a new tool to facilitate query building to retrieve scientific literature related to EHRs. Results We have developed CDAPubMed, an open-source web browser extension to integrate EHR features in biomedical literature retrieval approaches. Clinical users can use CDAPubMed to: (i load patient clinical documents, i.e., EHRs based on the Health Level 7-Clinical Document Architecture Standard (HL7-CDA, (ii identify relevant terms for scientific literature search in these documents, i.e., Medical Subject Headings (MeSH, automatically driven by the CDAPubMed configuration, which advanced users can optimize to adapt to each specific situation, and (iii generate and launch literature search queries to a major search engine, i.e., PubMed, to retrieve citations related to the EHR under examination. Conclusions CDAPubMed is a platform-independent tool designed to facilitate literature searching using keywords contained in specific EHRs. CDAPubMed is visually integrated, as an extension of a widespread web browser, within the standard

  9. Combining Generalized Renewal Processes with Non-Extensive Entropy-Based q-Distributions for Reliability Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Generalized Renewal Process (GRP is a probabilistic model for repairable systems that can represent the usual states of a system after a repair: as new, as old, or in a condition between new and old. It is often coupled with the Weibull distribution, widely used in the reliability context. In this paper, we develop novel GRP models based on probability distributions that stem from the Tsallis’ non-extensive entropy, namely the q-Exponential and the q-Weibull distributions. The q-Exponential and Weibull distributions can model decreasing, constant or increasing failure intensity functions. However, the power law behavior of the q-Exponential probability density function for specific parameter values is an advantage over the Weibull distribution when adjusting data containing extreme values. The q-Weibull probability distribution, in turn, can also fit data with bathtub-shaped or unimodal failure intensities in addition to the behaviors already mentioned. Therefore, the q-Exponential-GRP is an alternative for the Weibull-GRP model and the q-Weibull-GRP generalizes both. The method of maximum likelihood is used for their parameters’ estimation by means of a particle swarm optimization algorithm, and Monte Carlo simulations are performed for the sake of validation. The proposed models and algorithms are applied to examples involving reliability-related data of complex systems and the obtained results suggest GRP plus q-distributions are promising techniques for the analyses of repairable systems.

  10. Extensions to a nonlinear finite-element axisymmetric shell model based on Reissner's shell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Extensions to shell analysis not usually associated with shell theory are described in this paper. These extensions involve thick shells, nonlinear materials, a linear normal stress approximation, and a changing shell thickness. A finite element shell-of-revolution model has been developed to analyze nuclear material shipping containers under severe impact conditions. To establish the limits for this shell model, the basic assumptions used in its development were studied; these are listed in this paper. Several extensions were evident from the study of these limits: a thick shell, a plastic hinge, and a linear normal stress

  11. Estimate-Merge-Technique-based algorithms to track an underwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V A N Ravi Kumar

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... In this paper, two novel methods based on the Estimate Merge Technique ... mentioned advantages of the proposed novel methods is shown by carrying out Monte Carlo simulation in .... equations are converted to sequential equations to make ... estimation error and low convergence time) at feasibly high.

  12. GIS-Based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    24

    This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely ... In the view of these weaknesses , there is a strong requirement for reassessment of .... Font color: Text 1, Not Expanded by / Condensed by , ...... West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-.

  13. Learning Physics through Project-Based Learning Game Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Medine; Maskan, Abdulkadir; Yasar, Seyma

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study, in which Project and game techniques are used together, is to examine the impact of project-based learning games on students' physics achievement. Participants of the study consist of 34 9th grade students (N = 34). The data were collected using achievement tests and a questionnaire. Throughout the applications, the…

  14. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    bandwidths, and with it receiver noise floors , are unavoidable. Figure 1. SNR of a thermally limited receiver based on Friis equation showing the...techniques for RF and photonic integration based on liquid crystal polymer substrates were pursued that would aid in the realization of potential imaging...These models assumed that sufficient LNA gain was used on the antenna to set the noise floor of the imaging receiver, which necessitated physical

  15. Optical supervised filtering technique based on Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Abdullah

    2004-11-01

    Hopfield neural network is commonly preferred for optimization problems. In image segmentation, conventional Hopfield neural networks (HNN) are formulated as a cost-function-minimization problem to perform gray level thresholding on the image histogram or the pixels' gray levels arranged in a one-dimensional array [R. Sammouda, N. Niki, H. Nishitani, Pattern Rec. 30 (1997) 921-927; K.S. Cheng, J.S. Lin, C.W. Mao, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 15 (1996) 560-567; C. Chang, P. Chung, Image and Vision comp. 19 (2001) 669-678]. In this paper, a new high speed supervised filtering technique is proposed for image feature extraction and enhancement problems by modifying the conventional HNN. The essential improvement in this technique is to use 2D convolution operation instead of weight-matrix multiplication. Thereby, neural network based a new filtering technique has been obtained that is required just 3 × 3 sized filter mask matrix instead of large size weight coefficient matrix. Optical implementation of the proposed filtering technique is executed easily using the joint transform correlator. The requirement of non-negative data for optical implementation is provided by bias technique to convert the bipolar data to non-negative data. Simulation results of the proposed optical supervised filtering technique are reported for various feature extraction problems such as edge detection, corner detection, horizontal and vertical line extraction, and fingerprint enhancement.

  16. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  17. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  18. Line impedance estimation using model based identification technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Agelidis, Vassilios; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the line impedance can be used by the control of numerous grid-connected systems, such as active filters, islanding detection techniques, non-linear current controllers, detection of the on/off grid operation mode. Therefore, estimating the line impedance can add extra functions...... into the operation of the grid-connected power converters. This paper describes a quasi passive method for estimating the line impedance of the distribution electricity network. The method uses the model based identification technique to obtain the resistive and inductive parts of the line impedance. The quasi...

  19. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  20. Electromagnetism based atmospheric ice sensing technique - A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mughal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic and vibrational properties of ice can be used to measure certain parameters such as ice thickness, type and icing rate. In this paper we present a review of the dielectric based measurement techniques for matter and the dielectric/spectroscopic properties of ice. Atmospheric Ice is a complex material with a variable dielectric constant, but precise calculation of this constant may form the basis for measurement of its other properties such as thickness and strength using some electromagnetic methods. Using time domain or frequency domain spectroscopic techniques, by measuring both the reflection and transmission characteristics of atmospheric ice in a particular frequency range, the desired parameters can be determined.

  1. Proposing a Wiki-Based Technique for Collaborative Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Ortiz Navarrete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a technique for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task. Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique when writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a base computer mediated collaboration. Within this context, the students’ role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained.

  2. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  3. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  4. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  5. Home-Based Primary Care: Beyond Extension of the Independence at Home Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, James; Kinosian, Bruce; Boling, Peter; Taler, George

    2018-04-01

    The Independence at Home (IAH) Demonstration Year 2 results confirmed that the first-year savings were 10 times as great as those of the pioneer accountable care organizations during their initial 2 years. We update projected savings from nationwide conversion of the IAH demonstration, incorporating Year 2 results and improving attribution of IAH-qualified (IAH-Q) Medicare beneficiaries to home-based primary care (HBPC) practices. Applying IAH qualifying criteria to beneficiaries in the Medicare 5% claims file, the effect of expanding HBPC to the 2.4 million IAH-Q beneficiaries is projected using various growth rates. Total 10-year system-wide savings (accounting for IAH implementation but before excluding shared savings) range from $2.6 billion to $27.8 billion, depending on how many beneficiaries receive HBPC on conversion to a Medicare benefit, mix of clinical practice success, and growth rate of IAH practices. Net projected savings to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) after routine billing for IAH services and distribution of shared savings ranges from $1.8 billion to $10.9 billion. If aligning IAH with other advanced alternative payment models achieved at least 35% penetration of the eligible population in 10 years, CMS savings would exceed savings with the current IAH design and HBPC growth rate. If the demonstration were simply extended 2 years with a beneficiary cap of 50,000 instead of 15,000 (as currently proposed), CMS would save an additional $46 million. The recent extension of IAH, a promising person-centered CMS program for managing medically complex and frail elderly adults, offers the chance to evaluate modifications to promote more rapid HBPC growth. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Current STR-based techniques in forensic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis in forensic science is mainly based on short tandem repeat (STR genotyping. The conventional analysis is a three-step process of DNA extraction, amplification and detection. An overview of various techniques that are currently in use and are being actively researched for STR typing is presented. The techniques are separated into STR amplification and detection. New techniques for forensic STR analysis focus on increasing sensitivity, resolution and discrimination power for suboptimal samples. These are achieved by shifting primer-binding sites, using high-fidelity and tolerant polymerases and applying novel methods to STR detection. Examples in which STRs are used in criminal investigations are provided and future research directions are discussed.

  7. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  8. MEMS-based power generation techniques for implantable biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  9. Power system dynamic state estimation using prediction based evolutionary technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basetti, Vedik; Chandel, Ashwani K.; Chandel, Rajeevan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new robust LWS (least winsorized square) estimator is proposed for dynamic state estimation of a power system. One of the main advantages of this estimator is that it has an inbuilt bad data rejection property and is less sensitive to bad data measurements. In the proposed approach, Brown's double exponential smoothing technique has been utilised for its reliable performance at the prediction step. The state estimation problem is solved as an optimisation problem using a new jDE-self adaptive differential evolution with prediction based population re-initialisation technique at the filtering step. This new stochastic search technique has been embedded with different state scenarios using the predicted state. The effectiveness of the proposed LWS technique is validated under different conditions, namely normal operation, bad data, sudden load change, and loss of transmission line conditions on three different IEEE test bus systems. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the conventional extended Kalman filter. On the basis of various performance indices, the results thus obtained show that the proposed technique increases the accuracy and robustness of power system dynamic state estimation performance. - Highlights: • To estimate the states of the power system under dynamic environment. • The performance of the EKF method is degraded during anomaly conditions. • The proposed method remains robust towards anomalies. • The proposed method provides precise state estimates even in the presence of anomalies. • The results show that prediction accuracy is enhanced by using the proposed model.

  10. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  11. Characterization techniques for graphene-based materials in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocong Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have been studied in a wide range of applications including catalysis due to the outstanding electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. The unprecedented features of graphene-based catalysts, which are believed to be responsible for their superior performance, have been characterized by many techniques. In this article, we comprehensively summarized the characterization methods covering bulk and surface structure analysis, chemisorption ability determination, and reaction mechanism investigation. We reviewed the advantages/disadvantages of different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. The application of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, CO chemisorption, and NH3/CO2-temperature-programmed desorption (TPD was also briefly introduced. Finally, we discussed the challenges and provided possible suggestions on choosing characterization techniques. This review provides key information to catalysis community to adopt suitable characterization techniques for their research.

  12. The Intelligent System of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Based on Extension Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baiqing; Li, Yange; Zhang, Lin

    This thesis gives the general definition of the concepts of extension knowledge, extension data mining and extension data mining theorem in high dimension space, and also builds the IDSS integrated system by the rough set, expert system and neural network, develops the relevant computer software. From the diagnosis tests, according to the common diseases of myocardial infarctions, angina pectoris and hypertension, and made the test result with physicians, the results shows that the sensitivity, specific and accuracy diagnosis by the IDSS are all higher than the physicians. It can improve the rate of the accuracy diagnosis of physician with the auxiliary help of this system, which have the obvious meaning in low the mortality, disability rate and high the survival rate, and has strong practical values and further social benefits.

  13. Extension of frequency-based dissimilarity for retrieving similar plasma waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochin, Teruhisa; Koyama, Katsumasa; Nakanishi, Hideya; Kojima, Mamoru

    2008-01-01

    Some computer-aided assistance in finding the waveforms similar to a waveform has become indispensable for accelerating data analysis in the plasma experiments. For the slowly-varying waveforms and those having time-sectional oscillation patterns, the methods using the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms in calculating the dissimilarity have successfully improved the performance in retrieving similar waveforms. This paper treats severely-varying waveforms, and proposes two extensions to the dissimilarity of waveforms. The first extension is to capture the difference of the importance of the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms against frequency. The second extension is to consider the outlines of waveforms. The correctness of the extended dissimilarity is experimentally evaluated by using the metrics used in evaluating that of the information retrieval, i.e. precision and recall. The experimental results show that the extended dissimilarity could improve the correctness of the similarity retrieval of plasma waveforms

  14. Establishment of safety verification method for life extension based on periodic safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soong Pyung; Yeom, Yu Son; Yoon, In Sik; Lee, Jeo Young [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Safe management of operating lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants is a subject of prime interests. As the design life of the Nuclear Power Plant will be ended in 2008, an appropriate procedure for the design life re-assessment or lifetime extension is necessary in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedural requirements which can be applied to the regulation of lifetime management or life extension of Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. Review on the linkage of the PSR with the extension of the operating lifetime of Nuclear Power Plants was performed to enhance the utilization of PSR results and analysis of the insufficiencies in the license rule in Korea.

  15. Research on Liquidity Risk Evaluation of Chinese A-Shares Market Based on Extension Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai-Qing, Sun; Peng-Xiang, Liu; Lin, Zhang; Yan-Ge, Li

    This research defines the liquidity risk of stock market in matter-element theory and affair-element theory, establishes the indicator system of the forewarning for liquidity risks,designs the model and the process of early warning using the extension set method, extension dependent function and the comprehensive evaluation model. And the paper studies empirically A-shares market through the data of 1A0001, which prove that the model can better describe liquidity risk of China’s A-share market. At last, it gives the corresponding policy recommendations.

  16. IoT Security Techniques Based on Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Liang; Wan, Xiaoyue; Lu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanyong; Wu, Di

    2018-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) that integrate a variety of devices into networks to provide advanced and intelligent services have to protect user privacy and address attacks such as spoofing attacks, denial of service attacks, jamming and eavesdropping. In this article, we investigate the attack model for IoT systems, and review the IoT security solutions based on machine learning techniques including supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. We focus on the machine le...

  17. An Extensible Component-Based Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    The ability to easily modify the problem definition is currently missing in Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA). Existing MOEA frameworks do not support dynamic addition and extension of the problem formulation. The existing frameworks require a re-specification of the problem definition...

  18. An Image Morphing Technique Based on Optimal Mass Preserving Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods. PMID:17547128

  19. Comparing Four Touch-Based Interaction Techniques for an Image-Based Audience Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off,

  20. CRPropa 3.1—a low energy extension based on stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, Lukas; Tjus, Julia Becker; Eichmann, Björn [Theoretische Physik IV: Plasma-Astroteilchenphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Fichtner, Horst [Theoretische Physik IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Sigl, Günter, E-mail: lukas.merten@rub.de, E-mail: julia.tjus@rub.de, E-mail: hf@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: eiche@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: guenter.sigl@desy.de [II Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). We developed a new module for the publicly available propagation software CRPropa 3.1, where we implemented an algorithm to solve the transport equation using stochastic differential equations. This technique allows us to use a diffusion tensor which is anisotropic with respect to an arbitrary magnetic background field. The source code of CRPropa is written in C++ with python steering via SWIG which makes it easy to use and computationally fast. In this paper, we present the new low-energy propagation code together with validation procedures that are developed to proof the accuracy of the new implementation. Furthermore, we show first examples of the cosmic ray density evolution, which depends strongly on the ratio of the parallel κ{sub ∥} and perpendicular κ{sub ⊥} diffusion coefficients. This dependency is systematically examined as well the influence of the particle rigidity on the diffusion process.

  1. CRPropa 3.1—a low energy extension based on stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merten, Lukas; Tjus, Julia Becker; Eichmann, Björn; Fichtner, Horst; Sigl, Günter

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). We developed a new module for the publicly available propagation software CRPropa 3.1, where we implemented an algorithm to solve the transport equation using stochastic differential equations. This technique allows us to use a diffusion tensor which is anisotropic with respect to an arbitrary magnetic background field. The source code of CRPropa is written in C++ with python steering via SWIG which makes it easy to use and computationally fast. In this paper, we present the new low-energy propagation code together with validation procedures that are developed to proof the accuracy of the new implementation. Furthermore, we show first examples of the cosmic ray density evolution, which depends strongly on the ratio of the parallel κ ∥ and perpendicular κ ⊥ diffusion coefficients. This dependency is systematically examined as well the influence of the particle rigidity on the diffusion process.

  2. CRPropa 3.1—a low energy extension based on stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Lukas; Becker Tjus, Julia; Fichtner, Horst; Eichmann, Björn; Sigl, Günter

    2017-06-01

    The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). We developed a new module for the publicly available propagation software CRPropa 3.1, where we implemented an algorithm to solve the transport equation using stochastic differential equations. This technique allows us to use a diffusion tensor which is anisotropic with respect to an arbitrary magnetic background field. The source code of CRPropa is written in C++ with python steering via SWIG which makes it easy to use and computationally fast. In this paper, we present the new low-energy propagation code together with validation procedures that are developed to proof the accuracy of the new implementation. Furthermore, we show first examples of the cosmic ray density evolution, which depends strongly on the ratio of the parallel κ∥ and perpendicular κ⊥ diffusion coefficients. This dependency is systematically examined as well the influence of the particle rigidity on the diffusion process.

  3. A DIFFERENT WEB-BASED GEOCODING SERVICE USING FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pahlavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding – the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  4. A Review of Financial Accounting Fraud Detection based on Data Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj; Kumar Panigrahi, Prabin

    2012-02-01

    With an upsurge in financial accounting fraud in the current economic scenario experienced, financial accounting fraud detection (FAFD) has become an emerging topic of great importance for academic, research and industries. The failure of internal auditing system of the organization in identifying the accounting frauds has lead to use of specialized procedures to detect financial accounting fraud, collective known as forensic accounting. Data mining techniques are providing great aid in financial accounting fraud detection, since dealing with the large data volumes and complexities of financial data are big challenges for forensic accounting. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature on the application of data mining techniques for the detection of financial accounting fraud and proposes a framework for data mining techniques based accounting fraud detection. The systematic and comprehensive literature review of the data mining techniques applicable to financial accounting fraud detection may provide a foundation to future research in this field. The findings of this review show that data mining techniques like logistic models, neural networks, Bayesian belief network, and decision trees have been applied most extensively to provide primary solutions to the problems inherent in the detection and classification of fraudulent data.

  5. SKILLS-BASED ECLECTIC TECHNIQUES MATRIX FOR ELT MICROTEACHINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İskender Hakkı Sarıgöz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language teaching undergoes constant changes due to the methodological improvement. This progress may be examined in two parts. They are the methods era and the post-methods era. It is not pragmatic today to propose a particular language teaching method and its techniques for all purposes. The holistic inflexibility of mid-century methods has long gone. In the present day, constructivist foreign language teaching trends attempt to see the learner as a whole person and an individual who may be different from the other students in many respects. At the same time, the individual differences should not keep the learners away from group harmony. For this reason, current teacher training programs require eclectic teaching matrixes for unit design considering the mixed ability student groups. These matrixes can be prepared in a multidimensional fashion because there are many functional techniques in different methods and other new techniques to be created by instructors freely in accordance with the teaching aims. The hypothesis in this argument is that the collection of foreign language teaching techniques compiled in ELT microteachings for a particular group of learners has to be arranged eclectically in order to update the teaching process. Nevertheless, designing a teaching format of this sort is a demanding and highly criticized task. This study briefly argues eclecticism in language-skills based methodological struggle from the perspective of ELT teacher education.

  6. FDTD technique based crosstalk analysis of bundled SWCNT interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duksh, Yograj Singh; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rajendra P.

    2015-01-01

    The equivalent electrical circuit model of a bundled single-walled carbon nanotube based distributed RLC interconnects is employed for the crosstalk analysis. The accurate time domain analysis and crosstalk effect in the VLSI interconnect has emerged as an essential design criteria. This paper presents a brief description of the numerical method based finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique that is intended for estimation of voltages and currents on coupled transmission lines. For the FDTD implementation, the stability of the proposed model is strictly restricted by the Courant condition. This method is used for the estimation of crosstalk induced propagation delay and peak voltage in lossy RLC interconnects. Both functional and dynamic crosstalk effects are analyzed in the coupled transmission line. The effect of line resistance on crosstalk induced delay, and peak voltage under dynamic and functional crosstalk is also evaluated. The FDTD analysis and the SPICE simulations are carried out at 32 nm technology node for the global interconnects. It is observed that the analytical results obtained using the FDTD technique are in good agreement with the SPICE simulation results. The crosstalk induced delay, propagation delay, and peak voltage obtained using the FDTD technique shows average errors of 4.9%, 3.4% and 0.46%, respectively, in comparison to SPICE. (paper)

  7. IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON MARKOV RANDOM FIELD AND WATERSHED TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented a method that incorporates Markov Random Field(MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. MRF is used to obtain an initial estimate of x regions in the image under process where in MRF model, gray level x, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The process needs an initial segmented result. An initial segmentation is got based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance, then the region process in modeled by MRF to obtain an image contains different intensity regions. Starting from this we calculate the gradient values of that image and then employ a watershed technique. When using MRF method it obtains an image that has different intensity regions and has all the edge and region information, then it improves the segmentation result by superimpose closed and an accurate boundary of each region using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions have been processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. Finally, a merge process based on averaged mean values is employed. The final segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  8. Implementation of Obstacle-Avoidance Control for an Autonomous Omni-Directional Mobile Robot Based on Extension Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chung Lai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates a following robot with omni-directional wheels, which is able to take action to avoid obstacles. The robot design is based on both fuzzy and extension theory. Fuzzy theory was applied to tune the PMW signal of the motor revolution, and correct path deviation issues encountered when the robot is moving. Extension theory was used to build a robot obstacle-avoidance model. Various mobile models were developed to handle different types of obstacles. The ultrasonic distance sensors mounted on the robot were used to estimate the distance to obstacles. If an obstacle is encountered, the correlation function is evaluated and the robot avoids the obstacle autonomously using the most appropriate mode. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through several tracking experiments, which demonstrates the feasibility of a fuzzy path tracker as well as the extensible collision avoidance system.

  9. Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Heather Keyronica

    2016-01-01

    Heather K. Petty ABSTRACT Title: Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens Background: Childhood, adolescent, and adult obesity is a major health and economic concern affecting the United States and various countries across the globe. Obese children and adolescents are at a potential risk for developing certain chronic diseases as they transition into adulthood. There are community-based cooking intervention programs designed t...

  10. Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.

  11. Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2018-03-01

    Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.

  12. Underwater Time Service and Synchronization Based on Time Reversal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Wang, Hai-bin; Aissa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Pyndiah, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    Real time service and synchronization are very important to many underwater systems. But the time service and synchronization in existence cannot work well due to the multi-path propagation and random phase fluctuation of signals in the ocean channel. The time reversal mirror technique can realize energy concentration through self-matching of the ocean channel and has very good spatial and temporal focusing properties. Based on the TRM technique, we present the Time Reversal Mirror Real Time service and synchronization (TRMRT) method which can bypass the processing of multi-path on the server side and reduce multi-path contamination on the client side. So TRMRT can improve the accuracy of time service. Furthermore, as an efficient and precise method of time service, TRMRT could be widely used in underwater exploration activities and underwater navigation and positioning systems.

  13. The Roland Maze Project - school-based extensive air shower network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, J.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzynski, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented

  14. Extensions to a nonlinear finite element axisymmetric shell model based on Reissner's shell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element shell-of-revolution model has been developed to analyze shipping containers under severe impact conditions. To establish the limits for this shell model, I studied the basic assumptions used in its development; these are listed in this paper. Several extensions were evident from the study of these limits: a thick shell, a plastic hinge, and a linear normal stress. (orig./HP)

  15. Research on Deep Joints and Lode Extension Based on Digital Borehole Camera Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Structure characteristics of rock and orebody in deep borehole are obtained by borehole camera technology. By investigating on the joints and fissures in Shapinggou molybdenum mine, the dominant orientation of joint fissure in surrounding rock and orebody were statistically analyzed. Applying the theory of metallogeny and geostatistics, the relationship between joint fissure and lode’s extension direction is explored. The results indicate that joints in the orebody of ZK61borehole have only one dominant orientation SE126° ∠68°, however, the dominant orientations of joints in surrounding rock were SE118° ∠73°, SW225° ∠70° and SE122° ∠65°, NE79° ∠63°. Then a preliminary conclusion showed that the lode’s extension direction is specific and it is influenced by joints of surrounding rock. Results of other boreholes are generally agree well with the ZK61, suggesting the analysis reliably reflects the lode’s extension properties and the conclusion presents important references for deep ore prospecting.

  16. Vision based techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Ray; Smith, Philip

    1991-01-01

    An overview of research in obstacle detection at NASA Ames Research Center is presented. The research applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The development of a methodology for detecting the range to obstacles based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors is emphasized. The development of a flight and image data base for verification of vision-based algorithms, and a passive ranging methodology tailored to the needs of helicopter flight are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to obtain adequate range estimates except at regions close to the FOE. Closer to the FOE, the error in range increases since the magnitude of the disparity gets smaller, resulting in a low SNR.

  17. Combination Base64 Algorithm and EOF Technique for Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Nurdiyanto, Heri; Hidayat, Rahmat; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Siregar, Dodi; Putera Utama Siahaan, Andysah; Faisal, Ilham; Rahman, Sayuti; Suita, Diana; Zamsuri, Ahmad; Abdullah, Dahlan; Napitupulu, Darmawan; Ikhsan Setiawan, Muhammad; Sriadhi, S.

    2018-04-01

    The steganography process combines mathematics and computer science. Steganography consists of a set of methods and techniques to embed the data into another media so that the contents are unreadable to anyone who does not have the authority to read these data. The main objective of the use of base64 method is to convert any file in order to achieve privacy. This paper discusses a steganography and encoding method using base64, which is a set of encoding schemes that convert the same binary data to the form of a series of ASCII code. Also, the EoF technique is used to embed encoding text performed by Base64. As an example, for the mechanisms a file is used to represent the texts, and by using the two methods together will increase the security level for protecting the data, this research aims to secure many types of files in a particular media with a good security and not to damage the stored files and coverage media that used.

  18. Full-duplex MIMO system based on antenna cancellation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Franek, Ondrej; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an antenna cancellation technique for a multiple-input– multiple-output (MIMO) full-duplex system that is based on null-steering beamforming and antenna polarization diversity is investigated. A practical implementation of a symmetric antenna topology comprising three dual......-polarized patch antennas operating at 2.4 GHz is described. The measurement results show an average of 60 dB self-interference cancellation over 200 MHz bandwidth. Moreover, a decoupling level of up to 22 dB is achieved for MIMO multiplexing using antenna polarization diversity. The performance evaluation...

  19. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISLAM, M. R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP. Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for evaluating derived parameters. The results show that the selected MISO structure outperforms the unselected MISO structure and it shows energy efficient performance than SISO structure after a certain distance.

  20. Nitrous oxide-based techniques versus nitrous oxide-free techniques for general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rao; Jia, Wen Qin; Zhang, Peng; Yang, KeHu; Tian, Jin Hui; Ma, Bin; Liu, Yali; Jia, Run H; Luo, Xiao F; Kuriyama, Akira

    2015-11-06

    Nitrous oxide has been used for over 160 years for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. It has been used as a sole agent but is most often employed as part of a technique using other anaesthetic gases, intravenous agents, or both. Its low tissue solubility (and therefore rapid kinetics), low cost, and low rate of cardiorespiratory complications have made nitrous oxide by far the most commonly used general anaesthetic. The accumulating evidence regarding adverse effects of nitrous oxide administration has led many anaesthetists to question its continued routine use in a variety of operating room settings. Adverse events may result from both the biological actions of nitrous oxide and the fact that to deliver an effective dose, nitrous oxide, which is a relatively weak anaesthetic agent, needs to be given in high concentrations that restrict oxygen delivery (for example, a common mixture is 30% oxygen with 70% nitrous oxide). As well as the risk of low blood oxygen levels, concerns have also been raised regarding the risk of compromising the immune system, impaired cognition, postoperative cardiovascular complications, bowel obstruction from distention, and possible respiratory compromise. To determine if nitrous oxide-based anaesthesia results in similar outcomes to nitrous oxide-free anaesthesia in adults undergoing surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014 Issue 10); MEDLINE (1966 to 17 October 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 17 October 2014); and ISI Web of Science (1974 to 17 October 2014). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings, and ongoing trials up to 17 October 2014 on specific websites (http://clinicaltrials.gov/, http://controlled-trials.com/, and http://www.centerwatch.com). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing general anaesthesia where nitrous oxide was part of the anaesthetic technique used for the induction or maintenance of general

  1. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1 small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2 large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failure model were done. It can be found that whether it is small scale test or large scale landslide model test, AE technique accurately located the AE source point, which reflected the failure generation and expansion of internal cracks in rock samples. Large scale landslide model with locked section test showed that rock bridge in rocky slope has typical brittle failure behavior. The two tests based on AE technique well revealed the rock failure mechanism in rocky slope and clarified the cause of high speed and long distance sliding of rocky slope.

  2. Radiation synthesized protein-based nanoparticles: A technique overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Perossi, Gabriela G.; Grasselli, Mariano; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking for alternative routes for protein engineering a novel technique – radiation induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity has been recently reported. This work aimed to evaluate different process conditions to optimize and provide an overview of the technique using γ-irradiation. Papain was used as model protease and the samples were irradiated in a gamma cell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) containing ethanol (0–35%). The dose effect was evaluated by exposure to distinct γ-irradiation doses (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) and scale up experiments involving distinct protein concentrations (12.5–50 mg mL −1 ) were also performed. Characterization involved size monitoring using dynamic light scattering. Bityrosine detection was performed using fluorescence measurements in order to provide experimental evidence of the mechanism involved. Best dose effects were achieved at 10 kGy with regard to size and no relevant changes were observed as a function of papain concentration, highlighting very broad operational concentration range. Bityrosine changes were identified for the samples as a function of the process confirming that such linkages play an important role in the nanoparticle formation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-based nanoparticles by γ-irradiation. • Optimization of the technique. • Overview of mechanism involved in the nanoparticle formation. • Engineered papain nanoparticles for biomedical applications

  3. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of crossover and jab step start techniques for base stealing in baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanishi, Tomohisa; Endo, So; Nagahara, Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Base stealing is an important tactic for increasing the chance of scoring in baseball. This study aimed to compare the crossover step (CS) and jab step (JS) starts for base stealing start performance and to clarify the differences between CS and JS starts in terms of three-dimensional lower extremity joint kinetics. Twelve male baseball players performed CS and JS starts, during which their motion and the force they applied to the ground were simultaneously recorded using a motion-capture system and two force platforms. The results showed that the normalised average forward external power, the average forward-backward force exerted by the left leg, and the forward velocities of the whole body centre of gravity generated by both legs and the left leg were significantly higher for the JS start than for the CS start. Moreover, the positive work done by hip extension during the left leg push-off was two-times greater for the JS start than the CS start. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the jab step start may be the better technique for a base stealing start and that greater positive work produced by left hip extension is probably responsible for producing its larger forward ground reaction force.

  5. Efficient Identification Using a Prime-Feature-Based Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Haq, Shaiq A.; Valente, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    . Fingerprint identification system, implemented on PC/104 based real-time systems, can accurately identify the operator. Traditionally, the uniqueness of a fingerprint is determined by the overall pattern of ridges and valleys as well as the local ridge anomalies e.g., a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending......, which are called minutiae points. Designing a reliable automatic fingerprint matching algorithm for minimal platform is quite challenging. In real-time systems, efficiency of the matching algorithm is of utmost importance. To achieve this goal, a prime-feature-based indexing algorithm is proposed......Identification of authorized train drivers through biometrics is a growing area of interest in locomotive radio remote control systems. The existing technique of password authentication is not very reliable and potentially unauthorized personnel may also operate the system on behalf of the operator...

  6. Designing on ICT reconstruction software based on DSP techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; Xiang Xincheng

    2006-01-01

    The convolution back project (CBP) algorithm is used to realize the CT image's reconstruction in ICT generally, which is finished by using PC or workstation. In order to add the ability of multi-platform operation of CT reconstruction software, a CT reconstruction method based on modern digital signal processor (DSP) technique is proposed and realized in this paper. The hardware system based on TI's C6701 DSP processor is selected to support the CT software construction. The CT reconstruction software is compiled only using assembly language related to the DSP hardware. The CT software can be run on TI's C6701 EVM board by inputting the CT data, and can get the CT Images that satisfy the real demands. (authors)

  7. New calibration technique for KCD-based megavoltage imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Zheng, Wei; DiBianca, Frank A.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Laughter, Joseph S.

    1999-05-01

    In megavoltage imaging, current commercial electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs), despite having the advantage of immediate digital imaging over film, suffer from poor image contrast and spatial resolution. The feasibility of using a kinestatic charge detector (KCD) as an EPID to provide superior image contrast and spatial resolution for portal imaging has already been demonstrated in a previous paper. The KCD system had the additional advantage of requiring an extremely low dose per acquired image, allowing for superior imaging to be reconstructed form a single linac pulse per image pixel. The KCD based images utilized a dose of two orders of magnitude less that for EPIDs and film. Compared with the current commercial EPIDs and film, the prototype KCD system exhibited promising image qualities, despite being handicapped by the use of a relatively simple image calibration technique, and the performance limits of medical linacs on the maximum linac pulse frequency and energy flux per pulse delivered. This image calibration technique fixed relative image pixel values based on a linear interpolation of extrema provided by an air-water calibration, and accounted only for channel-to-channel variations. The counterpart of this for area detectors is the standard flat fielding method. A comprehensive calibration protocol has been developed. The new technique additionally corrects for geometric distortions due to variations in the scan velocity, and timing artifacts caused by mis-synchronization between the linear accelerator and the data acquisition system (DAS). The role of variations in energy flux (2 - 3%) on imaging is demonstrated to be not significant for the images considered. The methodology is presented, and the results are discussed for simulated images. It also allows for significant improvements in the signal-to- noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the dose using multiple images without having to increase the linac pulse frequency or energy flux per pulse. The

  8. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions

  9. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  10. Reach Extension and Capacity Enhancement of VCSEL-Based Transmission Over Single-Lane MMF Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Motaghiannezam, S. M. Reza; Kocot, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines several techniques for expanding the carrying capacity of multimode fiber (MMF) using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The first approach utilizes short wavelength division multiplexing in combination with MMF optimized for operation between 850 an...

  11. Refractive index sensor based on optical fiber end face using pulse reference-based compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Zhang, Xueliang; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    We proposed a refractive index sensor based on optical fiber end face using pulse reference-based compensation technique. With good compensation effect of this compensation technique, the power fluctuation of light source, the change of optic components transmission loss and coupler splitting ratio can be compensated, which largely reduces the background noise. The refractive index resolutions can achieve 3.8 × 10-6 RIU and1.6 × 10-6 RIU in different refractive index regions.

  12. Energy Sustainability Evaluation Model Based on the Matter-Element Extension Method: A Case Study of Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy sustainability is of vital importance to regional sustainability, because energy sustainability is closely related to both regional economic growth and social stability. The existing energy sustainability evaluation methods lack a unified system to determine the relevant influencing factors, are relatively weak in quantitative analysis, and do not fully describe the ‘paradoxical’ characteristics of energy sustainability. To solve those problems and to reasonably and objectively evaluate energy sustainability, we propose an energy sustainability evaluation model based on the matter-element extension method. We first select energy sustainability evaluation indexes based on previous research and experience. Then, a variation coefficient method is used to determine the weights of these indexes. Finally, the study establishes the classical domain, joint domain, and the matter-element relationship to evaluate energy sustainability through matter-element extension. Data from Shandong Province is used as a case study to evaluate the region’s energy sustainability. The case study shows that the proposed energy sustainability evaluation model, based on the matter-element extension method, can effectively evaluate regional energy sustainability.

  13. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  14. A restrained-torque-based motion instructor: forearm flexion/extension-driving exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Nomura, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    When learning complicated movements by ourselves, we encounter such problems as a self-rightness. The self-rightness results in a lack of detail and objectivity, and it may cause to miss essences and even twist the essences. Thus, we sometimes fall into the habits of doing inappropriate motions. To solve these problems or to alleviate the problems as could as possible, we have been developed mechanical man-machine human interfaces to support us learning such motions as cultural gestures and sports form. One of the promising interfaces is a wearable exoskeleton mechanical system. As of the first try, we have made a prototype of a 2-link 1-DOF rotational elbow joint interface that is applied for teaching extension-flexion operations with forearms and have found its potential abilities for teaching the initiating and continuing flection motion of the elbow.

  15. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, Tse-Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  16. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  17. Determination of rock fragmentation based on a photographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehgan Banadaki, M.M.; Majdi, A.; Raessi Gahrooei, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper represents a physical blasting model in laboratory scale along with a photographic approach to describe the distribution of blasted rock materials. For this purpose, based on wobble probability distribution function, eight samples each weighted 100 kg,were obtained. Four pictures from four different section of each sample were taken. Then, pictures were converted into graphic files with characterizing boundary of each piece of rocks in the samples. Error caused due to perspective were eliminated. Volume of each piece of the blasted rock materials and hence the required sieve size, each piece of rock to pass through, were calculated. Finally, original blasted rock size distribution was compared with that obtained from the photographic method. The paper concludes with presenting an approach to convert the results of photographic technique into size distribution obtained by seine analysis with sufficient verification

  18. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  19. Demand Management Based on Model Predictive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand management (DM is the process that helps companies to sell the right product to the right customer, at the right time, and for the right price. Therefore the challenge for any company is to determine how much to sell, at what price, and to which market segment while maximizing its profits. DM also helps managers efficiently allocate undifferentiated units of capacity to the available demand with the goal of maximizing revenue. This paper introduces control system approach to demand management with dynamic pricing (DP using the model predictive control (MPC technique. In addition, we present a proper dynamical system analogy based on active suspension and a stability analysis is provided via the Lyapunov direct method.

  20. Clustering economies based on multiple criteria decision making techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Momeni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on many countries is to determine different important factors affecting economic growth. In this paper, we study some factors such as unemployment rate, inflation ratio, population growth, average annual income, etc to cluster different countries. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to prioritize the criteria and then uses a K-mean technique to cluster 59 countries based on the ranked criteria into four groups. The first group includes countries with high standards such as Germany and Japan. In the second cluster, there are some developing countries with relatively good economic growth such as Saudi Arabia and Iran. The third cluster belongs to countries with faster rates of growth compared with the countries located in the second group such as China, India and Mexico. Finally, the fourth cluster includes countries with relatively very low rates of growth such as Jordan, Mali, Niger, etc.

  1. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  2. An RSS based location estimation technique for cognitive relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based location estimation method is proposed for a cooperative wireless relay network where the relay is a cognitive radio. We propose a method for the considered cognitive relay network to determine the location of the source using the direct and the relayed signal at the destination. We derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) expressions separately for x and y coordinates of the location estimate. We analyze the effects of cognitive behaviour of the relay on the performance of the proposed method. We also discuss and quantify the reliability of the location estimate using the proposed technique if the source is not stationary. The overall performance of the proposed method is presented through simulations. ©2010 IEEE.

  3. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.

  4. An investigation of a video-based patient repositioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yulong; Song Yulin; Boyer, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated a video-based patient repositioning technique designed to use skin features for radiotherapy repositioning. We investigated the feasibility of the clinical application of this system by quantitative evaluation of performance characteristics of the methodology. Methods and Materials: Multiple regions of interest (ROI) were specified in the field of view of video cameras. We used a normalized correlation pattern-matching algorithm to compute the translations of each ROI pattern in a target image. These translations were compared against trial translations using a quadratic cost function for an optimization process in which the patient rotation and translational parameters were calculated. Results: A hierarchical search technique achieved high-speed (compute correlation for 128x128 ROI in 512x512 target image within 0.005 s) and subpixel spatial accuracy (as high as 0.2 pixel). By treating the observed translations as movements of points on the surfaces of a hypothetical cube, we were able to estimate accurately the actual translations and rotations of the test phantoms used in our experiments to less than 1 mm and 0.2 deg. with a standard deviation of 0.3 mm and 0.5 deg. respectively. For human volunteer cases, we estimated the translations and rotations to have an accuracy of 2 mm and 1.2 deg. Conclusion: A personal computer-based video system is suitable for routine patient setup of fractionated conformal radiotherapy. It is expected to achieve high-precision repositioning of the skin surface with high efficiency

  5. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash

    2013-08-20

    Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. The health system was reformed to create a platform for integration and institutionalization of the HEP with appropriate human capacity, infrastructure, and management structures. Human resources were developed through training of female health workers recruited from their prospective villages, designed to limit the high staff turnover and address gender, social and cultural factors in order to provide services acceptable to each community. The service delivery modalities include household, community and health facility care. Thus, the most basic health post infrastructure, designed to rapidly and cost-effectively scale up HEP, was built in each village. In line with the country's decentralized management system, the HEP service delivery is under the jurisdiction of the district authorities. The nationwide implementation of HEP progressed in line with its target goals. In all, 40 training institutions were established, and over 30,000 Health Extension Workers have been trained and deployed to approximately 15,000 villages. The potential health service coverage reached 92.1% in 2011, up from 64% in 2004. While most health indicators have improved, performance in skilled delivery and postnatal care has not been satisfactory. While HEP is considered the most important institutional framework for achieving the health MDGs in Ethiopia, quality of service, utilization rate, access and referral linkage to emergency obstetric care, management, and evaluation of the program are the key challenges that need immediate attention. This article

  6. Knee extension isometric torque production differences based on verbal motivation given to introverted and extroverted female children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, J Wesley; Landers, Merrill; Young, Daniel; Puentedura, E Louie; Hickman, Robbin A; Brooksby, Candi; Liveratti, Marc; Taylor, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    To date, little research has been conducted to test the efficacy of different forms of motivation based on a female child's personality type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of female children to perform a maximal knee extension isometric torque test with varying forms of motivation, based on the child's personality type (introvert vs. extrovert). The subjects were asked to perform a maximal isometric knee extension test under three different conditions: 1) with no verbal motivation, 2) with verbal motivation from the evaluator only, and 3) with verbal motivation from a group of their peers and the evaluator combined. A 2×3 mixed ANOVA was significant for an interaction (F 2,62=17.530; pintroverted group showed that scores without verbal motivation were significantly higher than with verbal motivation from the evaluator or the evaluator plus the peers. The extroverted group revealed that scores with verbal motivation from the evaluator or the evaluator plus the peers were significantly higher than without verbal motivation. Results suggest that verbal motivation has a varying effect on isometric knee extension torque production in female children with different personality types. Extroverted girls perform better with motivation, whereas introverted girls perform better without motivation from others.

  7. Increasing accuracy in the interval analysis by the improved format of interval extension based on the first order Taylor series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yan Long

    2018-05-01

    When the dependence of the function on uncertain variables is non-monotonic in interval, the interval of function obtained by the classic interval extension based on the first order Taylor series will exhibit significant errors. In order to reduce theses errors, the improved format of the interval extension with the first order Taylor series is developed here considering the monotonicity of function. Two typical mathematic examples are given to illustrate this methodology. The vibration of a beam with lumped masses is studied to demonstrate the usefulness of this method in the practical application, and the necessary input data of which are only the function value at the central point of interval, sensitivity and deviation of function. The results of above examples show that the interval of function from the method developed by this paper is more accurate than the ones obtained by the classic method.

  8. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Entropy Weight Extension Decision Model in Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem health evaluation can assist in sustainable ecological management at a regional level. This study examined urban agglomeration ecosystem health in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River with entropy weight and extension theories. The model overcomes information omissions and subjectivity problems in the evaluation process of urban ecosystem health. Results showed that human capital and education, economic development level as well as urban infrastructure have a significant effect on the health states of urban agglomerations. The health status of the urban agglomeration’s ecosystem was not optimistic in 2013. The majority of the cities were unhealthy or verging on unhealthy, accounting for 64.52% of the total number of cities in the urban agglomeration. The regional differences of the 31 cities’ ecosystem health are significant. The cause originated from an imbalance in economic development and the policy guidance of city development. It is necessary to speed up the integration process to promote coordinated regional development. The present study will aid us in understanding and advancing the health situation of the urban ecosystem in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and will provide an efficient urban ecosystem health evaluation method that can be used in other areas.

  9. Feedback control of persistent-current oscillation based on the atomic-clock technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Dumke, Rainer

    2018-05-01

    We propose a scheme of stabilizing the persistent-current Rabi oscillation based on the flux qubit-resonator-atom hybrid structure. The low-Q L C resonator weakly interacts with the flux qubit and maps the persistent-current Rabi oscillation of the flux qubit onto the intraresonator electric field. This oscillating electric field is further coupled to a Rydberg-Rydberg transition of the 87Rb atoms. The Rabi-frequency fluctuation of the flux qubit is deduced from measuring the atomic population via the fluorescence detection and stabilized by feedback controlling the external flux bias. Our numerical simulation indicates that the feedback-control method can efficiently suppress the background fluctuations in the flux qubit, especially in the low-frequency limit. This technique may be extensively applicable to different types of superconducting circuits, paving a way to long-term-coherence superconducting quantum information processing.

  10. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Henkel, Jö rg

    2010-01-01

    % for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures, namely ARM and MIPS. © 2010 ACM.

  11. Extension of landscape-based population viability models to ecoregional scales for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Landscape-based population models are potentially valuable tools in facilitating conservation planning and actions at large scales. However, such models have rarely been applied at ecoregional scales. We extended landscape-based population models to ecoregional scales for three species of concern in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region and compared model...

  12. Skull base tumours part I: Imaging technique, anatomy and anterior skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Advances in cross-sectional imaging, surgical technique and adjuvant treatment have largely contributed to ameliorate the prognosis, lessen the morbidity and mortality of patients with skull base tumours and to the growing medical investment in the management of these patients. Because clinical assessment of the skull base is limited, cross-sectional imaging became indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of patients with suspected skull base pathology and the radiologist is increasingly responsible for the fate of these patients. This review will focus on the advances in imaging technique; contribution to patient's management and on the imaging features of the most common tumours affecting the anterior skull base. Emphasis is given to a systematic approach to skull base pathology based upon an anatomic division taking into account the major tissue constituents in each skull base compartment. The most relevant information that should be conveyed to surgeons and radiation oncologists involved in patient's management will be discussed

  13. Comparative assessment of PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques applied to a transonic base flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinde, P; Michaelis, D; van Oudheusden, B.W.; Weiss, P.E.; de Kat, R.; Laskari, A.; Jeon, Y.J.; David, L; Schanz, D; Huhn, F.; Gesemann, S; Novara, M.; McPhaden, C.; Neeteson, N.; Rival, D.; Schneiders, J.F.G.; Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    A test case for PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques has been developed by constructing a simulated experiment from a ZDES simulation for an axisymmetric base flow at Mach 0.7. The test case comprises sequences of four subsequent particle images (representing multi-pulse data) as well as

  14. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last few decades, researchers have proposed many control techniques to suppress unwanted vibrations in a structure. In this work, a novel and simple technique is proposed for the active vibration control. In this technique, an optimal tracking control is employed to suppress vibrations in a structure by simultaneously ...

  15. Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wu, Qingqing; Xu, Shuiyang; Zhong, Jieming; Chen, Songhua; Xu, Jinghang; Zhu, Liping; He, Haibo; Wang, Xiaomeng

    2017-03-01

    With 25% of the global burden, China has the highest incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the world. However, surveillance data on extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) from China are scant. To estimate the prevalence of XDR-TB in Zhejiang, Eastern China, 30 of 90 TB treatment centers in Zhejiang were recruited. Patients with suspected TB who reported to the clinics for diagnosis were requested to undergo a smear sputum test. Positive sputum samples were tested for drug susceptibility. Data on anti-TB drug resistance from 1999 to 2008 were also collected to assess drug resistance trends. A total of 931 cases were recruited for drug susceptibility testing (DST). Among these, 23.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.8-24.4) were resistant to any of the following drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, and ethambutol. Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains were identified in 5.1% of all cases (95% CI, 3.61-6.49). Among MDR-TB cases, 6.4% were XDR (95% CI, 1.7-18.6) and 8.9% (95% CI, 7.0-10.8) of all cases were resistant to either isoniazid or rifampin (but not both). Among MDR-TB cases, 23.4% (95% CI, 12.8-38.4) were resistant to either fluoroquinolones or a second-line anti-TB injectable drug, but not both. From 1999 to 2014, the percentage of MDR cases decreased significantly, from 8.6% to 5.1% (p = 0.00). The Global Fund to Fight TB program showed signs of success in Eastern China. However, drug-resistant TB, MDR-TB, and XDR-TB still pose a challenge for TB control in Eastern China. High-quality directly observed treatment, short-course, and universal DST for TB cases to determine appropriate treatment regimens are urgently needed to prevent acquired drug resistance.

  16. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  17. Crack identification based on synthetic artificial intelligent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Mun Bo; Suh, Myung Won

    2001-01-01

    It has been established that a crack has an important effect on the dynamic behavior of a structure. This effect depends mainly on the location and depth of the crack. To identify the location and depth of a crack in a structure, a method is presented in this paper which uses synthetic artificial intelligent technique, that is, Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) solved via hybrid learning algorithm(the back-propagation gradient descent and the least-squares method) are used to learn the input(the location and depth of a crack)-output(the structural eigenfrequencies) relation of the structural system. With this ANFIS and a Continuous Evolutionary Algorithm(CEA), it is possible to formulate the inverse problem. CEAs based on genetic algorithms work efficiently for continuous search space optimization problems like a parameter identification problem. With this ANFIS, CEAs are used to identify the crack location and depth minimizing the difference from the measured frequencies. We have tried this new idea on a simple beam structure and the results are promising

  18. Structural design systems using knowledge-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsborn, K.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering information management and the corresponding information systems are of a strategic importance for industrial enterprises. This thesis treats the interdisciplinary field of designing computing systems for structural design and analysis using knowledge-based techniques. Specific conceptual models have been designed for representing the structure and the process of objects and activities in a structural design and analysis domain. In this thesis, it is shown how domain knowledge can be structured along several classification principles in order to reduce complexity and increase flexibility. By increasing the conceptual level of the problem description and representation of the domain knowledge in a declarative form, it is possible to enhance the development, maintenance and use of software for mechanical engineering. This will result in a corresponding increase of the efficiency of the mechanical engineering design process. These ideas together with the rule-based control point out the leverage of declarative knowledge representation within this domain. Used appropriately, a declarative knowledge representation preserves information better, is more problem-oriented and change-tolerant than procedural representations. 74 refs

  19. Positron emission tomography, physical bases and comparaison with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, Fadhel; Hamza, F; Amouri, W.; Charfeddine, S.; Kallel, S.; Jardak, I.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a medical imaging technique that measures the three-dimensional distribution of molecules marked by a positron-emitting particle. PET has grown significantly in clinical fields, particularly in oncology for diagnosis and therapeutic follow purposes. The technical evolutions of this technique are fast. Among the technical improvements, is the coupling of the PET scan with computed tomography (CT). PET is obtained by intravenous injection of a radioactive tracer. The marker is usually fluorine ( 18 F) embedded in a glucose molecule forming the 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-18). This tracer, similar to glucose, binds to tissues that consume large quantities of the sugar such cancerous tissue, cardiac muscle or brain. Detection using scintillation crystals (BGO, LSO, LYSO) suitable for high energy (511keV) recognizes the lines of the gamma photons originating from the annihilation of a positron with an electron. The electronics of detection or coincidence circuit is based on two criteria: a time window, of about 6 to 15 ns, and an energy window. This system measures the true coincidences that correspond to the detection of two photons of 511 kV from the same annihilation. Most PET devices are constituted by a series of elementary detectors distributed annularly around the patient. Each detector comprises a scintillation crystal matrix coupled to a finite number (4 or 6) of photomultipliers. The electronic circuit, or the coincidence circuit, determines the projection point of annihilation by means of two elementary detectors. The processing of such information must be extremely fast, considering the count rates encountered in practice. The information measured by the coincidence circuit is then positioned in a matrix or sinogram, which contains a set of elements of a projection section of the object. Images are obtained by tomographic reconstruction by powerful computer stations equipped with a software tools allowing the analysis and

  20. Near-wall extension of a non-equilibrium, omega-based Reynolds stress model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tue; Behr, Marek; Reinartz, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a new ω-based Reynolds stress model that is consistent with asymptotic analysis in the near wall region and with rapid distortion theory in homogeneous turbulence is reported. The model is based on the SSG/LRR-ω model developed by Eisfeld (2006) with three main modifications. Firstly, the near wall behaviors of the redistribution, dissipation and diffusion terms are modified according to the asymptotic analysis and a new blending function based on low Reynolds number is proposed. Secondly, an anisotropic dissipation tensor based on the Reynolds stress inhomogeneity (Jakirlic et al., 2007) is used instead of the original isotropic model. Lastly, the SSG redistribution term, which is activated far from the wall, is replaced by Speziale's non-equilibrium model (Speziale, 1998).

  1. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS, biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI’s ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  2. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS), biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI's ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc) for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  3. Energy consumption-based accounts: A comparison of results using different energy extension vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, A; Brockway, P; Brand-Correa, L; Bunse, L; Sakai, M; Barrett, J

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focussed on the use of consumption-based approaches to energy accounting via input-output (IO) methods. Of particular interest is the examination of energy supply chains, given the associated risks from supply-chain issues, including availability shocks, taxes on fossil fuels and fluctuating energy prices. Using a multiregional IO (MRIO) database to calculate energy consumption-based accounts (CBA) allows analysts to both determine the quantity and source of ener...

  4. Extension of the TAMSAT satellite-based rainfall monitoring over Africa and from 1983 to present

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnavsky, Elena; Grimes, David; Maidment, Ross; Black, Emily; Allan, Richard; Stringer, Marc; Chadwick, Robin; Kayitakire, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Tropical Applications of Meteorology Using Satellite Data and Ground-Based Observations (TAMSAT) rainfall monitoring products have been extended to provide spatially contiguous rainfall estimates across Africa. This has been achieved through a new, climatology-based calibration, which varies in both space and time. As a result, cumulative estimates of rainfall are now issued at the end of each 10-day period (dekad) at 4-km spatial resolution with pan-African coverage. The utility of the produ...

  5. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  6. Ground-based intercomparison of two isoprene measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leibrock

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An informal intercomparison of two isoprene (C5H8 measurement techniques was carried out during Fall of 1998 at a field site located approximately 3 km west of Boulder, Colorado, USA. A new chemical ionization mass spectrometric technique (CIMS was compared to a well-established gas chromatographic technique (GC. The CIMS technique utilized benzene cation chemistry to ionize isoprene. The isoprene levels measured by the CIMS were often larger than those obtained with the GC. The results indicate that the CIMS technique suffered from an anthropogenic interference associated with air masses from the Denver, CO metropolitan area as well as an additional interference occurring in clean conditions. However, the CIMS technique is also demonstrated to be sensitive and fast. Especially after introduction of a tandem mass spectrometric technique, it is therefore a candidate for isoprene measurements in remote environments near isoprene sources.

  7. Whole Genome Sequencing Based Characterization of Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Asho; Hasan, Zahra; McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Coll, Francesc; Nair, Mridul; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Improved molecular diagnostic methods for detection drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains are required. Resistance to first- and second- line anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, these SNPs can vary between MTB lineages therefore local data is required to describe different strain populations. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated 40 genes associated with drug resistance. Rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB hot-spot region. Isoniazid resistance was most commonly associated with the katG codon 315 (92%) mutation followed by inhA S94A (8%) however, one strain did not have SNPs in katG, inhA or oxyR-ahpC. All strains were pyrazimamide resistant but only 43% had pncA SNPs. Ethambutol resistant strains predominantly had embB codon 306 (62%) mutations, but additional SNPs at embB codons 406, 378 and 328 were also present. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with gyrA 91-94 codons in 81% of strains; four strains had only gyr B mutations, while others did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Streptomycin resistant strains had mutations in ribosomal RNA genes; rpsL codon 43 (42%); rrs 500 region (16%), and gidB (34%) while six strains did not have mutations in any of these genes. Amikacin/kanamycin/capreomycin resistance was associated with SNPs in rrs at nt1401 (78%) and nt1484 (3%), except in seven (19%) strains. We estimate that if only the common hot-spot region targets of current commercial assays were used, the concordance between phenotypic and genotypic testing for these XDR strains would vary between rifampicin (100%), isoniazid (92%), flouroquinolones (81%), aminoglycoside (78%) and ethambutol (62%); while pncA sequencing would provide genotypic resistance in less than half the isolates. This work highlights the importance of expanded

  8. Whole Genome Sequencing Based Characterization of Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Asho

    2015-02-26

    Improved molecular diagnostic methods for detection drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains are required. Resistance to first- and second- line anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, these SNPs can vary between MTB lineages therefore local data is required to describe different strain populations. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated 40 genes associated with drug resistance. Rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB hot-spot region. Isoniazid resistance was most commonly associated with the katG codon 315 (92%) mutation followed by inhA S94A (8%) however, one strain did not have SNPs in katG, inhA or oxyR-ahpC. All strains were pyrazimamide resistant but only 43% had pncA SNPs. Ethambutol resistant strains predominantly had embB codon 306 (62%) mutations, but additional SNPs at embB codons 406, 378 and 328 were also present. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with gyrA 91-94 codons in 81% of strains; four strains had only gyr B mutations, while others did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Streptomycin resistant strains had mutations in ribosomal RNA genes; rpsL codon 43 (42%); rrs 500 region (16%), and gidB (34%) while six strains did not have mutations in any of these genes. Amikacin/kanamycin/capreomycin resistance was associated with SNPs in rrs at nt1401 (78%) and nt1484 (3%), except in seven (19%) strains. We estimate that if only the common hot-spot region targets of current commercial assays were used, the concordance between phenotypic and genotypic testing for these XDR strains would vary between rifampicin (100%), isoniazid (92%), flouroquinolones (81%), aminoglycoside (78%) and ethambutol (62%); while pncA sequencing would provide genotypic resistance in less than half the isolates. This work highlights the importance of expanded

  9. Performance Comparison of Reputation Assessment Techniques Based on Self-Organizing Maps in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sicari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many solutions based on machine learning techniques have been proposed in literature aimed at detecting and promptly counteracting various kinds of malicious attack (data violation, clone, sybil, neglect, greed, and DoS attacks, which frequently affect Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Besides recognizing the corrupted or violated information, also the attackers should be identified, in order to activate the proper countermeasures for preserving network’s resources and to mitigate their malicious effects. To this end, techniques adopting Self-Organizing Maps (SOM for intrusion detection in WSN were revealed to represent a valuable and effective solution to the problem. In this paper, the mechanism, namely, Good Network (GoNe, which is based on SOM and is able to assess the reliability of the sensor nodes, is compared with another relevant and similar work existing in literature. Extensive performance simulations, in terms of nodes’ classification, attacks’ identification, data accuracy, energy consumption, and signalling overhead, have been carried out in order to demonstrate the better feasibility and efficiency of the proposed solution in WSN field.

  10. A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, Karin; Bogner, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Kren, Gerhard; Poetter, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a stereotactic irradiation technique for uveal melanomas performed at a linac, based on a non-invasive eye fixation and eye monitoring system. Methods: For eye immobilization a light source system is integrated in a standard stereotactic mask system in front of the healthy eye: During treatment preparation (computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) as well as for treatment delivery, patients are instructed to gaze at the fixation light source. A mini-video camera monitors the pupil center position of the diseased eye. For treatment planning and beam delivery standard stereotactic radiotherapy equipment is used. If the pupil center deviation from a predefined 'zero-position' exceeds 1 mm (for more than 2 s), treatment delivery is interrupted. Between 1996 and 1999 60 patients with uveal melanomas, where (i) tumor height exceeded 7 mm, or (ii) tumor height was more than 3 mm, and the central tumor distance to the optic disc and/or the macula was less than 3 mm, have been treated. A total dose of 60 or 70 Gy has been given in 5 fractions within 10 days. Results: The repositioning accuracy in the mask system is 0.47±0.36 mm in rostral-occipital direction, 0.75±0.52 mm laterally, and 1.12±0.96 mm in vertical direction. An eye movement analysis performed for 23 patients shows a pupil center deviation from the 'zero' position<1 mm in 91% of all cases investigated. In a theoretical analysis, pupil center deviations are correlated with GTV 'movements'. For a pupil center deviation of 1 mm (rotation of the globe of 5 degree sign ) the GTV is still encompassed by the 80% isodose in 94%. Conclusion: For treatments of uveal melanomas, linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy combined with a non-invasive eye immobilization and monitoring system represents a feasible, accurate and reproducible method. Besides considerable technical requirements, the complexity of the treatment technique demands an interdisciplinary team continuously dedicated to this

  11. Security extension for the Canetti-Krawczyk model in identity-based systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinghua; MA Jianfeng; SangJae Moon

    2005-01-01

    The Canetti-Krawczyk (CK) model is a formalism for the analysis of keyexchange protocols, which can guarantee many security properties for the protocols proved secure by this model. But we find this model lacks the ability to guarantee key generation center (KGC) forward secrecy, which is an important security property for key-agreement protocols based on Identity. The essential reason leading to this weakness is that it does not fully consider the attacker's capabilities. In this paper, the CK model is accordingly extended with a new additional attacker's capability of the KGC corruption in Identity-based systems, which enables it to support KGC forward secrecy.

  12. Extension to linear dynamics for hybrid stress finite element formulation based on additional displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumihara, K.

    Based upon legitimate variational principles, one microscopic-macroscopic finite element formulation for linear dynamics is presented by Hybrid Stress Finite Element Method. The microscopic application of Geometric Perturbation introduced by Pian and the introduction of infinitesimal limit core element (Baby Element) have been consistently combined according to the flexible and inherent interpretation of the legitimate variational principles initially originated by Pian and Tong. The conceptual development based upon Hybrid Finite Element Method is extended to linear dynamics with the introduction of physically meaningful higher modes.

  13. Evaluating Extension Based Leadership Development Programs in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to evaluate and accurately articulate the outcomes associated with leadership development programs is critical to their continued financial and administrative support. With calls for outcome-based accountability, the need for rigorous evaluation is particularly relevant for those programs administered through the Cooperative Extension…

  14. An Improved Method of Pose Estimation for Lighthouse Base Station Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Weng, Dongdong; Li, Dong; Xun, Hang

    2017-10-22

    In 2015, HTC and Valve launched a virtual reality headset empowered with Lighthouse, the cutting-edge space positioning technology. Although Lighthouse is superior in terms of accuracy, latency and refresh rate, its algorithms do not support base station expansion, and is flawed concerning occlusion in moving targets, that is, it is unable to calculate their poses with a small set of sensors, resulting in the loss of optical tracking data. In view of these problems, this paper proposes an improved pose estimation algorithm for cases where occlusion is involved. Our algorithm calculates the pose of a given object with a unified dataset comprising of inputs from sensors recognized by all base stations, as long as three or more sensors detect a signal in total, no matter from which base station. To verify our algorithm, HTC official base stations and autonomous developed receivers are used for prototyping. The experiment result shows that our pose calculation algorithm can achieve precise positioning when a few sensors detect the signal.

  15. 78 FR 7654 - Extension of Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Section 3D of the Exchange Act [15 U.S.C. 78c-4] and Registration and Regulation of Security-Based Swap... amendments as well as the effect of the amendments on efficiency, competition, and capital formation.\\50\\ \\50... also consider whether the action will promote efficiency, competition, and capital formation. See 15 U...

  16. An extensible agent architecture for a competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. 't Hoen (Pieter Jan); S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA competitive distributed recommendation mechanism is introduced based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the ``customer attention space'', or banners. In the example of an electronic shopping mall, the task of correctly profiling and analyzing the customers is

  17. Orientation of student entrepreneurial practices based on administrative techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Murcia Cabra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the second phase of the research project «Application of a creativity model to update the teaching of the administration in Colombian agricultural entrepreneurial systems» it was decided to re-enforce student planning and execution of the students of the Agricultural business Administration Faculty of La Salle University. Those finishing their studies were given special attention. The plan of action was initiated in the second semester of 2003. It was initially defined as a model of entrepreneurial strengthening based on a coherent methodology that included the most recent administration and management techniques. Later, the applicability of this model was tested in some organizations of the agricultural sector that had asked for support in their planning processes. Through an investigation-action process the methodology was redefined in order to arrive at a final model that could be used by faculty students and graduates. The results obtained were applied to the teaching of Entrepreneurial Laboratory of ninth semester students with the hope of improving administrative support to agricultural enterprises. Following this procedure more than 100 students and 200 agricultural producers have applied this procedure between June 2003 and July 2005. The methodology used and the results obtained are presented in this article.

  18. Microgrids Real-Time Pricing Based on Clustering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are widely spreading in electricity markets worldwide. Besides the security and reliability concerns for these microgrids, their operators need to address consumers’ pricing. Considering the growth of smart grids and smart meter facilities, it is expected that microgrids will have some level of flexibility to determine real-time pricing for at least some consumers. As such, the key challenge is finding an optimal pricing model for consumers. This paper, accordingly, proposes a new pricing scheme in which microgrids are able to deploy clustering techniques in order to understand their consumers’ load profiles and then assign real-time prices based on their load profile patterns. An improved weighted fuzzy average k-means is proposed to cluster load curve of consumers in an optimal number of clusters, through which the load profile of each cluster is determined. Having obtained the load profile of each cluster, real-time prices are given to each cluster, which is the best price given to all consumers in that cluster.

  19. Weighted graph based ordering techniques for preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Simon S.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1994-01-01

    We describe the basis of a matrix ordering heuristic for improving the incomplete factorization used in preconditioned conjugate gradient techniques applied to anisotropic PDE's. Several new matrix ordering techniques, derived from well-known algorithms in combinatorial graph theory, which attempt to implement this heuristic, are described. These ordering techniques are tested against a number of matrices arising from linear anisotropic PDE's, and compared with other matrix ordering techniques. A variation of RCM is shown to generally improve the quality of incomplete factorization preconditioners.

  20. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Gui, Xiang; Suryadevara, Nagender

    2015-01-01

    Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home...

  1. Study of coherent Synchrotron Radiation effects by means of a new simulation code based on the non-linear extension of the operator splitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Schiavi, A.; Migliorati, M.

    2006-03-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is one of the main problems limiting the performance of high intensity electron accelerators. The complexity of the physical mechanisms underlying the onset of instabilities due to CSR demands for accurate descriptions, capable of including the large number of features of an actual accelerating device. A code devoted to the analysis of this type of problems should be fast and reliable, conditions that are usually hardly achieved at the same rime. In the past, codes based on Lie algebraic techniques , have been very efficient to treat transport problems in accelerators. The extension of these methods to the non-linear case is ideally suited to treat CSR instability problems. We report on the development of a numerical code, based on the solution of the Vlasov equation, with the inclusion of non-linear contribution due to wake field effects. The proposed solution method exploits an algebraic technique, using exponential operators. We show that the integration procedure is capable of reproducing the onset of an instability and the effects associated with bunching mechanisms leading to the growth of the instability itself. In addition, considerations on the threshold of the instability are also developed [it

  2. Study of coherent synchrotron radiation effects by means of a new simulation code based on the non-linear extension of the operator splitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Migliorati, M.; Schiavi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is one of the main problems limiting the performance of high-intensity electron accelerators. The complexity of the physical mechanisms underlying the onset of instabilities due to CSR demands for accurate descriptions, capable of including the large number of features of an actual accelerating device. A code devoted to the analysis of these types of problems should be fast and reliable, conditions that are usually hardly achieved at the same time. In the past, codes based on Lie algebraic techniques have been very efficient to treat transport problems in accelerators. The extension of these methods to the non-linear case is ideally suited to treat CSR instability problems. We report on the development of a numerical code, based on the solution of the Vlasov equation, with the inclusion of non-linear contribution due to wake field effects. The proposed solution method exploits an algebraic technique that uses the exponential operators. We show that the integration procedure is capable of reproducing the onset of instability and the effects associated with bunching mechanisms leading to the growth of the instability itself. In addition, considerations on the threshold of the instability are also developed

  3. Efficacy of Web-Based Collection of Strength-Based Testimonials for Text Message Extension of Youth Suicide Prevention Program: Randomized Controlled Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiha, Phyo; Pisani, Anthony R; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-11-09

    Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for "upstream" youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer 'opinion leader' programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength-an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program-and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target population to spread public health messages. ©Phyo Thiha, Anthony

  4. The Numerical Simulation of the Crack Elastoplastic Extension Based on the Extended Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the extended finite element method, the exponent disconnected function is introduced to reflect the discontinuous characteristic of crack and the crack tip enrichment function which is made of triangular basis function, and the linear polar radius function is adopted to describe the displacement field distribution of elastoplastic crack tip. Where, the linear polar radius function form is chosen to decrease the singularity characteristic induced by the plastic yield zone of crack tip, and the triangle basis function form is adopted to describe the displacement distribution character with the polar angle of crack tip. Based on the displacement model containing the above enrichment displacement function, the increment iterative form of elastoplastic extended finite element method is deduced by virtual work principle. For nonuniform hardening material such as concrete, in order to avoid the nonsymmetry characteristic of stiffness matrix induced by the non-associate flowing of plastic strain, the plastic flowing rule containing cross item based on the least energy dissipation principle is adopted. Finally, some numerical examples show that the elastoplastic X-FEM constructed in this paper is of validity.

  5. Consumer Decision-Making Styles Extension to Trust-Based Product Comparison Site Usage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an implementation of extended consumer decision-making styles concept in explaining consumer choices made in product comparison site environment in the context of trust-based information technology acceptance model. Previous research proved that trust-based acceptance model is useful in explaining purchase intention and anticipated satisfaction in product comparison site environment, as an example of online decision shopping aids. Trust to such aids is important in explaining their usage by consumers. The connections between consumer decision-making styles, product and sellers opinions usage, cognitive and affective trust toward online product comparison site, as well as choice outcomes (purchase intention and brand choice are explored trough structural equation models using PLS-SEM approach, using a sample of 461 young consumers. Research confirmed the validity of research model in explaining product comparison usage, and some consumer decision-making styles influenced consumers’ choices and purchase intention. Product and sellers reviews usage were partially mediating mentioned relationships.

  6. A study on development of a rule based expert system for steam generator life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun

    1994-02-01

    The need of predicting the integrity of the steam generator(SG) tubes and environmental conditions that affect their integrity is growing to secure nuclear power plant(NPP) safety and enhance plant availability. To achieve their objectives it is important to diagnose the integrity of the SG tubes. An expert system called FEMODES(failure mode diagnosis expert system) has been developed for diagnosis of such tube degradation phenomena as denting, intergranular attack(IGA) and stress corrosion cracking(SCC) in the secondary side of the SG. It is possible with use of FEMODES to estimate possibilities of SG tube degradation and diagnosis environmental conditions that influence such tube degradation. The method of certainty factor theory(CFT) and the rule based backward reasoning inference strategy are used to develop FEMODES. The information required for diagnosis is acquired from SG tube degradation experiences of two local reference plants, some limited oversea plants and technical reports/research papers about such tube degradation. Overall results estimated with use of FEMODES are in reasonable agreement with actual SG tube degradation. Some discrepancy observed in several estimated values of SG tube degradation appears to be due to insufficient heuristic knowledge for knowledge data base of FEMODES

  7. An Agent-based Extensible Climate Control System for Sustainable Greenhouse Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Klein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The slow adoption pace of new control strategies for sustainable greenhouse climate control by industrial growers is mainly due to the complexity of identifying and resolving potentially conflicting climate control requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-agent-based climate control system....... Negotiation is done using a novel multi-issue negotiation protocol that uses a generic algorithm to find an optimized solution within the search space. The Multi-Agent control system has been empirically evaluated in an ornamental floriculture research facility in Denmark. The evaluation showed...... that it is realistic to implement the climate control requirements as individual agents, thereby opening greenhouse climate control systems for integration of independently produced control strategies....

  8. Size measurement of gold and silver nanostructures based on their extinction spectrum: limitations and extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Ashkarran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  This paper reports on physical principles and the relations between extinction cross section and geometrical properties of silver and gold nanostructures. We introduce some simple relations for determining geometrical properties of silver and gold nanospheres based on the situation of their plasmonic peak. We also applied, investigated and compared the accuracy of these relations using other published works in order to make clear the effects of shape, size distribution and refractive index of particles’ embedding medium. Finally, we extended the equations to non-spherical particles and investigated their accuracy. We found that modified forms of the equations may lead to more exact results for non-spherical metal particles, but for better results, modified equations should depend on shape and size distribution of particles. It seems that these equations are not applicable to particles with corners sharper than cubes' corners i.e. nanostructures with spatial angles less than π/2 sr.

  9. Research Extension and Education Programs on Bio-based Energy Technologies and Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Sam [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Womac, Al [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station

    2010-03-02

    The overall objectives of this project were to provide enhanced educational resources for the general public, educational and development opportunities for University faculty in the Southeast region, and enhance research knowledge concerning biomass preprocessing and deconstruction. All of these efforts combine to create a research and education program that enhances the biomass-based industries of the United States. This work was broken into five primary objective areas: • Task A - Technical research in the area of biomass preprocessing, analysis, and evaluation. • Tasks B&C - Technical research in the areas of Fluidized Beds for the Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Biomass Deconstruction and Evaluation. • Task D - Analyses for the non-scientific community to provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of biomass supply, demand, technologies, markets and policies; identify a set of feasible alternative paths for biomass industry development and quantify the impacts associated with alternative path. • Task E - Efforts to build research capacity and develop partnerships through faculty fellowships with DOE national labs The research and education programs conducted through this grant have led to three primary results. They include: • A better knowledge base related to and understanding of biomass deconstruction, through both mechanical size reduction and chemical processing • A better source of information related to biomass, bioenergy, and bioproducts for researchers and general public users through the BioWeb system. • Stronger research ties between land-grant universities and DOE National Labs through the faculty fellowship program. In addition to the scientific knowledge and resources developed, funding through this program produced a minimum of eleven (11) scientific publications and contributed to the research behind at least one patent.

  10. Evaluation of a school-based diabetes education intervention, an extension of Program ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Matthew David

    Background: The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes in the United States has increased over the past two decades and rates remain high. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics estimates that 36% of adults and 17% of children and adolescents in the US are obese (CDC Adult Obesity, CDC Childhood Obesity). Being overweight or obese greatly increases one's risk of developing several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 8% of adults in the US have diabetes, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of these cases. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is still rare, however clinical reports suggest an increase in the frequency of diagnosis (CDC Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011). Results from the Diabetes Prevention Program show that the incidence of type 2 diabetes can be reduced through the adoption of a healthier lifestyle among high-risk individuals (DPP, 2002). Objectives: This classroom-based intervention included scientific coverage of energy balance, diabetes, diabetes prevention strategies, and diabetes management. Coverage of diabetes management topics were included in lesson content to further the students' understanding of the disease. Measurable short-term goals of the intervention included increases in: general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. Methods: A total of 66 sixth grade students at Tavelli Elementary School in Fort Collins, CO completed the intervention. The program consisted of nine classroom-based lessons; students participated in one lesson every two weeks. The lessons were delivered from November of 2005 to May of 2006. Each bi-weekly lesson included a presentation and interactive group activities. Participants completed two diabetes knowledge questionnaires at baseline and post intervention. A diabetes survey developed by Program ENERGY measured general diabetes knowledge and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies

  11. Digital diagnosis and treatment of mandibular condylar fractures based on Extensible Neuro imaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhongWei Zhou

    Full Text Available The treatment of condylar fractures has long been controversial. In this paper, we established a database for accurate measurement, storage, management and analysis of patients' data, in order to help determine the best treatment plan.First of all, the diagnosis and treatment database was established based on XNAT, including 339 cases of condylar fractures and their related information. Then image segmentation, registration and three-dimensional (3D measurement were used to measure and analyze the condyle shapes. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the anatomical structure changes of condyle and the surrounding tissues at different stages before and after treatment. The processes of condylar fracture reestablishment at different stages were also dynamically monitored. Finally, based on all these information, the digital diagnosis and treatment plans for condylar fractures were developed.For the patients less than 18 years old with no significant dislocation, surgical treatment and conservative treatment were equally effective for intracapsular fracture, and had no significant difference for neck and basal fractures. For patients above 18 years old, there was no significant difference between the two treatment methods for intracapsular fractures; but for condylar neck and basal fractures, surgical treatment was better than conservative treatment. When condylar fracture shift angle was greater than 11 degrees, and mandibular ramus height reduction was greater than 4mm, the patients felt the strongest pain, and their mouths opening was severely restricted. There were 170 surgical cases with condylar fracture shift angel greater than 11 degrees, and 118 of them (69.4% had good prognosis, 52 of them (30.6% had complications such as limited mouth opening. There were 173 surgical cases with mandibular ramus height reduction more than 4mm, and 112 of them (64.7% had good prognosis, 61 of them (35.3% had complications such as limited mouth opening

  12. SPAM CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SUPERVISED LEARNING USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hamsapriya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available E-mail is one of the most popular and frequently used ways of communication due to its worldwide accessibility, relatively fast message transfer, and low sending cost. The flaws in the e-mail protocols and the increasing amount of electronic business and financial transactions directly contribute to the increase in e-mail-based threats. Email spam is one of the major problems of the today’s Internet, bringing financial damage to companies and annoying individual users. Spam emails are invading users without their consent and filling their mail boxes. They consume more network capacity as well as time in checking and deleting spam mails. The vast majority of Internet users are outspoken in their disdain for spam, although enough of them respond to commercial offers that spam remains a viable source of income to spammers. While most of the users want to do right think to avoid and get rid of spam, they need clear and simple guidelines on how to behave. In spite of all the measures taken to eliminate spam, they are not yet eradicated. Also when the counter measures are over sensitive, even legitimate emails will be eliminated. Among the approaches developed to stop spam, filtering is the one of the most important technique. Many researches in spam filtering have been centered on the more sophisticated classifier-related issues. In recent days, Machine learning for spam classification is an important research issue. The effectiveness of the proposed work is explores and identifies the use of different learning algorithms for classifying spam messages from e-mail. A comparative analysis among the algorithms has also been presented.

  13. Improved mesh based photon sampling techniques for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relson, E.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Biondo, E. D.

    2013-01-01

    The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in 0(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires 0(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the 0(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources, and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling - particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied. (authors)

  14. An extension to SUf3 and Dirac particle of the transformation between physical bases and symmetry bases for dibaryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Jialun

    1994-01-01

    The transformation between physical bases and symmetry bases is extended from SU f 2 to SU f 3 . Its application in dibaryon calculation for both nonrelativistic and relativistic quark model is discussed

  15. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Gui, Xiang; Suryadevara, Nagender

    2015-01-01

    Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home environment and performs his or her daily routine in order to live a long and healthy life. We initiate the research with the development of the smart home approach and implement it in different home conditions (different houses) to monitor the activity of an inhabitant for wellness detection. Additionally, our research extends the smart home system to smart buildings and models the design issues related to the smart building environment; these design issues are linked with system performance and reliability. This research paper also discusses and illustrates the possible mitigation to handle the ISM band interference and attenuation losses without compromising optimum system performance. PMID:25946630

  16. Viable yet Protected for Future Generations? An Examination of the Extensive Forest-Based Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Sakata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article focuses on forest tourism and rainforests in particular, and explores their potential to contribute to the global tourism industry. The specific objectives of the study were to develop a profile, including motivations, of tourists visiting the Wet Tropics rainforest of Australia and to identify previous patterns of forest visitation in both Australia and other global destinations. A survey of 1,408 visitors conducted at a number of Wet Tropics rainforest sites in the tropical north region of Australia found that over 37% of the sample had previously visited forests while on holidays indicating that forest-based tourism is a major component to the nature-based market. Countries and forested sites in South-East Asia were the most popular as holiday attractions with over 13% of respondents having visited these sites. This was followed by countries of the South Pacific, North America, South America, Central America, Africa, South Asia and China, the Caribbean and Europe. While overall this is a promising result, forest-based tourism faces a number of pressures including urban settlement, extractive industries and in the near future climate change. Keywords: forests; rainforests; nature-based tourism; Tropical North Queensland; Wet Tropics rainforest. Resumo Este artigo enfoca o turismo de florestas e florestas tropicais em particular e explora seu potencial em contribuir para a indústria de turismo global. Os objetivos específicos deste estudo foram: desenvolver um perfil, incluindo as motivações, dos turistas que visitam a Wet Tropics, floresta tropical da Austrália e identificar padrões anteriores de visitação de florestas tanto na Austrália quanto em outros destinos globais. Uma pesquisa com 1.408 visitantes conduzida em vários locais com florestas tropicais Wet Tropics na região tropical norte da Austrália concluiu que mais de 37% da amostra já tinham visitado previamente as florestas quando estavam em f

  17. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Gui, Xiang; Suryadevara, Nagender

    2015-05-04

    Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home environment and performs his or her daily routine in order to live a long and healthy life. We initiate the research with the development of the smart home approach and implement it in different home conditions (different houses) to monitor the activity of an inhabitant for wellness detection. Additionally, our research extends the smart home system to smart buildings and models the design issues related to the smart building environment; these design issues are linked with system performance and reliability. This research paper also discusses and illustrates the possible mitigation to handle the ISM band interference and attenuation losses without compromising optimum system performance.

  18. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Ghayvat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home environment and performs his or her daily routine in order to live a long and healthy life. We initiate the research with the development of the smart home approach and implement it in different home conditions (different houses to monitor the activity of an inhabitant for wellness detection. Additionally, our research extends the smart home system to smart buildings and models the design issues related to the smart building environment; these design issues are linked with system performance and reliability. This research paper also discusses and illustrates the possible mitigation to handle the ISM band interference and attenuation losses without compromising optimum system performance.

  19. Short text sentiment classification based on feature extension and ensemble classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhu, Xie

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of Internet social media, excavating the emotional tendencies of the short text information from the Internet, the acquisition of useful information has attracted the attention of researchers. At present, the commonly used can be attributed to the rule-based classification and statistical machine learning classification methods. Although micro-blog sentiment analysis has made good progress, there still exist some shortcomings such as not highly accurate enough and strong dependence from sentiment classification effect. Aiming at the characteristics of Chinese short texts, such as less information, sparse features, and diverse expressions, this paper considers expanding the original text by mining related semantic information from the reviews, forwarding and other related information. First, this paper uses Word2vec to compute word similarity to extend the feature words. And then uses an ensemble classifier composed of SVM, KNN and HMM to analyze the emotion of the short text of micro-blog. The experimental results show that the proposed method can make good use of the comment forwarding information to extend the original features. Compared with the traditional method, the accuracy, recall and F1 value obtained by this method have been improved.

  20. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well s health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  1. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  2. Development of acoustic model-based iterative reconstruction technique for thick-concrete imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansouri, Hani; Clayton, Dwight; Kisner, Roger; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charles; Santos-Villalobos, Hector

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.1

  3. A probabilistic Poisson-based model accounts for an extensive set of absolute auditory threshold measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Peter; Matysiak, Artur; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2017-09-01

    Thresholds for detecting sounds in quiet decrease with increasing sound duration in every species studied. The neural mechanisms underlying this trade-off, often referred to as temporal integration, are not fully understood. Here, we probe the human auditory system with a large set of tone stimuli differing in duration, shape of the temporal amplitude envelope, duration of silent gaps between bursts, and frequency. Duration was varied by varying the plateau duration of plateau-burst (PB) stimuli, the duration of the onsets and offsets of onset-offset (OO) stimuli, and the number of identical bursts of multiple-burst (MB) stimuli. Absolute thresholds for a large number of ears (>230) were measured using a 3-interval-3-alternative forced choice (3I-3AFC) procedure. Thresholds decreased with increasing sound duration in a manner that depended on the temporal envelope. Most commonly, thresholds for MB stimuli were highest followed by thresholds for OO and PB stimuli of corresponding durations. Differences in the thresholds for MB and OO stimuli and in the thresholds for MB and PB stimuli, however, varied widely across ears, were negative in some ears, and were tightly correlated. We show that the variation and correlation of MB-OO and MB-PB threshold differences are linked to threshold microstructure, which affects the relative detectability of the sidebands of the MB stimuli and affects estimates of the bandwidth of auditory filters. We also found that thresholds for MB stimuli increased with increasing duration of the silent gaps between bursts. We propose a new model and show that it accurately accounts for our results and does so considerably better than a leaky-integrator-of-intensity model and a probabilistic model proposed by others. Our model is based on the assumption that sensory events are generated by a Poisson point process with a low rate in the absence of stimulation and higher, time-varying rates in the presence of stimulation. A subject in a 3I-3AFC

  4. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim; Muller, Hendrik; Adam, Frederick M.; Panda, Saroj K.; Witt, Matthias; Al-Hajji, Adnan A.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated

  5. Contests versus Norms: Implications of Contest-Based and Norm-Based Intervention Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Magnus; Nilsson, Andreas; Hansla, André

    2017-01-01

    Interventions using either contests or norms can promote environmental behavioral change. Yet research on the implications of contest-based and norm-based interventions is lacking. Based on Goal-framing theory, we suggest that a contest-based intervention frames a gain goal promoting intensive but instrumental behavioral engagement. In contrast, the norm-based intervention was expected to frame a normative goal activating normative obligations for targeted and non-targeted behavior and motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviors in the future. In two studies participants ( n = 347) were randomly assigned to either a contest- or a norm-based intervention technique. Participants in the contest showed more intensive engagement in both studies. Participants in the norm-based intervention tended to report higher intentions for future energy conservation (Study 1) and higher personal norms for non-targeted pro-environmental behaviors (Study 2). These findings suggest that contest-based intervention technique frames a gain goal, while norm-based intervention frames a normative goal.

  6. Contests versus Norms: Implications of Contest-Based and Norm-Based Intervention Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bergquist

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interventions using either contests or norms can promote environmental behavioral change. Yet research on the implications of contest-based and norm-based interventions is lacking. Based on Goal-framing theory, we suggest that a contest-based intervention frames a gain goal promoting intensive but instrumental behavioral engagement. In contrast, the norm-based intervention was expected to frame a normative goal activating normative obligations for targeted and non-targeted behavior and motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviors in the future. In two studies participants (n = 347 were randomly assigned to either a contest- or a norm-based intervention technique. Participants in the contest showed more intensive engagement in both studies. Participants in the norm-based intervention tended to report higher intentions for future energy conservation (Study 1 and higher personal norms for non-targeted pro-environmental behaviors (Study 2. These findings suggest that contest-based intervention technique frames a gain goal, while norm-based intervention frames a normative goal.

  7. FPGA based mixed-signal circuit novel testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouros, Sotirios; Vassios, Vassilios; Papakostas, Dimitrios; Hristov, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circuits fault detection techniques, especially on modern mixed-signal circuits, are evolved and customized around the world to meet the industry needs. The paper presents techniques used on fault detection in mixed signal circuits. Moreover, the paper involves standardized methods, along with current innovations for external testing like Design for Testability (DfT) and Built In Self Test (BIST) systems. Finally, the research team introduces a circuit implementation scheme using FPGA

  8. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    The world water strategy is to be changed because the current imitational gravitational frontal isotropic-continual paradigm of irrigation is not sustainable. This paradigm causes excessive consumption of fresh water - global deficit - up to 4-15 times, adverse effects on soils and landscapes. Current methods of irrigation does not control the water spread throughout the soil continuum. The preferable downward fluxes of irrigation water are forming, up to 70% and more of water supply loses into vadose zone. The moisture of irrigated soil is high, soil loses structure in the process of granulometric fractions flotation decomposition, the stomatal apparatus of plant leaf is fully open, transpiration rate is maximal. We propose the Biogeosystem technique - the transcendental, uncommon and non-imitating methods for Sustainable Natural Resources Management. New paradigm of irrigation is based on the intra-soil pulse discrete method of water supply into the soil continuum by injection in small discrete portions. Individual volume of water is supplied as a vertical cylinder of soil preliminary watering. The cylinder position in soil is at depth form 10 to 30 cm. Diameter of cylinder is 1-2 cm. Within 5-10 min after injection the water spreads from the cylinder of preliminary watering into surrounding soil by capillary, film and vapor transfer. Small amount of water is transferred gravitationally to the depth of 35-40 cm. The soil watering cylinder position in soil profile is at depth of 5-50 cm, diameter of the cylinder is 2-4 cm. Lateral distance between next cylinders along the plant raw is 10-15 cm. The soil carcass which is surrounding the cylinder of non-watered soil remains relatively dry and mechanically stable. After water injection the structure of soil in cylinder restores quickly because of no compression from the stable adjoining volume of soil and soil structure memory. The mean soil thermodynamic water potential of watered zone is -0.2 MPa. At this potential

  9. External Economies Evaluation of Wind Power Engineering Project Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process and Matter-Element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ze Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external economies of wind power engineering project may affect the operational efficiency of wind power enterprises and sustainable development of wind power industry. In order to ensure that the wind power engineering project is constructed and developed in a scientific manner, a reasonable external economies evaluation needs to be performed. Considering the interaction relationship of the evaluation indices and the ambiguity and uncertainty inherent, a hybrid model of external economies evaluation designed to be applied to wind power engineering project was put forward based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and matter-element extension model in this paper. The AHP was used to determine the weights of indices, and the matter-element extension model was used to deduce final ranking. Taking a wind power engineering project in Inner Mongolia city as an example, the external economies evaluation is performed by employing this hybrid model. The result shows that the external economies of this wind power engineering project are belonged to the “strongest” level, and “the degree of increasing region GDP,” “the degree of reducing pollution gas emissions,” and “the degree of energy conservation” are the sensitive indices.

  10. Effects of a group-based reproductive management extension programme on key management outcomes affecting reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, Tom S; Morton, John M; Heuer, Cord; McDougall, Scott

    2015-02-01

    A group-based reproductive management extension programme has been designed to help managers of dairy herds improve herd reproductive performance. The aims of this study were, firstly, to assess effects of participation by key decision makers (KDMs) in a farmer action group programme in 2009 and 2010 on six key management outcomes (KMOs) that affect reproductive performance over 2 years (2009-2010 and 2010-2011), and secondly, to describe KDM intentions to change management behaviour(s) affecting each management outcome after participation in the programme. Seasonal calving dairy herds from four regions of New Zealand were enrolled in the study. Intentions to modify management behaviour were recorded using the formal written action plans developed during the extension programme. KMOs assessed were calving pattern of the herd, pre-calving heifer liveweight, pre-calving and premating body condition score (BCS), oestrus detection, anoestrus cow management and bull management. Participation was associated with improvements in heifer liveweight, more heifers calving in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal calving period, premating BCS and oestrus detection. No significant effects were observed on anoestrus cow management or bull management. KDMs with greater numbers of proposed actions had lower 6 week in-calf rates in the second study year than KDMs who proposed fewer actions. A more effective strategy to ensure more appropriate objectives is proposed. Strategies to help KDMs to implement proposed actions more successfully should be investigated to improve the programme further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the advancement of knowledge of agricultural extension services and practice through the publication of original and empirically based research, ... Vol 22, No 1 (2018) ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural ...

  12. A compressed sensing based approach on Discrete Algebraic Reconstruction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan-Tureyen, Ezgi; Kamasak, Mustafa E

    2015-01-01

    Discrete tomography (DT) techniques are capable of computing better results, even using less number of projections than the continuous tomography techniques. Discrete Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (DART) is an iterative reconstruction method proposed to achieve this goal by exploiting a prior knowledge on the gray levels and assuming that the scanned object is composed from a few different densities. In this paper, DART method is combined with an initial total variation minimization (TvMin) phase to ensure a better initial guess and extended with a segmentation procedure in which the threshold values are estimated from a finite set of candidates to minimize both the projection error and the total variation (TV) simultaneously. The accuracy and the robustness of the algorithm is compared with the original DART by the simulation experiments which are done under (1) limited number of projections, (2) limited view problem and (3) noisy projections conditions.

  13. Plasticity models of material variability based on uncertainty quantification techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Reese E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Rizzi, Francesco [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyce, Brad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Templeton, Jeremy Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The advent of fabrication techniques like additive manufacturing has focused attention on the considerable variability of material response due to defects and other micro-structural aspects. This variability motivates the development of an enhanced design methodology that incorporates inherent material variability to provide robust predictions of performance. In this work, we develop plasticity models capable of representing the distribution of mechanical responses observed in experiments using traditional plasticity models of the mean response and recently developed uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques. Lastly, we demonstrate that the new method provides predictive realizations that are superior to more traditional ones, and how these UQ techniques can be used in model selection and assessing the quality of calibrated physical parameters.

  14. Assessing the Utility of the Nominal Group Technique as a Consensus-Building Tool in Extension-Led Avian Influenza Response Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Terence R.

    2013-01-01

    The intent of the project described was to apply the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) to achieve a consensus on Avian Influenza (AI) planning in Northeastern Ohio. Nominal Group Technique is a process first developed by Delbecq, Vande Ven, and Gustafsen (1975) to allow all participants to have an equal say in an open forum setting. A very diverse…

  15. Skull base tumours part I: Imaging technique, anatomy and anterior skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    Advances in cross-sectional imaging, surgical technique and adjuvant treatment have largely contributed to ameliorate the prognosis, lessen the morbidity and mortality of patients with skull base tumours and to the growing medical investment in the management of these patients. Because clinical assessment of the skull base is limited, cross-sectional imaging became indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of patients with suspected skull base pathology and the radiologist is increasingly responsible for the fate of these patients. This review will focus on the advances in imaging technique; contribution to patient's management and on the imaging features of the most common tumours affecting the anterior skull base. Emphasis is given to a systematic approach to skull base pathology based upon an anatomic division taking into account the major tissue constituents in each skull base compartment. The most relevant information that should be conveyed to surgeons and radiation oncologists involved in patient's management will be discussed.

  16. A novel technique for extracting clouds base height using ground based imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The height of a cloud in the atmospheric column is a key parameter in its characterization. Several remote sensing techniques (passive and active, either ground-based or on space-borne platforms and in-situ measurements are routinely used in order to estimate top and base heights of clouds. In this article we present a novel method that combines thermal imaging from the ground and sounded wind profile in order to derive the cloud base height. This method is independent of cloud types, making it efficient for both low boundary layer and high clouds. In addition, using thermal imaging ensures extraction of clouds' features during daytime as well as at nighttime. The proposed technique was validated by comparison to active sounding by ceilometers (which is a standard ground based method, to lifted condensation level (LCL calculations, and to MODIS products obtained from space. As all passive remote sensing techniques, the proposed method extracts only the height of the lowest cloud layer, thus upper cloud layers are not detected. Nevertheless, the information derived from this method can be complementary to space-borne cloud top measurements when deep-convective clouds are present. Unlike techniques such as LCL, this method is not limited to boundary layer clouds, and can extract the cloud base height at any level, as long as sufficient thermal contrast exists between the radiative temperatures of the cloud and its surrounding air parcel. Another advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity and modest power needs, making it particularly suitable for field measurements and deployment at remote locations. Our method can be further simplified for use with visible CCD or CMOS camera (although nighttime clouds will not be observed.

  17. A unified model of hydride cracking based on elasto-plastic energy release rate over a finite crack extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.J.; Metzger, D.R.; Sauve, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    A fracture criterion based on energy balance is proposed for elasto-plastic cracking at hydrides in zirconium, assuming a finite length of crack advance. The proposed elasto-plastic energy release rate is applied to the crack initiation at hydrides in smooth and notched surfaces, as well as the subsequent delayed hydride cracking (DHC) considering limited crack-tip plasticity. For a smooth or notched surface of an elastic body, the fracture parameter is related to the stress intensity factor for the initiated crack. For DHC, a unique curve relates the non-dimensionalized elasto-plastic energy release rate with the length of crack extension relative to the plastic zone size. This fracture criterion explains experimental observations concerning DHC in a qualitative manner. Quantitative comparison with experiments is made for fracture toughness and DHC tests on specimens containing certain hydride structures; very good agreement is obtained. ((orig.))

  18. MR-based field-of-view extension in MR/PET: B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement (HUGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumhagen, Jan O; Ladebeck, Ralf; Fenchel, Matthias; Scheffler, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    In whole-body MR/PET, the human attenuation correction can be based on the MR data. However, an MR-based field-of-view (FoV) is limited due to physical restrictions such as B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. Therefore, for large patients, the MR image and the attenuation map might be truncated and the attenuation correction might be biased. The aim of this work is to explore extending the MR FoV through B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement in which an optimal readout gradient field is determined to locally compensate B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. A spin-echo-based sequence was developed that computes an optimal gradient for certain regions of interest, for example, the patient's arms. A significant distortion reduction was achieved outside the normal MR-based FoV. This FoV extension was achieved without any hardware modifications. In-plane distortions in a transaxially extended FoV of up to 600 mm were analyzed in phantom studies. In vivo measurements of the patient's arms lying outside the normal specified FoV were compared with and without the use of B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement. In summary, we designed a sequence that provides data for reducing the image distortions due to B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities and used the data to extend the MR FoV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Application of immersion phased array UT technique in nickel based alloy weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Nagai, Satoshi; Murakami, Koji; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro; Ootsubo, Tooru; Naruse, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    The improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for nondestructive inspection technique has been required in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plant. Immersion phased array UT technique which is not affected the surface geometry of welds has been developed for inspection of BWR internals such as shroud, shroud support, and so on. Phased array UT technique was applied for shroud support mockup specimen with fatigue crack and partially SCC. From the experimental results, the superior performance of phased array UT for the RPV outside and inside inspection was shown. (author)

  20. An analysis of Greek seismicity based on Non Extensive Statistical Physics: The interdependence of magnitude, interevent time and interevent distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The context of Non Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP) has recently been suggested to comprise an appropriate tool for the analysis of complex dynamic systems with scale invariance, long-range interactions, long-range memory and systems that evolve in a fractal-like space-time. This is because the active tectonic grain is thought to comprise a (self-organizing) complex system; therefore, its expression (seismicity) should be manifested in the temporal and spatial statistics of energy release rates. In addition to energy release rates expressed by the magnitude M, measures of the temporal and spatial interactions are the time (Δt) and hypocentral distance (Δd) between consecutive events. Recent work indicated that if the distributions of M, Δt and Δd are independent so that the joint probability p(M,Δt,Δd) factorizes into the probabilities of M, Δt and Δd, i.e. p(M,Δt,Δd)= p(M)p(Δt)p(Δd), then the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related, not only to magnitude as the celebrated Gutenberg - Richter law predicts, but also to interevent time and distance by means of well-defined power-laws consistent with NESP. The present work applies these concepts to investigate the self-organization and temporal/spatial dynamics of seismicity in Greece and western Turkey, for the period 1964-2011. The analysis was based on the ISC earthquake catalogue which is homogenous by construction with consistently determined hypocenters and magnitude. The presentation focuses on the analysis of bivariate Frequency-Magnitude-Time distributions, while using the interevent distances as spatial constraints (or spatial filters) for studying the spatial dependence of the energy and time dynamics of the seismicity. It is demonstrated that the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related to the magnitude and the interevent time by means of well-defined multi-dimensional power-laws consistent with NESP and has attributes of universality,as its holds for a broad

  1. Review and Extension of CO2-Based Methods to Determine Ventilation Rates with Application to School Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Batterman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ventilation rate (VR is a key parameter affecting indoor environmental quality (IEQ and the energy consumption of buildings. This paper reviews the use of CO2 as a “natural” tracer gas for estimating VRs, focusing on applications in school classrooms. It provides details and guidance for the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. An extension to the build-up method and an analysis of the post-exercise recovery period that can increase CO2 generation rates are presented. Measurements in four mechanically-ventilated school buildings demonstrate the methods and highlight issues affecting their applicability. VRs during the school day fell below recommended minimum levels, and VRs during evening and early morning were on the order of 0.1 h−1, reflecting shutdown of the ventilation systems. The transient mass balance method was the most flexible and advantageous method given the low air change rates and dynamic occupancy patterns observed in the classrooms. While the extension to the build-up method improved stability and consistency, the accuracy of this and the steady-state method may be limited. Decay-based methods did not reflect the VR during the school day due to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system shutdown. Since the number of occupants in classrooms changes over the day, the VR expressed on a per person basis (e.g., L·s−1·person−1 depends on the occupancy metric. If occupancy measurements can be obtained, then the transient mass balance method likely will provide the most consistent and accurate results among the CO2-based methods. Improved VR measurements can benefit many applications, including research examining the linkage between ventilation and health.

  2. MySQL based selection of appropriate indexing technique in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with selection of appropriate indexing technique applied on MySQL Database for a health care system and related performance issues using multiclass support vector machine (SVM). The patient database is generally huge and contains lot of variations. For the quick search or fast retrieval of the desired ...

  3. Techniques for Scaling Up Analyses Based on Pre-interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick; Henriksen, Kim Steen; Banda, Gourinath

    2005-01-01

    a variety of analyses, both generic (such as mode analysis) and program-specific (with respect to a type describing some particular property of interest). Previous work demonstrated the approach using pre-interpretations over small domains. In this paper we present techniques that allow the method...

  4. an architecture-based technique to mobile contact recommendation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Aside being able to store the name of contacts and their phone numbers, there are ... the artificial neural network technique [21], along with ... Recommendation is part of everyday life. This concept ... However, to use RSs some level of intelligence must be ...... [3] Min J.-K. & Cho S.-B.Mobile Human Network Management.

  5. MRA Based Efficient Database Storing and Fast Querying Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Kostov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a specific way of organizing 1D signals or 2D image databases, such that a more efficient storage and faster querying is achieved. A multiresolution technique of data processing is used in order of saving the most significant processed data.

  6. Wheeze sound analysis using computer-based techniques: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam Nabi, Fizza; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Chee Kiang, Lam; Palaniappan, Rajkumar; Sundaraj, Sebastian

    2017-10-31

    Wheezes are high pitched continuous respiratory acoustic sounds which are produced as a result of airway obstruction. Computer-based analyses of wheeze signals have been extensively used for parametric analysis, spectral analysis, identification of airway obstruction, feature extraction and diseases or pathology classification. While this area is currently an active field of research, the available literature has not yet been reviewed. This systematic review identified articles describing wheeze analyses using computer-based techniques on the SCOPUS, IEEE Xplore, ACM, PubMed and Springer and Elsevier electronic databases. After a set of selection criteria was applied, 41 articles were selected for detailed analysis. The findings reveal that 1) computerized wheeze analysis can be used for the identification of disease severity level or pathology, 2) further research is required to achieve acceptable rates of identification on the degree of airway obstruction with normal breathing, 3) analysis using combinations of features and on subgroups of the respiratory cycle has provided a pathway to classify various diseases or pathology that stem from airway obstruction.

  7. Epileptic seizure predictors based on computational intelligence techniques: a comparative study with 278 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Teixeira, César; Direito, Bruno; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Valderrama, Mario; Schelter, Bjoern; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Navarro, Vincent; Sales, Francisco; Dourado, António

    2014-05-01

    The ability of computational intelligence methods to predict epileptic seizures is evaluated in long-term EEG recordings of 278 patients suffering from pharmaco-resistant partial epilepsy, also known as refractory epilepsy. This extensive study in seizure prediction considers the 278 patients from the European Epilepsy Database, collected in three epilepsy centres: Hôpital Pitié-là-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Germany; Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Portugal. For a considerable number of patients it was possible to find a patient specific predictor with an acceptable performance, as for example predictors that anticipate at least half of the seizures with a rate of false alarms of no more than 1 in 6 h (0.15 h⁻¹). We observed that the epileptic focus localization, data sampling frequency, testing duration, number of seizures in testing, type of machine learning, and preictal time influence significantly the prediction performance. The results allow to face optimistically the feasibility of a patient specific prospective alarming system, based on machine learning techniques by considering the combination of several univariate (single-channel) electroencephalogram features. We envisage that this work will serve as benchmark data that will be of valuable importance for future studies based on the European Epilepsy Database. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repositioning the knee joint in human body FE models using a graphics-based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Dhaval; Chawla, Anoop; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Goyal, Rahul; Vusirikala, Nataraju; Jayaraman, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Human body finite element models (FE-HBMs) are available in standard occupant or pedestrian postures. There is a need to have FE-HBMs in the same posture as a crash victim or to be configured in varying postures. Developing FE models for all possible positions is not practically viable. The current work aims at obtaining a posture-specific human lower extremity model by reconfiguring an existing one. A graphics-based technique was developed to reposition the lower extremity of an FE-HBM by specifying the flexion-extension angle. Elements of the model were segregated into rigid (bones) and deformable components (soft tissues). The bones were rotated about the flexion-extension axis followed by rotation about the longitudinal axis to capture the twisting of the tibia. The desired knee joint movement was thus achieved. Geometric heuristics were then used to reposition the skin. A mapping defined over the space between bones and the skin was used to regenerate the soft tissues. Mesh smoothing was then done to augment mesh quality. The developed method permits control over the kinematics of the joint and maintains the initial mesh quality of the model. For some critical areas (in the joint vicinity) where element distortion is large, mesh smoothing is done to improve mesh quality. A method to reposition the knee joint of a human body FE model was developed. Repositions of a model from 9 degrees of flexion to 90 degrees of flexion in just a few seconds without subjective interventions was demonstrated. Because the mesh quality of the repositioned model was maintained to a predefined level (typically to the level of a well-made model in the initial configuration), the model was suitable for subsequent simulations.

  9. Comparison of Growth of Healthy Term Infants Fed Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein- and Amino Acid-Based Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene W. Borschel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this narrative review was to assess published growth data for healthy, term, infants consuming extensively hydrolyzed protein-based (EHF, or amino acid-based formulas (AAF. These data may be of use to clinicians managing infants with medical conditions consuming these products. A search was conducted using key terms: amino acid-based, hydrolysate, hydrolyzed, hydrolysed, infant formula, infant formulae or formulas, baby formula, or formulae or formulas, infant, infants, infantile, and growth. Seven controlled, randomized, prospective growth trials of healthy term infants fed EHFs or AAFs at similar time points during the first four months of age met these and other criteria, including that the trial was published in a peer-reviewed journal, subjects were enrolled by ≤14 days of age and were exclusively formula-fed at entry and throughout the duration of the trial, and infants were assessed at regular intervals with weight measures available ideally at 14 days, one, two, three, and four months of age. Results suggested that healthy infants receiving commonly available EHFs and AAFs do not appear to experience accelerated growth as reported for infants fed many standard formulas. Differences in growth patterns were observed with some formulas supporting normative growth patterns during the first four months but others appearing to support markedly lower growth patterns. These observations should be confirmed in well-designed prospective randomized trials. Until that time, it is recommended that EHFs and AAFs be chosen carefully with individual patient needs considered.

  10. A New Three Dimensional Based Key Generation Technique in AVK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhasish; Dutta, Manash Pratim; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak

    2017-08-01

    In modern era, ensuring high order security becomes one and only objective of computer networks. From the last few decades, many researchers have given their contributions to achieve the secrecy over the communication channel. In achieving perfect security, Shannon had done the pioneer work on perfect secret theorem and illustrated that secrecy of the shared information can be maintained if the key becomes variable in nature instead of static one. In this regard, a key generation technique has been proposed where the key can be changed every time whenever a new block of data needs to be exchanged. In our scheme, the keys not only vary in bit sequences but also in size. The experimental study is also included in this article to prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed technique.

  11. Brain tumor segmentation based on a hybrid clustering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdel-Maksoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient image segmentation approach using K-means clustering technique integrated with Fuzzy C-means algorithm. It is followed by thresholding and level set segmentation stages to provide an accurate brain tumor detection. The proposed technique can get benefits of the K-means clustering for image segmentation in the aspects of minimal computation time. In addition, it can get advantages of the Fuzzy C-means in the aspects of accuracy. The performance of the proposed image segmentation approach was evaluated by comparing it with some state of the art segmentation algorithms in case of accuracy, processing time, and performance. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results with the ground truth of each processed image. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of our proposed approach to deal with a higher number of segmentation problems via improving the segmentation quality and accuracy in minimal execution time.

  12. LFC based adaptive PID controller using ANN and ANFIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. Mosaad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive PID Load Frequency Control (LFC for power systems using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN oriented by Genetic Algorithm (GA. PID controller parameters are tuned off-line by using GA to minimize integral error square over a wide-range of load variations. The values of PID controller parameters obtained from GA are used to train both ANFIS and ANN. Therefore, the two proposed techniques could, online, tune the PID controller parameters for optimal response at any other load point within the operating range. Testing of the developed techniques shows that the adaptive PID-LFC could preserve optimal performance over the whole loading range. Results signify superiority of ANFIS over ANN in terms of performance measures.

  13. New technique for producing the alloys based on transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolukhanyan, S.K.; Aleksanyan, A.G.; Shekhtman, V.Sh.; Mantashyan, A.A.; Mayilyan, D.G.; Ter-Galstyan, O.P.

    2007-01-01

    In principle new technique was elaborated for obtaining the alloys of refractory metals by their hydrides compacting and following dehydrogenation. The elaborated technique is described. The conditions of alloys formation from different hydrides of appropriate metals was investigated in detail. The influence of the process parameters such as: chemical peculiarities, composition of source hydrides, phase transformation during dehydrogenation, etc. on the alloys formation were established. The binary and tertiary alloys of α and ω phases: Ti 0 .8Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .66Zr 0 .33; Ti 0 .3Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .2Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .8Hf 0 .2; Ti 0 .6Hf 0 .4Ti 0 .66Zr 0 .23Hf 0 .11; etc were recieved. Using elaborated special hydride cycle, an earlier unknown effective process for formation of alloys of transition metals was realized. The dependence of final alloy structure on the composition of initial mixture and hydrogen content in source hydrides was established

  14. Activities of colistin- and minocycline-based combinations against extensive drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii is a serious problem in the clinical setting. It is therefore important to find active antibiotic combinations that could be effective in the treatment of infections caused by this problematic 'superbug'. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro activities of three colistin-based combinations and a minocycline-based combination against clinically isolated extensive drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB strains. Methods Fourteen XDR-AB clinical isolates were collected. The clonotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based fingerprinting. Susceptibility testing was carried out according to the standards of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Activities of drug combinations were investigated against four selected strains and analyzed by mean survival time over 12 hours (MST12 h in a time-kill study. Results The time-kill studies indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of colistin (0.5 or 0.25 μg/mL completely killed all strains at 2 to 4 hours, but 0.5×MIC colistin showed no bactericidal activity. Meropenem (8 μg/mL, minocycline (1 μg/mL or rifampicin (0.06 μg/mL did not show bactericidal activity. However, combinations of colistin at 0.5×MIC (0.25 or 0.125 μg/mL with each of the above were synergistic and shown bactericidal activities against all test isolates. A combination of meropenem (16 μg/mL with minocycline (0.5×MIC, 4 or 2 μg/mL was synergitic to all test isolates, but neither showed bactericidal activity alone. The MST12 h values of drug combinations (either colistin- or minocycline-based combinations were significantly shorter than those of the single drugs (p Conclusions This study indicates that combinations of colistin/meropenem, colistin/rifampicin, colistin/minocycline and minocycline/meropenem are synergistic in vitro against XDR-AB strains.

  15. EVE: Explainable Vector Based Embedding Technique Using Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, M. Atif; Greene, Derek

    2017-01-01

    We present an unsupervised explainable word embedding technique, called EVE, which is built upon the structure of Wikipedia. The proposed model defines the dimensions of a semantic vector representing a word using human-readable labels, thereby it readily interpretable. Specifically, each vector is constructed using the Wikipedia category graph structure together with the Wikipedia article link structure. To test the effectiveness of the proposed word embedding model, we consider its usefulne...

  16. Voltage Stabilizer Based on SPWM technique Using Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    K. N. Tarchanidis; J. N. Lygouras; P. Botsaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the well known SPWM technique on a voltage stabilizer, using a microcontroller. The stabilizer is AC/DC/AC type. So, the system rectifies the input AC voltage to a suitable DC level and the intelligent control of an embedded microcontroller regulates the pulse width of the output voltage in order to produce through a filter a perfect sinusoidal AC voltage. The control program on the microcontroller has the ability to change the FET transistor ...

  17. Dynamic stress of impeller blade of shaft extension tubular pump device based on bidirectional fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Kan; Liu, Huiwen; Yang, Chunxia [Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Zheng, Yuan [National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering Safety, Nanjing (China); Fu, Shifeng; Zhang, Xin [Power China Huadong Engineering Corporation, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-04-15

    Current research on the stability of tubular pumps is mainly concerned with the transient hydrodynamic characteristics. However, the structural response under the influence of fluid-structure interaction hasn't been taken fully into consideration. The instability of the structure can cause vibration and cracks, which may threaten the safety of the unit. We used bidirectional fluid-structure interaction to comprehensively analyze the dynamic stress characteristics of the impeller blades of the shaft extension tubular pump device. Furthermore, dynamic stress of impeller blade of shaft extension tubular pump device was solved under different lift conditions of 0° blade angle. Based on Reynolds-average N-S equation and SST k-ω turbulence model, numerical simulation was carried out for three-dimensional unsteady incompressible turbulent flow field of the pump device whole flow passage. Meanwhile, the finite element method was used to calculate dynamic characteristics of the blade structure. The blade dynamic stress distribution was obtained on the basis of fourth strength theory. The research results indicate that the maximum blade dynamic stress appears at the joint between root of inlet side of the blade suction surface and the axis. Considering the influence of gravity, the fluctuation of the blade dynamic stress increases initially and decreases afterwards within a rotation period. In the meantime, the dynamic stress in the middle part of inlet edge presents larger relative fluctuation amplitude. Finally, a prediction method for dynamic stress distribution of tubular pump considering fluid-structure interaction and gravity effect was proposed. This method can be used in the design stage of tubular pump to predict dynamic stress distribution of the structure under different operating conditions, improve the reliability of pump impeller and analyze the impeller fatigue life.

  18. Estimations of One Repetition Maximum and Isometric Peak Torque in Knee Extension Based on the Relationship Between Force and Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshito; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko; Arai, Tomoaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate whether a linear regression formula based on the relationship between joint torque and angular velocity measured using a high-speed video camera and image measurement software is effective for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric peak torque in knee extension. Subjects comprised 20 healthy men (mean ± SD; age, 27.4 ± 4.9 years; height, 170.3 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.1 ± 10.9 kg). The exercise load ranged from 40% to 150% 1RM. Peak angular velocity (PAV) and peak torque were used to estimate 1RM and isometric peak torque. To elucidate the relationship between force and velocity in knee extension, the relationship between the relative proportion of 1RM (% 1RM) and PAV was examined using simple regression analysis. The concordance rate between the estimated value and actual measurement of 1RM and isometric peak torque was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability of the regression line of PAV and % 1RM was 0.95. The concordance rate between the actual measurement and estimated value of 1RM resulted in an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 and that of isometric peak torque had an ICC(2,1) of 0.87 and 0.86 for 6 and 3 levels of load, respectively. Our method for estimating 1RM was effective for decreasing the measurement time and reducing patients' burden. Additionally, isometric peak torque can be estimated using 3 levels of load, as we obtained the same results as those reported previously. We plan to expand the range of subjects and examine the generalizability of our results.

  19. Research and development of LANDSAT-based crop inventory techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, R.; Cicone, R. C.; Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A wide spectrum of technology pertaining to the inventory of crops using LANDSAT without in situ training data is addressed. Methods considered include Bayesian based through-the-season methods, estimation technology based on analytical profile fitting methods, and expert-based computer aided methods. Although the research was conducted using U.S. data, the adaptation of the technology to the Southern Hemisphere, especially Argentina was considered.

  20. Hiding Techniques for Dynamic Encryption Text based on Corner Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullatif, Firas A.; Abdullatif, Alaa A.; al-Saffar, Amna

    2018-05-01

    Hiding technique for dynamic encryption text using encoding table and symmetric encryption method (AES algorithm) is presented in this paper. The encoding table is generated dynamically from MSB of the cover image points that used as the first phase of encryption. The Harris corner point algorithm is applied on cover image to generate the corner points which are used to generate dynamic AES key to second phase of text encryption. The embedded process in the LSB for the image pixels except the Harris corner points for more robust. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme have embedding quality, error-free text recovery, and high value in PSNR.

  1. Skin fluorescence model based on the Monte Carlo technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churmakov, Dmitry Y.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Greenhalgh, Douglas A.

    2003-10-01

    The novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account spatial distribution of fluorophores following the collagen fibers packing, whereas in epidermis and stratum corneum the distribution of fluorophores assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the NIR spectral region, while fluorescence of sensor layer embedded in epidermis is localized at the adjusted depth. The model is also able to simulate the skin fluorescence spectra.

  2. A Computer Based Moire Technique To Measure Very Small Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Amadshahi, Mansour A.; Subbaraman, B.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy that can be achieved in the measurement of very small displacements in techniques such as moire, holography and speckle is limited by the noise inherent to the utilized optical devices. To reduce the noise to signal ratio, the moire method can be utilized. Two system of carrier fringes are introduced, an initial system before the load is applied and a final system when the load is applied. The moire pattern of these two systems contains the sought displacement information and the noise common to the two patterns is eliminated. The whole process is performed by a computer on digitized versions of the patterns. Examples of application are given.

  3. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  4. Multimedia-Based Integration of Cross-Layer Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Wireless Commun. Mag., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 50–58, August 2005. 11. E. Setton, T. Yoo, X. Zhu, A. Goldsmith , and B. Girod, “Cross-layer design of ad-hoc...Overview,” DARPA Presentation by Preston Marshall and Todd Martin, WAND Industry Day Workshop, Feb. 27, 2007. 17. S. Chan, “Shared spectrum access for DOD...Lavery, A. Goldsmith , and D. J. Goodman, “Throughput optimization using adaptive techniques,” IEEE Commun. Lett., pp. 1–7, 2006. 32. S. Choudhury and J

  5. GPU-Based Techniques for Global Illumination Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Szirmay-Kalos, László; Sbert, Mateu

    2008-01-01

    This book presents techniques to render photo-realistic images by programming the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). We discuss effects such as mirror reflections, refractions, caustics, diffuse or glossy indirect illumination, radiosity, single or multiple scattering in participating media, tone reproduction, glow, and depth of field. This book targets game developers, graphics programmers, and also students with some basic understanding of computer graphics algorithms, rendering APIs like Direct3D or OpenGL, and shader programming. In order to make this book self-contained, the most important c

  6. A fast image reconstruction technique based on ART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shunli; Zhang Dinghua; Wang Kai; Huang Kuidong; Li Weibin

    2007-01-01

    Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) is an iterative method for image reconstruction. Improving its reconstruction speed has been one of the important researching aspects of ART. For the simplified weight coefficients reconstruction model of ART, a fast grid traverse algorithm is proposed, which can determine the grid index by simple operations such as addition, subtraction and comparison. Since the weight coefficients are calculated at real time during iteration, large amount of storage is saved and the reconstruction speed is greatly increased. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is very effective and the reconstruction speed is improved about 10 times compared with the traditional algorithm. (authors)

  7. Utilization of Forward Error Correction (FEC) Techniques With Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema-Based Binary Compression (XSBC) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    NY 7. Erik Chaum NUWC Newport, RI 8. David Bellino NPRI Newport, RI 9. Dick Nadolink NUWC Newport, RI 10. VADM Roger Bacon (Ret...Science Advisor Pearl Harbor, HI 16. LT Andrew Hurvitz, USN FNMOC Monterey, CA 17. ENS Darin Keeter, USN FNMOC Monterey, CA 18. CAPT David

  8. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    signal from the signal generator is also used to synchronize DSO to record the data of the received signal. The tapped -delay-line model of CIR will...between each filter tap . The output y(t) — h(t) *x(t) is then uniformly sampled with sampling period Ts. 1 ’s follows the relation Ta/Th — q, where q... eft ) ProbtagPake ^ p(l> ’HO PriHretuHg Figure 5.5: An equivalent block diagram of channel estimation The success of recovery relies on the

  9. Satellite-based technique for nowcasting of thunderstorms over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suman Goyal

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Due to inadequate radar network, satellite plays the dominant role for nowcast of these thunderstorms. In this study, a nowcast based algorithm ForTracc developed by Vila ... of actual development of cumulonimbus clouds, ... MCS over Indian region using Infrared Channel ... (2016) based on case study of.

  10. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  11. Microrheometric upconversion-based techniques for intracellular viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sevilla, Paloma; Zhang, Yuhai; de Sousa, Nuno; Marqués, Manuel I.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Jaque, Daniel; Liu, Xiaogang; Haro-González, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Rheological parameters (viscosity, creep compliance and elasticity) play an important role in cell function and viability. For this reason different strategies have been developed for their study. In this work, two new microrheometric techniques are presented. Both methods take advantage of the analysis of the polarized emission of an upconverting particle to determine its orientation inside the optical trap. Upconverting particles are optical materials that are able to convert infrared radiation into visible light. Their usefulness has been further boosted by the recent demonstration of their three-dimensional control and tracking by single beam infrared optical traps. In this work it is demonstrated that optical torques are responsible of the stable orientation of the upconverting particle inside the trap. Moreover, numerical calculations and experimental data allowed to use the rotation dynamics of the optically trapped upconverting particle for environmental sensing. In particular, the cytoplasm viscosity could be measured by using the rotation time and thermal fluctuations of an intracellular optically trapped upconverting particle, by means of the two previously mentioned microrheometric techniques.

  12. A measurement-based technique for incipient anomaly detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Fault detection is essential for safe operation of various engineering systems. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used in monitoring highly correlated process variables. Conventional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often fail to detect small or incipient faults. In this paper, we develop new PCA-based monitoring charts, combining PCA with multivariate memory control charts, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes. The multivariate control charts with memory are sensitive to small and moderate faults in the process mean, which significantly improves the performance of PCA methods and widen their applicability in practice. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control charts are more effective in detecting small shifts in the mean of the multivariate process variables, and outperform the conventional PCA-based monitoring charts. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. Wavelet packet transform-based robust video watermarking technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    If any conflict happens to the copyright identification and authentication, ... the present work is concentrated on the robust digital video watermarking. .... the wavelet decomposition, resulting in a new family of orthonormal bases for function ...

  14. A measurement-based technique for incipient anomaly detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    Fault detection is essential for safe operation of various engineering systems. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used in monitoring highly correlated process variables. Conventional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often fail to detect small or incipient faults. In this paper, we develop new PCA-based monitoring charts, combining PCA with multivariate memory control charts, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes. The multivariate control charts with memory are sensitive to small and moderate faults in the process mean, which significantly improves the performance of PCA methods and widen their applicability in practice. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control charts are more effective in detecting small shifts in the mean of the multivariate process variables, and outperform the conventional PCA-based monitoring charts. © 2015 IEEE.

  15. An RSS based location estimation technique for cognitive relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based location estimation method is proposed for a cooperative wireless relay network where the relay is a cognitive radio. We propose a method for the considered cognitive relay network to determine

  16. An Automated Sorting System Based on Virtual Instrumentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Holonec

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The application presented in this paper represents an experimental model and it refers to the implementing of an automated sorting system for pieces of same shape but different sizes and/or colors. The classification is made according to two features: the color and weight of these pieces. The system is a complex combination of NI Vision hardware and software tools, strain gauges transducers, signal conditioning connected to data acquisition boards, motion and control elements. The system is very useful for students to learn and experiment different virtual instrumentation techniques in order to be able to develop a large field of applications from inspection and process control to sorting and assembly

  17. Innovative instrumentation for VVERs based in non-invasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanneau, H.; Favennec, J.M.; Tournu, E.; Germain, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants such as VVERs can greatly benefit from innovative instrumentation to improve plant safety and efficiency. In recent years innovative instrumentation has been developed for PWRs with the aim of providing additional measurements of physical parameters on the primary and secondary circuits: the addition of new instrumentation is made possible by using non-invasive techniques such as ultrasonics and radiation detection. These innovations can be adapted for upgrading VVERs presently in operation and also in future VVERs. The following innovative instrumentation for the control, monitoring or testing at VVERs is described: 1. instrumentation for more accurate primary side direct measurements (for a better monitoring of the primary circuit); 2. instrumentation to monitor radioactivity leaks (for a safer plant); 3. instrumentation-related systems to improve the plant efficiency (for a cheaper kWh)

  18. Development, improvement and calibration of neutronic reaction rate measurements: elaboration of a base of standard techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudelot, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve and to validate the neutronic calculation schemes, perfecting integral measurements of neutronic parameters is necessary. This thesis focuses on the conception, the improvement and the development of neutronic reaction rates measurements, and aims at building a base of standard techniques. Two subjects are discussed. The first one deals with direct measurements by fission chambers. A short presentation of the different usual techniques is given. Then, those last ones are applied through the example of doubling time measurements on the EOLE facility during the MISTRAL 1 experimental programme. Two calibration devices of fission chambers are developed: a thermal column located in the central part of the MINERVE facility, and a calibration cell using a pulsed high flux neutron generator and based on the discrimination of the energy of the neutrons with a time-of-flight method. This second device will soon allow to measure the mass of fission chambers with a precision of about 1 %. Finally, the necessity of those calibrations will be shown through spectral indices measurements in core MISTRAL 1 (UO 2 ) and MISTRAL 2 (MOX) of the EOLE facility. In each case, the associated calculation schemes, performed using the Monte Carlo MCNP code with the ENDF-BV library, will be validated. Concerning the second one, the goal is to develop a method for measuring the modified conversion ratio of 238 U (defined as the ratio of 238 U capture rate to total fission rate) by gamma-ray spectrometry of fuel rods. Within the framework of the MISTRAL 1 and MISTRAL 2 programmes, the measurement device, the experimental results and the spectrometer calibration are described. Furthermore, the MCNP calculations of neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption are validated. It is finally shown that measurement uncertainties are better than 1 %. The extension of this technique to future modified conversion ratio measurements for 242 Pu (on MOX rods) and 232 Th (on Thorium

  19. Adaptive Landmark-Based Navigation System Using Learning Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidan, Bassel; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    The goal-directed navigational ability of animals is an essential prerequisite for them to survive. They can learn to navigate to a distal goal in a complex environment. During this long-distance navigation, they exploit environmental features, like landmarks, to guide them towards their goal. In...... hexapod robots. As a result, it allows the robots to successfully learn to navigate to distal goals in complex environments.......The goal-directed navigational ability of animals is an essential prerequisite for them to survive. They can learn to navigate to a distal goal in a complex environment. During this long-distance navigation, they exploit environmental features, like landmarks, to guide them towards their goal....... Inspired by this, we develop an adaptive landmark-based navigation system based on sequential reinforcement learning. In addition, correlation-based learning is also integrated into the system to improve learning performance. The proposed system has been applied to simulated simple wheeled and more complex...

  20. Estimating monthly temperature using point based interpolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaban, Azizan; Mah Hashim, Noridayu; Murat, Rusdi Indra Zuhdi

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the use of point based interpolation to estimate the value of temperature at an unallocated meteorology stations in Peninsular Malaysia using data of year 2010 collected from the Malaysian Meteorology Department. Two point based interpolation methods which are Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) are considered. The accuracy of the methods is evaluated using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results show that RBF with thin plate spline model is suitable to be used as temperature estimator for the months of January and December, while RBF with multiquadric model is suitable to estimate the temperature for the rest of the months.

  1. Bandwidth extension of speech using perceptual criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Berisha, Visar; Liss, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth extension of speech is used in the International Telecommunication Union G.729.1 standard in which the narrowband bitstream is combined with quantized high-band parameters. Although this system produces high-quality wideband speech, the additional bits used to represent the high band can be further reduced. In addition to the algorithm used in the G.729.1 standard, bandwidth extension methods based on spectrum prediction have also been proposed. Although these algorithms do not require additional bits, they perform poorly when the correlation between the low and the high band is weak. In this book, two wideband speech coding algorithms that rely on bandwidth extension are developed. The algorithms operate as wrappers around existing narrowband compression schemes. More specifically, in these algorithms, the low band is encoded using an existing toll-quality narrowband system, whereas the high band is generated using the proposed extension techniques. The first method relies only on transmitted high-...

  2. Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling and high shares of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard; Brown, Tom [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems such as the European power system. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be stable and convergent. It is then scaled to the European level in order to find the optimal power system infrastructure development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe until 2050 with a specific focus on photovoltaic (PV) power. (orig.)

  3. Active-charging based powertrain control in series hybrid electric vehicles for efficiency improvement and battery lifetime extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a powertrain control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) based on the integrated design of an active charging scenario and fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs). An optimized charging curve for the battery is predetermined rather than subject to engine output and vehicle power demand, which is a total inverse of normal SHEV powertrain control process. This is aimed to remove surge and high-frequency charge current, keep the battery staying in a high state-of-charge (SOC) region and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to battery lifetime extension. Then two robust chattering-free FBLSMCs are designed to locate the engine operation in the optimal efficiency area. One is in charge of engine speed control, and the other is for engine/generator torque control. Consequently, not only fuel economy is improved but also battery life expectancy could be extended. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity and application feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  4. Detection and sizing of cracks using potential drop techniques based on electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasumoto; Kim, Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The potential drop techniques based on electromagnetic induction are classified into induced current focused potential drop (ICFPD) technique and remotely induced current potential drop (RICPD) technique. The possibility of numerical simulation of the techniques is investigated and the applicability of these techniques to the measurement of defects in conductive materials is presented. Finite element analysis (FEA) for the RICPD measurements on the plate specimen containing back wall slits is performed and calculated results by FEA show good agreement with experimental results. Detection limit of the RICPD technique in depth of back wall slits can also be estimated by FEA. Detection and sizing of artificial defects in parent and welded materials are successfully performed by the ICFPD technique. Applicability of these techniques to detection of cracks in field components is investigated, and most of the cracks in the components investigated are successfully detected by the ICFPD and RICPD techniques. (author)

  5. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Haghizadeh

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven ... growth of these tools has also prepared another ..... Urban. 30467. 3. 0.06. 0.20. 0.74. 0.80. −0.64. Distance from road ..... and artificial neural networks for potential groundwater .... ping: A case study at Mehran region, Iran; Catena 137.

  6. Customer requirements based ERP customization using AHP technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Daneva, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose– Customization is a difficult task for many organizations implementing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new framework based on customers’ requirements to examine the ERP customization choices for the enterprise. The analytical hierarchy

  7. The Visual Memory-Based Memorization Techniques in Piano Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucetoker, Izzet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Johann Sebastian Bach is one of the leading composers of the baroque period. In addition to his huge contributions in the artistic dimension, he also served greatly in the field of education. This study has been done for determining the impact of visual memory-based memorization practices in the piano education on the visual…

  8. Photon attenuation correction technique in SPECT based on nonlinear optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigehito; Wakabayashi, Misato; Okuyama, Keiichi; Kuwamura, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    Photon attenuation correction in SPECT was made using a nonlinear optimization theory, in which an optimum image is searched so that the sum of square errors between observed and reprojected projection data is minimized. This correction technique consists of optimization and step-width algorithms, which determine at each iteration a pixel-by-pixel directional value of search and its step-width, respectively. We used the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods as the optimization algorithm, and Curry rule and the quadratic function method as the step-width algorithm. Statistical fluctuations in the corrected image due to statistical noise in the emission projection data grew as the iteration increased, depending on the combination of optimization and step-width algorithms. To suppress them, smoothing for directional values was introduced. Computer experiments and clinical applications showed a pronounced reduction in statistical fluctuations of the corrected image for all combinations. Combinations using the conjugate gradient method were superior in noise characteristic and computation time. The use of that method with the quadratic function method was optimum if noise property was regarded as important. (author)

  9. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua

    2014-12-01

    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  10. An FPGA-based slowcontrol module and a baseline shifting extension card for the sampling-ADC readout of the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urff, Georg; Poller, Timo [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    At the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) the CBELSA/TAPS experiment investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. The CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter are being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout. In the context of this upgrade, an FPGA-based Sampling-ADC (SADC) is presently being developed (HK 304). A Slow-control Module for the SADC with TCP/Telnet access has been developed on the basis of a Spartan6 FPGA. Control and monitoring of the SADC's power supply as well as control of parameters of the analog and digital data processing in the SADC is realized via PMBus/I{sup 2}C. The prototype as well as an overview of its functionality will be presented. In order to fully utilize the dynamic input range of the SADCs, an interfacing extension board was designed. It receives the differential signal generated by previous amplification stages and adds an individual DC offset voltage to each channel supplied by a digital-to-analog converter. The circuit and the used techniques as well as simulations and measurements are presented.

  11. Whole arm manipulation planning based on feedback velocity fields and sampling-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, B; Abdollahi, F; Talebi, H A; Omidi Karkani, E

    2013-09-01

    Changing the configuration of a cooperative whole arm manipulator is not easy while enclosing an object. This difficulty is mainly because of risk of jamming caused by kinematic constraints. To reduce this risk, this paper proposes a feedback manipulation planning algorithm that takes grasp kinematics into account. The idea is based on a vector field that imposes perturbation in object motion inducing directions when the movement is considerably along manipulator redundant directions. Obstacle avoidance problem is then considered by combining the algorithm with sampling-based techniques. As experimental results confirm, the proposed algorithm is effective in avoiding jamming as well as obstacles for a 6-DOF dual arm whole arm manipulator. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eye gazing direction inspection based on image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Song, Yong

    2005-02-01

    According to the research result in neural biology, human eyes can obtain high resolution only at the center of view of field. In the research of Virtual Reality helmet, we design to detect the gazing direction of human eyes in real time and feed it back to the control system to improve the resolution of the graph at the center of field of view. In the case of current display instruments, this method can both give attention to the view field of virtual scene and resolution, and improve the immersion of virtual system greatly. Therefore, detecting the gazing direction of human eyes rapidly and exactly is the basis of realizing the design scheme of this novel VR helmet. In this paper, the conventional method of gazing direction detection that based on Purklinje spot is introduced firstly. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the method based on Purklinje spot, this paper proposed a method based on image processing to realize the detection and determination of the gazing direction. The locations of pupils and shapes of eye sockets change with the gazing directions. With the aid of these changes, analyzing the images of eyes captured by the cameras, gazing direction of human eyes can be determined finally. In this paper, experiments have been done to validate the efficiency of this method by analyzing the images. The algorithm can carry out the detection of gazing direction base on normal eye image directly, and it eliminates the need of special hardware. Experiment results show that the method is easy to implement and have high precision.

  13. COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Hetangi D. Mehta*, Daxa Vekariya, Pratixa Badelia

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation is the classification of an image into different groups. Numerous algorithms using different approaches have been proposed for image segmentation. A major challenge in segmentation evaluation comes from the fundamental conflict between generality and objectivity. A review is done on different types of clustering methods used for image segmentation. Also a methodology is proposed to classify and quantify different clustering algorithms based on their consistency in different...

  14. A new imaging riometer based on Mills Cross technique

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, M.; Honary, F.; Nielsen, E.; Hagfors, T.; Dekoulis, G.; Chapman, P.; Yamagishi, H.

    2003-01-01

    A new type of imaging riometer system based on a Mills Cross antenna array is currently under construction by the Ionosphere and Radio Propagation Group, Department of Communication Systems, Lancaster in collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Germany. The system will have an unprecedented spatial resolution in a viewing area of 300x300km. It is located at Ramfjordmoen, near Tromsø, Norway. The riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) determines the radio-wave absorptio...

  15. Projection computation based on pixel in simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Chen Zhiqiang; Xiong Hua; Zhang Li

    2005-01-01

    SART is an important arithmetic of image reconstruction, in which the projection computation takes over half of the reconstruction time. An efficient way to compute projection coefficient matrix together with memory optimization is presented in this paper. Different from normal method, projection lines are located based on every pixel, and the following projection coefficient computation can make use of the results. Correlation of projection lines and pixels can be used to optimize the computation. (authors)

  16. Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jye Shyr; Chia-Ming Lin and Hung-Yun Feng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.

  17. Smartphone-based accelerometry is a valid tool for measuring dynamic changes in knee extension range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støve, Morten Pallisgaard; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Measurement of static joint range of motion is used extensively in orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities to benchmark treatment efficacy. Static measures are, however, insufficient in providing detailed information about patient impairments. Dynamic range of motion measures cou...

  18. Spreading of suppository bases assessed with histological and scintigraphic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, C.H.; Copping, N.; Thomas, N.W.; Wilson, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Suppositories of PEG 15400 and PEG 600, Myrj 52 and Brij 35, were administered rectally to fasted male rats. 30 and 60 mins after liquefaction time samples of rectal mucosa were taken from treated and untreated rats. The reduction in rectal cell volume and density in treated rats was noted. Similar suppositories, containing anion exchange resin and labelled with technetium 99, were administered to other rats. Serial scintiscanning was carried out using a gamma camera linked to a computer. Spreading of the suppository bases was assessed histologically and by imaging. (U.K.)

  19. Risk-based evaluation of allowed outage time and surveillance test interval extensions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, Sonia Maria Orlando

    2008-03-01

    The main goal of this work is, through the use of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), to evaluate Technical Specification (TS) Allowed Outage Times (AOT) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STI) extensions for Angra 1 nuclear power plant. PSA has been incorporated as an additional tool, required as part of NPP licensing process. The risk measure used in this work is the Core Damage Frequency (CDF), obtained from the Angra 1 PSA Level 1. AOT and STI extensions are calculated for the Safety Injection System (SIS), Service water System (SAS) and Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFS) through the use of SAPHIRE code. In order to compensate for the risk increase caused by the extensions, compensatory measures as test of redundant train prior to entering maintenance and staggered test strategy are proposed. Results have shown that the proposed AOT extensions are acceptable for the SIS and SAS with the implementation of compensatory measures. The proposed AOT extension is not acceptable for the AFS. The STI extensions are acceptable for all three systems. (author)

  20. Flash floods warning technique based on wireless communication networks data

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Noam; Alpert, Pinhas; Messer, Hagit

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods can occur throughout or subsequent to rainfall events, particularly in cases where the precipitation is of high-intensity. Unfortunately, each year these floods cause severe property damage and heavy casualties. At present, there are no sufficient real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope with this phenomenon. Here we show the tremendous potential of flash floods advanced warning based on precipitation measurements of commercial microwave links. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. We present the flash flood warning potential of the wireless communication system for two different cases when floods occurred at the Judean desert and at the northern Negev in Israel. In both cases, an advanced warning regarding the hazard could have been announced based on this system. • This research was supported by THE ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 173/08). This work was also supported by a grant from the Yeshaya Horowitz Association, Jerusalem. Additional support was given by the PROCEMA-BMBF project and by the GLOWA-JR BMBF project.

  1. Concepts and techniques for conducting performance-based audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espy, I.J.

    1990-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) audits have historically varied in purpose and approach and have earned labels that attempt to name each type of audit. Some more common labels for QA audits include compliance, program, product, and performance-based. While documentation and methodologies are important and hence controlled, an organizations product has ultimate impact on the user. Product quality then must be of more concern to the user than documentation and methodologies of the provider. Performance-based auditing (PBA) provides for assessing product quality by evaluating the suppliers activities that produce and affect product quality. PBA is defined as auditing that evaluates the ability of an activity to regularly produce and release only acceptable product, where product refers to the output of the activity. The output may be hardware, software, or a service, and acceptability includes suitability to the users needs. To satisfy this definition, PBA should focus on the activities that produce and affect product and should evaluate the systematics of each activity in terms of its ability to produce acceptable product. The activity evaluation model provides a framework for evaluating the systematicness of any activity. Elements of the activity evaluation model are described

  2. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  3. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  4. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  5. Computational Intelligence based techniques for islanding detection of distributed generation in distribution network: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.A.; Mokhlis, H.; Karimi, M.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Mohamad, Hasmaini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unintentional and intentional islanding, their causes, and solutions are presented. • Remote, passive, active and hybrid islanding detection techniques are discussed. • The limitation of these techniques in accurately detect islanding are discussed. • Computational intelligence techniques ability in detecting islanding is discussed. • Review of ANN, fuzzy logic control, ANFIS, Decision tree techniques is provided. - Abstract: Accurate and fast islanding detection of distributed generation is highly important for its successful operation in distribution networks. Up to now, various islanding detection technique based on communication, passive, active and hybrid methods have been proposed. However, each technique suffers from certain demerits that cause inaccuracies in islanding detection. Computational intelligence based techniques, due to their robustness and flexibility in dealing with complex nonlinear systems, is an option that might solve this problem. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of computational intelligence based techniques applied for islanding detection of distributed generation. Moreover, the paper compares the accuracies of computational intelligence based techniques over existing techniques to provide a handful of information for industries and utility researchers to determine the best method for their respective system

  6. A survey on OFDM channel estimation techniques based on denoising strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallaviram Sure

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Channel estimation forms the heart of any orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM based wireless communication receiver. Frequency domain pilot aided channel estimation techniques are either least squares (LS based or minimum mean square error (MMSE based. LS based techniques are computationally less complex. Unlike MMSE ones, they do not require a priori knowledge of channel statistics (KCS. However, the mean square error (MSE performance of the channel estimator incorporating MMSE based techniques is better compared to that obtained with the incorporation of LS based techniques. To enhance the MSE performance using LS based techniques, a variety of denoising strategies have been developed in the literature, which are applied on the LS estimated channel impulse response (CIR. The advantage of denoising threshold based LS techniques is that, they do not require KCS but still render near optimal MMSE performance similar to MMSE based techniques. In this paper, a detailed survey on various existing denoising strategies, with a comparative discussion of these strategies is presented.

  7. An extensive analysis of disease-gene associations using network integration and fast kernel-based gene prioritization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giorgio; Paccanaro, Alberto; Caniza, Horacio; Romero, Alfonso E; Re, Matteo

    2014-06-01

    In the context of "network medicine", gene prioritization methods represent one of the main tools to discover candidate disease genes by exploiting the large amount of data covering different types of functional relationships between genes. Several works proposed to integrate multiple sources of data to improve disease gene prioritization, but to our knowledge no systematic studies focused on the quantitative evaluation of the impact of network integration on gene prioritization. In this paper, we aim at providing an extensive analysis of gene-disease associations not limited to genetic disorders, and a systematic comparison of different network integration methods for gene prioritization. We collected nine different functional networks representing different functional relationships between genes, and we combined them through both unweighted and weighted network integration methods. We then prioritized genes with respect to each of the considered 708 medical subject headings (MeSH) diseases by applying classical guilt-by-association, random walk and random walk with restart algorithms, and the recently proposed kernelized score functions. The results obtained with classical random walk algorithms and the best single network achieved an average area under the curve (AUC) across the 708 MeSH diseases of about 0.82, while kernelized score functions and network integration boosted the average AUC to about 0.89. Weighted integration, by exploiting the different "informativeness" embedded in different functional networks, outperforms unweighted integration at 0.01 significance level, according to the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. For each MeSH disease we provide the top-ranked unannotated candidate genes, available for further bio-medical investigation. Network integration is necessary to boost the performances of gene prioritization methods. Moreover the methods based on kernelized score functions can further enhance disease gene ranking results, by adopting both

  8. An extensive analysis of disease-gene associations using network integration and fast kernel-based gene prioritization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giorgio; Paccanaro, Alberto; Caniza, Horacio; Romero, Alfonso E.; Re, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the context of “network medicine”, gene prioritization methods represent one of the main tools to discover candidate disease genes by exploiting the large amount of data covering different types of functional relationships between genes. Several works proposed to integrate multiple sources of data to improve disease gene prioritization, but to our knowledge no systematic studies focused on the quantitative evaluation of the impact of network integration on gene prioritization. In this paper, we aim at providing an extensive analysis of gene-disease associations not limited to genetic disorders, and a systematic comparison of different network integration methods for gene prioritization. Materials and methods We collected nine different functional networks representing different functional relationships between genes, and we combined them through both unweighted and weighted network integration methods. We then prioritized genes with respect to each of the considered 708 medical subject headings (MeSH) diseases by applying classical guilt-by-association, random walk and random walk with restart algorithms, and the recently proposed kernelized score functions. Results The results obtained with classical random walk algorithms and the best single network achieved an average area under the curve (AUC) across the 708 MeSH diseases of about 0.82, while kernelized score functions and network integration boosted the average AUC to about 0.89. Weighted integration, by exploiting the different “informativeness” embedded in different functional networks, outperforms unweighted integration at 0.01 significance level, according to the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. For each MeSH disease we provide the top-ranked unannotated candidate genes, available for further bio-medical investigation. Conclusions Network integration is necessary to boost the performances of gene prioritization methods. Moreover the methods based on kernelized score functions can further

  9. Analysis of ISO/IEEE 11073 built-in security and its potential IHE-based extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Óscar J; Trigo, Jesús D; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José

    2016-04-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 standard for Personal Health Devices (X73PHD) aims to ensure interoperability between Personal Health Devices and aggregators-e.g. health appliances, routers-in ambulatory setups. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative promotes the coordinated use of different standards in healthcare systems (e.g. Personal/Electronic Health Records, alert managers, Clinical Decision Support Systems) by defining profiles intended for medical use cases. X73PHD provides a robust syntactic model and a comprehensive terminology, but it places limited emphasis on security and on interoperability with IHE-compliant systems and frameworks. However, the implementation of eHealth/mHealth applications in environments such as health and fitness monitoring, independent living and disease management (i.e. the X73PHD domains) increasingly requires features such as secure connections to mobile aggregators-e.g. smartphones, tablets-, the sharing of devices among different users with privacy, and interoperability with certain IHE-compliant healthcare systems. This work proposes a comprehensive IHE-based X73PHD extension consisting of additive layers adapted to different eHealth/mHealth applications, after having analyzed the features of X73PHD (especially its built-in security), IHE profiles related with these applications and other research works. Both the new features proposed for each layer and the procedures to support them have been carefully chosen to minimize the impact on X73PHD, on its architecture (in terms of delays and overhead) and on its framework. Such implications are thoroughly analyzed in this paper. As a result, an extended model of X73PHD is proposed, preserving its essential features while extending them with added value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 2: Production techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J.; Nesbit, M.; Saberi, S.; Petridis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. This second paper reports on the production techniques utilised. Materials and methods Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics, such as demographics, impression disinfection and suitability, and various production techniques. Settings were managed in order to ensure anonymity of respondents. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as the source of information, the location, and the size of the dental laboratory. Results The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). Ninety percent of the respondents were based in England and the majority of dental laboratories were categorised as small sized (working with up to 25 dentists). Concerns were raised regarding inadequate disinfection protocols between dentists and dental laboratories and the poor quality of master impressions. Full arch plastic trays were the most popular impression tray used by dentists in the fabrication of crowns (61%) and bridgework (68%). The majority (89%) of jaw registration records were considered inaccurate. Forty-four percent of dental laboratories preferred using semi-adjustable articulators. Axial and occlusal under-preparation of abutment teeth was reported as an issue in about 25% of cases. Base metal alloy was the most (52%) commonly used alloy material. Metal-ceramic crowns were the most popular choice for anterior (69%) and posterior (70%) cases. The various factors considered did not have any statistically significant effect on the answers provided. The only notable exception was the fact that more methods of communicating the size and shape of crowns were utilised for

  11. Mobile Robot Navigation Based on Q-Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazhar Khriji

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how Q-learning approach can be used in a successful way to deal with the problem of mobile robot navigation. In real situations where a large number of obstacles are involved, normal Q-learning approach would encounter two major problems due to excessively large state space. First, learning the Q-values in tabular form may be infeasible because of the excessive amount of memory needed to store the table. Second, rewards in the state space may be so sparse that with random exploration they will only be discovered extremely slowly. In this paper, we propose a navigation approach for mobile robot, in which the prior knowledge is used within Q-learning. We address the issue of individual behavior design using fuzzy logic. The strategy of behaviors based navigation reduces the complexity of the navigation problem by dividing them in small actions easier for design and implementation. The Q-Learning algorithm is applied to coordinate between these behaviors, which make a great reduction in learning convergence times. Simulation and experimental results confirm the convergence to the desired results in terms of saved time and computational resources.

  12. Damage identification in beams by a response surface based technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teidj S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, identification of damage in uniform homogeneous metallic beams was considered through the propagation of non dispersive elastic torsional waves. The proposed damage detection procedure consisted of the following sequence. Giving a localized torque excitation, having the form of a short half-sine pulse, the first step was calculating the transient solution of the resulting torsional wave. This torque could be generated in practice by means of asymmetric laser irradiation of the beam surface. Then, a localized defect assumed to be characterized by an abrupt reduction of beam section area with a given height and extent was placed at a known location of the beam. Next, the response in terms of transverse section rotation rate was obtained for a point situated afterwards the defect, where the sensor was positioned. This last could utilize in practice the concept of laser vibrometry. A parametric study has been conducted after that by using a full factorial design of experiments table and numerical simulations based on a finite difference characteristic scheme. This has enabled the derivation of a response surface model that was shown to represent adequately the response of the system in terms of the following factors: defect extent and severity. The final step was performing the inverse problem solution in order to identify the defect characteristics by using measurement.

  13. PELAN - a transportable, neutron-based UXO identification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourvopoulos, G.

    1998-01-01

    An elemental characterization method is used to differentiate between inert projectiles and UXO's. This method identifies in a non-intrusive, nondestructive manner, the elemental composition of the projectile contents. Most major and minor chemical elements within the interrogated object (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, phosphorus, chlorine, arsenic, etc.) are identified and quantified. The method is based on PELAN - Pulsed Elemental Analysis with Neutrons. PELAN uses pulsed neutrons produced from a compact, sealed tube neutron generator. Using an automatic analysis computer program, the quantities of each major and minor chemical element are determined. A decision-making tree identifies the object by comparing its elemental composition with stored elemental composition libraries of substances that could be contained within the projectile. In a series of blind tests, PELAN was able to identify without failure, the contents of each shell placed in front of it. The PELAN probe does not need to be in contact with the interrogated projectile. If the object is buried, the interrogation can take place in situ provided the probe can be inserted a few centimeters from the object's surface. (author)

  14. Design of process displays based on risk analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundtang Paulsen, J.

    2004-05-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of designing display systems for process plants. We state the reasons why it is important to discuss information systems for operators in a control room, especially in view of the enormous amount of information available in computer-based supervision systems. The state of the art is discussed: How are supervision systems designed today and why? Which strategies are used? What kind of research is going on? Four different plants and their display systems, designed by the author, are described and discussed. Next we outline different methods for eliciting knowledge of a plant, particularly the risks, which is necessary information for the display designer. A chapter presents an overview of the various types of operation references: constitutive equations, set points, design parameters, component characteristics etc., and their validity in different situations. On the basis of her experience with the design of display systems; with risk analysis methods and from 8 years, as an engineer-on-shift at a research reactor, the author developed a method to elicit necessary information to the operator. The method, a combination of a Goal-Tree and a Fault-Tree, is described in some detail. Finally we address the problem of where to put the dot and the lines: when all information is on the table, how should it be presented most adequately. Included, as an appendix is a paper concerning the analysis of maintenance reports and visualization of their information. The purpose was to develop a software tool for maintenance supervision of components in a nuclear power plant. (au)

  15. A correlation-based pulse detection technique for gamma-ray/neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, Muhammad; Schiffer, Randolph T.; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Wentzloff, David D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a correlation-based detection technique that significantly improves the probability of detection for low energy pulses. We propose performing a normalized cross-correlation of the incoming pulse data to a predefined pulse template, and using a threshold correlation value to trigger the detection of a pulse. This technique improves the detector sensitivity by amplifying the signal component of incoming pulse data and rejecting noise. Simulation results for various different templates are presented. Finally, the performance of the correlation-based detection technique is compared to the current state-of-the-art techniques.

  16. Whole genome sequencing-based characterization of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Zahra; Ali, Asho; McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Coll, Francesc; Nair, Mridul; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The global increase in drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains increases the focus on improved molecular diagnostics for MTB. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) - TB is caused by MTB strains resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular MTB genes. However, there is regional variation between MTB lineages and the SNPs associated with resistance. Therefore, there is a need to identify common resistance conferring SNPs so that effective molecular-based diagnostic tests for MTB can be developed. This study investigated used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 XDR MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated SNPs related to drug resistance. Methods: XDR-TB strains were selected. DNA was extracted from MTB strains, and samples underwent WGS with 76-base-paired end fragment sizes using Illumina paired end HiSeq2000 technology. Raw sequence data were mapped uniquely to H37Rv reference genome. The mappings allowed SNPs and small indels to be called using SAMtools/BCFtools. Results: This study found that in all XDR strains, rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB RDR region. Isoniazid resistance-associated mutations were primarily related to katG codon 315 followed by inhA S94A. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to gyrA 91-94 codons in most strains, while one did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Aminoglycoside resistance was mostly associated with SNPs in rrs, except in 6 strains. Ethambutol resistant strains had embB codon 306 mutations, but many strains did not have this present. The SNPs were compared with those present in commercial assays such as LiPA Hain MDRTBsl, and the sensitivity of the assays for these strains was evaluated. Conclusions: If common drug resistance associated with SNPs evaluated the concordance between phenotypic and

  17. Whole genome sequencing-based characterization of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Objectives: The global increase in drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains increases the focus on improved molecular diagnostics for MTB. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) - TB is caused by MTB strains resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular MTB genes. However, there is regional variation between MTB lineages and the SNPs associated with resistance. Therefore, there is a need to identify common resistance conferring SNPs so that effective molecular-based diagnostic tests for MTB can be developed. This study investigated used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 XDR MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated SNPs related to drug resistance. Methods: XDR-TB strains were selected. DNA was extracted from MTB strains, and samples underwent WGS with 76-base-paired end fragment sizes using Illumina paired end HiSeq2000 technology. Raw sequence data were mapped uniquely to H37Rv reference genome. The mappings allowed SNPs and small indels to be called using SAMtools/BCFtools. Results: This study found that in all XDR strains, rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB RDR region. Isoniazid resistance-associated mutations were primarily related to katG codon 315 followed by inhA S94A. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to gyrA 91-94 codons in most strains, while one did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Aminoglycoside resistance was mostly associated with SNPs in rrs, except in 6 strains. Ethambutol resistant strains had embB codon 306 mutations, but many strains did not have this present. The SNPs were compared with those present in commercial assays such as LiPA Hain MDRTBsl, and the sensitivity of the assays for these strains was evaluated. Conclusions: If common drug resistance associated with SNPs evaluated the concordance between phenotypic and

  18. A comparison of mandibular denture base deformation with different impression techniques for implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; El-Waseef, Fatma Ahmad; Al-Mahdy, Yasmeen Fathy; Fouad, Mohammed Mohammed

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate mandibular denture base deformation along with three impression techniques used for implant-retained overdenture. Ten edentulous patients (five men and five women) received two implants in the canine region of the mandible and three duplicate mandibular overdentures which were constructed with mucostatic, selective pressure, and definitive pressure impression techniques. Ball abutments and respective gold matrices were used to connect the overdentures to the implants. Six linear strain gauges were bonded to the lingual polished surface of each duplicate overdenture at midline and implant areas to measure strain during maximal clenching and gum chewing. The strains recorded at midline were compressive while strains at implant areas were tensile. Clenching recorded significant higher strain when compared with gum chewing for all techniques. The mucostatic technique recorded the highest strain and the definite pressure technique recorded the lowest. There was no significant difference between the strain recorded with mucostatic technique and that registered with selective pressure technique. The highest strain was recorded at the level of ball abutment's top with the mucostatic technique during clenching. Definite pressure impression technique for implant-retained mandibular overdenture is associated with minimal denture deformation during function when compared with mucostatic and selective pressure techniques. Reinforcement of the denture base over the implants may be recommended to increase resistance of fracture when mucostatic or selective pressure impression technique is used. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Extensive and equivalent repair in both radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive E. coli determined by a DNA-unwinding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnstroem, G.; George, A.M.; Cramp, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of strand breakage and repair in irradiated E. coli B/r and Bsub(s-l) was studied using a DNA-unwinding technique in denaturing conditions of weak alkali. Although these two strains showed widely different response to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation, they both had an equal capacity to repair radiation-induced breaks in DNA. Oxygen enhancement ratios for the killing of B/r and Bsub(s-l) were respectively 4 and 2; but after repair in non-nutrient or nutrient post-irradiation conditions, the oxygen enhancement values for the residual strand breaks were always the same for the two strains. The equal abilities of E.coli B/r and E.coli Bsub(s-l) to remove the strand breaks measured by this weak-alkali technqiue has led to the suggestion that some other type of damage to either DNA or another macromolecule may play a major role in determining whether or not the cells survive to proliferate. (author)

  20. Extensive and equivalent repair in both radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive E. coli determined by a DNA-unwinding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnstroem, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); George, A M; Cramp, W A

    1978-10-01

    The extent of strand breakage and repair in irradiated E. coli B/r and Bsub(s-l) was studied using a DNA-unwinding technique in denaturing conditions of weak alkali. Although these two strains showed widely different response to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation, they both had an equal capacity to repair radiation-induced breaks in DNA. Oxygen enhancement ratios for the killing of B/r and Bsub(s-l) were respectively 4 and 2; but after repair in non-nutrient or nutrient post-irradiation conditions, the oxygen enhancement values for the residual strand breaks were always the same for the two strains. The equal abilities of E.coli B/r and E.coli Bsub(s-l) to remove the strand breaks measured by this weak-alkali technqiue has led to the suggestion that some other type of damage to either DNA or another macromolecule may play a major role in determining whether or not the cells survive to proliferate.

  1. The thin border between cloud and aerosol: Sensitivity of several ground based observation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbó, Josep; Long, Charles N.; González, Josep-Abel; Augustine, John; McComiskey, Allison

    2017-11-01

    Cloud and aerosol are two manifestations of what it is essentially the same physical phenomenon: a suspension of particles in the air. The differences between the two come from the different composition (e.g., much higher amount of condensed water in particles constituting a cloud) and/or particle size, and also from the different number of such particles (10-10,000 particles per cubic centimeter depending on conditions). However, there exist situations in which the distinction is far from obvious, and even when broken or scattered clouds are present in the sky, the borders between cloud/not cloud are not always well defined, a transition area that has been coined as the ;twilight zone;. The current paper presents a discussion on the definition of cloud and aerosol, the need for distinguishing or for considering the continuum between the two, and suggests a quantification of the importance and frequency of such ambiguous situations, founded on several ground-based observing techniques. Specifically, sensitivity analyses are applied on sky camera images and broadband and spectral radiometric measurements taken at Girona (Spain) and Boulder (Co, USA). Results indicate that, at these sites, in more than 5% of the daytime hours the sky may be considered cloudless (but containing aerosols) or cloudy (with some kind of optically thin clouds) depending on the observing system and the thresholds applied. Similarly, at least 10% of the time the extension of scattered or broken clouds into clear areas is problematic to establish, and depends on where the limit is put between cloud and aerosol. These findings are relevant to both technical approaches for cloud screening and sky cover categorization algorithms and radiative transfer studies, given the different effect of clouds and aerosols (and the different treatment in models) on the Earth's radiation balance.

  2. Wood lens design philosophy based on a binary additive manufacturing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Peter L.; Bailey, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Using additive manufacturing techniques in optical engineering to construct a gradient index (GRIN) optic may overcome a number of limitations of GRIN technology. Such techniques are maturing quickly, yielding additional design degrees of freedom for the engineer. How best to employ these degrees of freedom is not completely clear at this time. This paper describes a preliminary design philosophy, including assumptions, pertaining to a particular printing technique for GRIN optics. It includes an analysis based on simulation and initial component measurement.

  3. Tilting-Twisting-Rolling: a pen-based technique for compass geometric construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei LYU; Feng TIAN; Guozhong DAI; Hongan WANG

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new pen-based technique,Tilting-Twisting-Rolling,to support compass geometric construction.By leveraging the 3D orientation information and 3D rotation information of a pen,this technique allows smooth pen action to complete multi-step geometric construction without switching task states.Results from a user study show this Tilting-Twisting-Rolling technique can improve user performance and user experience in compass geometric construction.

  4. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    2017-06-09

    FQC is software that facilitates large-scale quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics within and across experiments into an interactive dashboard. The dashboard utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data.

  5. Chinese rural development and agricultural technology extension in Hunan province : analysis based on value chain and farmer participation perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bin; Herman, Joost; Zhao, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese rural development has made remarkable achievements in the past forty years, which is shown in agricultural productivity increase and poverty reduction, the administrative agricultural technology extension system is an important factor for those outcomes. However, in recent years, the

  6. Simulating dynamic and mixed-severity fire regimes: a process-based fire extension for LANDIS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Robert M. Scheller; Brian R. Miranda; Douglas Shinneman; Alexandra Syphard

    2009-01-01

    Fire regimes result from reciprocal interactions between vegetation and fire that may be further affected by other disturbances, including climate, landform, and terrain. In this paper, we describe fire and fuel extensions for the forest landscape simulation model, LANDIS-II, that allow dynamic interactions among fire, vegetation, climate, and landscape structure, and...

  7. Maternal mortality in rural south Ethiopia: outcomes of community-based birth registration by health extension workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaliso Yaya

    Full Text Available Rural communities in low-income countries lack vital registrations to track birth outcomes. We aimed to examine the feasibility of community-based birth registration and measure maternal mortality ratio (MMR in rural south Ethiopia.In 2010, health extension workers (HEWs registered births and maternal deaths among 421,639 people in three districts (Derashe, Bonke, and Arba Minch Zuria. One nurse-supervisor per district provided administrative and technical support to HEWs. The primary outcomes were the feasibility of registration of a high proportion of births and measuring MMR. The secondary outcome was the proportion of skilled birth attendance. We validated the completeness of the registry and the MMR by conducting a house-to-house survey in 15 randomly selected villages in Bonke.We registered 10,987 births (81·4% of expected 13,492 births with annual crude birth rate of 32 per 1,000 population. The validation study showed that, of 2,401 births occurred in the surveyed households within eight months of the initiation of the registry, 71·6% (1,718 were registered with similar MMRs (474 vs. 439 between the registered and unregistered births. Overall, we recorded 53 maternal deaths; MMR was 489 per 100,000 live births and 83% (44 of 53 maternal deaths occurred at home. Ninety percent (9,863 births were at home, 4% (430 at health posts, 2·5% (282 at health centres, and 3·5% (412 in hospitals. MMR increased if: the male partners were illiterate (609 vs. 346; p= 0·051 and the villages had no road access (946 vs. 410; p= 0·039. The validation helped to increase the registration coverage by 10% through feedback discussions.It is possible to obtain a high-coverage birth registration and measure MMR in rural communities where a functional system of community health workers exists. The MMR was high in rural south Ethiopia and most births and maternal deaths occurred at home.

  8. Maternal Mortality in Rural South Ethiopia: Outcomes of Community-Based Birth Registration by Health Extension Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Yaliso; Data, Tadesse; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rural communities in low-income countries lack vital registrations to track birth outcomes. We aimed to examine the feasibility of community-based birth registration and measure maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in rural south Ethiopia. Methods In 2010, health extension workers (HEWs) registered births and maternal deaths among 421,639 people in three districts (Derashe, Bonke, and Arba Minch Zuria). One nurse-supervisor per district provided administrative and technical support to HEWs. The primary outcomes were the feasibility of registration of a high proportion of births and measuring MMR. The secondary outcome was the proportion of skilled birth attendance. We validated the completeness of the registry and the MMR by conducting a house-to-house survey in 15 randomly selected villages in Bonke. Results We registered 10,987 births (81·4% of expected 13,492 births) with annual crude birth rate of 32 per 1,000 population. The validation study showed that, of 2,401 births occurred in the surveyed households within eight months of the initiation of the registry, 71·6% (1,718) were registered with similar MMRs (474 vs. 439) between the registered and unregistered births. Overall, we recorded 53 maternal deaths; MMR was 489 per 100,000 live births and 83% (44 of 53 maternal deaths) occurred at home. Ninety percent (9,863 births) were at home, 4% (430) at health posts, 2·5% (282) at health centres, and 3·5% (412) in hospitals. MMR increased if: the male partners were illiterate (609 vs. 346; p= 0·051) and the villages had no road access (946 vs. 410; p= 0·039). The validation helped to increase the registration coverage by 10% through feedback discussions. Conclusion It is possible to obtain a high-coverage birth registration and measure MMR in rural communities where a functional system of community health workers exists. The MMR was high in rural south Ethiopia and most births and maternal deaths occurred at home. PMID:25799229

  9. Progress in the development of a video-based wind farm simulation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, AJ

    1992-01-01

    The progress in the development of a video-based wind farm simulation technique is reviewed. While improvements have been achieved in the quality of the composite picture created by combining computer generated animation sequences of wind turbines with background scenes of the wind farm site, extending the technique to include camera movements has proved troublesome.

  10. Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Spagnolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques.

  11. Perceptual evaluation of corpus-based speech synthesis techniques in under-resourced environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing prominence and maturity of corpus-based techniques for speech synthesis, the process of system development has in some ways been simplified considerably. However, the dependence on sufficient amounts of relevant speech data...

  12. Resizing Technique-Based Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Drift Design of Multistory Steel Frame Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since genetic algorithm-based optimization methods are computationally expensive for practical use in the field of structural optimization, a resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm for the drift design of multistory steel frame buildings is proposed to increase the convergence speed of genetic algorithms. To reduce the number of structural analyses required for the convergence, a genetic algorithm is combined with a resizing technique that is an efficient optimal technique to control the drift of buildings without the repetitive structural analysis. The resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm proposed in this paper is applied to the minimum weight design of three steel frame buildings. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, optimum weights, computational times, and generation numbers from the proposed algorithm are compared with those from a genetic algorithm. Based on the comparisons, it is concluded that the hybrid genetic algorithm shows clear improvements in convergence properties.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Transmission Control Protocol Improvement Techniques over Space-Based Transmission Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    ... justification for the implementation of a given enhancement technique. The research questions were answered through model and simulation of a satellite transmission system via a Linux-based network topology...

  14. Comparative Study of Retinal Vessel Segmentation Based on Global Thresholding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Mapayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to noise from uneven contrast and illumination during acquisition process of retinal fundus images, the use of efficient preprocessing techniques is highly desirable to produce good retinal vessel segmentation results. This paper develops and compares the performance of different vessel segmentation techniques based on global thresholding using phase congruency and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE for the preprocessing of the retinal images. The results obtained show that the combination of preprocessing technique, global thresholding, and postprocessing techniques must be carefully chosen to achieve a good segmentation performance.

  15. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-01-01

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  16. Comparison of Accuracy of Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with Accuracy of Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Evaluation of Local Extension of Base of Tongue Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of base of tongue malignancy can be obtained through clinical examination and biopsy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT are used to detect its local extension, nodal spread and distant metastases. The main aim of study was to compare the accuracy of MRI and contrast enhanced CT in determining the local extent of base of tongue malignancy. Twenty five patients, biopsy proven cases of squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue were taken. 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit with T2 weighted axial, coronal image; T1 weighted axial, coronal image; and STIR (Short tau inversion recovery axial and coronal images were used. 16 slice Computed Tomography unit with non-contrast and contrast enhanced images were used. Accuracy of CT to detect midline crossing: 50%; accuracy of MRI to detect midline crossing: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect anterior extension: 92%; accuracy of MRI to detect anterior extension: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect tonsillar fossa invasion: 83%; accuracy of MRI to detect tonsillar fossa invasion: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect oro pharyngeal spread: 83%; accuracy of MRI to detect oro pharyngeal spread: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect bone involvement: 20%; accuracy of MRI to detect bone involvement: 100%. MRI proved to be a better investigation than CT, in terms of evaluation of depth of invasion, presence of bony involvement, extension to opposite side, anterior half of tongue, tonsillar fossa, floor of mouth or oropharynx.

  17. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. Methods This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. Results The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. Conclusions The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall. PMID:26043907

  18. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Yu, Hwanjo; Han, Wook-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall.

  19. Feathering effect detection and artifact agglomeration index-based video deinterlacing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André Luis; Rodrigues, Evandro Luis Linhari; de Paiva, Maria Stela Veludo

    2018-03-01

    Several video deinterlacing techniques have been developed, and each one presents a better performance in certain conditions. Occasionally, even the most modern deinterlacing techniques create frames with worse quality than primitive deinterlacing processes. This paper validates that the final image quality can be improved by combining different types of deinterlacing techniques. The proposed strategy is able to select between two types of deinterlaced frames and, if necessary, make the local correction of the defects. This decision is based on an artifact agglomeration index obtained from a feathering effect detection map. Starting from a deinterlaced frame produced by the "interfield average" method, the defective areas are identified, and, if deemed appropriate, these areas are replaced by pixels generated through the "edge-based line average" method. Test results have proven that the proposed technique is able to produce video frames with higher quality than applying a single deinterlacing technique through getting what is good from intra- and interfield methods.

  20. A new simple technique for improving the random properties of chaos-based cryptosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bosque, M.; Pérez-Resa, A.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Celma, S.

    2018-03-01

    A new technique for improving the security of chaos-based stream ciphers has been proposed and tested experimentally. This technique manages to improve the randomness properties of the generated keystream by preventing the system to fall into short period cycles due to digitation. In order to test this technique, a stream cipher based on a Skew Tent Map algorithm has been implemented on a Virtex 7 FPGA. The randomness of the keystream generated by this system has been compared to the randomness of the keystream generated by the same system with the proposed randomness-enhancement technique. By subjecting both keystreams to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) tests, we have proved that our method can considerably improve the randomness of the generated keystreams. In order to incorporate our randomness-enhancement technique, only 41 extra slices have been needed, proving that, apart from effective, this method is also efficient in terms of area and hardware resources.

  1. Mapping accuracy via spectrally and structurally based filtering techniques: comparisons through visual observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Letchumanan

    2005-01-01

    The data of Gunung Ledang region of Malaysia acquired through LANDSAT are considered to map certain hydrogeolocial features. To map these significant features, image-processing tools such as contrast enhancement, edge detection techniques are employed. The advantages of these techniques over the other methods are evaluated from the point of their validity in properly isolating features of hydrogeolocial interest are discussed. As these techniques take the advantage of spectral aspects of the images, these techniques have several limitations to meet the objectives. To discuss these limitations, a morphological transformation, which generally considers the structural aspects rather than spectral aspects from the image, are applied to provide comparisons between the results derived from spectral based and the structural based filtering techniques.

  2. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  3. Exploring machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques in software defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Wang, Yuqiao; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-01

    In software defined optical networks (SDON), the centralized control plane may encounter numerous intrusion threatens which compromise the security level of provisioned services. In this paper, the issue of control plane security is studied and two machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques are proposed for SDON with properly selected features such as bandwidth, route length, etc. We validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed techniques by simulations. Results show an accuracy of 83% for intrusion detection can be achieved with the proposed machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques.

  4. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  5. Life extension economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithling, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Life extension economic analyses of fossil fueled power plants need the development of consistent methods which consider the capital costs associated with component replacement or repair and estimates of normal station capital expenditures over the units remaining life. In order to link capital and production costs, Niagra Mohawk Power Corp. develops most and worst cases. A most case includes capital components that would definitely need replacement or modification for life extension. The worst case scenario contains must case capital costs plus various components which may need replacement or modification. In addition, two forecasted conditions are used, base case capacity and low capacity

  6. Examining pine spectral separability using hyperspectral data from an airborne sensor : an extension of field-based results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available -radiometer (400-2500nm) acquired above tree canopies. This study focused on whether these same species are also separable using hyperspectral data acquired using the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS). Stepwise discriminant techniques were...

  7. Low Power LDPC Code Decoder Architecture Based on Intermediate Message Compression Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Togawa, Nozomu; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi

    Reducing the power dissipation for LDPC code decoder is a major challenging task to apply it to the practical digital communication systems. In this paper, we propose a low power LDPC code decoder architecture based on an intermediate message-compression technique which features as follows: (i) An intermediate message compression technique enables the decoder to reduce the required memory capacity and write power dissipation. (ii) A clock gated shift register based intermediate message memory architecture enables the decoder to decompress the compressed messages in a single clock cycle while reducing the read power dissipation. The combination of the above two techniques enables the decoder to reduce the power dissipation while keeping the decoding throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture improves the power efficiency up to 52% and 18% compared to that of the decoder based on the overlapped schedule and the rapid convergence schedule without the proposed techniques respectively.

  8. Theoretical Bound of CRLB for Energy Efficient Technique of RSS-Based Factor Graph Geolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar Aziz, Muhammad Reza; Heriansyah; Saputra, EfaMaydhona; Musa, Ardiansyah

    2018-03-01

    To support the increase of wireless geolocation development as the key of the technology in the future, this paper proposes theoretical bound derivation, i.e., Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) for energy efficient of received signal strength (RSS)-based factor graph wireless geolocation technique. The theoretical bound derivation is crucially important to evaluate whether the energy efficient technique of RSS-based factor graph wireless geolocation is effective as well as to open the opportunity to further innovation of the technique. The CRLB is derived in this paper by using the Fisher information matrix (FIM) of the main formula of the RSS-based factor graph geolocation technique, which is lied on the Jacobian matrix. The simulation result shows that the derived CRLB has the highest accuracy as a bound shown by its lowest root mean squared error (RMSE) curve compared to the RMSE curve of the RSS-based factor graph geolocation technique. Hence, the derived CRLB becomes the lower bound for the efficient technique of RSS-based factor graph wireless geolocation.

  9. Nasal base narrowing of the caucasian nose through the cerclage technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocellin, Marcos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to reduce the nasal base (narrowing, as skin resection vestibular columellar skin resection, resection of skin in elliptical lip narinary, sloughing of skin and advancements (VY technique of Bernstein and the use of cerclage sutures in the nasal base. Objective: To evaluate the technique of cerclage performed in the nasal base, through endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery of basic technique, in the Caucasian nose, reducing the distance inter-alar flare and correcting the wing with consequent improvement in nasal harmony in the whole face. Methods: A retrospective analysis by analysis of clinical documents and photos of 43 patients in whom cerclage was made of the nasal base by resecting skin ellipse in the region of the vestibule and the nasal base (modified technique of Weir using colorless mononylon® 4 "0" with a straight cutting needle. The study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Hospital of Paraná Institute of Otolaryngology - IPO in Curitiba, Parana - Brazil. Patients had a follow up ranging 7-12 months. Results: In 100% of cases was achieved an improvement in nasal harmony, by decreasing the inter-alar distance. Conclusion: The encircling with minimal resection of vestibular skin and the nasal base is an effective method for the narrowing of the nasal base in the Caucasian nose, with predictable results and easy to perform.

  10. Model-based fault diagnosis techniques design schemes, algorithms, and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this book is to introduce basic model-based FDI schemes, advanced analysis and design algorithms, and the needed mathematical and control theory tools at a level for graduate students and researchers as well as for engineers. This is a textbook with extensive examples and references. Most methods are given in the form of an algorithm that enables a direct implementation in a programme. Comparisons among different methods are included when possible.

  11. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    2017-06-09

    FQC is software that facilitates quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol using FastQC, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics into an interactive dashboard designed to richly summarize individual sequencing runs. The dashboard groups samples in dropdowns for navigation among the data sets, utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data. FQC is implemented in Python 3 and Javascript, and is maintained under an MIT license. Documentation and source code is available at: https://github.com/pnnl/fqc . joseph.brown@pnnl.gov. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  13. Enhancement of Edge-based Image Quality Measures Using Entropy for Histogram Equalization-based Contrast Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. R. Kurmasha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An Edge-based image quality measure (IQM technique for the assessment of histogram equalization (HE-based contrast enhancement techniques has been proposed that outperforms the Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE and Entropy which are the most commonly used IQMs to evaluate Histogram Equalization based techniques, and also the two prominent fidelity-based IQMs which are Multi-Scale Structural Similarity (MSSIM and Information Fidelity Criterion-based (IFC measures. The statistical evaluation results show that the Edge-based IQM, which was designed for detecting noise artifacts distortion, has a Person Correlation Coefficient (PCC > 0.86 while the others have poor or fair correlation to human opinion, considering the Human Visual Perception (HVP. Based on HVP, this paper propose an enhancement to classic Edge-based IQM by taking into account the brightness saturation distortion which is the most prominent distortion in HE-based contrast enhancement techniques. It is tested and found to have significantly well correlation (PCC > 0.87, Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC > 0.92, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE < 0.1054, and Outlier Ratio (OR = 0%.

  14. The Development of an In-Situ TEM Technique for Studying Corrosion Behavior as Applied to Zirconium-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Wayne

    Zirconium-based alloys are a commonly used material for nuclear fuel rod cladding, due to its low neutron cross section and good corrosion properties. However, corrosion is still a limiting factor in fuel rod lifespan, which restricts burn up levels, and thus efficiency, that can be achieved. While long-term corrosion behavior has been studied through both reactor and autoclave samples, the oxide nucleation and growth behavior has not been extensively studied. This work develops a new technique to study the initial stages of corrosion in zirconium-based alloys and the microstructural effects on this process by developing an environmental cell system for the TEM. Nanoscale oxidation parameters are developed, as is a new FIB technique to support this method. Precession diffraction is used in conjunction with in-situ TEM to observe the initial stages of corrosion in these alloys, and oxide thickness is estimated using low-loss EELS. In addition, the stress stabilization of tetragonal ZrO 2 is explored in the context of sample preparation for TEM. It was found that in-situ environmental TEM using an environmental cell replicates the oxidation behavior observed in autoclaved samples in both oxide structure and phases. Utilizing this technique, it was shown that cracking of the oxide layer in zirconium-based alloys is related to oxide relaxation, and not thermal changes. The effect of secondary phase particles on oxidation behavior did not present significant results, however a new method for studying initial oxidation rates using low-loss EELS was developed.

  15. Volunteer Delivery of a Community-Based Strength Training Program: Comparison of Adopting and Nonadopting Extension Educator Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa T. Washburn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer leaders are increasingly being utilized to deliver community strength training classes, but the factors affecting adoption of volunteer delivery approaches by educators or program managers have not been well explored. This study sought to identify these factors by comparing perspectives of adopting and nonadopting county Extension educators for a group strength training program delivered through county Cooperative Extension offices. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of adopting (n=6 and nonadopting (n=13 educators. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using thematic content analysis. Review of codes related to adoption or nonadoption of volunteer delivery approaches produced common themes. Both groups acknowledged role differences between educators and volunteers and expressed concerns about maintaining program quality. Adopters expressed greater comfort with volunteer-led program approaches and understanding of the educator-volunteer role. Nonadopters were hesitant to request program participants serve as leaders but felt participants were capable. Both groups were motivated to offer the program for dual personal and community benefit, but nonadopters expressed reliance on the program to maintain physical activity habits and for social support. Findings can inform others seeking to adapt community programs for volunteer delivery or engage volunteers in existing program delivery.

  16. Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G; Andreani, C; Pietropaolo, A; Grazzi, F; Scherillo, A; Barzagli, E; Sutton, L F; Bognetti, L; Bini, A; Schooneveld, E

    2013-01-01

    A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics. (paper)

  17. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brownlee, C.; Pegoraro, V.; Shankar, S.; McCormick, Patrick S.; Hansen, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry

  18. RF Sub-sampling Receiver Architecture based on Milieu Adapting Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behjou, Nastaran; Larsen, Torben; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2012-01-01

    A novel sub-sampling based architecture is proposed which has the ability of reducing the problem of image distortion and improving the signal to noise ratio significantly. The technique is based on sensing the environment and adapting the sampling rate of the receiver to the best possible...

  19. Experimental evaluation of optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Development and experimentally evaluation of an optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) strategy based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control technique is presented. The proposed nonlinear controller is based on a nonlinear vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics. A novel

  20. ON THE PAPR REDUCTION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: A NOVEL ZCT PRECODING BASED SLM TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARUN JEOTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR reduction is still an important challenge in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM systems. In this paper, we propose a novel Zadoff-Chu matrix Transform (ZCT precoding based Selected Mapping (SLM technique for PAPR reduction in OFDM systems. This technique is based on precoding the constellation symbols with ZCT precoder after the multiplication of phase rotation factor and before the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT in the SLM based OFDM (SLM-OFDM Systems. Computer simulation results show that, the proposed technique can reduce PAPR up to 5.2 dB for N=64 (System subcarriers and V=16 (Dissimilar phase sequences, at clip rate of 10-3. Additionally, ZCT based SLM-OFDM (ZCT-SLM-OFDM systems also take advantage of frequency variations of the communication channel and can also offer substantial performance gain in fading multipath channels.

  1. Under-Frequency Load Shedding Technique Considering Event-Based for an Islanded Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmaini Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenge for an islanding operation is to sustain the frequency stability. A large power imbalance following islanding would cause under-frequency, hence an appropriate control is required to shed certain amount of load. The main objective of this research is to develop an adaptive under-frequency load shedding (UFLS technique for an islanding system. The technique is designed considering an event-based which includes the moment system is islanded and a tripping of any DG unit during islanding operation. A disturbance magnitude is calculated to determine the amount of load to be shed. The technique is modeled by using PSCAD simulation tool. A simulation studies on a distribution network with mini hydro generation is carried out to evaluate the UFLS model. It is performed under different load condition: peak and base load. Results show that the load shedding technique have successfully shed certain amount of load and stabilized the system frequency.

  2. Leak detection of complex pipelines based on the filter diagonalization method: robust technique for eigenvalue assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Pariset, Carlo; Trotta, Amerigo

    2010-01-01

    The FDM (filter diagonalization method), an interesting technique used in nuclear magnetic resonance data processing for tackling FFT (fast Fourier transform) limitations, can be used by considering pipelines, especially complex configurations, as a vascular apparatus with arteries, veins, capillaries, etc. Thrombosis, which might occur in humans, can be considered as a leakage for the complex pipeline, the human vascular apparatus. The choice of eigenvalues in FDM or in spectra-based techniques is a key issue in recovering the solution of the main equation (for FDM) or frequency domain transformation (for FFT) in order to determine the accuracy in detecting leaks in pipelines. This paper deals with the possibility of improving the leak detection accuracy of the FDM technique thanks to a robust algorithm by assessing the problem of eigenvalues, making it less experimental and more analytical using Tikhonov-based regularization techniques. The paper starts from the results of previous experimental procedures carried out by the authors

  3. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in the interior Western United States using the Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Ex; Frederick Smith; Tara Keyser; Stephanie Rebain

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE-FVS) is often used to estimate canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH), which are key indicators of crown fire hazard for conifer stands in the Western United States. Estimated CBD from FFE-FVS is calculated as the maximum 4 m running mean bulk density of predefined 0.3 m thick canopy layers (...

  4. Solving Linear Equations by Classical Jacobi-SR Based Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm with Uniform Adaptation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, R. M. Jalal Uddin; Hashem, M. M. A.; Hasan, M. Mahfuz; Rahman, Md. Bazlar

    2013-01-01

    Solving a set of simultaneous linear equations is probably the most important topic in numerical methods. For solving linear equations, iterative methods are preferred over the direct methods especially when the coefficient matrix is sparse. The rate of convergence of iteration method is increased by using Successive Relaxation (SR) technique. But SR technique is very much sensitive to relaxation factor, {\\omega}. Recently, hybridization of classical Gauss-Seidel based successive relaxation t...

  5. Development of a computerized tomographic system based on the FAN-BEAM technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, M.M.; Santos, C.A.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, at COPPE/UFRJ, concentrates its researches in the development of computerized tomographic systems, looking for applications in industrial and medical non destructive analysing techniques. In this work we have projected and constructed a tomographic prototype, based on the FAN-BEAM technique for irradiating the object under analysis. An algorithm previously developed to analyse parallel beams, was modified and adapted to the FAN-BEAM geometry. (Author) [pt

  6. Cermet based solar selective absorbers : further selectivity improvement and developing new fabrication technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nejati, Mohammadreza

    2008-01-01

    Spectral selectivity of cermet based selective absorbers were increased by inducing surface roughness on the surface of the cermet layer using a roughening technique (deposition on hot substrates) or by micro-structuring the metallic substrates before deposition of the absorber coating using laser and imprint structuring techniques. Cu-Al2O3 cermet absorbers with very rough surfaces and excellent selectivity were obtained by employing a roughness template layer under the infrared reflective l...

  7. Novel anti-jamming technique for OCDMA network through FWM in SOA based wavelength converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Vishav; Kaler, R. S.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel anti-jamming technique for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) network through four wave mixing (FWM) in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based wavelength converter. OCDMA signal can be easily jammed with high power jamming signal. It is shown that wavelength conversion through four wave mixing in SOA has improved capability of jamming resistance. It is observed that jammer has no effect on OCDMA network even at high jamming powers by using the proposed technique.

  8. The Design and Development of Test Platform for Wheat Precision Seeding Based on Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Li , Qing; Lin , Haibo; Xiu , Yu-Feng; Wang , Ruixue; Yi , Chuijie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The test platform of wheat precision seeding based on image processing techniques is designed to develop the wheat precision seed metering device with high efficiency and precision. Using image processing techniques, this platform gathers images of seeds (wheat) on the conveyer belt which are falling from seed metering device. Then these data are processed and analyzed to calculate the qualified rate, reseeding rate and leakage sowing rate, etc. This paper introduces t...

  9. A comparison of base running start techniques in collegiate fastpitch softball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Kelly P.; Brouillette, Kelly Miller; Martino, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the time difference between three different base running start techniques. Thirteen Division II collegiate softball players performed maximal sprints off a softball bag at two different distances. Sprint times at 4.57 and 18.29 meters for each technique were measured using Fusion Sport’s Smartspeed System. At both 4.57 and 18.29 meters, the rocking start (0.84 ± 0.10; 3.04 ± 0.16 s) was found to be significantly faster (in seconds) than both the split technique (1.01 ± 0.0...

  10. Sample preparation techniques based on combustion reactions in closed vessels - A brief overview and recent applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Erico M.M.; Barin, Juliano S.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Knapp, Guenter

    2007-01-01

    In this review, a general discussion of sample preparation techniques based on combustion reactions in closed vessels is presented. Applications for several kinds of samples are described, taking into account the literature data reported in the last 25 years. The operational conditions as well as the main characteristics and drawbacks are discussed for bomb combustion, oxygen flask and microwave-induced combustion (MIC) techniques. Recent applications of MIC techniques are discussed with special concern for samples not well digested by conventional microwave-assisted wet digestion as, for example, coal and also for subsequent determination of halogens

  11. Bandwidth-Tunable Fiber Bragg Gratings Based on UV Glue Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-Yue; Liu, Wen-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Tsang; Chuang, Chia-Wei; Bor, Sheau-Shong; Tien, Chuen-Lin

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated that a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) can be transformed into a chirped fiber grating by a simple UV glue adhesive technique without shifting the reflection band with respect to the center wavelength of the FBG. The technique is based on the induced strain of an FBG due to the UV glue adhesive force on the fiber surface that causes a grating period variation and an effective index change. This technique can provide a fast and simple method of obtaining the required chirp value of a grating for applications in the dispersion compensators, gain flattening in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) or optical filters.

  12. A hospital-wide clinical findings dictionary based on an extension of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréant, C; Borst, F; Campi, D; Griesser, V; Momjian, S

    1999-01-01

    The use of a controlled vocabulary set in a hospital-wide clinical information system is of crucial importance for many departmental database systems to communicate and exchange information. In the absence of an internationally recognized clinical controlled vocabulary set, a new extension of the International statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is proposed. It expands the scope of the standard ICD beyond diagnosis and procedures to clinical terminology. In addition, the common Clinical Findings Dictionary (CFD) further records the definition of clinical entities. The construction of the vocabulary set and the CFD is incremental and manual. Tools have been implemented to facilitate the tasks of defining/maintaining/publishing dictionary versions. The design of database applications in the integrated clinical information system is driven by the CFD which is part of the Medical Questionnaire Designer tool. Several integrated clinical database applications in the field of diabetes and neuro-surgery have been developed at the HUG.

  13. Craniospinal radiotherapy in children: Electron- or photon-based technique of spinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.; Pedziwiatr, K.; Morawska-Kaczynska, M.; Zygmuntowicz-Pietka, A.; Semaniak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prone position and electron-based technique for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) have been standard in our department for many years. But this immobilization is difficult for the anaesthesiologist to gain airway access. The increasing number of children treated under anaesthesia led us to reconsider our technique. Aim: The purpose of this study is to report our new photon-based technique for CSI which could be applied in both the supine and the prone position and to compare this technique with our electron-based technique. Materials and methods: Between November 2007 and May 2008, 11 children with brain tumours were treated in the prone position with CSI. For 9 patients two treatment plans were created: the first one using photons and the second one using electron beams for spinal irradiation. We prepared seven 3D-conformal photon plans and four forward planned segmented field plans. We compared 20 treatment plans in terms of target dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. Results: In segmented field plans better dose homogeneity in the thecal sac volume was achieved than in electron-based plans. Regarding doses in organs at risk, in photon-based plans we obtained a lower dose in the thyroid but a higher one in the heart and liver. Conclusions: Our technique can be applied in both the supine and prone position and it seems to be more feasible and precise than the electron technique. However, more homogeneous target coverage and higher precision of dose delivery for photons are obtained at the cost of slightly higher doses to the heart and liver. (authors)

  14. The extension of a DNA double helix by an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, P.; Sharma, P. K.; Madsen, Charlotte S.

    2013-01-01

    Additional base pair: The DNA duplex can be extended with an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone by the use of double-headed nucleotides. These also work as compressed dinucleotides and form two base pairs with cognate nucleobases on the opposite strand.......Additional base pair: The DNA duplex can be extended with an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone by the use of double-headed nucleotides. These also work as compressed dinucleotides and form two base pairs with cognate nucleobases on the opposite strand....

  15. Backstepping Based Formation Control of Quadrotors with the State Transformation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Uk Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a backstepping-based formation control of quadrotors with the state transformation technique is proposed. First, the dynamics of a quadrotor is derived by using the Newton–Euler formulation. Next, a backstepping-based formation control for quadrotors using a state transformation technique is presented. In the position control, which is the basis of formation control, it is possible to derive the reference attitude angles employing a state transformation technique without the small angle assumption or the simplified dynamics usually used. Stability analysis based on the Lyapunov theorem shows that the proposed formation controller can provide a quadrotor formation error system that is asymptotically stabilized. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed formation control method through comparison simulations.

  16. A Biometric Face Recognition System Using an Algorithm Based on the Principal Component Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gîlcă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a recognition system using an algorithm based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA technique. The recognition system consists only of a PC and an integrated video camera. The algorithm is developed in MATLAB language and calculates the eigenfaces considered as features of the face. The PCA technique is based on the matching between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors. The mathcing score between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors is calculated between their coefficient vectors. If the matching is high, we have the best recognition. The results of the algorithm based on the PCA technique are very good, even if the person looks from one side at the video camera.

  17. Efficient techniques for wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Ravish

    Sound propagation techniques model the effect of the environment on sound waves and predict their behavior from point of emission at the source to the final point of arrival at the listener. Sound is a pressure wave produced by mechanical vibration of a surface that propagates through a medium such as air or water, and the problem of sound propagation can be formulated mathematically as a second-order partial differential equation called the wave equation. Accurate techniques based on solving the wave equation, also called the wave-based techniques, are too expensive computationally and memory-wise. Therefore, these techniques face many challenges in terms of their applicability in interactive applications including sound propagation in large environments, time-varying source and listener directivity, and high simulation cost for mid-frequencies. In this dissertation, we propose a set of efficient wave-based sound propagation techniques that solve these three challenges and enable the use of wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications. Firstly, we propose a novel equivalent source technique for interactive wave-based sound propagation in large scenes spanning hundreds of meters. It is based on the equivalent source theory used for solving radiation and scattering problems in acoustics and electromagnetics. Instead of using a volumetric or surface-based approach, this technique takes an object-centric approach to sound propagation. The proposed equivalent source technique generates realistic acoustic effects and takes orders of magnitude less runtime memory compared to prior wave-based techniques. Secondly, we present an efficient framework for handling time-varying source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation. The source directivity is represented as a linear combination of elementary spherical harmonic sources. This spherical harmonic-based representation of source directivity can support analytical, data

  18. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA-based wireless mesh network (WMN with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  19. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Sung Joon; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  20. The Effect of Learning Based on Technology Model and Assessment Technique toward Thermodynamic Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makahinda, T.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of learning model based on technology and assessment technique toward thermodynamic achievement by controlling students intelligence. This research is an experimental research. The sample is taken through cluster random sampling with the total respondent of 80 students. The result of the research shows that the result of learning of thermodynamics of students who taught the learning model of environmental utilization is higher than the learning result of student thermodynamics taught by simulation animation, after controlling student intelligence. There is influence of student interaction, and the subject between models of technology-based learning with assessment technique to student learning result of Thermodynamics, after controlling student intelligence. Based on the finding in the lecture then should be used a thermodynamic model of the learning environment with the use of project assessment technique.

  1. A novel and alternative approach to controlled release drug delivery system based on solid dispersion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Giri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid dispersion method was originally used to improve the dissolution properties and the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs by dispersing them into water soluble carriers. In addition to the above, dissolution retardation through solid dispersion technique using water insoluble and water swellable polymer for the development of controlled release dosage forms has become a field of interest in recent years. Development of controlled release solid dispersion has a great advantage for bypassing the risk of a burst release of drug; since the structure of the solid dispersion is monolithic where drug molecules homogeneously disperse. Despite the remarkable potential and extensive research being conducted on controlled release solid dispersion system, commercialization and large scale production are limited. The author expects that recent technological advances may overcome the existing limitations and facilitate the commercial utilization of the techniques for manufacture of controlled release solid dispersions. This article begins with an overview of the different carriers being used for the preparation of controlled release solid dispersion and also different techniques being used for the purpose. Kinetics of drug release from these controlled release solid dispersions and the relevant mathematical modeling have also been reviewed in this manuscript.

  2. The extension of a DNA double helix by an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Madsen, Charlotte S; Petersen, Michael; Nielsen, Poul

    2013-06-17

    Additional base pair: The DNA duplex can be extended with an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone by the use of double-headed nucleotides. These also work as compressed dinucleotides and form two base pairs with cognate nucleobases on the opposite strand. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Feasibility of CBCT-based dose calculation: Comparative analysis of HU adjustment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotina, Irina; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Stock, Markus; Steininger, Thomas; Lütgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Georg, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this work was to compare the accuracy of different HU adjustments for CBCT-based dose calculation. Methods and materials: Dose calculation was performed on CBCT images of 30 patients. In the first two approaches phantom-based (Pha-CC) and population-based (Pop-CC) conversion curves were used. The third method (WAB) represents override of the structures with standard densities for water, air and bone. In ROI mapping approach all structures were overridden with average HUs from planning CT. All techniques were benchmarked to the Pop-CC and CT-based plans by DVH comparison and γ-index analysis. Results: For prostate plans, WAB and ROI mapping compared to Pop-CC showed differences in PTV D median below 2%. The WAB and Pha-CC methods underestimated the bladder dose in IMRT plans. In lung cases PTV coverage was underestimated by Pha-CC method by 2.3% and slightly overestimated by the WAB and ROI techniques. The use of the Pha-CC method for head–neck IMRT plans resulted in difference in PTV coverage up to 5%. Dose calculation with WAB and ROI techniques showed better agreement with pCT than conversion curve-based approaches. Conclusions: Density override techniques provide an accurate alternative to the conversion curve-based methods for dose calculation on CBCT images.

  4. Microcapsule-based techniques for improving the safety of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Marta

    Lithium-ion batteries are vital energy storage devices due to their high specific energy density, lack of memory effect, and long cycle life. While they are predominantly used in small consumer electronics, new strategies for improving battery safety and lifetime are critical to the successful implementation of high-capacity, fast-charging materials required for advanced Li-ion battery applications. Currently, the presence of a volatile, combustible electrolyte and an oxidizing agent (Lithium oxide cathodes) make the Li-ion cell susceptible to fire and explosions. Thermal overheating, electrical overcharging, or mechanical damage can trigger thermal runaway, and if left unchecked, combustion of battery materials. To improve battery safety, autonomic, thermally-induced shutdown of Li-ion batteries is demonstrated by depositing thermoresponsive polymer microspheres onto battery anodes. When the internal temperature of the cell reaches a critical value, the microspheres melt and conformally coat the anode and/or separator with an ion insulating barrier, halting Li-ion transport and shutting down the cell permanently. Charge and discharge capacity is measured for Li-ion coin cells containing microsphere-coated anodes or separators as a function of capsule coverage. Scanning electron microscopy images of electrode surfaces from cells that have undergone autonomic shutdown provides evidence of melting, wetting, and re-solidification of polyethylene (PE) into the anode and polymer film formation at the anode/separator interface. As an extension of this autonomic shutdown approach, a particle-based separator capable of performing autonomic shutdown, but which reduces the shorting hazard posed by current bi- and tri-polymer commercial separators, is presented. This dual-particle separator is composed of hollow glass microspheres acting as a physical spacer between electrodes, and PE microspheres to impart autonomic shutdown functionality. An oil-immersion technique is

  5. Key Techniques for the Development of Web-Based PDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-juan; ZHANG Xu; NING Ru-xin

    2006-01-01

    Some key techniques for the development of web-based product data management (PDM) system are introduced. The four-tiered B/S architecture of a PDM system-BITPDM is introduced first, followed by its design and implementation, including virtual data vault, flexible coding system, document management,product structure and configuration management, workflow/process and product maturity management. BITPDM can facilitate the activities from new product introduction phase to manufacturing, and manage the product data and their dynamic changing history. Based on Microsoft. NET, XML, web service and SOAP techniques, BITPDM realizes the integration and efficient management of product information.

  6. Stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable distributed feedback laser for interferometric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Xinlei; Yu, Qingxu

    2016-02-01

    We describe a stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser for quadrature demodulation of interferometric sensors. By introducing automatic lock quadrature point and wavelength periodically tuning compensation into an interferometric system, the operation point of interferometric system is stabilized when the system suffers various environmental perturbations. To demonstrate the feasibility of this stabilizing operation point technique, experiments have been performed using a tunable-DFB-laser as light source to interrogate an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric vibration sensor and a diaphragm-based acoustic sensor. Experimental results show that good tracing of Q-point was effectively realized.

  7. Seismic qualification of nuclear control board by using base isolation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, T.; Tsujiuchi, N.; Fujita, T.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose is to adopt base isolation technique as a new approach for seismic qualification of nuclear control board. Basic concept of base isolation technique is expressed. Two dimensional linear motion mechanism with pre-tensioned coil springs and some dampers are included in the isolation device. Control board is regarded as a lamped mass system with inertia moment. Fundamental movement of this device and control board is calculated as a non-linear response problems. Fundamental analysis and numerical estimation, experimental investigation has been undertaken using an actual size control board. Sufficient agreement was recognized between experimental results and numerical estimation. (orig./HP)

  8. HACIA LA EXTENSION DEL MÉTODO GRAY WATCH BASADO EN EL ESTÁNDAR DE CALIDAD ISO/IEC 25010 // TOWARDS THE EXTENSION OF THE GRAY WATCH METHOD BASED ON THE QUALITY STANDARD ISO/IEC 25010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Pérez-Medina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Talk about software quality implies the need to rely on parameters that should allow to establish the minimal levels that a product of this type must reach in order to be considered of quality. This paper aims to propose an extension of the method GRAY WATCH, specifically in the technical processes of Analysis and Design connecting the products obtained to the process of Implementation. The orientation of our proposal consists of using the standard of product quality ISO/IEC 25010, which establishes criteria for the specification of quality requirements of software products, their metrics and evaluation, and includes a quality model composed by characteristics and subcharacteristics. The result of this proposal, adds significant value to the extended method, Allowing to system analysts and Computer professionals to specify the precise activities to be performed to obtain quality requirements. To make this work we have supported our efforts in the Domain Engineering process based in Software Quality named InDoCaS as methodology for the definition of activities and products in the processes of Analysis, Design and Implementation of the Application.// RESUMEN: Hablar de calidad de software implica la necesidad de contar con parámetros que permitan establecer los niveles mínimos que un producto de este tipo debe alcanzar para que se considere de calidad. El presente articulo tiene como finalidad proponer una extension del método GRAY WATCH, especificamente en los procesos técnicos de análisis y diseño acoplando los productos obtenidos al proceso de implementación. La orientación de nuestra propuesta consiste en utilizar el estándar de calidad del producto ISO/IEC 25010, que establece criterios para la especificacion de requisitos de calidad de productos de software, sus métricas y su evaluación, e incluye un modelo de calidad compuesto por características y subcaracteristicas. El resultado de esta propuesta, agrega un valor importante al

  9. Controller Design of DFIG Based Wind Turbine by Using Evolutionary Soft Computational Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Bharti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript illustrates the controller design for a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine by using a bioinspired scheme. This methodology is based on exploiting two proficient swarm intelligence based evolutionary soft computational procedures. The particle swarm optimization (PSO and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO techniques are employed to design the controller intended for small damping plant of the DFIG. Wind energy overview and DFIG operating principle along with the equivalent circuit model is adequately discussed in this paper. The controller design for DFIG based WECS using PSO and BFO are described comparatively in detail. The responses of the DFIG system regarding terminal voltage, current, active-reactive power, and DC-Link voltage have slightly improved with the evolutionary soft computational procedure. Lastly, the obtained output is equated with a standard technique for performance improvement of DFIG based wind energy conversion system.

  10. Typing of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms using ribonuclease cleavage of DNA/RNA chimeric single-base extension primers and detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Børsting, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A novel single-base extension (SBE) assay using cleavable and noncleavable SBE primers in the same reaction mix is described. The cleavable SBE primers consisted of deoxyribonucleotides and one ribonucleotide (hereafter denoted chimeric primers), whereas the noncleavable SBE primers consisted....... A ribonuclease mix was developed to specifically cleave the chimeric primers, irrespective of the base of the ribonucleotide, whereas standard primers without a ribonucleotide were unaffected by the ribonuclease treatment. The SBE products were analyzed in linear mode using a matrix-assisted laser desorption...... containing 9 chimeric primers and 8 standard primers....

  11. High-speed technique based on a parallel projection correlation procedure for digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaripov, D. I.; Renfu, Li

    2018-05-01

    The implementation of high-efficiency digital image correlation methods based on a zero-normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC) procedure for high-speed, time-resolved measurements using a high-resolution digital camera is associated with big data processing and is often time consuming. In order to speed-up ZNCC computation, a high-speed technique based on a parallel projection correlation procedure is proposed. The proposed technique involves the use of interrogation window projections instead of its two-dimensional field of luminous intensity. This simplification allows acceleration of ZNCC computation up to 28.8 times compared to ZNCC calculated directly, depending on the size of interrogation window and region of interest. The results of three synthetic test cases, such as a one-dimensional uniform flow, a linear shear flow and a turbulent boundary-layer flow, are discussed in terms of accuracy. In the latter case, the proposed technique is implemented together with an iterative window-deformation technique. On the basis of the results of the present work, the proposed technique is recommended to be used for initial velocity field calculation, with further correction using more accurate techniques.

  12. Experimental evaluation of a quasi-modal parameter based rotor foundation identification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minli; Liu, Jike; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.

    2017-12-01

    Correct modelling of the foundation of rotating machinery is an invaluable asset in model-based rotor dynamic study. One attractive approach for such purpose is to identify the relevant modal parameters of an equivalent foundation using the motion measurements of rotor and foundation at the bearing supports. Previous research showed that, a complex quasi-modal parameter based system identification technique could be feasible for this purpose; however, the technique was only validated by identifying simple structures under harmonic excitation. In this paper, such identification technique is further extended and evaluated by identifying the foundation of a numerical rotor-bearing-foundation system and an experimental rotor rig respectively. In the identification of rotor foundation with multiple bearing supports, all application points of excitation forces transmitted through bearings need to be included; however the assumed vibration modes far outside the rotor operating speed cannot or not necessary to be identified. The extended identification technique allows one to identify correctly an equivalent foundation with fewer modes than the assumed number of degrees of freedom, essentially by generalising the technique to be able to handle rectangular complex modal matrices. The extended technique is robust in numerical and experimental validation and is therefore likely to be applicable in the field.

  13. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  14. A Comparison of Techniques for Approximating Full Image-Based Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Laursen, Rune Elmgaard

    2006-01-01

    Light probes, or environment maps, are used extensively in computer graphics for visual effects involving rendering virtual objects into real scenes (Augment Reality). A light probe is a High Dynamic Range omni-directional image covering all directions on a sphere at some location. Each pixel...... in the light probe image measures the incident radiance at the light probe acquisition point. The figure above shows an example of a light probe image in the longitude-latitude mapping, (similar to an atlas mapping of the Earth). Using the light probe information a virtual object can be rendered with correct...... scene illumination and inserted into images of the scene with credible shading, reflections and shadows. Rendering virtual objects with light probe information is a very time consuming process. Therefore several techniques exist which attempt to approximate the light probe with a set of directional...

  15. Contribution of technetium pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of prostate cancer extension based on 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveux, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy with those of the standard radiographic exploration of the skeleton in order to find out whether scintigraphic data allow an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of the presence of bone metastases. The dose administered is about 10MCi per patient; the recording is made 4 hours after intraveinous injection of the tracer. The documents are obtained in two stages: - first of all a whole-body scintigraph is carried out by means of an 'omniview' system adapted to the Picker dynacamera. This instrument gives an image of the entire body by translation of the patient's bed before the detection head of the camera; - immediately after the whole-body scan a series of static views is taken, especially on abnormal or doubtful areas. These documents have a better resolution than the reduced whole-body image and supply complementary data all the more valuable as they are directed towards the zones of interest. Analysis of our observations underlines the advantages of technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of prostate neoplasm extension. This particularly sensitive method of investigation enables bone metastases to be detected earlier and more precisely in a patient presenting a neoplasm [fr

  16. Research on Risk Evaluation of Transnational Power Networking Projects Based on the Matter-Element Extension Theory and Granular Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In project management, risk assessment is crucial for stakeholders to identify the risk factors during the whole life cycle of the project. A risk evaluation index system of a transnational networking project, which provides an effective way for the grid integration of clean electricity and the sustainable development of the power industry, is constructed in this paper. Meanwhile, a combination of granular computing and order relation analysis (G1 method is applied to determine the weight of each indicator and the matter-element extension evaluation model is also employed to seek the global optimal decision during the risk assessment. Finally, a case study is given to validate the index system and evaluation model established in this paper by assessing two different investment schemes of a transnational high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission project. The result shows that the comprehensive risk level of Scheme 1 is “Low” and the level of Scheme 2 is “General”, which means Scheme 1 is better for the stakeholders from the angle of risk control. The main practical significance of this paper lies in that it can provide a reference and decision support for the government’s power sectors, investment companies and other stakeholders when carrying out related activities.

  17. An Efficient Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination Technique for Scintillation Detectors Based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Different techniques for pulse discrimination (PSD) of the scintillation pulses have been developed. The PSD of scintillation pulese can been used in several applications as Positron Emission Topography (PET) system. Each technique analyzes the resulting pulses from the absorption of radiation in the scintillation pulses were filtered and digitized then it is captured using DAQ, and it sent to the host computer for processing. The spatial resolution of images that generated in PET system can be improved by applying the proposed PSD. In this thesis various digital PSD techniques are proposed to discriminate the scintillation pulses. These techniques are based on discrete sine transform (DST). discrete cosine transform (DCT). Discrete hartley transform (DHT), Discrete Goertzel transform (DGT),and principal component analysis (PCA). Then the output coefficients of the discrete transforms are classified using one of the following classifiers T-test,tuned, or support vector machine (SVM).

  18. Non-Conventional Techniques for the Study of Phase Transitions in NiTi-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Villa, Elena; Passaretti, Francesca; Albertini, Franca; Cabassi, Riccardo; Pasquale, Massimo; Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Coïsson, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and electrical resistance measurements are the two most common techniques for the study of the phase transition path and temperatures of shape memory alloys (SMA) in stress-free condition. Besides, it is well known that internal friction measurements are also useful for this purpose. There are indeed some further techniques which are seldom used for the basic characterization of SMA transition: dilatometric analysis, magnetic measurements, and Seebeck coefficient study. In this work, we discuss the attitude of these techniques for the study of NiTi-based phase transition. Measurements were conducted on several fully annealed Ni50- x Ti50Cu x samples ranging from 3 to 10 at.% in Cu content, fully annealed at 850 °C for 1 h in vacuum and quenched in water at room temperature. Results show that all these techniques are sensitive to phase transition, and they provide significant information about the existence of intermediate phases.

  19. Review on recent Developments on Fabrication Techniques of Distributed Feedback (DFB) Based Organic Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina Talik, Noor; Boon Kar, Yap; Noradhlia Mohamad Tukijan, Siti; Wong, Chuan Ling

    2017-10-01

    To date, the state of art organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers gains tremendous interest in the organic device industry. This paper presents a short reviews on the fabrication techniques of DFB based laser by focusing on the fabrication method of DFB corrugated structure and the deposition of organic gain on the nano-patterned DFB resonator. The fabrication techniques such as Laser Direct Writing (LDW), ultrafast photo excitation dynamics, Laser Interference Lithography (LIL) and Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) for DFB patterning are presented. In addition to that, the method for gain medium deposition method is also discussed. The technical procedures of the stated fabrication techniques are summarized together with their benefits and comparisons to the traditional fabrication techniques.

  20. Interference Mitigation Technique for Coexistence of Pulse-Based UWB and OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno Kohei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultra-wideband (UWB is a useful radio technique for sharing frequency bands between radio systems. It uses very short pulses to spread spectrum. However, there is a potential for interference between systems using the same frequency bands at close range. In some regulatory systems, interference detection and avoidance (DAA techniques are required to prevent interference with existing radio systems. In this paper, the effect of interference on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM signals from pulse-based UWB is discussed, and an interference mitigation technique is proposed. This technique focuses on the pulse repetition cycle of UWB. The pulse repetition interval is set the same or half the period of the OFDM symbol excluding the guard interval to mitigate interference. These proposals are also made for direct sequence (DS-UWB. Bit error rate (BER performance is illustrated through both simulation and theoretical approximations.

  1. New directions in point-contact spectroscopy based on scanning tunneling microscopy techniques (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglini, E.; Verhagen, T.G.A.; Galli, F.; Trouwborst, M.L.; Aarts, J.; Van-Ruitebbeek, J.M.; Muller, R.; Shiota, T.

    2013-01-01

    Igor Yanson showed 38 years ago for the first time a point-contact measurement where he probed the energy resolved spectroscopy of the electronic scattering inside the metal. Since this first measurement, the pointcontact spectroscopy (PCS) technique improved enormously. The application of the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques in the late 1980s allowed achieving contacts with a diameter of a single atom. With the introduction of the mechanically controlled break junction technique, even spectroscopy on freely suspended chains of atoms could be performed. In this paper, we briefly review the current developments of PCS and show recent experiments in advanced scanning PCS based on SPM techniques. We describe some results obtained with both needle-anvil type of point contacts and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We also show our first attempt to lift up with a STM a chain of single gold atoms from a Au(110) surface.

  2. Using a Voltage Domain Programmable Technique for Low-Power Management Cell-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Cheng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-voltage technique is an effective way to reduce power consumption. In the proposed cell-based voltage domain programmable (VDP technique, the high and low voltages applied to logic gates are programmable. The flexible voltage domain reassignment allows the chip performance and power consumption to be dynamically adjusted. In the proposed technique, the power switches possess the feature of flexible programming after chip manufacturing. This VDP method does not use an external voltage regulator to regulate the supply voltage level from outside of the chip but can be easily integrated within the design. This novel technique is proven by use of a video decoder test chip, which shows 55% and 61% power reductions compared to conventional single-Vdd and low-voltage designs, respectively. This power-aware performance adjusting mechanism shows great power reduction with a good power-performance management mechanism.

  3. Endoscopic endonasal double flap technique for reconstruction of large anterior skull base defects: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Ricardo Landini Lutaif; Todeschini, Alexandre Bossi; Santos, Américo Rubens Leite Dos; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto

    2018-04-19

    One of the main concerns in endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base has been the high incidence and morbidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The introduction and routine use of vascularized flaps allowed a marked decrease in this complication followed by a great expansion in the indications and techniques used in endoscopic endonasal approaches, extending to defects from huge tumours and previously inaccessible areas of the skull base. Describe the technique of performing endoscopic double flap multi-layered reconstruction of the anterior skull base without craniotomy. Step by step description of the endoscopic double flap technique (nasoseptal and pericranial vascularized flaps and fascia lata free graft) as used and illustrated in two patients with an olfactory groove meningioma who underwent an endoscopic approach. Both patients achieved a gross total resection: subsequent reconstruction of the anterior skull base was performed with the nasoseptal and pericranial flaps onlay and a fascia lata free graft inlay. Both patients showed an excellent recovery, no signs of cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, flap necrosis, chronic meningeal or sinonasal inflammation or cerebral herniation having developed. This endoscopic double flap technique we have described is a viable, versatile and safe option for anterior skull base reconstructions, decreasing the incidence of complications in endoscopic endonasal approaches. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Mobility Based Key Management Technique for Multicast Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Madhusudhanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality.

  5. Improvement in QEPAS system utilizing a second harmonic based wavelength calibration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinduan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Xie, Yulei; Gong, Weihua

    2018-05-01

    A simple laser wavelength calibration technique, based on second harmonic signal, is demonstrated in this paper to improve the performance of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) gas sensing system, e.g. improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR), detection limit and long-term stability. Constant current, corresponding to the gas absorption line, combining f/2 frequency sinusoidal signal are used to drive the laser (constant driving mode), a software based real-time wavelength calibration technique is developed to eliminate the wavelength drift due to ambient fluctuations. Compared to conventional wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), this method allows lower filtering bandwidth and averaging algorithm applied to QEPAS system, improving SNR and detection limit. In addition, the real-time wavelength calibration technique guarantees the laser output is modulated steadily at gas absorption line. Water vapor is chosen as an objective gas to evaluate its performance compared to constant driving mode and conventional WMS system. The water vapor sensor was designed insensitive to the incoherent external acoustic noise by the numerical averaging technique. As a result, the SNR increases 12.87 times in wavelength calibration technique based system compared to conventional WMS system. The new system achieved a better linear response (R2 = 0 . 9995) in concentration range from 300 to 2000 ppmv, and achieved a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 630 ppbv.

  6. An Overview on Base Real-Time Hard Shadow Techniques in Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Shadows are elegant to create a realistic scene in virtual environments variety type of shadow techniques encourage us to prepare an overview on all base shadow techniques. Non real-time and real-time techniques are big subdivision of shadow generation. In non real-time techniques ray tracing, ray casting and radiosity are well known and are described deeply. Radiosity is implemented to create very realistic shadow on non real-time scene. Although traditional radiosity algorithm is difficult to implement, we have proposed a simple one. The proposed pseudo code is easier to understand and implement. Ray tracing is used to prevent of collision of movement objects. Projection shadow, shadow volume and shadow mapping are used to create real-time shadow in virtual environments. We have used projection shadow for some objects are static and have shadow on flat surface. Shadow volume is used to create accurate shadow with sharp outline. Shadow mapping that is the base of most recently techniques is reconstructed. The reconstruct algorithm gives some new idea to propose another algorithm based on shadow mapping.

  7. Development of the Risk-Based Inspection Techniques and Pilot Plant Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Risk-based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants. System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the probabilistic risk analysis or probabilistic safety analysis developed to meet the individual plant evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for maintenance rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low-risk significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of pilot plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates that safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. The reduction in inspection reduces the person-rem exposure resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publication by the ASME CRTD

  8. Novel stability criteria for fuzzy Hopfield neural networks based on an improved homogeneous matrix polynomials technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yi-Fu; Zhang Qing-Ling; Feng De-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The global stability problem of Takagi—Sugeno (T—S) fuzzy Hopfield neural networks (FHNNs) with time delays is investigated. Novel LMI-based stability criteria are obtained by using Lyapunov functional theory to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the FHNNs with less conservatism. Firstly, using both Finsler's lemma and an improved homogeneous matrix polynomial technique, and applying an affine parameter-dependent Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional, we obtain the convergent LMI-based stability criteria. Algebraic properties of the fuzzy membership functions in the unit simplex are considered in the process of stability analysis via the homogeneous matrix polynomials technique. Secondly, to further reduce the conservatism, a new right-hand-side slack variables introducing technique is also proposed in terms of LMIs, which is suitable to the homogeneous matrix polynomials setting. Finally, two illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency of the proposed approaches

  9. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2018-02-01

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2) block K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy-five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size: +0.67, time to operation: +0.60). When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint, the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is -3.67° and +4.54° (DIP joint fixation angles of block

  10. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members to champion nutrition

  11. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kadiyala

    Full Text Available Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members

  12. MRI-based analysis of patellofemoral cartilage contact, thickness, and alignment in extension, and during moderate and deep flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Benjamin R; Sheehan, Frances T; Lerner, Amy L

    2015-10-01

    Several factors are believed to contribute to patellofemoral joint function throughout knee flexion including patellofemoral (PF) kinematics, contact, and bone morphology. However, data evaluating the PF joint in this highly flexed state have been limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate patellofemoral contact and alignment in low (0°), moderate (60°), and deep (140°) knee flexion, and then correlate these parameters to each other, as well as to femoral morphology. Sagittal magnetic resonance images were acquired on 14 healthy female adult knees (RSRB approved) using a 1.5 T scanner with the knee in full extension, mid-flexion, and deep flexion. The patellofemoral cartilage contact area, lateral contact displacement (LCD), cartilage thickness, and lateral patellar displacement (LPD) throughout flexion were defined. Intra- and inter-rater repeatability measures were determined. Correlations between patellofemoral contact parameters, alignment, and sulcus morphology were calculated. Measurement repeatability ICCs ranged from 0.94 to 0.99. Patellofemoral cartilage contact area and thickness, LCD, and LPD were statistically different throughout all levels of flexion (ppatellofemoral joint throughout its range of motion. This study agrees with past studies that investigated patellofemoral measures at a single flexion angle, and provides new insights into the relationship between patellofemoral contact and alignment at multiple flexion angles. The study provides a detailed analysis of the patellofemoral joint in vivo, and demonstrates the feasibility of using standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanners to image the knee joint in deep flexion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Overdenture retained by teeth using a definitive denture base technique: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, D F F; dos Santos, J F F; Marchini, L

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a technique involving the use of a definitive denture base to make overdentures. Cores with ball attachments were cemented over remaining lower teeth. Impressions of the edentulous maxilla and mandible were taken to obtain a definitive acrylic resin base. The definitive base of the mandible was perforated at the location of ball attachments and its female components were fixed to the base using acrylic resin directly in the patient's mouth. Wax rims were then made, jaw relationships recorded, teeth mounted and tried in, and the dentures were cured. This technique allowed for easy fixing of female components and better retention during the recording of jaw relationships, and can also be used in the construction of implant retained dentures.

  14. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  15. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, P.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  16. Compressed sensing techniques for receiver based post-compensation of transmitter's nonlinear distortions in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Owodunni, Damilola S.; Ali, Anum Z.; Quadeer, Ahmed Abdul; Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.; Hammi, Oualid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-01-01

    -domain, and three compressed sensing based algorithms are presented to estimate and compensate for these distortions at the receiver using a few and, at times, even no frequency-domain free carriers (i.e. pilot carriers). The first technique is a conventional

  17. Mobile Augmented Reality Support for Architects based on feature Tracking Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Nielsen, Mikkel Bang; Kramp, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile Augmented Reality (AR) system called the SitePack supporting architects in visualizing 3D models in real-time on site. We describe how vision based feature tracking techniques can help architects making decisions on site concerning visual impact assessment. The AR sys...

  18. Assessment of the impact strength of the denture base resin polymerized by various processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To measure the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized using short and long curing cycles by water bath, pressure cooker and microwave techniques. Materials and Methods: For impact strength testing, 60 samples were made. The sample dimensions were 60 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm, as standardized by the American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM. A digital caliper was used to locate the midpoint of sample. The impact strength was measured in IZOD type of impact tester using CEAST Impact tester. The pendulum struck the sample and it broke. The energy required to break the sample was measured in Joules. Data were analyzed using Student′s " t" test. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized by long curing cycle and short curing cycle in each technique, with the long curing processing being the best. Conclusion: The polymerization technique plays an important role in the influence of impact strength in the denture base resin. This research demonstrates that the denture base resin polymerized by microwave processing technique possessed the highest impact strength.

  19. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of

  20. Fast high resolution ADC based on the flash type with a special error correcting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Zhong, Liang; Jing-Xi, Cao [Beijing Univ. (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1984-03-01

    A fast 12 bits ADC based on the flash type with a simple special error correcting technique which can effectively compensate the level drift of the discriminators and the droop of the stretcher voltage is described. The DNL is comparable with the Wilkinson's ADC and long term drift is far better than its.

  1. A New Project-Based Curriculum of Design Thinking with Systems Engineering Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haruyama, S.; Kim, S.K.; Beiter, K.A.; Dijkema, G.P.J.; De Weck, O.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new education curriculum called "ALPS" (Active Learning Project Sequence) at Keio University that emphasizes team project-based learning and design thinking with systems engineering techniques. ALPS is a 6 month course, in which students work as a team and design and propose

  2. Multiple-output all-optical header processing technique based on two-pulse correlation principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, N.; Liu, Y.; Waardt, de H.; Hill, M.T.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    A serial all-optical header processing technique based on a two-pulse correlation principle in a semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror (SLALOM) configuration that can have a large number of output ports is presented. The operation is demonstrated experimentally at a 10Gbit/s Manchester

  3. Adjustments of microwave-based measurements on coal moisture using natural radioactivity techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Fernandez, I.; Luengo-Garcia, J.C.; Alonso-Hidalgo, M.; Folgueras-Diaz, B. [University of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain)

    2006-01-07

    The use of nonconventional on-line measurements of moisture and ash content in coal is presented. The background research is briefly reviewed. The possibilities of adjusting microwave-based moisture measurements using natural radioactive techniques, and vice versa, are proposed. The results obtained from the simultaneous analysis of moisture and ash content as well as the correlation improvements are shown.

  4. An Experimental Technique for Structural Diagnostic Based on Laser Vibrometry and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Castellini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years damage detection techniques based on vibration data have been largely investigated with promising results for many applications. In particular, several attempts have been made to determine which kind of data should be extracted for damage monitoring.

  5. Multidimensional Test Assembly Based on Lagrangian Relaxation Techniques. Research Report 98-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    In this paper, a mathematical programming approach is presented for the assembly of ability tests measuring multiple traits. The values of the variance functions of the estimators of the traits are minimized, while test specifications are met. The approach is based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and provides good results for the two…

  6. An Active Damping Technique for Small DC-Link Capacitor Based Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    A small dc-link capacitor based drive system shows instability when it is operated with large input line inductance at operating points with high power. This paper presents a simple, new active damping technique that can stabilize effectively the drive system at unstable operating points, offering...

  7. 78 FR 16275 - Extension of the Duration of Programmatic Agreements Based on the Department of Energy Prototype...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Based on the Department of Energy Prototype Programmatic Agreement for Its Weatherization Assistance... Department of Energy Prototype Programmatic Agreement for its Weatherization Assistance Program, State Energy... under the prototype Programmatic Agreement (PA) for the Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental...

  8. Efficient Bayesian Compressed Sensing-based Channel Estimation Techniques for Massive MIMO-OFDM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Salihi, Hayder Qahtan Kshash; Nakhai, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Efficient and highly accurate channel state information (CSI) at the base station (BS) is essential to achieve the potential benefits of massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. However, the achievable accuracy that is attainable is limited in practice due to the problem of pilot contamination. It has recently been shown that compressed sensing (CS) techniques can address the pilot contamination problem. However, CS-based channel estimation requires prior knowledge of channel sp...

  9. Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice.AIM: To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes.DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised controlled trials o...

  10. Corrosion product balances for the Ringhals PWR plants based on extensive fuel crud and water chemistry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.; Wikmark, G.; Bengtsson, B.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion product balance in a PWR plant is of great importance for the fuel performance as well as for the radiation field buildup. This balance is of special concern in connection to steam generator replacement (SGR) and power uprate projects. The Ringhals PWRs are all of Westinghouse design. Two of the plants have performed Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) to I-690 SG tubes and such a replacement is being planned in the third and last unit in 2011. Two of the units are in different phases of power uprate projects. The plants are all on 10-14-months cycles operating with medium to high fuel duty. Water chemistry is controlled by a pH300 in the range ∼7.2 to 7.4 from beginning of cycle to end of cycle (BOC-EOC) in the units with new SGs while kept at a coordinated pH of 7.2 in the one still using I-600. The maximum Li content has recently been increased to about 4.5 to 5 ppm in all units. In order to be able to improve the assessment of corrosion product balances in the plants, comprehensive fuel crud measurements were performed in 2007. Improved integrated reactor water sampling techniques have also been introduced in order to make accurate mass balances possible. The corrosion products covered in the study are the main constituents, Ni, Fe and Cr in the primary circuit Inconel and stainless steel, together with Co. The activated corrosion products, Co-58, Co-60, Cr-51, Fe-59 and Mn-54, are all mainly produced through neutron irradiation of the covered corrosion products. The main results of the corrosion product balances are presented. Observed differences between the plants, indicating significant impact of pH control and SG tube materials, are presented and discussed. The importance of accurate sampling techniques is especially addressed in this paper. (author)

  11. A comparison of base running and sliding techniques in collegiate baseball with implications for sliding into first base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Ficklin

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There was a non-significant trend toward an advantage for diving into first base over running through it, but more research is needed, and even if the advantage is real, the risks of executing this technique probably outweigh the miniscule gain.

  12. Training community matrons in basic cognitive behavioural therapy-based techniques for patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David; Davies, Caroline; Dixon, Brendan; Hodgson, Amanda; Reay, Simon; Barclay, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience anxiety and depression with a higher prevalence than the general population. Despite this, they are under-represented in mental health services on a national scale, but do regularly have contact with health-care professionals such as community matrons. We aimed to explore the process of CBT-based skills supervision and the practical implications for community matrons using CBT-based techniques with COPD clients as part of their standard practice. Twenty community matrons took part in a 2-day CBT-based skills training programme. Measurements of their knowledge and understanding of CBT-based skills were taken before and following the training. Additionally, they completed written feedback relating to the training. They were then supervised by CBT therapists for 6 months. Written feedback was obtained following this and some supervisors participated in a 1-hour focus group to discuss the process. Community matrons' knowledge and understanding of CBT-based techniques significantly improved following training, although findings did indicate that merely training did not always seamlessly translate into effective practice. Supervisor feedback suggested that it would be beneficial for community matrons to share positive practice of their use of basic CBT-based techniques among peers to maximise the perceived value of this approach.

  13. Methodology for Designing and Developing a New Ultra-Wideband Antenna Based on Bio-Inspired Optimization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    on Bio -Inspired Optimization Techniques by Canh Ly, Nghia Tran, and Ozlem Kilic Approved for public release; distribution is...Research Laboratory Methodology for Designing and Developing a New Ultra-Wideband Antenna Based on Bio -Inspired Optimization Techniques by...SUBTITLE Methodology for Designing and Developing a New Ultra-Wideband Antenna Based on Bio -Inspired Optimization Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  14. Encoding technique for high data compaction in data bases of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, J.; Cremy, C.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.; Dormido, S.

    1996-01-01

    At present, data requirements of hundreds of Mbytes/discharge are typical in devices such as JET, TFTR, DIII-D, etc., and these requirements continue to increase. With these rates, the amount of storage required to maintain discharge information is enormous. Compaction techniques are now essential to reduce storage. However, general compression techniques may distort signals, but this is undesirable for fusion diagnostics. We have developed a general technique for data compression which is described here. The technique, which is based on delta compression, does not require an examination of the data as in delayed methods. Delta values are compacted according to general encoding forms which satisfy a prefix code property and which are defined prior to data capture. Several prefix codes, which are bit oriented and which have variable code lengths, have been developed. These encoding methods are independent of the signal analog characteristics and enable one to store undistorted signals. The technique has been applied to databases of the TJ-I tokamak and the TJ-IU torsatron. Compaction rates of over 80% with negligible computational effort were achieved. Computer programs were written in ANSI C, thus ensuring portability and easy maintenance. We also present an interpretation, based on information theory, of the high compression rates achieved without signal distortion. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Electrocardiogram signal denoising based on empirical mode decomposition technique: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, G.; Lin, B.; Xu, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is nonlinear and non-stationary weak signal which reflects whether the heart is functioning normally or abnormally. ECG signal is susceptible to various kinds of noises such as high/low frequency noises, powerline interference and baseline wander. Hence, the removal of noises from ECG signal becomes a vital link in the ECG signal processing and plays a significant role in the detection and diagnosis of heart diseases. The review will describe the recent developments of ECG signal denoising based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique including high frequency noise removal, powerline interference separation, baseline wander correction, the combining of EMD and Other Methods, EEMD technique. EMD technique is a quite potential and prospective but not perfect method in the application of processing nonlinear and non-stationary signal like ECG signal. The EMD combined with other algorithms is a good solution to improve the performance of noise cancellation. The pros and cons of EMD technique in ECG signal denoising are discussed in detail. Finally, the future work and challenges in ECG signal denoising based on EMD technique are clarified.

  16. Electrocardiogram signal denoising based on empirical mode decomposition technique: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, G.; Lin, B.; Xu, Z.

    2017-03-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is nonlinear and non-stationary weak signal which reflects whether the heart is functioning normally or abnormally. ECG signal is susceptible to various kinds of noises such as high/low frequency noises, powerline interference and baseline wander. Hence, the removal of noises from ECG signal becomes a vital link in the ECG signal processing and plays a significant role in the detection and diagnosis of heart diseases. The review will describe the recent developments of ECG signal denoising based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique including high frequency noise removal, powerline interference separation, baseline wander correction, the combining of EMD and Other Methods, EEMD technique. EMD technique is a quite potential and prospective but not perfect method in the application of processing nonlinear and non-stationary signal like ECG signal. The EMD combined with other algorithms is a good solution to improve the performance of noise cancellation. The pros and cons of EMD technique in ECG signal denoising are discussed in detail. Finally, the future work and challenges in ECG signal denoising based on EMD technique are clarified.

  17. On-line diagnostic techniques for air-operated control valves based on time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenji; Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Shigeru; Komatsu, Yasuki; Satoh, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves - numerous valves of the type which are used in PWR plants. Generally the techniques can detect anomalies by failures in the initial stages for which detection is difficult by conventional surveillance of process parameters measured directly. However, the effectiveness of these techniques depends on the system being diagnosed. The difficulties in applying diagnostic techniques to air-operated control valves seem to come from the reduced sensitivity of their response as compared with hydraulic control systems, as well as the need to identify anomalies in low level signals that fluctuate only slightly but continuously. In this research, simulation tests were performed by setting various kinds of failure modes for a test valve with the same specifications as of a valve actually used in the plants. Actual control signals recorded from an operating plant were then used as input signals for simulation. The results of the tests confirmed the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves. (author)

  18. Sociologists in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the work activities of the extension sociologist, the relative advantage and disadvantage of extension roles in relation to teaching/research roles, and the relevance of sociological training and research for extension work. (NQ)

  19. Prediction of drug synergy in cancer using ensemble-based machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Rana, Prashant Singh; Singh, Urvinder

    2018-04-01

    Drug synergy prediction plays a significant role in the medical field for inhibiting specific cancer agents. It can be developed as a pre-processing tool for therapeutic successes. Examination of different drug-drug interaction can be done by drug synergy score. It needs efficient regression-based machine learning approaches to minimize the prediction errors. Numerous machine learning techniques such as neural networks, support vector machines, random forests, LASSO, Elastic Nets, etc., have been used in the past to realize requirement as mentioned above. However, these techniques individually do not provide significant accuracy in drug synergy score. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to design a neuro-fuzzy-based ensembling approach. To achieve this, nine well-known machine learning techniques have been implemented by considering the drug synergy data. Based on the accuracy of each model, four techniques with high accuracy are selected to develop ensemble-based machine learning model. These models are Random forest, Fuzzy Rules Using Genetic Cooperative-Competitive Learning method (GFS.GCCL), Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Dynamic Evolving Neural-Fuzzy Inference System method (DENFIS). Ensembling is achieved by evaluating the biased weighted aggregation (i.e. adding more weights to the model with a higher prediction score) of predicted data by selected models. The proposed and existing machine learning techniques have been evaluated on drug synergy score data. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed method outperforms others in terms of accuracy, root mean square error and coefficient of correlation.

  20. Breast conservation therapy based on liberal selection criteria and less extensive surgery. Analysis of cases with positive margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Atsushi; Kondo, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between the margin status and the risk of in-breast recurrence (IBR) is an important consideration in patients treated with breast conservation therapy but has not been defined adequately. To address this issue, 1533 clinical stage I and II patients who completed irradiation therapy between 1983 and 1998 were evaluated. Only selection criterion was whether she could be satisfied with cosmesis after lumpectomy. Size and location of the tumor, nodal status, histology and age were not primary consideration. The tumor was excised in such a way to obtain macroscopically clear margins. The breast was treated with 50 Gy of external irradiation but without boost. Margins were evaluated by serially sectioning of the specimen and the margin was judged positive only when cancer cells were present on the inked surface. Margins were also evaluated by scratch cytology. Seventy two IBR were experienced within 5 years. Only age and margin status were found to be independent risk factors. Five-year IBR rate with negative and positive margins was 3.7% and 10.0%, respectively. In patients with positive margins, number of positive site and positive cytology were independent risk factor for IBR. IBR rate among patients with focally involved margins by non-comedo, comedo and invasive ca, was 0.0%, 3.5%, and 8.7%, respectively. IBR rate in more than focal involvement by non-comedo, comedo, and invasive ca, was 4.0%, 33.0% and 30.0%, respectively. If histologically positive margin was also positive cytologically, IBR was 14.8%, whereas only 3.6% if negative cytologically. Even with liberal patient selection and less extensive local treatment, adequate local control can be obtained, provided that margins are histologically and/or cytologically negative. Focal margin involvement by DCIS or more than focal involvement by non-comedo type DCIS does not jeopardize local control. More than focal involvement by comedo DCIS or involvement by invasive ca results in high IBR rate