Community-based Tourism and Rural Development: The Case of the Wechiau Hippo Sanctuary in the Wa West District of Ghana. ... the sustainable management of the Sanctuary. KEY DESCRIPTORS: Community-based Tourism, Nature Conservation, Eco-system maintenance, Participatory Planning; Rural Development.
Oct 2, 2012 ... 9, No. 2, October, 2012. Kwadwo Adusei-Asante and Peter Hancock. When Empowerment Disempowers: A case study of Ghana's Community-Based Rural Development Projects. Nussbaum, M. (2000). Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomas Lopez-Guzman; Osvaldo Borges; Ana Maria Castillo-Canalejo
Community-based tourism is taking its place in the world as an alternative to traditional tourist destinations, especially in developing countries. This form of tourism allows for greater contact with the local community and for the tourist to experience new sensations while enabling the economic and social development of the geographic area. In this paper, the results of fieldwork carried out in the island of Fogo (Cape Verde) are presented, assessing the opinion and perception tourists visi...
Courtney, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A.; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W.; Olshansky, Ellen
Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding community-based telehealth. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults as a first step in feasibility assessment. Participants included residents (n=6) and community agency case managers (n=3) of a HUD-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide the plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. PMID:20509594
Mathew, Lilly; Brewer, Barbara B; Crist, Janice D; Poedel, Robin J
In this study, a community-based participatory research approach was used for developing content for a virtual simulation case. The virtual simulation case was designed to develop the cultural competence of prelicensure nursing students in caring for a Puerto Rican patient with diabetes. This article presents the method used to establish a Puerto Rican community advisory board to develop content for a virtual simulation case for cultural competency.
Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock
Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.
Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock
Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.
Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.
Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles
Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…
Karki, Bindu; Kittel, Guenter; Bolokon, Ignatius; Duke, Trevor
Papua New Guinea is one of the 14 highest-burden countries for tuberculosis (TB) infection, but few community-based studies exist. We evaluated a low-cost method of active community case finding in Kabwum and Wasu in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. Over 3 months we visited 26 villages and screened adults and children for symptoms and signs of TB. Sputum samples were examined using smear microscopy. A total of 1700 people had chronic symptoms, of which 267 were suspicious for TB on further examination. Sputum from 230 symptomatic adults yielded 97 samples that were positive for acid-fast bacilli. In addition, 15 cases of extrapulmonary TB in adults and 17 cases of TB in children were identified. One hundred and thirty people were identified with active TB disease among the source population of approximately 17 000, giving an estimated prevalence of 765 per 100 000. One hundred and six (82%) cases were not previously diagnosed. The cost per case identified was US$146. It is feasible to conduct active community-based case finding and treatment initiation for TB with limited resources and in remote areas, and in Papua New Guinea the yield was high. Active case finding and follow-up of treatment in villages is needed to address the hidden burden of TB in Papua New Guinea and other high-burden Asia Pacific countries. PMID:28033717
Courtney, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W; Olshansky, Ellen
Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding such interventions. As a first step in feasibility assessment, we used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults. Participants included residents (n = 6) and community agency case managers (n = 3) of a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions from and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Commons scholarship has tended to focus on the administration and use of commons by individuals and households and less so on collective enterprises that extract, transform and market what they harvest from the commons. In this paper, we consider Nuevo San Juan, a Mexican case that is well known in the community forestry and commons literature. In San Juan, indigenous community members who hold the rights for the commons are also the members of the enterprise that transforms and markets goods from the commons. We argue that such a strategy is one way to confront internal and external pressures on a commons. We draw upon the transcripts of 40 interviews undertaken during 2006 which are analyzed using a framework developed from the social, community-based and indigenous enterprise literature. Our goal was to utilize this framework to analyze the San Juan Forest Enterprise and understand its emergence and formation as a long-standing community-based enterprise that intersects with a commons, and thereby identify factors that increase chances of success for community enterprises. We found that by starting from the community-based and indigenous enterprise literature and using that literature to engage with thinking on commons, it was possible to consider the enterprise from the perspective of a regulatory framework rather than from the poles of dependency and modernization theories in which much commons work has been based. Enterprise and commons intersect when both are guided by core cultural values and the enterprise can become a new site for the creation of social and cultural cohesion. We also found that there were a number of necessary conditions for commons-based community-enterprises to retain internal and external legitimacy, namely: (1 leadership representative of the broad social mission rooted in the customary institutions, values and norms of the community; (2 accountability of enterprise leaders to the memberships they represent; and (3
Daniel H. Mlenga
Full Text Available Sanitation related diseases have become endemic in southern Africa resulting in increased sanitation and hygiene morbidity and mortality. The region has experienced 318 400 cases of cholera and diarrhoea outbreaks between 2006 and 2012. There is insufficient financing for sanitation and hygiene activities, as people lack basic sanitation services, they engage in open defecation, the primary cause of faecal oral disease transmission. This study investigated Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS, subsidy free, community based disaster risk reduction approach, for open defecation reduction, in four constituencies in Swaziland. Data collected from households, through a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey illustrated that with appropriate training, involvement of traditional and community leaders, CLTS minimises open defecation. There is need of participatory rural appraisal through regular community monitoring and feedback meetings, as the disgust generated especially for women and youth, through the meetings, as well as group dynamics, steer the sustained construction and use of sanitation facilities. Lack of coordination between Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs leads to slow improvement of sanitation coverage, wherein the same communities are promoting CLTS and others are promoting Subsidy Based Sanitation Intervention (SBSI which involves subsidies. It is recommended that there be coordination between partners for harmonisation of messages and an integration of the CLTS and SBSI approaches.
In this article the move toward international education in the community college is questioned. Who benefits when two-year schools are globalized? An alternative to the current international approach is suggested. The case is made that community colleges serve the public interest when curricula are centered on solving problems unique to the…
Sørensen, Sabrina S; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla M
was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) from the perspective of the healthcare sector. Costs were valued in British Pounds (£) at price level 2016. Scenario analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted in order to assess uncertainty......Objectives: To analyse the cost effectiveness of community-based case management for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: The study took place in the third largest municipality in Denmark and was conducted as a randomised controlled trial with 12 months...... of follow-up. A total of 150 patients with COPD were randomised into two groups receiving usual care and case management in addition to usual care. Case management included among other things self care proficiency, medicine compliance, and care coordination. Outcome measure for the analysis...
Edith M. Williams
Full Text Available The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a result of community education, the remediation plan suggested by the community was adopted. Additionally, when a local childhood lead poisoning testing program was canceled, community members signed a letter to legislators urging them to replace the funding, which was restored within one week. This demonstrated how coordinated community-based capacity-building efforts can influence health policy.
Fox, Christine K; Sidney, Stephen; Fullerton, Heather J
A better understanding of the stroke risk factors in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) could inform stroke prevention strategies. We analyzed pediatric stroke associated with CHD in a large community-based case-control study. From 2.5 million children (aged hemorrhagic strokes and randomly selected age- and facility-matched stroke-free controls (3 per case). We determined exposure to CHD (diagnosed before stroke) and used conditional logistic regression to analyze stroke risk factors. CHD was identified in 15 of 412 cases (4%) versus 7 of 1236 controls (0.6%). Cases of childhood stroke (occurring between ages 29 days to 20 years) with CHD had 19-fold (odds ratio, 19; 95% confidence interval 4.2-83) increased stroke risk compared to controls. History of CHD surgery was associated with >30-fold (odds ratio, 31; confidence interval 4-241) increased risk of stroke in children with CHD when compared with controls. After excluding perioperative strokes, the history of CHD surgery still increased the childhood stroke risk (odds ratio, 13; confidence interval 1.5-114). The majority of children with stroke and CHD were outpatients at the time of stroke, and almost half the cases who underwent cardiac surgery had their stroke >5 years after the most recent procedure. An estimated 7% of ischemic and 2% of hemorrhagic childhood strokes in the population were attributable to CHD. CHD is an important childhood stroke risk factor. Children who undergo CHD surgery remain at elevated risk outside the perioperative period and would benefit from optimized long-term stroke prevention strategies. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available We analyze four case studies from Latin America using the concept of multilevel governance to assess at what vertical and horizontal levels and in what roles various state, market, and civil society actors interact for successful community-based environmental management (CBEM. In particular, we address the problem of how a conflict over natural resources with high negative impacts on the livelihoods of the respective communities could be overcome by a governance change that resulted in a multilevel governance arrangement for CBEM. The analysis involves a mixed-methods approach that combines a variety of empirical methods in social research such as field visits, personal interviews, participant observations, and stakeholder workshops. To visualize results, we introduce two schemes to present the composition of the governance structures for cross-case comparison. The first scheme plots the different actors into an arrangement that shows their associations with different societal spheres and at which territorial scales they are primarily involved. The second scheme differentiates these actors based on their complementing governance roles. Active roles are attributed to actors who implement activities on the ground, whereas passive roles are assigned to actors who provide specific resources such as knowledge, funding, legislative framework, or others. All cases involved governance actors from more than one societal sphere who operate on at least three different territorial levels (local to international and in distinct roles. Results show that multilevel governance can strengthen CBEM in different ways. First, the success of CBEM is an outcome of the sum of horizontal and vertical interactions of all involved actors, and there is no most appropriate single level of social organization at which a problem can best be addressed. Only the cooperation of actors from different societal spheres within and across levels ensures accessibility to needed
Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the recently conceived and ongoing counter-extremism campaign, Voices Against Extremism, a campaign designed and implemented by university students from Vancouver, Canada. Through a multifaceted approach that includes extensive use of social media, academic research, and grassroots community activities and involvement, Voices Against Extremism operates under the mission statement of countering and preventing violent extremism and radicalization through the humanization of minority groups and through the education and engagement of the silent majority. This article examines the effectiveness of this campaign as a proactive counter-radicalization strategy by outlining its specific components and activities. Based on the results of this campaign, suggestions are then offered regarding specific counter-extremism and counter-radicalizations policies that may be adopted by law enforcement, policymakers – or any other organizations concerned with countering and preventing radicalization and violent extremism – with a specific focus on the potential benefits of proactive and long-term social and community engagement.
Sato, Mari; Atogami, Fumi; Nakamura, Yasuka; Kusaka, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Toyoko
The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 generated a tsunami that directly struck Japan. Public health nurses (PHNs) played important roles in this disaster response and community recovery. This research identified a PHN's experience in an affected area. An ethnographic case study approach was used to obtain in-depth information regarding the experiences of one PHN, using semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and statistical documents. Six themes were identified and explored, including that the PHN undertook overwhelming responsibilities to protect the local residents, made several autonomous decisions, and had a strong sense of mission. These were based on the relationship-building that occurred with the local residents due to the geographical characteristics and her own preparations. The findings encourage PHNs to participate in simulations of disasters in preparation for major catastrophes and establish good collaborative efforts with residents by being a part of the community. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alejandra Orozco-Quintero; Iain Davidson-Hunt
Commons scholarship has tended to focus on the administration and use of commons by individuals and households and less so on collective enterprises that extract, transform and market what they harvest from the commons. In this paper, we consider Nuevo San Juan, a Mexican case that is well known in the community forestry and commons literature. In San Juan, indigenous community members who hold the rights for the commons are also the members of the enterprise that transforms and markets goods...
The drives to internationalise the UK curriculum and psychology students' desires to work in communities are brought together in this paper. International community-based learning (ICBL) links with many psychology students' motivations to make contributions to others; with the potential to enhance students' learning and cultural sensitivities. The…
Teixeira de Melo, Ana; Alarcao, Madalena
Family-centered, community-based programs are particularly suited to support families with at-risk children or maltreated children and achieve family preservation or reunification. In these child protection and child welfare cases, assessment is of great importance to inform decision making. But the implementation of services to support the…
Joia, Luiz Antonio
Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…
William Munoz Marticorena
Full Text Available The relationship of a community-based enterprise (CBE and a mining company was reviewed from the perspective of shared value creation. Specifically, through the study of the Mallay CBE and its interaction with the Buenaventura mining company, the opportunity to create economic value by creating value for the community was verified. The CBE is an organizational innovation whose management is oriented towards the market, integrating its activities with the operative dynamics of the mining company through the provision of services. CBE focuses on member’s economic benefit and the social welfare of the broader community. There are, however, barriers that limit the growth and optimization of the desired impacts caused by this articulation. Despite this, the economic and social value generated is significant and the defined growth model under certain circumstances could be replicable and scalable.
Carlos M. Souza Jr.
Full Text Available Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+ scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88, but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.
Lukersmith, Sue; Fernandez, Ana; Millington, Michael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
Case management is a complex intervention. Complexity arises from the interaction of different components: the model (theoretical basis), implementation context (service), population and health condition, focus for the intervention (client and/or their family), case manager's actions (interventions) and the target of case management (integrated care and support, client's community participation). There is a lack of understanding and a common language. To our knowledge there is no classification (taxonomy) for community-based case management. To develop a community-based case management in brain injury taxonomy (BICM-T), as a common language and understanding of case management for use in quality analysis, policy, planning and practice. The mixed qualitative methods used multiple sources of knowledge including scoping, framing and a nominal group technique to iteratively develop the Beta version (draft) of the taxonomy. A two part developmental evaluation involving case studies and mapping to international frameworks assessed the applicability and acceptability (feasibility) before finalization of the BICM-T. The BICM-T includes a definition of community-based case management, taxonomy trees, tables and a glossary. The interventions domain tree has 9 main actions (parent category): engagement, holistic assessment, planning, education, training and skills development, emotional and motivational support, advising, coordination, monitoring; 17 linked actions (children category); 8 related actions; 63 relevant terms defined in the glossary. The BICM-T provides a knowledge map with the definitions and relationships between the core actions (interventions domain). Use of the taxonomy as a common language will benefit practice, quality analysis, evaluation, policy, planning and resource allocation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singla, Shweta; Kaushal, Sandeep; Arora, Shalini; Singh, Gagandeep
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) adversely affect bone health and there are reports describing association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the bone profile (bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density [BMD]) of patients with epilepsy and compare them to their age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-matched healthy controls in a community. This was a nested case-control study conducted in fifty individuals, which included 25 cases (age above 18 years and on AEDs for at least 3 years) for which 25 controls were selected from the same community. Bone mineral parameters (serum calcium, proteins, phosphorous, alkaline phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and Vitamin D) and BMD were measured. There was significant hypocalcemia ( P = 0.003), hypoproteinemia ( P = 0.014), hyperparathyroidism ( P = 0.048), and increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase ( P = 0.019) in cases as compared to controls. The difference was insignificant in the serum levels of Vitamin D and phosphorous among both the groups. Vitamin D was significantly low in female patients as compared to males ( P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in BMD at the lumbar spine and femur neck among both the groups. Mean duration of epilepsy was longest in patients with osteoporosis (23.6 years), and increasing duration of epilepsy was associated with reduction in age- and sex-corrected total BMD mean Z-score anteroposterior spine. There was negative correlation between cumulative drug load and T-score of patients with epilepsy. Patients on long-term AED treatment have altered bone profile as evident from biochemical parameters and reduced BMD. There is a need for more extensive research and that too on a larger sample size.
Fathima, Mariam; Saini, Bandana; Foster, Juliet M; Armour, Carol L
Case finding of patients at risk of COPD by community pharmacists could identify a substantial number of people with undiagnosed COPD, but little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of pharmacy-based COPD case finding using microspirometry. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of COPD case-finding service provided by community pharmacists, utilizing a combination of risk assessment questionnaire and microspirometry. A 6-month service was conducted in 21 community pharmacies in Australia. Pharmacists trained in COPD case finding, including lung function test (LFT), invited their patients aged ≥35 years with a history of smoking and/or respiratory symptoms to participate. High-risk patients were identified via a COPD risk assessment questionnaire (Initial Screening Questionnaire [ISQ]) and underwent LFT. Pharmacists referred patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV 6 ) ratio 3 indicating high COPD risk. Of the 157 patients who were able to complete LFT, 61 (39%) had an FEV 1 /FEV 6 ratio of 3) were at a significantly higher risk of an FEV 1 /FEV 6 ratio of <0.75, compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms. A total of 15 (10%) patients were diagnosed with COPD by their GP. Another eight (5%) patients were diagnosed with other medical conditions and 87% of these were initiated on treatment. Although only half of all screened patients lived in regional areas, 93% of those diagnosed with COPD were from regional areas. A brief community pharmacy-based COPD case-finding service utilizing the ISQ, LFT and GP referral is feasible and may lead to identification and diagnosis of a substantial number of people with COPD. This might be an important strategy for reducing the burden of COPD, particularly for those living in rural locations.
Fathima, Mariam; Saini, Bandana; Foster, Juliet M; Armour, Carol L
Mariam Fathima,1 Bandana Saini,1,2 Juliet M Foster,1 Carol L Armour1,3 1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, 3Central Sydney Area Health Service, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background and objective: Case finding of patients at risk of COPD by community pharmacists could identify a substantial number of people with undiagnosed COPD, but little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of pharmacy-based COPD case fin...
Full Text Available Mariam Fathima,1 Bandana Saini,1,2 Juliet M Foster,1 Carol L Armour1,3 1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, 3Central Sydney Area Health Service, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background and objective: Case finding of patients at risk of COPD by community pharmacists could identify a substantial number of people with undiagnosed COPD, but little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of pharmacy-based COPD case finding using microspirometry. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of COPD case-finding service provided by community pharmacists, utilizing a combination of risk assessment questionnaire and microspirometry. Methods: A 6-month service was conducted in 21 community pharmacies in Australia. Pharmacists trained in COPD case finding, including lung function test (LFT, invited their patients aged ≥35 years with a history of smoking and/or respiratory symptoms to participate. High-risk patients were identified via a COPD risk assessment questionnaire (Initial Screening Questionnaire [ISQ] and underwent LFT. Pharmacists referred patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6 ratio <0.75 to their general practitioner (GP for further assessment and diagnosis. Results: In all, 91 of 167 (54% patients had an ISQ score >3 indicating high COPD risk. Of the 157 patients who were able to complete LFT, 61 (39% had an FEV1/FEV6 ratio of <0.75 and were referred to their GP. Patients with high ISQ symptoms scores (>3 were at a significantly higher risk of an FEV1/FEV6 ratio of <0.75, compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms. A total of 15 (10% patients were diagnosed with COPD by their GP. Another eight (5% patients were diagnosed with other medical conditions and 87% of these were initiated on treatment. Although only half of all screened patients lived in regional areas, 93
Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati
Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working
Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith; Cardenas, Zelenne; Grills, Cheryl; Porter, Charles
Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth.
Andrew Lou L. Mungcal
Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Jackson, Claire; Shaw, Sara; Janamian, Tina
Co-creation-collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders-is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development. It has potential for "moving beyond the ivory towers" to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community-academic partnerships. Principles of successful co-creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process. If these principles are not followed, co-creation efforts may fail. Co-creation-collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders-reflects a "Mode 2" relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co-creation is widely believed to increase research impact. We undertook a narrative review of different models of co-creation relevant to community-based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their common philosophical assumptions, principles of success, and explanations for failures. We applied these to an empirical case study of a community-based research-service partnership led by the Centre of Research Excellence in Quality and Safety in Integrated Primary-Secondary Care at the University of Queensland, Australia. Co-creation emerged independently in several fields, including business studies ("value co-creation"), design science ("experience-based co-design"), computer science ("technology co-design"), and community development ("participatory research"). These diverse models share some common features, which were also evident in the case study. Key success principles included (1) a systems perspective (assuming emergence, local adaptation, and nonlinearity); (2) the framing of research as a creative enterprise with human experience at its core; and (3) an emphasis on process (the framing of the program, the nature of
Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.
Bergeron, Natasha; Welsh, Paul
Illustrates the contribution that the Student Case Competition of the Canadian Evaluation Society can make to agencies with evaluation needs by describing the experience of an addiction and family services program whose gambling addiction treatment program used as the case in the qualifying round of the 1998 competition. (SLD)
Studdert, David M; Vu, Tamara M; Fox, Sarah S; Anderson, Ian P; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R
Researchers have longstanding concerns about the logistical and administrative burdens posed by ethics review of multisite studies involving human participants. Centralised ethics review, in which approval by one committee has authority across multiple sites, is widely touted as a strategy for streamlining the process. The Harmonisation of Multi-centre Ethical Review (HoMER) project is currently developing such a system for Australia. It is unclear how centralised review will work for multisite Indigenous health research, where the views of local stakeholders are important and community consultation is mandatory. Our recent experience in conducting the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey (NIEHS) shows how elaborate the current ethics approval and community consultation processes can be, and points to several lessons and ideas to guide pending reforms.
Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine
Spatial distribution and deployment of community-based distributors implementing integrated community case management (iCCM): Geographic information system (GIS) mapping study in three South Sudan states.
Pratt, Abigail; Dale, Martin; Olivi, Elena; Miller, Jane
In late 2012 and in conjunction with South Sudan's Ministry of Health - National Malaria Control Program, PSI (Population Services International) conducted a comprehensive mapping exercise to assess geographical coverage of its integrated community case management (iCCM) program and consider scope for expansion. The operational research was designed to provide evidence and support for low-cost mapping and monitoring systems, demonstrating the use of technology to enhance the quality of programming and to allow for the improved allocation of resources through appropriate and need-based deployment of community-based distributors (CBDs). The survey took place over the course of three months and program staff gathered GPS (global positioning system) data, along with demographic data, for over 1200 CBDs and 111 CBD supervisors operating in six counties in South Sudan. Data was collated, cleaned and quality assured, input into an Excel database, and subsequently uploaded to geographic information system (GIS) for spatial analysis and map production. The mapping results showed that over three-quarters of CBDs were deployed within a five kilometer radius of a health facility or another CBD, contrary to program planning and design. Other characteristics of the CBD and CBD supervisor profiles (age, gender, literacy) were more closely matched with other regional programs. The results of this mapping exercise provided a valuable insight into the contradictions found between a program "deployment plan" and the realities observed during field implementation. It also highlighted an important need for program implementers and national-level strategy makers to consider the natural and community-driven diffusion of CBDs, and take into consideration the strength of the local health facilities when developing a deployment plan.
Shoana Humphries; Thomas P. Holmes; Karen Kainer; Carlos Gabriel Goncalves Koury; Edson Cruz; Rosana de Miranda Rocha
Community-based forest management is an integral component of sustainable forest management and conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, where it has been heavily subsidized for the last ten years. Yet knowledge of the financial viability and impact of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) is lacking. This study evaluates the profitability of three CFEs in the...
Atzmanstorfer, Karl; Resl, Richard; Eitzinger, Anton; Izurieta, Xiomara
Over the last years, geospatial web platforms, social media, and volunteered geographic information (VGI) have opened a window of opportunity for traditional Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) to usher in a new era. Taking advantage of these technological achievements, this paper presents a new approach for a citizen-orientated framework of spatial planning that aims at integrating participatory community work into existing decision-making structures. One major cornerstone of the presented approach is the application of a social geoweb platform (the GeoCitizen platform) that combines geo-web technologies and social media in one single tool allowing citizens to collaboratively report observations, discuss ideas, solve, and monitor problems in their living environment at a local level. This paper gives an account of an ongoing participatory land-zoning process in the Capital District of Quito, Ecuador, where the GeoCitizen platform is applied in a long-term study. PMID:27019644
Atzmanstorfer, Karl; Resl, Richard; Eitzinger, Anton; Izurieta, Xiomara
Over the last years, geospatial web platforms, social media, and volunteered geographic information (VGI) have opened a window of opportunity for traditional Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) to usher in a new era. Taking advantage of these technological achievements, this paper presents a new approach for a citizen-orientated framework of spatial planning that aims at integrating participatory community work into existing decision-making structures. One major cornerstone of the presented approach is the application of a social geoweb platform (the GeoCitizen platform) that combines geo-web technologies and social media in one single tool allowing citizens to collaboratively report observations, discuss ideas, solve, and monitor problems in their living environment at a local level. This paper gives an account of an ongoing participatory land-zoning process in the Capital District of Quito, Ecuador, where the GeoCitizen platform is applied in a long-term study.
Downing, Jennifer; Cook, Penny A; Madden, Hannah C E; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Higgins, Stephen P; Bellis, Mark A
The National Chlamydia Screening Programme in Greater Manchester (NCSP-GM) commissioned an evaluation of the management of gonorrhoea cases identified using the Gen-Probe APTIMA Combo 2 assay (AC2). NCSP-GM provided data on gonorrhoea cases from a 6-month period (September 2007-February 2008). Data were collected from patient referral pathways to genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, including confirmatory testing, antibiotic resistance patterns and contact tracing. The AC2 positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated. 111 individuals tested positive for gonococcal infection using AC2 (0.7% of 16,028 individuals tested). Of these, 96 (0.6% of all tested) known index cases were seen at Greater Manchester GUM clinics. 78/96 (14 men, 64 women) underwent confirmatory microscopy and gonococcal culture. Confirmatory tests were positive in 14 men (100%) but only 40 women (63%). Thus the PPV of AC2 was 69% (54/78). Sensitivity in women may have been reduced by limited partner information and sample-taking (only 28% had a full gonorrhoea screen). Gonorrhoea screening in an NCSP-targeted population identified gonorrhoea in a low-risk population. Subsequent management in GUM clinics was variable and limited sample-taking may have decreased the sensitivity of confirmatory testing in women. Appropriate antibiotic sensitivity tests or, in their absence, a test of cure may be needed to ensure effective treatment.
Pratihast, A.K.; Herold, M.; Avitabile, V.; Bruin, de S.; Bartholomeus, H.; Souza Jr., C.M.; Ribbe, L.
Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring
Ryan L. Maroney
The number of protected areas in Mongolia has increased fourfold since the countryâs transition to a market-based economy over a decade ago; however, many of these protected areas have yet to realize their intended role as protectorates of biodiversity. Given the prevalence of (semi-) nomadic pastoralists in rural areas, effective conservation initiatives in Mongolia...
Cost-effectiveness analysis of the national implementation of integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services in Ghana for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia
Escribano Ferrer, Blanca; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Gyapong, Margaret
Background: Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia: the integrated community case management (iCCM) and the community-based health planning and services (CHPS). The aim of the study......CCM in the Northern Region had higher cost per malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia case diagnosed and treated when compared to the Volta Region and to the CHPS strategy in the Northern Region. Conclusions: Integrated community case management was more cost-effective than CHPS for the treatment of malaria...... Insurance Scheme (NHIS) benefit package. An acceptability study of including iCCM in the NHIS should be conducted....
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is implemented in Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), Cambodia after abolishment of commercial fishing lots in 2001 and 2012. One objective of CBNRM implementation is to reduce poverty of the local communities in TSL. This study aimed to examine the impact of CBNRM on household consumption of fishermen in TSL through Propensity Score Matching method by comparing 248 non-CBNRM households and 223 CBNRM households This study reveals that CBNRM had a negative...
Nyato Daniel J
Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug
Lashner, B A; Kane, S V; Hanauer, S B
Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested a weak association between oral contraceptive use and Crohn's disease, specifically Crohn's colitis. To measure a possible etiologic association, 51 women with Crohn's disease who were 18-50 yr old were studied and compared with peer-nominated age- and sex-matched controls. There were no differences between cases and controls with respect to race, religion, marital status, and number of pregnancies. There was no association between oral contraceptive use and Crohn's disease incidence [current use: odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-1.59; former use: OR 1.80, CI 0.61-5.29; current or former use: OR 1.00, CI 0.46-2.16]. Stratifying by disease location also failed to identify an association. Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with Crohn's disease incidence. Controlling for possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking did not alter the lack of association between oral contraceptive use and Crohn's disease. Similarly, testing for interaction failed to demonstrate any effect modification. Analyzing for duration of current oral contraceptive use or time interval since last use failed to demonstrate a "dose-response" effect. The study was of sufficient size to detect statistical significance for oral contraceptive use for odds ratios of greater than or equal to 2.76. From this community-based matched case-control study, there was no association between oral contraceptive use and Crohn's disease, and women need not be advised to discontinue oral contraceptive use when a diagnosis of Crohn's disease is made.
Full Text Available Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM is implemented in Tonle Sap Lake (TSL, Cambodia after abolishment of commercial fishing lots in 2001 and 2012. One objective of CBNRM implementation is to reduce poverty of the local communities in TSL. This study aimed to examine the impact of CBNRM on household consumption of fishermen in TSL through Propensity Score Matching method by comparing 248 non-CBNRM households and 223 CBNRM households This study reveals that CBNRM had a negative impact on adult equivalent consumption in the community including the fishermen who fished only inside the community boundary and those who fished both inside and outside the community boundary. However, this study also shows a positive impact of CBNRM on adult equivalent consumption of the households who fished only inside the community boundary. The local community needs more rights to exclude the migrant fishermen and rights to enforce the laws. This study also highlights that alternate income sources should also be created that could be created by expanding the market of the existing ecotourism-job, i.e. hyacinth-made handicraft making.
... Health A to Z › Community-Based Care Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Other Resources Caregiving How To's Tools & Tips Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Join our e-newsletter! ...
Gubo, Qi; Xiuli, Xu; Ting, Zuo; Xiaoyun, Li; Keke, Chen; Xiaowei, Gao; Miao, Ji; Lin, Liu; Miankui, Mao; Jingsong, Li; Yiching, Song; Zhipu, Long; Min, Lu; Juanwen, Yuan; Vernooy, Ronnie
This article describes and reflects on a novel course developed at China Agricultural University to introduce Community-Based Natural Resource Management at the postgraduate level. This course, part of a larger educational renewal initiative addressing the current reform of China's higher education system, was developed through a participatory…
Smit, Jesper; Kaasch, Achim J; Søgaard, Mette; Thomsen, Reimar W; Nielsen, Henrik; Frøslev, Trine; Schønheyder, Henrik C
To investigate whether the use of systemic glucocorticoids is a risk factor for community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CA-SAB). We used population-based medical registries in Northern Denmark to conduct a case-control study including all adults with first-time CA-SAB and matched population controls from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2011. Glucocorticoid users were categorized as current users (new or long-term use), former users, and nonusers. Using conditional logistic regression, we computed odds ratios (ORs) of CA-SAB according to glucocorticoid exposure, overall and by 90-day prednisolone-equivalent cumulative dose. We identified 2638 patients with first-time CA-SAB and 26,379 matched population controls. Current glucocorticoid users experienced considerably increased risk of CA-SAB compared with nonusers (adjusted OR=2.48; 95% CI, 2.12-2.90). The adjusted OR was 2.73 (95% CI, 2.17-3.45) in new users, 2.31 (95% CI, 1.90-2.82) in long-term users, and much lower at 1.33 (95% CI, 0.98-1.81) in former users of glucocorticoids compared with nonusers. The risk of CA-SAB increased with higher 90-day cumulative doses. Compared with nonusers of glucocorticoids, the adjusted OR was 1.32 (95% CI, 1.01-1.72) for persons with a cumulative dose of 150 mg or less, 2.42 (95% CI, 1.76-3.33) for persons whose cumulative dose was greater than 500 to 1000 mg, and 6.25 (95% CI, 4.74-8.23) for persons with a cumulative dose greater than 1000 mg. Glucocorticoid use was associated with a substantially increased risk of CA-SAB. The risk increased with higher cumulative dose, revealing a distinct dose-response relation. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Fei; Wang, Ting; Yin, Jiong; Bai, Xu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Meng, Jun; Qu, Cheng-Yi
To explore the influencing factors on mild cognitive impairment among the community-based elderly population. A 'n : m' matched case-control study was conducted to analyze the risk factors. Cox regression model of survival analysis was selected to deal with non-geometric proportional matched data which was difficult to analyze by logistic regression model. Four hundred and twenty-three cases together with nine hundred and twenty-five controls were interviewed with an uniformed questionnaire. Through univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis, the odds ratio and 95% CI of these risk factors appeared to be: physical labor as 1.396 (1.092-1.785); smoking as 1.551 (1.021-2.359); higher level of blood glucose as 1.354 (1.102-1.664); HDL-C in the serum as 1.543 (1.232-1.932); LDL-C in the serum as 1.299 (1.060-1.592); lower level of estrogen in the serum as 1.263 (1.031-1.547); hypertension as 1.967 (1.438-2.689); diabete: 1.381 (1.139-1.675); depressive disorder: 1.406 (1.110-1.780); cerebral thrombosis as 1.593 (1.307-1.943); higher SBP as 1.331 (1.129-1.569) and ApoEepsilon 4 carrier as 1.462 (1.140-1.873) respectively. Odds ratio and 95% CI on protection factors appeared to be: reading newspaper frequently as 0.610 (0.503-0.740); frequently doing housework as 0.804 (0.665-0.973); frequently engaging in social activities as 0.617 (0.502-0.757); reemployment after formal retirement as 0.759 (0.636-0.906); having acumen olfaction as 0.900 (0.845-0.958); having extrovert personality as 0.829 (0.699-0.984); being decisive as 0.811 (0.662-0.993). The major measures to prevent MCI seemed to be including the following factors as: being intellectuals, engaging in healthy life style and decreasing the risk in developing hypertension, diabetes, depressive disorder and cerebrovascular disease. However, olfactory hypoesthesia, cowardice and having introvert character, ApoEepsilon 4 carrier etc could be treated as early indications to signify MCI.
Janne R. Rohe
Full Text Available The outcomes of marine conservation and related management interventions depend to a large extent on people's compliance with these rule systems. In the South Pacific, community-based marine resource management (CBMRM has gained wide recognition as a strategy for the sustainable management of marine resources. In current practice, CBMRM initiatives often build upon customary forms of marine governance, integrating scientific advice and management principles in collaboration with external partners. However, diverse socio-economic developments as well as limited legal mandates can challenge these approaches. Compliance with and effective (legally-backed enforcement of local management strategies constitute a growing challenge for communities—often resulting in considerable impact on the success or failure of CBMRM. Marine management arrangements are highly dynamic over time, and similarly compliance with rule systems tends to change depending on context. Understanding the factors contributing to (non- compliance in a given setting is key to the design and function of adaptive management approaches. Yet, few empirical studies have looked in depth into the dynamics around local (non- compliance with local marine tenure rules under the transforming management arrangements. Using two case studies from Solomon Islands and Fiji, we investigate what drives local (non- compliance with CBMRM and what hinders or supports its effective enforcement. The case studies reveal that non-compliance is mainly driven by: (1 diminishing perceived legitimacy of local rules and rule-makers; (2 increased incentives to break rules due to market access and/ or lack of alternative income; and (3 relatively weak enforcement of local rules (i.e., low perceptions of risk from sanctions for rule-breaking. These drivers do not stand alone but can act together and add up to impair effective management. We further analyze how enforcement of CBMRM is challenged through a range of
Full Text Available Major components within the philosophy of a sufficiency economy include moderation, prudence, and self-immunity together with knowledge and morality. These components were proposed to safeguard local communities from adverse changes and crises. Climatic crises due to global warming can impact upon local agricultural production and consumption systems. Yet, it is still questionable whether communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy can cope with climate change. The objective of this research was to study the coping and adaptive capacity to climate change of local agricultural communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy and to analyze the success factors of adaptation to climate change. The research found five adaptive strategies leading to a resilient livelihood: (1 self-evaluation, (2 diversity dependency, (3 storage and reserve, (4 cooperation, and (5 mobility over space and time. These strategies help to reduce exposure and sensitivity, while increasing adaptive capacity to climate change with the aims of sustainability and adaptation for survival, and protecting natural resource bases for food and settlement security. Moderation, prudence, and self-immunity are critical success factors of adaptation measures, whereas local ecological knowledge with morality is a core enabling factor for adapting to climate change. These factors can be applied in community-based climate change adaptation in the National Adaptation Plan.
This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.
This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a 'snapshot' or 'base case' look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future
Rudel Ruthann A
Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.
Full Text Available While community-based active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers.Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively.Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs.TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers
Sadler, Kate; Puett, Chloe; Myatt, Mark
Bangladesh ranks among the five countries with the highest burden of acute malnutrition in the world. Barisal Division is one of the poorest areas of southern Bangladesh, with low access to health care and high prevalence of malnutrition. This prospective cohort study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of adding the diagnosis and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) to the community case management (CCM) package delivered by community health workers (CHWs) outside health facilities in Bhola District, Barisal Division. CHWs were paid a monthly stipend of 800 Taka (US$11.80). A mid-upper arm circumference measurement and an oedema check for all children under three years old were introduced into routine CHW activities, including monthly growth monitoring and promotion sessions and household visits. CHWs provided ongoing sensitization to households and community members on the causes and consequences of SAM, encouraging early treatment seeking. Integration into the CCM package of services supported high quality of care for cases of SAM, and promoted program effectiveness. The recovery rate (92%), length of stay (37.4 days) and rate of weight gain (6.7 g/kg/day) were all significantly better than international Sphere standards. Further, the coverage achieved by CHWs in this program was 89% (CI 78%–96%), one of the highest levels achieved by SAM treatment services. CHWs achieved high quality of care, with 89% of workers attaining 90% error-free case management or higher in managing cases of SAM. In receiving SAM treatment within a package of integrated services, children treated by CHWs in this study had low levels of complications and co-morbidities. Doorstep delivery promoted early treatment in this remote area. Therefore cases were easier to treat and average caseloads appeared to be manageable for CHWs. While SAM treatment increased CHW workloads, this did not negatively affect the quality of other preventive and curative services delivered
Highfield, Linda; Bartholomew, L Kay; Hartman, Marieke A; Ford, M Molly; Balihe, Philomene
When community health planners select an evidence-based intervention that has been developed and tested in one situation and adapt it for use in a different situation or community, best practice suggests needs assessment and formative research in the new setting. Cancer prevention planners who are interested in adopting and adapting evidence-based approaches need to base their choices on a sound understanding of the health or behavioral risk problem in which they mean to intervene. This requires a balancing act of weighing community information against a broader perspective from the scientific literature and using the combination to identify and adapt an evidence-based intervention program that is likely to be effective in the new setting. This report is a case study of a community and organizational assessment conducted as a foundation for selecting and recommending adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for improving mammography appointment attendance. We used an inductive sequential exploratory mixed-methods design to inform this process. The process provides a model for formative research grounding evidence-based practice for cancer control planners. Future studies that incorporate findings from needs assessment into the adaptation of the selected intervention program may promote the effective dissemination of evidence-based programs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Ingram, Maia; Piper, Rosalinda; Kunz, Susan; Navarro, Cecilia; Sander, Alicia; Gastelum, Sylvia
Participatory evaluation can be an essential tool for community-based organizations in tailoring programs to the needs of the populations they serve. This article provides a case study of Salud Sí, a promotora-driven health promotion program designed to encourage physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and stress reduction among Mexican American women. Through a partnership between a community health center and an academic institution, we describe how the participatory evaluation framework is applied over a 10-year period throughout the stages of program development, implementation, and sustainability. Partners used the results to identify the essential elements of the health promotion program.
Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel
In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can tailor interventions to match family
Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel
Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. Methods This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Results Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Conclusions Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a global phenomenon, with estimates of one in four adults not being active enough to achieve health benefits, thus heightening the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. In order to realise the health and wellbeing gains associated with physical activity the behaviour must be sustained. Community-based group exercise programmes (CBGEP utilising social supports have been shown to be one means of not only increasing activity levels for older people, but sustaining physical activity. A gap in the literature was identified around older people’s long-term adherence to real-life CBGEP within a UK context. This study therefore sought to address this gap by understanding older people’s ongoing adherence to CBGEP with a view to gaining further insight about which factors contribute to enabling people to sustain their physical activity levels. Methods A multiple case study research design was employed to understand older people’s (≥60 years, n = 27 adherence (≥ 69%, for ≥ 1 year to three current CBGEP in the South- West of England. Qualitative data (participant observation, focus groups, documents, and interviews were collected and analysed using inductive thematic analysis followed by the analytic technique of explanation building. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and used to set the context of the study. Results The current study offers five unique insights into real-life programmes which have been successful in helping older people maintain adherence for a year or longer. These included: factors relating to the individual, the instructor (particularly their personality, professionalism and humanised approach, programme design (including location, affordability, the use of music, and adaptable exercise content, social features which supported a sense of belonging, and participant perceived benefits (physical and psycho-social. These all served to explain
Edelstein, Offer E; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Bachner, Yaacov G
The context of caregiving in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community is still an uncharted field. We sought to facilitate an in-depth understanding of caregivers in Israel through their views of their position as primary caregivers, their coping mechanisms with the challenges of caregiving burden, and their unfulfilled needs. Data were drawn from interviews with 28 participants, serving as primary caregivers for at least a year. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) burden of care as a universal experience, (2) the faith-based spiritual meaning of caring for parents, and (3) modest needs and expectations from the formal services - a total reliance on the familial-community service system, while there is some indication of unfulfilled needs that should be addressed by the formal service system. Intervening parties should be aware of the 'cultural color,' and not ignore the unique difficulties this population faces. Policy-makers should acknowledge the patterns of non-formal services used in this community.
A method for analyzing the business case for provider participation in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and similar federally funded, provider-based research networks.
Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H; Minasian, Lori; Good, Marjorie; Weiner, Bryan J; McAlearney, Ann Scheck
The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) plays an essential role in the efforts of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to increase enrollment in clinical trials. Currently, there is little practical guidance in the literature to assist provider organizations in analyzing the return on investment (ROI), or business case, for establishing and operating a provider-based research network (PBRN) such as the CCOP. In this article, the authors present a conceptual model of the business case for PBRN participation, a spreadsheet-based tool and advice for evaluating the business case for provider participation in a CCOP organization. A comparative, case-study approach was used to identify key components of the business case for hospitals attempting to support a CCOP research infrastructure. Semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and administrators. Key themes were identified and used to develop the financial analysis tool. Key components of the business case included CCOP start-up costs, direct revenue from the NCI CCOP grant, direct expenses required to maintain the CCOP research infrastructure, and incidental benefits, most notably downstream revenues from CCOP patients. The authors recognized the value of incidental benefits as an important contributor to the business case for CCOP participation; however, currently, this component is not calculated. The current results indicated that providing a method for documenting the business case for CCOP or other PBRN involvement will contribute to the long-term sustainability and expansion of these programs by improving providers' understanding of the financial implications of participation. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J
Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and
Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.
In developing countries, communities neighboring protected areas continue to bear a disproportionate amount of the costs associated with conservation. Traditional community livelihood strategies such as hunting, logging, and plant harvesting are seen as major threats to protected areas. Therefore,
Africa Center of Excellence in Public Health and Herbal Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi. The current state of iCCM ... Organization and United Nations Children's Fund developed integrated Community Case .... Impact of the Integrated Community Case Management Strategy to Treat Childhood Infection.
Chagas disease control requires an innovative approach to strengthen community participation in vector surveillance. This paper presents a case study of a community-based bug-hunting campaign in Guatemala. The campaign was implemented in 2007 in the following three stages: (i) a four week preparation stage to promote bug-hunting, (ii) a one week bug-hunting stage to capture and collect bugs and (iii) a 10 week follow-up stage to analyse the bugs and spray insecticide. A total of 2,845 bugs were reported, of which 7% were Triatominae vectors, such as Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. The bug-hunting campaign detected a five-six-fold higher amount of vectors in one week than traditional community-based surveillance detects in one year. The bug-hunting campaign effectively detected vectors during a short period, provided information to update the vector infestation map and increased community and political awareness regarding Chagas disease. This approach could be recommended as an effective and feasible strategy to strengthen vector surveillance on a larger scale. PMID:23579801
Full Text Available Healthcare system reforms are pushing beyond primary care to more holistic, integrated models of community based primary health care (CBPHC to better meet the needs of the population. Across the world CBPHC is at varying stages of development and few standard models exist. In order to scale up and spread successful models of care it is important to study what works and why. The first step is to select ‘appropriate’ cases to study. In this commentary we reflect on our journey in the selection of CBPHC models for older adults, revealing the limited utility of sourcing the empirical literature; the difficulty in identifying “successful” models to study when outcomes of importance differ across stakeholders; the value of drawing on clinical and organisational networks and experts; and the association between policy context and ease of case selection. Such insights have important implications for case study methodology in health services and policy research.
Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller
patients were randomized into two groups: the case-managed group and the usual-care group. Participant characteristics were obtained at baseline, and measures on effectiveness and costs were obtained through questionnaires and registries within a 12-month follow-up period. In the forthcoming analysis......Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized...... controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result...
Kathryn L. Jackson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is one of the most common causes of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States, and a variety of genetic host factors are suspected to be risk factors for recurrent infection. Based on the CDC definition, we have developed and validated an electronic health record (EHR based CA-MRSA phenotype algorithm utilizing both structured and unstructured data. Methods The algorithm was validated at three eMERGE consortium sites, and positive predictive value, negative predictive value and sensitivity, were calculated. The algorithm was then run and data collected across seven total sites. The resulting data was used in GWAS analysis. Results Across seven sites, the CA-MRSA phenotype algorithm identified a total of 349 cases and 7761 controls among the genotyped European and African American biobank populations. PPV ranged from 68 to 100% for cases and 96 to 100% for controls; sensitivity ranged from 94 to 100% for cases and 75 to 100% for controls. Frequency of cases in the populations varied widely by site. There were no plausible GWAS-significant (p < 5 E −8 findings. Conclusions Differences in EHR data representation and screening patterns across sites may have affected identification of cases and controls and accounted for varying frequencies across sites. Future work identifying these patterns is necessary.
Department of Physiotherapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana. Correspondence. Matthew ... and technology to developing countries was facilitated by the United Nations Organization (UNO). The results, .... impact of interventions are also part of community health practice.
. The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks.......The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument...... is hinged on a research aimed at understanding how and why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated.Two Community Based Network Mobilization models were identified...
Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan
One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...
Yirgu, Robel; Lemessa, Firaol; Hirpa, Selamawit; Alemayehu, Abraham; Klinkenberg, Eveline
Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order to provide insights into the magnitude and determinants of patient delay. The study was conducted in rural Seru district, employing a population based unmatched case-control study design. The WHO standardized TB screening tool was used to identify presumptive TB cases among the district population ages > 15 years. Presumptive TB cases who sought care in a health facility more than 14 days after the onset of symptoms were considered cases while those who sought care within the first 14 days were classified as controls. A structured interview questionnaire was used to capture socio demographic characteristics and health care service utilization related data from the study participants. A multiple binary logistic regression model was used to identify any factor associated with patient care seeking delay. A total of 9,782 individuals were screened, of which 980 (10%, 95% CI; 9.4-10.5%) presumptive TB cases were identified. From these cases 358 (76%, 95% CI; 75.6%-76.4%) sought care within the first 14 days of the onset of symptoms with a median patient delay of 15 days, IQR (5-30 days). The most common TB suggestive symptom mentioned by the participants was night sweat 754 (76.4%) while the least common was a history of contact with a confirmed TB case in the past one year 207 (21.1%). Individuals in the 45-54 age range had lower odds of delay (AOR 0.31, 95%CI 0.15, 0.61) as compared to those 15-24 years old. First TB treatment episode (AOR16.2, 95% CI 9.94, 26.26) and limited access to either traditional or modern modes of transportation (AOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.25, 5.49) were independently associated with patient care delay. Increasing community awareness about the risks of delayed care seeking and the importance of accessing health services close to the community can
Hertler, Christine; Wolf, Dominik; Bruch, Angela; Märker, Michael
A considerable diversity of hominin taxa is described from the Pleistocene of sub-Saharan Africa. Inner-African range expansions of these taxa are primarily addressed by morphological comparisons of the hominin specimens and systematic interpretation of the results. Considering hominin expansion patterns as being at least co-determined by ecology and environment requires an assessment of respective features of paleo-communities as well as features of the environments with which they are associated. Challenges in validation and integration of reconstructions of hominin environments and ecologies can be met with well-organized recent reference models. Modelling the present day situation permits to assess relevant variables and to establish interactions among them on a quantitative basis. In a next step such a model can be applied to classify hominin paleoenvironments, for which not all data sources are available. An example for this approach is introduced here. In order to characterize hominin environments in sub-Saharan Africa, we assessed sets of variables for composition, structure and diversity of the large mammal communities, climate (temperature and precipitation), and vegetation in African national parks. These data are applied to analyse correlations between faunal communities and their environments on a quantitative basis. While information on large mammal communities is frequently available for hominin localities and regional climate features are addressed on the basis of abiotic proxies, information on paleoflora and vegetation is mostly lacking for the Plio-Pleistocene in sub-Saharan Africa. A quantitative reference model therefore offers new options for reconstructions. A recent reference model moreover permits to quantify descriptive terms like 'savanna'. We will introduce a reference model for sub-Saharan Africa and demonstrate its application in the reconstruction of hominin paleoenvironments. The corresponding quantitative characterization of
Crane, Paul K; Foroud, Tatiana; Montine, Thomas J; Larson, Eric B
The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) used different criteria for assigning case and control status from the discovery and replication phases of the project. We considered data from a community-based prospective cohort study with autopsy follow-up where participants could be categorized as case, control, or neither by both definitions and compared the two sets of criteria. We used data from the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study including Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria for dementia status, McKhann et al. criteria for clinical Alzheimer's disease, and Braak and Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD findings on neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques to categorize the 621 ACT participants of European ancestry who died and came to autopsy. We applied ADSP discovery and replication definitions to identify controls, cases, and people who were neither controls nor cases. There was some agreement between the discovery and replication definitions. Major areas of discrepancy included the finding that only 40% of the discovery sample controls had sufficiently low levels of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques to be considered controls by the replication criteria and the finding that 16% of the replication phase cases were diagnosed with non-AD dementia during life and thus were excluded as cases for the discovery phase. These findings should inform interpretation of genetic association findings from the ADSP. Differences in genetic association findings between the two phases of the study may reflect these different phenotype definitions from the discovery and replication phase of the ADSP. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.
Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.
Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Ai; Chei, Choy-Lye; Noda, Hiroyuki; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Cui, Renzhe; Muraki, Isao; Ohira, Tetsuya; Imano, Hironori; Sankai, Tomoko; Okada, Takeo; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Iso, Hiroyasu
It has been hypothesized that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-atherosclerotic and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia, but the epidemiological evidence, especially for α-linolenic acid, is quite limited. The aim of this study was to examine whether serum ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with risk of dementia. We performed an intracohort case-control study nested in a community-based cohort, the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study, involving 7586 Japanese individuals aged 40-74 years at the baseline period of 1984-1994. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents (α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) in serum total lipid were measured in 315 cases of incident disabling dementia in the above-mentioned cohort between 1999 and 2004, and in 630 controls whose age, sex, area, and baseline year were matched with the cases. As we had postulated, serum α-linolenic acid was inversely associated with risk of disabling dementia: the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.57 (0.39-0.85), 0.51 (0.34-0.76), and 0.61 (0.41-0.90) for persons with the second, third, and highest quartiles of serum α-linolenic acid, respectively, as compared with the lowest quartile (P for trend = 0.01). Associations of other ω-3 fatty acids with disabling dementia were not statistically significant. Serum α-linolenic acid was inversely associated with risk of disabling dementia. Although the causality needs to be confirmed by randomized control trials, we identified serum α-linolenic acid as a biomarker that predicts future dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe
Ravindran, Rekha M; Kutty, V Raman
This study intended to identify the risk factors for injurious falls that led to hospitalization of older persons living in the community. A hospital-based unmatched incident case-control study was done among 251 cases and 250 controls admitted at a tertiary care centre in Kerala. Mean age of cases was 71.6 ± 9.13 years and that of controls was 67.02 ± 6.17 years. Hip fractures were the predominant injury following falls. Falls were mostly a result of intrinsic causes. After adjusting for other variabes, the risk factors for all injuries were age above 70 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.46-3.46), previous fall history (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.08-7.08), impaired vision (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 2.77-7.30), not living with spouse (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.31-2.97), door thresholds (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.29), and slippery floor (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.31-4.32). The risk factors for hip fractures and other injuries were identified separately. Fall prevention strategies among older persons are warranted in Kerala. © 2015 APJPH.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of the national implementation of integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services in Ghana for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia.
Escribano Ferrer, Blanca; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Gyapong, Margaret; Bruce, Jane; Narh Bana, Solomon A; Narh, Clement T; Allotey, Naa-Korkor; Glover, Roland; Azantilow, Naa-Charity; Bart-Plange, Constance; Sagoe-Moses, Isabella; Webster, Jayne
Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia: the integrated community case management (iCCM) and the community-based health planning and services (CHPS). The aim of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these strategies under programme conditions. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment given was the effectiveness measure used. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment data was obtained from a household survey conducted 2 and 8 years after implementation of iCCM in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively. The study population was carers of children under-5 years who had fever, diarrhoea and/or cough in the last 2 weeks prior to the interview. Costs data was obtained mainly from the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP), the Ministry of Health, CHPS compounds and from a household survey. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia was more cost-effective under the iCCM than under CHPS in the Volta Region, even after adjusting for different discount rates, facility costs and iCCM and CHPS utilization, but not when iCCM appropriate treatment was reduced by 50%. Due to low numbers of carers visiting a CBA in the Northern Region it was not possible to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis in this region. However, the cost analysis showed that iCCM in the Northern Region had higher cost per malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia case diagnosed and treated when compared to the Volta Region and to the CHPS strategy in the Northern Region. Integrated community case management was more cost-effective than CHPS for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia when utilized by carers of children under-5 years in the Volta Region. A revision of the iCCM strategy in the Northern Region is needed to improve its cost-effectiveness. Long-term financing
Quiroz Saavedra, Rodrigo; Brunson, Liesette; Bigras, Nathalie
This paper presents an in-depth case study of the dynamic processes of mutual adjustment that occurred between two professional teams participating in a multicomponent community-based intervention (CBI). Drawing on the concept of social regularities, we focus on patterns of social interaction within and across the two microsystems involved in delivering the intervention. Two research strategies, narrative analysis and structural network analysis, were used to reveal the social regularities linking the two microsystems. Results document strategies and actions undertaken by the professionals responsible for the intervention to modify intersetting social regularities to deal with a problem situation that arose during the course of one intervention cycle. The results illustrate how key social regularities were modified in order to resolve the problem situation and allow the intervention to continue to function smoothly. We propose that these changes represent a transition to a new state of the ecological intervention system. This transformation appeared to be the result of certain key intervening mechanisms: changing key role relationships, boundary spanning, and synergy. The transformation also appeared to be linked to positive setting-level and individual-level outcomes: confidence of key team members, joint planning, decision-making and intervention activities, and the achievement of desired intervention objectives. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Full Text Available In the last years, Community-Based Tourism has created expectations in many latin american rural communities as an strategy to increase their income and to diversify the sources of this income. But it is an activity that is not free of risks. From a specific case (Amantaní Island, Titikaka Lake, Peru, the article studies one of these risks: the impact of tourism in the socio-economical communitarian cohesion.En los últimos años, el turismo rural comunitario se ha presentado como un instrumento adecuado para aumentar la renta de la población campesina y diversificar sus fuentes de ingresos. Pero se trata de una actividad económica que no está exenta de riesgos. A partir de un caso específico (la isla peruana de Amantaní, en el Lago Titicaca el artículo estudia uno de ellos: el impacto del turismo en la cohesión socioeconómica comunitaria.
Martinez, Glenn; Schwartz, Adam
Critical approaches to Spanish heritage language (SHL) pedagogy have called for more meaningful engagement with heritage language communities (Leeman, 2005). In a recent survey, furthermore, SHL students expressed a desire for more community-based activities in SHL curricula (Beaudrie, Ducar, & Relano-Pastor, 2009). This paper reports on the…
Kasckow, John; Liu, Nancy; Haas, Gretchen L; Phillips, Michael R
Suicide is the leading cause of premature death among people with schizophrenia. Most studies on suicide and schizophrenia report an associated depression history, but they are based on clinical samples from mostly western countries. We conducted a secondary analysis of 74 suicides (cases) and 24 accidental deaths (controls) among persons with schizophrenia identified in a national psychological autopsy study in mainland China using the Chinese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. A 'depression symptom severity score' based on number, severity, and persistence of depressive symptoms 2 weeks before death was derived from psychiatric interviews with 2 informants; determination of a 'dysfunction due to depressive symptoms score' was based on informants' reports about effects of depressive symptoms on decedents' functioning in the month before death. In addition, the mean number of negative life events was determined along with the effect of the events on the decedent. Comparison of the measures made for cases and controls were made by univariate analysis followed by adjustments using the False Discovery Rate. Compared to persons with schizophrenia who died by accident, those who died by suicide were more likely to have a recent DSM IV diagnosis of major depression, the symptom of depressed mood, thoughts of death and a prior suicide attempt. In addition, those who died by suicide were more likely to have a higher overall depression severity score and greater dysfunction due to depressive symptoms. This community-based study of individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia who died by suicide in a non-western culture extends findings from clinical studies in western cultures providing data on the importance of depressive symptoms as risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia in a low income rural setting. These findings underline the importance of routine screening for depressive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...
Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination. The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known
Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination. The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative
We propose a new method for detecting communities based on the concept of communicability between nodes in a complex network. This method, designated as N-ComBa K-means, uses a normalized version of the adjacency matrix to build the communicability matrix and then applies K-means clustering to find the communities in a graph. We analyze how this method performs for some pathological cases found in the analysis of the detection limit of communities and propose some possible solutions on the basis of the analysis of the ratio of local to global densities in graphs. We use four different quality criteria for detecting the best clustering and compare the new approach with the Girvan-Newman algorithm for the analysis of two "classical" networks: karate club and bottlenose dolphins. Finally, we analyze the more challenging case of homogeneous networks with community structure, for which the Girvan-Newman completely fails in detecting any clustering. The N-ComBa K-means approach performs very well in these situations and we applied it to detect the community structure in an international trade network of miscellaneous manufactures of metal having these characteristics. Some final remarks about the general philosophy of community detection are also discussed.
Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran
Overweight/obesity and depression are common among women especially in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight with depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in old women. A total of 94 depressed elderly women were compared with 99 non-depressed controls. The structured diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV were performed to diagnose depression, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was completed to rate it. Anthropometric indices were measured and compared between groups. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined for linear relations between variables. Odds Ratio of obesity and overweight in depressed subjects comparing with normal participants was 1.45 (95%CI=0.63-3.32). A significant correlation was observed between BMI and GDS score (r=0.231, P-value=0.001). Total body fat (P-value=0.001) and BMI (P-value=0.016) were significantly higher in depressed women than non-depressed women. Despite the significantly higher total body fat and BMI among old women with depression, only a weak correlation was seen between BMI and GDS score.
van Rijen, Miranda M L; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F Q; Verkade, Erwin J M; Ten Ham, Peter B G; Feingold, Beth J; Kluytmans, Jan A J W
Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is rapidly increasing. Currently, it is unknown which reservoirs are involved. An exploratory hospital-based case-control study was performed in sixteen Dutch hospitals to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage in patients not belonging to established risk groups. Cases were in- or outpatients from sixteen Dutch hospitals, colonised or infected with MRSA without healthcare- or livestock-associated risk factors for MRSA carriage. Control subjects were patients not carrying MRSA, and hospitalised on the same ward or visited the same outpatients' clinic as the case. The presence of potential risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage was determined using a standardised questionnaire. Regular consumption of poultry (OR 2⋅40; 95% CI 1⋅08-5⋅33), cattle density per municipality (OR 1⋅30; 95% CI 1⋅00-1⋅70), and sharing of scuba diving equipment (OR 2⋅93 95% CI 1⋅19-7⋅21) were found to be independently associated with CA-MRSA carriage. CA-MRSA carriage was not related to being of foreign origin. The observed association between the consumption of poultry and CA-MRSA carriage suggests that MRSA in the food chain may be a source for MRSA carriage in humans. Although sharing of scuba diving equipment was found to be associated with CA-MRSA carriage, the role played by skin abrasions in divers, the lack of decontamination of diving materials, or the favourable high salt content of sea water is currently unclear. The risk for MRSA MC398 carriage in areas with a high cattle density may be due to environmental contamination with MRSA MC398 or human-to-human transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to determine the absolute risks of MRSA acquisition associated with the factors identified.
Miranda M L van Rijen
Full Text Available Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA is rapidly increasing. Currently, it is unknown which reservoirs are involved. An exploratory hospital-based case-control study was performed in sixteen Dutch hospitals to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage in patients not belonging to established risk groups.Cases were in- or outpatients from sixteen Dutch hospitals, colonised or infected with MRSA without healthcare- or livestock-associated risk factors for MRSA carriage. Control subjects were patients not carrying MRSA, and hospitalised on the same ward or visited the same outpatients' clinic as the case. The presence of potential risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage was determined using a standardised questionnaire.Regular consumption of poultry (OR 2⋅40; 95% CI 1⋅08-5⋅33, cattle density per municipality (OR 1⋅30; 95% CI 1⋅00-1⋅70, and sharing of scuba diving equipment (OR 2⋅93 95% CI 1⋅19-7⋅21 were found to be independently associated with CA-MRSA carriage. CA-MRSA carriage was not related to being of foreign origin.The observed association between the consumption of poultry and CA-MRSA carriage suggests that MRSA in the food chain may be a source for MRSA carriage in humans. Although sharing of scuba diving equipment was found to be associated with CA-MRSA carriage, the role played by skin abrasions in divers, the lack of decontamination of diving materials, or the favourable high salt content of sea water is currently unclear. The risk for MRSA MC398 carriage in areas with a high cattle density may be due to environmental contamination with MRSA MC398 or human-to-human transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to determine the absolute risks of MRSA acquisition associated with the factors identified.
Karashima, Kazuki; Ohgai, Akira
Japan is a country with a high risk for earthquake disasters. The measures used to promote structures' seismic safety, such as reconstruction, widening narrow roads, and the response capacities to deal with huge earthquakes are important. Techniques to support the examination of countermeasures to huge earthquakes are required. To improve this capability, the authors developed tools to: (1) evaluate fire-spread risk, (2) evaluate the difficulty of emergency response and evacuation, and (3) evaluate capacities of neighborhood communities for disaster mitigation. The usefulness of the tools was clarified by the demonstration experiments of previous studies. The next step was implementation of the tools in community-based activities for disaster mitigation. This study aimed to clarify the usability and problems of implementing the tools in community-based activities. The tools were used at several workshops in actual community-based activities for disaster mitigation for one year. After the last workshop, interviews and a questionnaire were conducted on municipal staff and consultant staff. The results found that the tools visually showed the fire-spread risk, the difficulty of evacuation under current conditions and after improvements, and the effects of each disaster mitigation activity. The users could easily explore the draft plans to promote seismic safety of urban structures and response capabilities. The tools were positively incorporated into some community-based activities for disaster mitigation. Thus, the tools have the possibility of successful use at continuing community-based activities and the possibility of implementing the tools will be promoted.
Fitzpatrick, James P; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee
Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed 'fetal alcohol spectrum disorders' (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Country Health Service Board Research Ethics
Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina
Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders.We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power
Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche
of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way....... The strong sense of longing for belonging, the emotional connections of family and love to their former gangs, and the socio-economic marginalization, otherness and alienation related to being a poor (former) gang member lacking a legal source of income are the greatest barriers in the process of gang......The aim of this article is to investigate resources and barriers for gang desistance. The ethnographic fieldwork this article draws on was conducted at a community-based gang intervention program called Homeboy Industries, located in Los Angeles. The article is based on a social practice...
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin
Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.
A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them
Beshers, Sarah C.
This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…
Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche
theoretical analysis of learning resources and barriers from the perspective of Rosa, who is a female former gang member trying to change her life. The findings point to barriers facing (former) gang members as well as important learning resources facilitated by the communities at Homeboy Industries....... The strong sense of longing for belonging, the emotional connections of family and love to their former gangs, and the socio-economic marginalization, otherness and alienation related to being a poor (former) gang member lacking a legal source of income are the greatest barriers in the process of gang...... of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...
This paper argues on why Community Based Networks should be recognized as potential 5G providers using 5G Wi-Fi. The argument is hinged on findings in a research to understand why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out...... inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated. Two Community Based Network Mobilization Models were identified. The findings indicate that 5G Wi-Fi deployment by Community Based Networks is possible if policy initiatives and the 5G Wi-Fi standards are developed to facilitate the causal...
Integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services: a cross sectional study on the effectiveness of the national implementation for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia.
Ferrer, Blanca Escribano; Webster, Jayne; Bruce, Jane; Narh-Bana, Solomon A; Narh, Clement T; Allotey, Naa-KorKor; Glover, Roland; Bart-Plange, Constance; Sagoe-Moses, Isabella; Malm, Keziah; Gyapong, Margaret
Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia: the Home-based Care (HBC) and the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). The objective was to assess the effectiveness of HBC and CHPS on utilization, appropriate treatment given and users' satisfaction for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia. A household survey was conducted 2 and 8 years after implementation of HBC in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively. The study population was carers of children under-five who had fever, diarrhoea and/or cough in the last 2 weeks prior to the interview. HBC and CHPS utilization were assessed based on treatment-seeking behaviour when the child was sick. Appropriate treatment was based on adherence to national guidelines and satisfaction was based on the perceptions of the carers after the treatment-seeking visit. HBC utilization was 17.3 and 1.0 % in the Volta and Northern Regions respectively, while CHPS utilization in the same regions was 11.8 and 31.3 %, with large variation among districts. Regarding appropriate treatment of uncomplicated malaria, 36.7 % (n = 17) and 19.4 % (n = 1) of malaria cases were treated with ACT under the HBC in the Volta and Northern Regions respectively, and 14.7 % (n = 7) and 7.4 % (n = 26) under the CHPS in the Volta and Northern Regions. Regarding diarrhoea, 7.6 % (n = 4) of the children diagnosed with diarrhoea received oral rehydration salts (ORS) or were referred under the HBC in the Volta Region and 22.1 % (n = 6) and 5.6 % (n = 8) under the CHPS in the Volta and Northern Regions. Regarding suspected pneumonia, CHPS in the Northern Region gave the most appropriate treatment with 33.0 % (n = 4) of suspected cases receiving amoxicillin. Users of CHPS in the Volta Region were the most satisfied (97.7 % were satisfied or very satisfied) when compared with those of the HBC and of
Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula
The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach
Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White
Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842
... ¡°top-down¡± to ¡°bottom-up¡± development efforts in the country with a view to reducing poverty and developmental imbalance in Nigeria. Content analysis of the data collected showed that the community-based organisations in the study areas and Community-Based Poverty Reduction Programme (CPRP) in Abia State, ...
Banek, Kristin; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; DiLiberto, Deborah; Taaka, Lilian; Chandler, Clare I R; Staedke, Sarah G
In Uganda, community services for febrile children are expanding from presumptive treatment of fever with anti-malarials through the home-based management of fever (HBMF) programme, to include treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia through Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM). To understand the level of support available, and the capacity and motivation of community health workers to deliver these expanded services, we interviewed community medicine distributors (CMDs), who had been involved in the HBMF programme in Tororo district, shortly before ICCM was adopted. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 100 CMDs were recruited to participate by convenience sampling. The survey included questionnaires to gather information about the CMDs' work experience and to assess knowledge of fever case management, and in-depth interviews to discuss experiences as CMDs including motivation, supervision and relationships with the community. All questionnaires and knowledge assessments were analysed. Summary contact sheets were made for each of the 100 interviews and 35 were chosen for full transcription and analysis. CMDs faced multiple challenges including high patient load, limited knowledge and supervision, lack of compensation, limited drugs and supplies, and unrealistic expectations of community members. CMDs described being motivated to volunteer for altruistic reasons; however, the main benefits of their work appeared related to 'becoming someone important', with the potential for social mobility for self and family, including building relationships with health workers. At the time of the survey, over half of CMDs felt demotivated due to limited support from communities and the health system. Community health worker programmes rely on the support of communities and health systems to operate sustainably. When this support falls short, motivation of volunteers can wane. If community interventions, in increasingly complex forms, are to become the solution to
This paper highlights the processes of conducting community-based participatory research within an operational research project in Lilongwe under the title of Extending Services to Communities (ESC). The project involves developing partnerships with community leaders, storekeepers and community members to enhance ...
Compton, J. Lin
Using a case study approach, describes the efforts of three community organizers--a literacy worker and a medical doctor in the Phillipines, and an adult basic education supervisor in North Carolina--to develop and implement community-based volunteer programs. (DR)
Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E
High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to
Due to the criminal activities of the cult groups in the NDR and ineptitude of the police, communities have responded by creating vigilante groups but this has only promoted cycle of violence. The paper recommended that government should tackle community-based cultism and also strengthen the Nigeria Police Force to be ...
Full Text Available Remote areas are difficult to access, tend to lack critical infrastructure, are highly susceptible to shocks in the marketplace, and are perceived by industry to possess limited development opportunities. Accordingly a community orientated and territorial approach to development planning in a remote area will be more successful than a top down industry based approach . Given the limitations of being remote, the case study community examined in this research manages and sustains a bird watching tourism product within a global market place. This paper examines how a remotely located community in the Arfak Mountains of West Papua overcomes these difficulties and plans for community based tourism (CBT in their locale.
Lowe, Michael R; Bunnell, Douglas W; Neeren, Amy M; Chernyak, Yelena; Greberman, Laurel
There is a growing consensus that there is a need to test the real-world effectiveness of eating disorder therapies that show promise in efficacy research. This article provides a narrative account of an NIMH-funded study that attempted to apply efficacy findings from CBT research to an Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) at the largest community-based eating disorder program in the United States. We describe the study as originally envisioned as well as the various challenges that the researchers and the IOP staff encountered in implementing this study. The different training, assumptions, and "ways of knowing" of the research team and the treatment staff in regard to the nature of eating disorders and their treatment created multiple challenges for both groups during the study period. We describe valuable lessons learned about how to-and how not to-implement effectiveness designs in clinical settings that are relatively unfamiliar with empirically-based research findings. It is hoped that our experience in attempting to apply efficacy-based research findings on eating disorders treatment in a community-based clinical setting will prove helpful to other researchers and service providers engaging in such translational research. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Resnik, David B; Kennedy, Caitlin E
Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several different stages of community-based participatory research, including research design, data interpretation, and publication, and makes some suggestions for practice and policy. To manage potential conflicts between scientific and community interests, investigators and community partners should enter into written agreements at the beginning of the study. In some cases, it may be necessary for a third party, such as a review committee from a supporting institution, the community, or a funding agency, to help investigators and community partners resolve disagreements. It may also be useful, in some situations, to publish a dissenting opinion when investigators and community partners cannot agree on how to interpret findings resulting from a study. These strategies may help address some of the challenges of implementing community-based participatory research.
Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana's Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS).
Adongo, Philip Baba; Phillips, James F; Aikins, Moses; Arhin, Doris Afua; Schmitt, Margaret; Nwameme, Adanna U; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Binka, Fred N
Rapid urban population growth is of global concern as it is accompanied with several new health challenges. The urban poor who reside in informal settlements are more vulnerable to these health challenges. Lack of formal government public health facilities for the provision of health care is also a common phenomenon among communities inhabited by the urban poor. To help ameliorate this situation, an innovative urban primary health system was introduced in urban Ghana, based on the milestones model developed with the rural Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) system. This paper provides an overview of innovative experiences adapted while addressing these urban health issues, including the process of deriving constructive lessons needed to inform discourse on the design and implementation of the sustainable Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model as a response to urban health challenges in Southern Ghana. This research was conducted during the six-month pilot of the urban CHPS programme in two selected areas acting as the intervention and control arms of the design. Daily routine data were collected based on milestones initially delineated for the rural CHPS model in the control communities whilst in the intervention communities, some modifications were made to the rural milestones. The findings from the implementation activities revealed that many of the best practices derived from the rural CHPS experiment could not be transplanted to poor urban settlements due to the unique organizational structures and epidemiological characteristics found in the urban context. For example, constructing Community Health Compounds and residential facilities within zones, a central component to the rural CHPS strategy, proved inappropriate for the urban sector. Night and weekend home visit schedules were initiated to better accommodate urban residents and increase coverage. The breadth of the disease burden of the urban residents also requires a
Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana’s Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS)
Background Rapid urban population growth is of global concern as it is accompanied with several new health challenges. The urban poor who reside in informal settlements are more vulnerable to these health challenges. Lack of formal government public health facilities for the provision of health care is also a common phenomenon among communities inhabited by the urban poor. To help ameliorate this situation, an innovative urban primary health system was introduced in urban Ghana, based on the milestones model developed with the rural Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) system. This paper provides an overview of innovative experiences adapted while addressing these urban health issues, including the process of deriving constructive lessons needed to inform discourse on the design and implementation of the sustainable Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model as a response to urban health challenges in Southern Ghana. Methods This research was conducted during the six-month pilot of the urban CHPS programme in two selected areas acting as the intervention and control arms of the design. Daily routine data were collected based on milestones initially delineated for the rural CHPS model in the control communities whilst in the intervention communities, some modifications were made to the rural milestones. Results The findings from the implementation activities revealed that many of the best practices derived from the rural CHPS experiment could not be transplanted to poor urban settlements due to the unique organizational structures and epidemiological characteristics found in the urban context. For example, constructing Community Health Compounds and residential facilities within zones, a central component to the rural CHPS strategy, proved inappropriate for the urban sector. Night and weekend home visit schedules were initiated to better accommodate urban residents and increase coverage. The breadth of the disease burden of the urban
Harnish, Andrew; Dieter, William; Crawford, Albert; Shubert, Tiffany E
Older adults at a high risk of falls may be referred to a physical therapist. A physical therapy episode of care is designed for the transition of an older adult from a high fall risk to a moderate to low fall risk. However, these episodes of care are limited in time and duration. There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of group-based exercise classes to address risk, and transitioning an older adult from physical therapy to a group-based program may be an effective way to manage risk through the continuum of care. The purpose of this study was to translate research findings into a "real world" setting, and demonstrate the efficacy of integrating evidence-based fall prevention exercises into pre-existing exercise classes at a senior living facility as a "proof of concept" model for future programing. Twenty-four participants aged 65 years and older living in a senior living community and the community were stratified into group-based exercise classes. Cutoff scores from functional outcome measures were used to stratify participants. Exercises from The Otago Exercise Program were implemented into the classes. Functional outcome measures collected included the 10-Meter Walk Test, 30-Second Sit to Stand, and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Number of falls, hospitalizations, and physical therapy episodes of care were also tracked. Data were compared to a control group in a different senior living community that offered classes with similar exercises aimed at improving strength and mobility. The classes were taught by an exercise physiologist and were of equal duration and frequency. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in all functional outcome measures. TUG mean improved from 13.5 to 10.4 s ( p = 0.034). The 30-Second Sit to Stand mean improved from 10.5 to 13.4 ( p = 0.002). The 10-Meter Walk Test improved from 0.81 to 0.98 m/s ( p falls or hospitalizations, and two participants required physical therapy episodes of care. Implementing an
Damastuti, Ekaningrum; de Groot, Rudolf
Community-Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) is implemented with different approaches and outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of various CBMM practices to achieve sustainable management of mangrove resources. We analyzed local mangrove resource management strategies in four coastal villages (e.g. Sriwulan, Bedono, Timbulsloko, and Surodadi) on Central Java, Indonesia. Local data on institutions, socio-economic conditions and mangrove resources utilization was collected through participatory resource mapping and interviews with 16 key actors and 500 households. The main differences in CBMM-practices that affect the outcomes in each village were the type of community participation, the level of organizational and economic assistance from external institutions, the magnitude of the rehabilitation project, the time selected for rehabilitation and the maintenance strategies applied in each village. Surodadi achieved most in terms of both efficient resource utilization and local livelihood improvement. Bedono's management strategy was most effective in extending and maintaining the rehabilitated mangrove areas but less in terms of livelihood support while the strategy applied in Timbulsloko resulted in higher resource utilization compared to Surodadi. Sriwulan failed on most criteria. This study suggests that combining the management strategies practiced in Bedono and Surodadi and adding external scientific and technological assistance, income diversification, institutional reinforcement and continuous monitoring of the functioning of local institutions can improve the CBMM performance to sustainably manage mangrove resources and improve livelihoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Terry van Gevelt
Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai Singer commercialisation provides significant economic benefits to rural communities, mainly in China, Japan and South Korea. Recently, a growing body of research has questioned the impact of commercialization on harvesting behavior and the supply of matsutake. One key question arising from this literature is whether or not community-based management (CBM has a positive impact on matsutake supply. I surveyed nine mountain villages in Gangwon and North Gyeongsang provinces in South Korea. Four villages were found to have begun CBM of matsutake in the mid-1980s to early-1990s. All four villages continued to engage in CBM as of September 2013. Data suggest that CBM has had a positive impact on matsutake supply, although the exact magnitude and explanatory power of CBM is uncertain. Analysis of the nine villages suggests that CBM may not be a feasible strategy in all villages due to existing property rights regimes and that an external catalyst may be required in villages where harvesters do not perceive any economic benefit to CBM.
Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie
In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Access to land among land-poor households has always been contentious. In Malawi, the government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. The project brought to the fore the latent antagonistic relationship between immigrants and host ...
government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project. (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. .... his perspective on the issue. It also benefitted from a review of ..... they did not subdue the Yao who, through their contacts with Arab slave traders, had access to superior weapons ...
Minich, Lisa; Howe, Steven; Langmeyer, Daniel; Corcoran, Kevin
One of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations today is the demand for measurable results. Increasingly, these organizations are focusing less on program outputs and program outcomes in favor of community outcomes or changes demonstrated in the larger community. Success by 6(R) is a popular United Way initiative that emphasizes defining and measuring community outcomes. In this paper, we describe our work with 24 Success by 6(R) initiatives around the country. It is clear that not all of these initiatives are measuring community outcomes. Of those initiatives that are experiencing some success measuring community outcomes, similar measurement strategies are reported. Additionally, our experience suggests several United Way employees express dissatisfaction with the logic model as a framework for defining and measuring community outcomes although no preferred alternative model is identified. Evaluators working with community-wide initiatives must find ways to communicate the differences between program and community outcomes to key stakeholders and funders.
Brach, Marcin; Chormański, Jarosław
The exact determination of water storage capacity in river valley is an important issue for hydrologists, ecologist and flood modellers. In case of natural river valley, the dense and complexity vegetation of the natural ecosystems can influence the proper identification of the water storage. Methods considered to be sufficient in other cases (urbanized, agricultural) may not produce correct results. Sedge communities in natural river valleys form characteristic tussocks, built from the species roots, other organic material and silt or mud. They are formed due to partial flooding during the inundation, so the plants can survive in hard, anaerobic conditions. They can growth even up to 0.5 meters, which is not so visible due to very dense vegetation in the valleys. These tussocks form a microtopography or a river valley. Currently, the most commonly used technology to register the terrain topography is an Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), but in the case of the tussocks and the dense vegetation it generates high errors on elevation in the areas of the sedges (Carex appropinquata). This study concerns the Upper Biebrza Valley which is located in the northeastern Poland. For purpose of our work we used Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technology to determine microtopography of selected fields. Before measurements, the green part of the sedge was cut in selected measurements fields. It make possible to register only tussocks shape. Next, step was collection of the airborne ALS data of the valley with density of 8 points/sq m. The experimental field was divided on two sub-fields: one was cut and scanned using TLS before ALS collection, while the second after. Data collected as ALS and the TLS were then compared. The accuracy of the ALS data depends on the land cover of an area, while TLS accuracy is around 2 millimeters (when georeferenced it depends on the accuracy of reference points - in our case it was made using GPS RTK which gave us accuracy of few centimeters). The
INTRODUCTION. Community-based natural resource management has been defined as, ―a process by which landholders gain access and use rights to, or ..... 1 MARCH, 2015. COMMUNITY BASED ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT PRACTISE, A PANACEA FOR SUSTAINABLE RURAL. DEVELOPMENT IN LIBERIA ...
Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance. During the early 1990s, IDRC supported the development and testing of a reliable and cost-efficient tool for monitoring poverty and facilitating local level budgeting: the community-based (poverty) monitoring system (CBMS).
Community forestry resources: a case study of selected woodlots in the Eastern Cape Province. Cori Ham, Francois Theron. Abstract. Community surveys were conducted through the use of participatory community meetings and a questionnaire in the Butterworth area of the Eastern Cape. The objectives of these surveys ...
Gao, Meiling; Shen, Huanfeng; Han, Xujun; Li, Huifang; Zhang, Liangpei
Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the phenomenon of urban regions usually being warmer than rural regions, which significantly impacts both the regional ecosystem and societal activities. Numerical simulation can provide spatially and temporally continuous datasets for UHI analysis. In this study, a spatially and temporally continuous ground temperature dataset of Xi'an, China was obtained through numerical simulation based on the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), at a temporal resolution of 30 min and a spatial resolution of 0.05 ∘ × 0.05 ∘ . Based on the ground temperature, the seasonal average UHI intensity (UHII) was calculated and the seasonal variation of the UHI effect was analyzed. The monthly variation tendency of the urban heat stress was also investigated. Based on the diurnal cycle of ground temperature and the UHI effect in each season, the variation tendencies of the maximum, minimum, and average UHII were analyzed. The results show that the urban heat stress in summer is the strongest among all four seasons. The heat stress in urban areas is very significant in July, and the UHII is the weakest in January. Regarding the diurnal cycle of UHII, the maximum always appears at 06:30 UTC to 07:30 UTC, while the minimum intensity of the UHI effect occurs at different times in the different seasons. The results of this study could provide a reference for policymakers about how to reduce the damage caused by heat stress.
Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka
Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.
Dhimas Setyo Nugroho
Full Text Available The concept of community-based tourism in the dome house tourism village has succeeded in becoming a tool to trigger the development of the dome house resident and its environment. All of the development can be obviously seen from the economic, social, cultural, environmental and political aspects with a very enthusiastic participation of the resident. The rapid development of the resident and their high participation can emerge a strategy to make the tourist village survive from the tourism industry competition. In this case, the author found that there is a connection between the high level of community participation and the rapid development as the result of it. Therefore, the more the resident willing to participate, the more it will affect the development of the resident and its environment. This research uses qualitative method. The data were obtained by conducting interview, observation, and documentation. After those steps, the data were processed by interactive and SWOT analysis. Then, questionnaire was used to validate the data towards 21 residents.
Gallant, Linda M.; Boone, Gloria M.; Heap, Austin
From a three-step analysis of online communities, a set of five heuristics emerged: interactive creativity; selection hierarchy; identity construction; rewards and costs; and, artistic forms. These heuristics were generated from concepts appearing in past research, and then tested by a content analysis with focus groups using the case examples of two well-developed Web-based communities, Facebook and MySpace. The users saw this type of social technology as a flexible form of their own express...
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
van Woerden Hugo Cornelis
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.
Bakker, D. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.
Background: One of the potentially strong points of general-practice-based primary care is that it is accessible within local communities. As the arm of clinical medicine with the broadest reach into the community, primary care clinicians are well-positioned to understand local needs and design
Z. J. Lupala
Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.
Full Text Available Japan is facing a bio-diversity crisis as a result of rapid industrialisation. The Japanese Ministry of the Environment formulated a National Biodiversity Strategy based on the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the Earth Summit in 1992. After an amendment in 2002, the National Biodiversity Strategy addressed three crises in biodiversity: over-exploitation and development that destroys habitats, underutilisation (the satoyama problem and artificially introduced factors (chemicals, alien species and so on. This paper focuses on the second problem. Secondary natural environments called satoyama have been created and maintained over the centuries by human activity. Because natural environments in Japan have been affected by human-induced disturbances for 35,000 years, many species have evolved in response to these disturbances. If the human activities cease, many of the species that have evolved to survive in managed environments become threatened. Many satoyama have been managed as commonage or common lands, called iriai in Japan. One natural resource system created by commoners is semi-natural grassland, and economic modernisation has led to abandonment of traditional management practices on these grasslands – one of the more evident changes in Japanese iriai practices. Before industrialisation, semi-natural grasslands were managed as a source of green manure, as a harvest for roofing materials (thatch and as pasture for animals. After industrialisation, however, introduction of chemical fertilizers, changes in building practices and importation of animal feeds rapidly decreased the use value of these grasslands for local residents. On the other hand, their value as public goods – as historical, cultural landscapes and places of biodiversity – which concern a much broader population than the local community – became relatively more important. The resulting problem is how to manage this resource with its new value for new
Sowash, Madeleine G.; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin
Over the past decade, the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has changed the landscape of S. aureus infections around the globe. Initially recognized for its ability to cause disease in young and healthy individuals without healthcare exposures as well as for its distinct genotype and phenotype, this original description no longer fully encompasses the diversity of CA-MRSA as it continues to expand its niche. Using four case studies, we highlight a wide range of the clinical presentations and challenges of CA-MRSA. Based on these cases we further explore the globally polygenetic background of CA-MRSA with a special emphasis on generally less characterized populations. PMID:24085688
Oviedo, Rodolfo J; Robertson, Jarrod C; Alrajhi, Sharifah
The general surgeon's robotic learning curve may improve if the experience is classified into categories based on the complexity of the procedures in a small community hospital. The intraoperative time should decrease and the incidence of complications should be comparable to conventional laparoscopy. The learning curve of a single robotic general surgeon in a small community hospital using the da Vinci S platform was analyzed. Measured parameters were operative time, console time, conversion rates, complications, surgical site infections (SSIs), surgical site occurrences (SSOs), length of stay, and patient demographics. Between March 2014 and August 2015, 101 robotic general surgery cases were performed by a single surgeon in a 266-bed community hospital, including laparoscopic cholecystectomies, inguinal hernia repairs; ventral, incisional, and umbilical hernia repairs; and colorectal, foregut, bariatric, and miscellaneous procedures. Ninety-nine of the cases were completed robotically. Seven patients were readmitted within 30 days. There were 8 complications (7.92%). There were no mortalities and all complications were resolved with good outcomes. The mean operative time was 233.0 minutes. The mean console operative time was 117.6 minutes. A robotic general surgery program can be safely implemented in a small community hospital with extensive training of the surgical team through basic robotic skills courses as well as supplemental educational experiences. Although the use of the robotic platform in general surgery could be limited to complex procedures such as foregut and colorectal surgery, it can also be safely used in a large variety of operations with results similar to those of conventional laparoscopy.
This article originates in current research into community-based arts in health. Arts in health is now a diverse field of practice, and community-based arts in health interventions have extended the work beyond healthcare settings into public health. Examples of this work can now be found internationally in different health systems and cultural contexts. The paper argues that researchers need to understand the processes through which community-based arts in health projects evolve, and how they work holistically in their attempt to produce therapeutic and social benefits for both individuals and communities, and to connect with a cultural base in healthcare services themselves. A development model that might be adapted to assist in analysing this is the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Index (WHOQOL). Issues raised in the paper around community engagement, healthy choice and self-esteem are then illustrated in case examples of community-based arts in health practice in South Africa and England; namely the DramAide and Siyazama projects in KwaZulu-Natal, and Looking Well Healthy Living Centre in North Yorkshire. In South Africa there are arts and media projects attempting to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS through mass messaging, but they also recognize that they lack models of longer-term community engagement. Looking Well by contrast addresses health issues identified by the community itself in ways that are personal, empathic and domesticated. But there are also similarities among these projects in their aims to generate a range of social, educational and economic benefits within a community-health framework, and they are successfully regenerating traditional cultural forms to create public participation in health promotion. Process evaluation may provide a framework in which community-based arts in health projects, especially if they are networked together to share practice and thinking, can assess their ability to address health inequalities and focus
Full Text Available Since the advent of the democratic dispensation in 1994, the South African government embarked on strategies and initiatives that speeded up the delivery of basic services, including water, to many communities. However, there are still many other...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange
Aponte, H J; Zarski, J J; Bixenstine, C; Cibik, P
A two-tier model for work with high-risk families is presented. It combines multiple-family groups in the community with home-based family therapy for individual families. The ecostructural conceptual framework of the model is discussed, and its application is illustrated by a case vignette.
drawing on concepts from institutional and actor-oriented theories and applying a case study approach to examine community-based ... Zanzibar and elsewhere in the 1980s created the space for decentralized governance shifts in natural ..... friction when money is involved. Before the (Jozani-Pete Mangrove) Boardwalk.
Gronvall, Erik; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn
and design things; and different accounts of values in design. Inspired by the concept of design things, and as a consequence of the need for continuous negotiation of values observed in all three cases, we suggest the concept of thinging as fruitful for creating productive agonistic spaces with a stronger...... attention towards the process of negotiating values in community-based PD....
Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Saxon, Verletta
This exploratory paper presents a case study where a community based mental health organization forging a partnership with a local hospital system to establish a crisis stabilization unit (CSU) to address behavioral health emergency care. The study takes a mixed methods case study approach to address two research questions; (a) did this approach reduce the overall length of stay in the hospital emergency departments? (b) What challenges did the taskforce face in implementing this CSU model? The paper shares recommendation from the findings.
This paper adopted the political systems theory. According to Laszlo and Krippner (1998) systems theories include contributions from such seminal thinkers as Alfred North Whitehead, Ludwig von Bertalanffy,. Anatol Rapoport, Kenneth ... people, district level government officials and the general community. All the people ...
Frieling, M.A.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Stokman, F.N.
Many local councils aim to (re)connect citizens to public planning. This article presents the Collaborative Communities through Coproduction (3C) method as a way to establish cooperation between residents and professionals in improving neighborhood livabiliy. The authors describe common challenges
Frieling, Margreet A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.; Stokman, Frans N.
Many local councils aim to (re)connect citizens to public planning. This article presents the Collaborative Communities through Coproduction (3C) method as a way to establish cooperation between residents and professionals in improving neighborhood livabiliy. The authors describe common challenges
This report is a final assessment of the Community Advocacy & Service Engagement (CASE) project, a LYNX-FTA research project designed : to study transit education and public engagement methods in Central Florida. In the Orlando area, as in other part...
Underwood, P K; Armour, V M
Lyme disease, a growing public health problem in the United States, is also an increasing threat in Europe. Cases identified in a military community in West Germany are presented and problems of diagnosis and treatment discussed.
Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.
Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Paluta, Lauren; Sterling, Karen; Anderson, Carol
Using mixed methods, this case study explored outcomes associated with the adoption and implementation of a community schools approach in four Title I schools using the Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement. Trends in school data demonstrate academic achievement improvements in three of the four schools. Absenteeism and the number…
Biddle, Julie K.
This report presents a case study of the World of Wonders Accelerated Learning Community School (WOW). A community school in Ohio is a new kind of public school-an independent public school that is nonsectarian and nondiscriminatory. The report presents three contexts for the study--historical, local and methodological--and highlights some of the…
Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.
Full Text Available Abstract: Business is not only economic institution, but social institution too. As social institution, business has responsibility to help society in solving social problem. This responsibility called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. CSR pays attention about social problem and environment, so CSR support continuous development to help government role. Nowadays, our government has national developmentâ€™s agenda. One of them is tourism sector (Visit Indonesia Year 2008 programmed. But tourism sector has challenge in human resources. In this case, business role in practice CSR is needed to help tourism sector. With CSR activities, the quality of local community will increase to participate in tourism activities. CSR activities include training that based on research. When the quality of local community increase, local community can practice the concept of community based tourism (CBT. In the future, Indonesia has a power to compete with other countries.
Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don
This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities,…
Today, virtually every company world-wide is connected to the Internet. This wide-spread connectivity has given rise to sophisticated, targeted, Internet-based attacks. For example, between 2012 and 2013 security researchers counted an average of about 74 targeted attacks per day. These attacks are motivated by economical, financial, or political interests and commonly referred to as “Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)” attacks. Unfortunately, many of these attacks are successful and the advers...
Shukla, Vipul; Asp, Alex; Dwyer, Mary; Georgescu, Claudiu; Duggan, Joan
The transgender community has many unique health needs that are often inadequately addressed by the current medical system. Healthcare workers may lack adequate training to deal with these unique issues, compromising care. Healthcare workers must understand the major barriers to healthcare and heath disparities experienced by the transgender community in order to work to overcome them. This article presents a case illustrating some of the issues that may compromise healthcare for the transgender community as well as measures taken by the providers in response to this case to improve caring for this population in the future.
Anna Steiger; Tessa Hebb; Lisa A. Hagerman
Community-based organizations promote economic development by assembling investments in affordable housing, mixed-use real estate, community facilities, and small business in specific geographies. A principal way that community-based organizations tap institutional investors for deals is by partnering with investment intermediaries who manage the risk of these transactions by pooling assets, spreading risk across investors, and pricing the transaction up to the associated risk. Such a partner...
O'Mara, Ben; Gill, Gurjeet K.; Babacan, Hurriyet; Donahoo, Daniel
Objective: To report the processes and outcomes of a case study on digital technology, diabetes and culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. Design: The qualitative study was based on a literature review, consultations and testing of a framework through workshops and an interactive information session. Setting: Consultations,…
Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul
In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…
Asiimwe, Jacent Kamuntu
Improvement in microbial quality of drinking water by solar disinfection (SODIS) results in reduced diarrheal episodes among users. In this study, a randomized cluster stepped wedge study design was used to assess the use of primary school pupils as community promoters of SODIS technology in Ndagwe sub county, central Uganda. The intervention (SODIS) was introduced to pupils in the different school clusters at different time points throughout the year. Pupils were to only drink SODIS treated ...
Background: Ethiopia's Health Extension Workers (HEW) deliver preventive interventions and treat childhood diarrhea and malaria, but not pneumonia. Most of Ethiopia's annual estimated 4 million childhood pneumonia cases go untreated. Objective: Evaluate the performance of volunteers in providing Community Case ...
Kalyango Joan N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Curative interventions delivered by community health workers (CHWs were introduced to increase access to health services for children less than five years and have previously targeted single illnesses. However, CHWs in the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses strategy adopted in Uganda in 2010 will manage multiple illnesses. There is little documentation about the performance of CHWs in the management of multiple illnesses. This study compared the performance of CHWs managing malaria and pneumonia with performance of CHWs managing malaria alone in eastern Uganda and the factors influencing performance. Methods A mixed methods study was conducted among 125 CHWs providing either dual malaria and pneumonia management or malaria management alone for children aged four to 59 months. Performance was assessed using knowledge tests, case scenarios of sick children, review of CHWs’ registers, and observation of CHWs in the dual management arm assessing respiratory symptoms. Four focus group discussions with CHWs were also conducted. Results CHWs in the dual- and single-illness management arms had similar performance with respect to: overall knowledge of malaria (dual 72%, single 70%; eliciting malaria signs and symptoms (50% in both groups; prescribing anti-malarials based on case scenarios (82% dual, 80% single; and correct prescription of anti-malarials from record reviews (dual 99%, single 100%. In the dual-illness arm, scores for malaria and pneumonia differed on overall knowledge (72% vs 40%, p vs 96%, p Conclusion CHWs providing dual-illness management handled malaria cases as well as CHWs providing single-illness management, and also performed reasonably well in the management of pneumonia. With appropriate training that emphasizes pneumonia assessment, adequate supervision, and provision of drugs and necessary supplies, CHWs can provide integrated treatment for malaria and pneumonia.
Waelkens, Maria-Pia; Coppieters, Yves; Laokri, Samia; Criel, Bart
Persistent low membership is observed in many community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes in Africa. Causes for low membership have been identified and solutions suggested, but this did not result in increased membership. In this case study of the mutual health organisation of Dar Naïm in Mauritania we explore the underlying drivers that may explain why membership continued to stagnate although several plans for change had been designed. We used a systems approach focussed on processes, underlying dynamics and complex interactions that produce the outcomes, to delve into 10 years of data collected between 2003 and 2012. We used qualitative research methods to analyse the data and interpret patterns. Direct causes of stagnation and possible solutions had been identified in the early years of operations, but most of the possible solutions were not implemented. A combination of reasons explains why consecutive action plans were not put into practice, showing the complexity of implementation and the considerable management capacity required, as well as the challenges of integrating a novel organisational structure into exiting social structures. For any CBHI project aiming at high membership, skilled professional management seems essential, with capacity to question and adapt routine procedures and interpret interactions within the wider society. Countries that include community-based health insurance in their strategic plan towards universal coverage will have to pay more attention to management capacity and the minutiae of implementation.
Stockdale, Susan E; Tang, Lingqi; Pudilo, Esmeralda; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Chung, Bowen; Horta, Mariana; Masongsong, Zoe; Jones, Felica; Belin, Thomas R; Sherbourne, Cathy; Wells, Kenneth
The inclusion of community partners in participatory leadership roles around statistical design issues like sampling and randomization has raised concerns about scientific integrity. This article presents a case study of a community-partnered, participatory research (CPPR) cluster-randomized, comparative effectiveness trial to examine implications for study validity and community relevance. Using study administrative data, we describe a CPPR-based design and implementation process for agency/program sampling, recruitment, and randomization for depression interventions. We calculated participation rates and used cross-tabulation to examine balance by intervention status on service sector, location, and program size and assessed differences in potential populations served. We achieved 51.5% agency and 89.6% program participation rates. Programs in different intervention arms were not significantly different on service sector, location, or program size. Participating programs were not significantly different from eligible, nonparticipating programs on community characteristics. We reject claims that including community members in research design decisions compromises scientific integrity. This case study suggests that a CPPR process can improve implementation of a community-grounded, rigorous randomized comparative effectiveness trial. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Gutierrez, Rachael A. [Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, NY (United States). City and Regional Planning; Martino, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies; Begay, Sandra K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies
Community energy planning is a vital component of successful energy resource development and project implementation. Planning can help tribes develop a shared vision and strategies to accomplish their energy goals. This paper explores the benefits of an asset-based approach to tribal community energy planning. While a framework for community energy planning and federal funding already exists, some areas of difficulty in the planning cycle have been identified. This paper focuses on developing a planning framework that offsets those challenges. The asset-based framework described here takes inventory of a tribe’s capital assets, such as: land capital, human capital, financial capital, and political capital. Such an analysis evaluates how being rich in a specific type of capital can offer a tribe unique advantages in implementing their energy vision. Finally, a tribal case study demonstrates the practical application of an asset-based framework.
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Fahy, Nick
The 2014 UK Research Excellence Framework (REF2014) generated a unique database of impact case studies, each describing a body of research and impact beyond academia. We sought to explore the nature and mechanism of impact in a sample of these. The study design was manual content analysis of a large sample of impact case studies (producing mainly quantitative data), plus in-depth interpretive analysis of a smaller sub-sample (for qualitative detail), thereby generating both breadth and depth. For all 162 impact case studies submitted to sub-panel A2 in REF2014, we extracted data on study design(s), stated impacts and audiences, mechanisms of impact, and efforts to achieve impact. We analysed four case studies (selected as exemplars of the range of approaches to impact) in depth, including contacting the authors for their narratives of impact efforts. Most impact case studies described quantitative research (most commonly, trials) and depicted a direct, linear link between research and impact. Research was said to have influenced a guideline in 122 case studies, changed policy in 88, changed practice in 84, improved morbidity in 44 and reduced mortality in 25. Qualitative and participatory research designs were rare, and only one case study described a co-production model of impact. Eighty-two case studies described strong and ongoing linkages with policymakers, but only 38 described targeted knowledge translation activities. In 40 case studies, no active efforts to achieve impact were described. Models of good implementation practice were characterised by an ethical commitment by researchers, strong institutional support and a proactive, interdisciplinary approach to impact activities. REF2014 both inspired and documented significant efforts by UK researchers to achieve impact. But in contrast with the published evidence on research impact (which depicts much as occurring indirectly through non-linear mechanisms), this sub-panel seems to have captured mainly direct
Benítez, Emilio; Paredes, Daniel; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Aldana, Diana; González, Mónica; Nogales, Rogelio; Campos, Mercedes; Moreno, Beatriz
Below-ground soil microorganisms can modulate above-ground plant-insect interactions. It still needs to be determined whether this is a direct effect of single species or an indirect effect of shifts in soil microbial community assemblages. Evaluation of the soil microbiome as a whole is critical for understanding multi-trophic interactions, including those mediated by volatiles involving plants, herbivorous insects, predators/parasitoids and microorganisms. We implemented a regulated system comprising Nerium oleander plants grown in soil initially containing a sterile/non sterile inoculum, herbivore Aphis nerii and predator Chrysoperla carnea. After aphid attack, plants emitted a characteristic blend of volatiles derived from two biosynthetic classes: fatty acid catabolites and aromatic-derived products. Three aliphatic compounds were mainly detected in plants grown in the inoculated microbial soil, a blend which was preferentially chosen by C. carnea adult females. The contrasting effect of the initial inocula was attributed to the different microbial consortia developed in each treatment. We argue that differences in the relative abundance of the active microbial communities in the rhizosphere correlate with those in the emission of selected volatile compounds by attacked plants. The mechanisms involved in how the functional soil microbiome modulates inducible indirect defence of plants are discussed.
Boone, Edgar J.
Defines community-based programing as a cooperative process in which the community college serves as leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among community members, leaders, and groups. Recommends 15 tasks for community college leaders involved in community-based programing, including environmental scanning and coalition building. (DMM)
Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby, Jan L; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James
This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. A multiple case study design was used. This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semistructured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption.
Kasckow, John; Liu, Nancy; Phillips, Michael R
Suicide is a leading cause of premature death among people with schizophrenia. Some studies indicate that increased difficulties in functioning are associated with suicidality in persons with schizophrenia. We conducted a secondary analysis of 74 suicides (cases) and 24 accidental deaths (controls) among persons with schizophrenia identified in a national psychological autopsy study in China. Between cases and controls, we compared the effect of schizophrenia on work, daily activities, emotions, social relationships and self-care at the time the illness was most severe. There was no difference in the overall maximum dysfunction associated with the illness between groups. None of the 5 measures (work, activities, emotions, relationships, self-care) were different between the two groups. This study of individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia who died by suicide in a non-western culture only partially supports findings from clinical studies in western cultures.
University of Victoria Professor Budd Hall, UNESCO Chair in Community-Based Research and Social Responsibility in Higher Education, will coordinate the project. A coalition of regional networks will implement it. Participating networks include the Global University Network for Innovation (Spain), the Talloires Network, ...
Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and collaborative practice in a health sciences faculty: Student perceptions and experiences. ... It became apparent that students need to be prepared to work in interprofessional groups. The overall intervention was perceived positively, allowing students to become ...
Interest in Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) developed as a result of a general despondency with State management of these resources. There is general agreement on the desirability of CNBRM. Numerous programmes and projects currently implemented as CBNRMs bear evidence to this.
The study was on participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) and its socio-economic effect on rural families in Ikwerre Area, Rivers State Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 beneficiaries of the programme. Data collected were subjected to descriptive ...
Community Based Crime Prevention in Guatemala. Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in the world. Guatemalans of every age, class and ethnicity confront violence daily in every part of the national territory. According to statistics kept by the police and the human rights ombudsman, Guatemala registered 3 366 ...
Introduction: AEFIs underreporting is one of different barriers to achieving objectives of pharmaco vigilance of vaccine worldwide. Studies describe it as being related to limited awareness of health personnel and of vaccinees or of their parents. The objective was to assess the effect of telephone "beep" on community based ...
Varghese, S; Prasad, J H; Jacob, K S
Violence against women may have an impact on infant and child mortality. We aimed to determine whether domestic violence is a risk factor for infant and child death. Eighty infant and child deaths (under 5 years of age) were identified from a central register of a comprehensive community health programme in rural southern India; controls were matched for age, gender and street of residence. Domestic violence during the lifetime (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.39-4.99), which was severe (OR 4.00, 95% CI 2.02-7.94) and during pregnancy (OR 5.69, 95% CI 2.03-15. 93) and father's smoking status (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.92-7.55) were significantly related to infant and child death while immunization being completed for age (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.19) and having at least one boy child in the family (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.14-0.59) were protective. These variables remained statistically significantly associated with outcome after adjusting for other determinants using conditional logistic regression. There is evidence for an association between domestic violence in mothers, and infant and child death. Copyright 2013, NMJI.
Nobis, Agnieszka; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja
Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent.
Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.
Arocha José F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The "applied" nature distinguishes applied sciences from theoretical sciences. To emphasize this distinction, we begin with a general, meta-level overview of the scientific endeavor. We introduce the knowledge spectrum and four interconnected modalities of knowledge. In addition to the traditional differentiation between implicit and explicit knowledge we outline the concepts of general and individual knowledge. We connect general knowledge with the "frame problem," a fundamental issue of artificial intelligence, and individual knowledge with another important paradigm of artificial intelligence, case-based reasoning, a method of individual knowledge processing that aims at solving new problems based on the solutions to similar past problems. We outline the fundamental differences between Medical Informatics and theoretical sciences and propose that Medical Informatics research should advance individual knowledge processing (case-based reasoning and that natural language processing research is an important step towards this goal that may have ethical implications for patient-centered health medicine. Discussion We focus on fundamental aspects of decision-making, which connect human expertise with individual knowledge processing. We continue with a knowledge spectrum perspective on biomedical knowledge and conclude that case-based reasoning is the paradigm that can advance towards personalized healthcare and that can enable the education of patients and providers. We center the discussion on formal methods of knowledge representation around the frame problem. We propose a context-dependent view on the notion of "meaning" and advocate the need for case-based reasoning research and natural language processing. In the context of memory based knowledge processing, pattern recognition, comparison and analogy-making, we conclude that while humans seem to naturally support the case-based reasoning paradigm (memory of past experiences
Blanas, Demetri A; Ndiaye, Youssoupha; Nichols, Kim; Jensen, Andrew; Siddiqui, Ammar; Hennig, Nils
Health workers in sub-Saharan Africa can now diagnose and treat malaria in the field, using rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy in areas without microscopy and widespread resistance to previously effective drugs. This study evaluates communities' perceptions of a new community case management of malaria programme in the district of Saraya, south-eastern Senegal, the effectiveness of lay health worker trainings, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy in the field. The study employed qualitative and quantitative methods including focus groups with villagers, and pre- and post-training questionnaires with lay health workers. Communities approved of the community case management programme, but expressed concern about other general barriers to care, particularly transportation challenges. Most lay health workers acquired important skills, but a sizeable minority did not understand the rapid diagnostic test algorithm and were not able to correctly prescribe arteminisin-based combination therapy soon after the training. Further, few women lay health workers participated in the programme. Finally, the study identified stock-outs of rapid tests and anti-malaria medication products in over half of the programme sites two months after the start of the programme, thought due to a regional shortage. This study identified barriers to implementation of the community case management of malaria programme in Saraya that include lay health worker training, low numbers of women participants, and generalized stock-outs. These barriers warrant investigation into possible solutions of relevance to community case management generally.
Richard C. Knopf; Kathleen L. Andereck; Karen Tucker; Bill Bottomly; Randy J. Virden
Purpose of Study This paper demonstrates how a Benefits-Based Management paradigm has been useful in guiding management plan development for an internationally significant natural resource â the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area (GGNCA) in Colorado. Through a program of survey research, a database on benefits desired by various stakeholder groups was created....
Raul Olalde Font
Full Text Available This investigation is framed in the analysis of impacts in the local development starting from the taking of decisions on projects of rural energy in Cuban communities that have as economic main activity the agricultural sector, illustrated the results of a case study where the technological most viable options are selected under the optics of the improvement of indicators of community resources. The methods and used materials are characteristic of a field work with application model are characterized for the taking of decisions in the energy area and their sources SURE, as geographical region the community isolated rural “Manantiales” linked to the agrarian sector in the republic of Cuba and the present period review in the thematic one approached. The main indicators are sketched in each resource of the rural community under the optics of the SURE in their version 3.0, as well the characterization of the prediction of the impacts at each technological option on the resources, is exhibited a mean of impacts and the classification of the technologies according to the level of achievements contribute to the indicators of community resources, obtaining as a result that the hydro energy technology is the most viable option with a value of 100 points in the scale from 0 to 100, followed by the GRID with 91.11 and of the photovoltaic systems based on silicon panels with 90.57, in this case all technologies contribute a significant level of achievements to the local community development.
Tonn, Gina L; Guikema, Seth D
Although individual behavior plays a major role in community flood risk, traditional flood risk models generally do not capture information on how community policies and individual decisions impact the evolution of flood risk over time. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the temporal aspects of flood risk through a combined analysis of the behavioral, engineering, and physical hazard aspects of flood risk. Additionally, the study aims to develop a new modeling approach for integrating behavior, policy, flood hazards, and engineering interventions. An agent-based model (ABM) is used to analyze the influence of flood protection measures, individual behavior, and the occurrence of floods and near-miss flood events on community flood risk. The ABM focuses on the following decisions and behaviors: dissemination of flood management information, installation of community flood protection, elevation of household mechanical equipment, and elevation of homes. The approach is place based, with a case study area in Fargo, North Dakota, but is focused on generalizable insights. Generally, community mitigation results in reduced future damage, and individual action, including mitigation and movement into and out of high-risk areas, can have a significant influence on community flood risk. The results of this study provide useful insights into the interplay between individual and community actions and how it affects the evolution of flood risk. This study lends insight into priorities for future work, including the development of more in-depth behavioral and decision rules at the individual and community level. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.
Kafle, Shesh Kanta
Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning
Wheeler, Holly A.
Veterans on college campuses are not new; however, the recent influx of veterans returning home from war-time service present challenges to the colleges they attend. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the transition process experienced by veterans leaving military service and attending community college for the first time.…
In 2011, the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing programs. A goal for the center is to collect data on best practices at…
Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…
Full Text Available We present an approach (and a corresponding system design for supporting regionally bound hybrid learning communities (i.e., communities which combine traditional face-to-face elements with web based media such as online community platforms, e-mail and SMS newsletters. The goal of the example community used to illustrate the approach was to support and motivate (especially hard-to-reach underprivileged parents in the education of their young children. The article describes the design process used and the challenges faced during the socio-technical system design. An analysis of the community over more than one year indicates that the hybrid approach works better than the two separated “traditional” approaches separately. Synergy effects like advertising effects from the offline trainings for the online platform and vice versa occurred and regular newsletters turned out to have a noticeable effect on the community.
Barac, Aleksandra; Pekmezovic, Marina; Milobratovic, Danica; Otasevic-Tasic, Suzana; Radunovic, Milena; Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina
Malassezia yeast belongs to the normal cutaneous flora and under certain conditions it causes seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD). There is no culture-based study about the presence and density of the Malassezia in SD patients in Serbia. Aim was to show the presence, species distribution and density of Malassezia in patients with SD on lesional skin (LS) and non-lesional skin (NLS) and healthy controls (HC) and to compare data between Serbia and other countries. The study included 70 HC and 60 patients with SD in the study group (SG). Isolation, identification and examination of density of Malassezia colony-forming units from LS and NLS were performed. Malassezia was found more frequently in the SG than in HC, 90% and 60%, respectively (P Malassezia was shown on LS of SG than on NLS of SG and HC. M. slooffiae is the most prevalent species in SD patients in Serbia. This study demonstrated a positive relationship between severity of SD and presence of Malassezia spp. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.
Grounded in critical policy theories and democratic conceptions of research, case studies of three community-based organizations, one in Canada and two in the U.S., were analyzed to determine if and how the groups engaged with research in their efforts to influence education policy. The findings demonstrate that the community-based organizations…
It has already been shown that an artificial society based on the three relations of social configuration (market, communal, and obligatory relations) functioning in balance with each other formed a sustainable society which the social reproduction is possible. In this artificial society model, communal relations exist in a network-based community with alternating members rather than a conventional community with cooperative mutual assistance practiced in some agricultural communities. In this paper, using the comparison between network-based communities with alternating members and conventional communities with fixed members, the significance of a network-based community is considered. In concrete terms, the difference in appearance rate for sustainable society, economic activity and asset inequality between network-based communities and conventional communities is analyzed. The appearance rate for a sustainable society of network-based community is higher than that of conventional community. Moreover, most of network-based communities had a larger total number of trade volume than conventional communities. But, the value of Gini coefficient in conventional community is smaller than that of network-based community. These results show that communal relations based on a network-based community is significant for the social reproduction and economic efficiency. However, in such an artificial society, the inequality is sacrificed.
This exploratory case study examines the social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. This work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing. The study concludes that construction impacts were minor due to a dispersed commuting pattern by construction workers and that the only significant construction impact that can be identified retrospectively is construction-worker traffic. The primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was the massive increase in property tax payments paid to the local communities by the utilities and the option chosen by each community to maintain the existing tax rate while using the additional revenue to significantly increase and enhance the public service delivery systems and facilities within the community. Second-order consequences of the direct, first-order economic impact were: (1) changes in community land use policies, (2) increase in salience of growth issues, and (3) alteration of both inter- and intra-community relationships. The majority of residents in both communities express favorable attitudes toward the nuclear plants, primarily because of the substantial increase in the tax base of their communities
Weiner, Janet; McDonald, Jasmine A
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative process between community-based organizations and academic investigators. It has the potential to make research more responsive to existing needs and to enhance a community's ability to address important health issues. But CBPR is often unfamiliar territory to academic investigators and community organizations alike. We interviewed CBPR investigators at Penn and community leaders to ascertain best practices in CBPR and to compare academic and community perspectives. A number of models of community-academic partnerships emerged, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The perspectives of the investigators sometimes matched those of the community leaders, but diverged in important ways.
Muhammad Adnan Aziz
Full Text Available In a Smart Grid (SG scenario, domestic consumers can gain cost reduction benefit by scheduling their Appliance Activation Time (AAT towards the slots of low charge. Minimization in cost is essential in Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS to induce consumers acceptance for power scheduling to accommodate for a Demand Response (DR at peak hours. Despite the fact that many algorithms address the power scheduling for HEMS, community based optimization has not been the focus. This paper presents an algorithm that targets the minimization of energy costs of whole community while keeping a low Peak to Average Ratio (PAR and smooth Power Usage Pattern (PUP. Objective of cost reduction is accomplished by finding most favorable AAT by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO in conjunction with Inclined Block Rate (IBR approach and Circular Price Shift (CPS. Simulated numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of CPS to assist the merger of PSO & IBR to enhance the reduction/stability of PAR and cost reduction.
Fábio Alexandre Melo do Rego Sousa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodology used in the process of setting health priorities for community intervention in a community of older adults. METHODS Based on the results of a health diagnosis related to active aging, a prioritization process was conceived to select the priority intervention problem. The process comprised four successive phases of problem analysis and classification: (1 grouping by level of similarity, (2 classification according to epidemiological criteria, (3 ordering by experts, and (4 application of the Hanlon method. These stages combined, in an integrated manner, the views of health team professionals, community nursing and gerontology experts, and the actual community. RESULTS The first stage grouped the identified problems by level of similarity, comprising a body of 19 issues for analysis. In the second stage these problems were classified by the health team members by epidemiological criteria (size, vulnerability, and transcendence. The nine most relevant problems resulting from the second stage of the process were submitted to expert analysis and the five most pertinent problems were selected. The last step identified the priority issue for intervention in this specific community with the participation of formal and informal community leaders: Low Social Interaction in Community Participation. CONCLUSIONS The prioritization process is a key step in health planning, enabling the identification of priority problems to intervene in a given community at a given time. There are no default formulas for selecting priority issues. It is up to each community intervention team to define its own process with different methods/techniques that allow the identification of and intervention in needs classified as priority by the community.
Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Devarajan, Nirmala; Rajagobal, Kanason; Yasin, Shajahan; Arunachalam, Dharmalingam; Imelda, Johanna Debora; Soyiri, Ireneous; Davey, Tamzyn; Jahan, Nowrozy
Background Community engagement is an increasingly important requirement of public health research and plays an important role in the informed consent and recruitment process. However, there is very little guidance about how it should be done, the indicators for assessing effectiveness of the community engagement process and the impact it has on recruitment, retention, and ultimately on the quality of the data collected as part of longitudinal cohort studies. Methods An instrumental case study approach, with data from field notes, policy documents, unstructured interviews, and focus group discussions with key community stakeholders and informants, was used to explore systematically the implementation and outcomes of the community engagement strategy for recruitment of an entire community into a demographic and health surveillance site in Malaysia. Results For a dynamic cohort, community engagement needs to be an ongoing process. The community engagement process has likely helped to facilitate the current response rate of 85% in the research communities. The case study highlights the importance of systematic documentation of the community engagement process to ensure an understanding of the effects of the research on recruitment and the community. Conclusions A critical lesson from the case study data is the importance of relationships in the recruitment process for large population-based studies, and the need for ongoing documentation and analysis of the impact of cumulative interactions between research and community engagement. PMID:24804983
Arshad, Ahmed; Salam, Rehana A; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Naqvi, Imama; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease. With its recent resurgence with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); TB prevention and management has become further challenging. We systematically evaluated the effectiveness of community based interventions (CBI) for the prevention and treatment of TB and a total of 41 studies were identified for inclusion. Findings suggest that CBI for TB prevention and case detection showed significant increase in TB detection rates (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.92, 3.28) with non-significant impact on TB incidence. CBI for treating patients with active TB showed an overall improvement in treatment success rates (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11) and evidence from a single study suggests significant reduction in relapse rate (RR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.39). The results were consistent for various study design and delivery mechanism. Qualitative synthesis suggests that community based TB treatment delivery through community health workers (CHW) not only improved access and service utilization but also contributed to capacity building and improving the routine TB recording and reporting systems. CBI coupled with the DOTS strategy seem to be an effective approach, however there is a need to evaluate various community-based integrated delivery models for relative effectiveness.
Des Jardins, Terrisca R
Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals.
Collins, Susan E; Clifasefi, Seema L; Stanton, Joey; Straits, Kee J E; Gil-Kashiwabara, Eleanor; Rodriguez Espinosa, Patricia; Nicasio, Andel V; Andrasik, Michele P; Hawes, Starlyn M; Miller, Kimberly A; Nelson, Lonnie A; Orfaly, Victoria E; Duran, Bonnie M; Wallerstein, Nina
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) answers the call for more patient-centered, community-driven research approaches to address growing health disparities. CBPR is a collaborative research approach that equitably involves community members, researchers, and other stakeholders in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each bring. The aim of CBPR is to combine knowledge and action to create positive and lasting social change. With its origins in psychology, sociology, and critical pedagogy, CBPR has become a common research approach in the fields of public health, medicine, and nursing. Although it is well aligned with psychology's ethical principles and research aims, it has not been widely implemented in psychology research. The present article introduces CBPR to a general psychology audience while considering the unique aims of and challenges in conducting psychology research. In this article, we define CBPR principles, differentiate it from a more traditional psychology research approach, retrace its historical roots, provide concrete steps for its implementation, discuss its potential benefits, and explore practical and ethical challenges for its integration into psychology research. Finally, we provide a case study of CBPR in psychology to illustrate its key constructs and implementation. In sum, CBPR is a relevant, important, and promising research framework that may guide the implementation of more effective, culturally appropriate, socially just, and sustainable community-based psychology research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
A. Ayala Alemán (Alonzo)
textabstractThe paper is an attempt to analyse the likely effects of compensatory social programmes such as Misiones Bolivarianas on community organisations in barrios and their participation in the planning and implementation of barrio upgrading projects, based on the case of the CAMEBA project in
Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.
Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun; Laursen, Anders Christian; Bermark, Susan; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian
Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers.
Boone, Edgar J.
Community-based programming (CBP) is a cooperative process in which a community college serves as the leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among the people, leaders and community organizations in its service area. This report discusses the changing role of the community college, the nature of CBP, and expected outcomes of the process,…
While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...
Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van
We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on
Yin, Zhangcai; Wu, Yang; Jin, Zhanghaonan; Zhang, Xu
Community is the basic unit of the city. Research on livable community could provide a bottom-up research path for the realization of livable city. Livability is the total factor affecting the quality of community life. In this paper, livable community evaluation indexes are evaluated based on GIS and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Then the sum-index and sub-index of community livability are both calculated. And community livable evaluation index system is constructed based on the platform of GIS. This study provides theoretical support for the construction and management of livable communities, so as to guide the development and optimization of city.
Full Text Available Background: Elderly prefer to be in their own homes rather than being in hospital or residential homes. Communication between elderly and community nurses is essential in caring and mutual interaction andmodern technologies like MELCO provides the elderly the feeling of independence and safety.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the social community model within the objectives of the MELCO project and its application within the community.Methodology: Three axes were taken in consideration: a ontology, b ecological theory and c social network and information systems analyses for the development of the social community model. Fourelderly women participated as a case study in piloting the mobile virtual system. The participants also responded to a short closed ended questionnaire.Results: The analysis of the questionnaire and the discussions with the participants showed that elders found the mobile system useful, easy to use and expressed the actual use of this would help them maintain active. Participants concern of social isolation or dependency on others seems to be trounced through the use of the mobile technology.Conclusions: MELCO social community model is a centric network that enables effective management and collaboration of social and health care teams around the elderly in the community. The teams arevirtual, dynamic and collaborative.
Community based tourism (CBT) is seen as an opportunity which mass tourism does not offer for, especially, rural communities to develop their natural and cultural assets into tourism activities for the benefit of the community. The point of CBT is that the community, collectively and individually, gains a livelihood from ...
Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben
are still likely to have a mission in promoting CBNRM as part of national programmes. Lessons learnt are important for the new agenda of community-based adaptation to climate change. Donor assistance may take the form of programme-based assistance or as earmarked support for monitoring and research...... that deliver credible and easily accessible information. Checks and balances can be supported through civil society as well as the media. Finally, the private sector plays a key and potentially beneficial role in the harvest, transport and marketing of CBNRM products. Thus, dialogue partners should include...... representatives from the public sector (and not only environmental authorities), civil society (women and men), private sector as well as financial institutions. It is envisaged that this work note will be followed by an interdisciplinary workshop in Copenhagen in 2008...
Salihu, Hamisu M; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Paothong, Arnut; Wang, Wei; King, Lindsey M
This paper outlines how to compute community priority indices in the context of multicriteria decision making in community settings. A simple R function was developed and validated with community needs assessment data. Particularly, the first part of this paper briefly overviews the existing methods for priority setting and reviews the utility of a multicriteria decision-making approach for community-based prioritization. The second part illustrates how community priority indices can be calculated using the freely available R program to handle community data by showing the computational and mathematical steps of CPI (Community Priority Index) with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals.
Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S
The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by
Robert, Nicholas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Hurley, Patricia
ASCO's Community Research Forum is a solution-oriented venue for community research sites to overcome barriers to conducting clinical trials. The key objectives of the Forum are to (1) convene community-based researchers to identify challenges to conducting research that ASCO can address, (2) develop solution-oriented projects to address these challenges to facilitate clinical trial participation in community research settings, and (3) shape ASCO programs and policies to support members engaged in community research. The Community Research Forum holds an annual in-person meeting that convenes physician investigators, research administrators, research nurses, and clinical research associates from community-based research programs and practices. To meet identified needs, the Community Research Forum has developed the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool and the ASCO Research Program Quality Assessment Tool. Both of these tools will be available to the public in 2014. The Forum is currently exploring the concept and potential metrics of a research certification program to formally assess community-based research programs, and to identify gaps and areas to improve the program in order to meet quality standards. The Community Research Forum's website aims to serve as a go-to resource for community-based physician investigators and research staff. The Community Research Forum will continue to provide a forum for community-based researchers to network, share challenges, and develop initiatives that provide solutions and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials.
Burgos, Daniel; Hummel, Hans; Tattersall, Colin; Brouns, Francis; Kurvers, Hub; Koper, Rob
Burgos, D., Hummel, H., Tattersall, C., Brouns, F., Kurvers, H., & Koper, R. (2006). Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Web Based Communities 2006. February, 16-18,2006, San
Hajjar, Reem; McGrath, David G; Kozak, Robert A; Innes, John L
Community forestry initiatives have been shown to reduce rural poverty while promoting the conservation and sustainable use of forests. However, a number of challenges face communities wanting to initiate or maintain formal, community-based forest management. Through a grounded theory approach, this paper uses three case studies of community forest management models in the eastern Amazon to create a framework showing challenges faced by communities at different phases of formal management. The framework shows that, in the development phase, four root problems (land ownership, knowledge acquisition, community organization, and adequate capital) need to be addressed to obtain legal management permission. With this permission in hand, further challenges to operationalization are presented (deterring illegal loggers, maintaining infrastructure, obtaining necessary managerial skills and accessing markets). The interrelatedness of these challenges emphasizes that all challenges need to be addressed in a holistic manner for communities to maintain a profitable and self-sufficient operation. This contradicts current development approaches that only address part of this framework. The framework proposed here can be used as a starting point for community forestry initiatives in other regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: To assess opportunities and threats towards the continuity and success of Community based reproductive health service programme in Northeast Ethiopia. Design: Community based comparative cross sectional study. Setting: Two districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia, classified as strong and weak community ...
Apr 29, 2016 ... This project developed community connections, shared cross-cultural teaching experiences, and fostered local community partnerships. Participants in the course were encouraged to continue providing evidence-based care throughout their careers. UniLúrio now plans to include the community-based ...
Fischer, Gerhard; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker
Traditionally, universities focus primarily on instructionist teaching. Such an understanding has been criticized from theoretical and practical points of view. We believe that sociocultural theories of learning and the concepts of social capital and social creativity hold considerable promise as a theoretical base for the repositioning of universities in the knowledge society. To illustrate our assumption, we provide case studies from the University of Colorado and the University of Siegen. These cases indicate how approaches to community-based learning can be integrated into a curriculum of applied computer science. We also discuss the role these didactical concepts can play within a practice-oriented strategy of regional innovation.
McKee, Michael; Thew, Denise; Starr, Matthew; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Reid, John T.; Graybill, Patrick; Velasquez, Julia; Pearson, Thomas
Background Numerous publications demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in community health research, but few target the Deaf community. The Deaf community is understudied and underrepresented in health research despite suspected health disparities and communication barriers. Objectives The goal of this paper is to share the lessons learned from the implementation of CBPR in an understudied community of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users in the greater Rochester, New York, area. Methods We review the process of CBPR in a Deaf ASL community and identify the lessons learned. Results Key CBPR lessons include the importance of engaging and educating the community about research, ensuring that research benefits the community, using peer-based recruitment strategies, and sustaining community partnerships. These lessons informed subsequent research activities. Conclusions This report focuses on the use of CBPR principles in a Deaf ASL population; lessons learned can be applied to research with other challenging-to-reach populations. PMID:22982845
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the seasonal and long-term dynamics of marine interstitial ciliates communities as a result of the processes of system self-organization (of increasing complexity in constantly fluctuating environment. The traits of simple structure of ciliate community include substantial variability in the composition (even in case of stable environment and the lack of sustainable combinations of species. The mechanism of the current state maintenance is the lack of energy supply in certain periods or in specific loci of space, as well as large amplitude and unpredictable fluctuations of environmental factors. An indication of the community’s complexity is availability of stable combinations of species in time and space. The mechanisms of formation of stable species combinations are a constant flow of external energy, optimal values and stability of environmental factors (including repeatability of seasonal cycles and the use of space resources by species according the principle of complementarity of ecological niches.
Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard
Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...
West, Richard E; Williams, Greg S; Williams, David D
In this case study, we researched one cohort from the Center for Animation, a higher education teaching environment that has successfully fostered group creativity and learning outcomes through problem-based learning. Through live and videotaped observations of the interactions of this community over 18 months, in addition to focused interviews with nine key community leaders, we considered the evaluative culture and actions of this community, and how these evaluative practices improved their...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...
The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.
Lavis John N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together; a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary
Mehpare Tokay ARGAN
Full Text Available Today, like in all areas, the Internet has had an important effect in the area of health as well. With the development of the Internet many new and different applications have developed and one of the most important of these are probably virtual communities. Virtual communities, which are used as a tool for providing information and word of mouth communication, have become a widely used marketing tool in the area of healthcare services in recent years. A virtual community is a group that does not depend on space and time to maintain ties or participation in the group whose members share the same interest and to maintain closeness, that is based on internet communications and whose membership is based on free will. In these kinds of communities whose services are provided on a membership basis, health services of various kinds are offered to the members. In virtual communities, virtual interactive communications established between the members can be an important determining factor when choosing a product, service or doctor.
Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason; Everett, Anita
Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented.
Aguayo, Claudio; Eames, Chris
The importance of community learning in effecting social change towards ecological sustainability has been recognised for some time. More recently, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools to promote socio-ecological sustainability has been shown to have potential in community education for sustainable development (ESD). The effective design and use of technology for community learning implies an understanding of a range of cross-dimensional factors including: socio-cultural characteristics and needs of the target audience; considerations of available and culturally responsive types of technology; and non-formal pedagogical ESD strategies for community empowerment. In addition, both technology itself and social communities are dynamically evolving and complex entities. This article presents a case study which evaluated the potential of ICT for promoting ecological literacy and action competence amongst community members in southern Chile. The case study addressed the ecological deterioration of a lake, which is having deep social, economic, recreational and cultural implications locally. The authors' research involved developing a theoretical framework for the design, implementation and use of ICT for community learning for sustainability. The framework was based on key ideas from ESD, ICT and community education, and was underpinned by a systems thinking approach to account for the dynamism and complexity of such settings. Activity theory provided a frame to address overarching socio-cultural elements when using technology as a mediating tool for community learning. The authors' findings suggest that the use of an ICT tool, such as a website, can enhance ecological literacy in relation to a local socio-ecological issue.
Mbalinda, Scovia N; Plover, Colin M; Burnham, Gilbert; Kaye, Dan; Mwanika, Andrew; Oria, Hussein; Okullo, Isaac; Muhwezi, Wilson; Groves, Sara
Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES), facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region. The College is motivated to improve the health of Ugandans through innovative responsive teaching, provision of service, and community partnerships. Evaluating the COBES program from the community perspective can assist the College in refining an innovative and useful model that has potential to improve the health of Ugandans. A stratified random sample of 11 COBES sites was selected to examine the community's perception of the program. Key Informant Interviews of 11 site tutors and 33 community members were completed. The data was manually analyzed and themes developed. Communities stated the students consistently engaged with them with culturally appropriate behaviour. They rated the student's communication as very good even though translators were frequently needed. Half the community stated they received some feedback from the students, but some communities interpreted any contact after the initial visit as feedback. Communities confirmed and appreciated that the students provided a number of interventions and saw positive changes in health and health seeking behaviours. The community reflected that some programs were more sustainable than others; the projects that needed money to implement were least sustainable. The major challenges from the community included community fatigue, and poor motivation of community leaders to continue to take students without compensation. Communities hosting Makerere students valued the students' interventions and the COBES model. They reported witnessing
Simonsen, Sara E; Ralls, Brenda; Guymon, Anna; Garrett, Teresa; Eisenman, Patricia; Villalta, Jeannette; Tavake-Pasi, O Fahina; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Digre, Kathleen; Hayes, Stephen; Alexander, Stephanie
The Coalition for a Healthier Community for Utah Women and Girls (CHC-UWAG) focused on addressing obesity-related health disparities impacting Utah women of color using community-based participatory research, a gender-based approach, and culturally sensitive health promotion activities delivered through community health workers (CHWs). A randomized trial of low vs. high intensity wellness coaching by CHWs was initiated. During this process, numerous policy issues emerged and were tracked. We present a case study illustrating how we identified, tracked, and engaged with emerging policy initiatives. Between September 2011 and August 2017, policy initiatives addressing obesity-related disparities among Utah women and girls were identified, tracked in a shared document, and updated regularly. Policies were classified by level (organizational, local, and statewide) and by focus (healthy eating, active living, and promotion of community health workers). CHC-UWAG engagement with policy work was also documented and tracked. Broad dissemination of study findings generated interest in the role of CHWs in addressing obesity. Partnering community-based organizations implemented policies focused on healthy eating and physical activity. Barriers to the broader use of CHWs in Utah were addressed in policy initiatives including the formation of a Utah Public Health Association Section for CHWs and a statewide CHW Coalition with involvement of CHC-UWAG members. The regular solicitation of information about policy initiatives resulted in successful policy tracking and engagement in policy work. The utilization of a gender-based approach helped illuminate the impact of emerging policies on the health of women and girls. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chishakwe, Nyasha; Murray, Laurel; Chambwera, Muyeye
This publication, produced in collaboration with WWF Southern Africa, looks at how community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) can inform and contribute to climate change adaptation at the community level, specifically to community-based adaptation (CBA) to climate change. It provides a framework for analysing the two approaches at conceptual and practical levels. Using case studies from southern Africa, the publication demonstrates the synergies between CBA and CBNRM, most important of which are the adaptation co-benefits between the two. While local incentives have driven community action in CBNRM, it is the evolution of an enabling environment in the region, in the form of institutions, policies, capacity and collaboration which characterises the scaling up of CBNRM to national and regional levels.
Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph
The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…
Full Text Available A person with moderate mental retardation would, in a western country, be "diagnosed" early on in life. Consequently, such a child is likely to be sent for special education. Given the high level of job requirements, such a person is unlikely to be employed in the open market later in life. Mental retardation is one of the most frequent disabilities in most studies, mental retardation is found in about three percent of the population. Persons even with mild mental retardation have very large difficulties finding employment and are for this reason often deprived of opportunities for suitable and productive income generation this is why most stay poor. But disability does not only cause poverty poverty itself causes disability. This study follows an analysis, based on a review of the Swedish programme for mental retardation during the period 1930-2000. It is concluded that in Sweden a very large proportion of mild and moderate mental retardation has been eliminated though the combination of poverty alleviation with a community-based rehabilitation programme. For these situations a pro-active programme analysing and meeting the needs of the target groups should be useful as a means to achieve poverty alleviation.
Cohen, Emma R. M. Cohen
Community engagement influences the success of research. Investigators conducting international research necessitate an understanding of effective practices in community engagement. This case study examines the practice of community engagement in Zomba District, Malawi as part of a larger multiple case studies design with the objective of elucidating global practices of community engagement. Poverty and disease are widespread in Malawi. Dignitas International, an academic NGO, implemented a c...
Gui, Chun; Zhang, Ruisheng; Zhao, Zhili; Wei, Jiaxuan; Hu, Rongjing
In order to deal with stochasticity in center node selection and instability in community detection of label propagation algorithm, this paper proposes an improved label propagation algorithm named label propagation algorithm based on community belonging degree (LPA-CBD) that employs community belonging degree to determine the number and the center of community. The general process of LPA-CBD is that the initial community is identified by the nodes with the maximum degree, and then it is optimized or expanded by community belonging degree. After getting the rough structure of network community, the remaining nodes are labeled by using label propagation algorithm. The experimental results on 10 real-world networks and three synthetic networks show that LPA-CBD achieves reasonable community number, better algorithm accuracy and higher modularity compared with other four prominent algorithms. Moreover, the proposed algorithm not only has lower algorithm complexity and higher community detection quality, but also improves the stability of the original label propagation algorithm.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES, facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region. The College is motivated to improve the health of Ugandans through innovative responsive teaching, provision of service, and community partnerships. Evaluating the COBES program from the community perspective can assist the College in refining an innovative and useful model that has potential to improve the health of Ugandans. Methods A stratified random sample of 11 COBES sites was selected to examine the community’s perception of the program. Key Informant Interviews of 11 site tutors and 33 community members were completed. The data was manually analyzed and themes developed. Results Communities stated the students consistently engaged with them with culturally appropriate behaviour. They rated the student’s communication as very good even though translators were frequently needed. Half the community stated they received some feedback from the students, but some communities interpreted any contact after the initial visit as feedback. Communities confirmed and appreciated that the students provided a number of interventions and saw positive changes in health and health seeking behaviours. The community reflected that some programs were more sustainable than others; the projects that needed money to implement were least sustainable. The major challenges from the community included community fatigue, and poor motivation of community leaders to continue to take students without compensation. Conclusions Communities hosting Makerere students valued the
Methods: Questionnaire interviews were conducted with randomly selected household heads or their representatives in five malaria holo-endemic communities of Southeast Nigeria. Interviews were also held with community leaders before and after ITNs sales. The sale of ITNs was based on the communities' distribution ...
Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor
Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…
Background. A collaborative interprofessional research project that involved community members was beneficial to community development. Objective. To draw upon the experiences of academics relating to their involvement in an interprofessional community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Methods. A Delphi ...
Development interventions in rural communities have over the years, been hinged on locating and involving various community stakeholders in the process of planning and implementation of development projects. While the emphasis has always been on the inclusion of community based organization/groups and ...
Spears Johnson, C. R.; Kraemer Diaz, A. E.; Arcury, T. A.
This analysis describes the nature of community participation in National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects, and explores the scientific and social implications of variation in community participation. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2012 with…
Community-Based Education (CBE) is not a new idea. It has been nearly 30 years since CBE was introduced in to Jimma University's education system. It was introduced as a means of achieving educational relevance to community needs and consequently of implementing a community-oriented education program.
Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen
Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the
Increasing the complexity of the modern systems drives to use multiple case bases in the case based reasoning (CBR) system to solve a single problem. Sometimes, it is difficult and unman gable task to store the knowledge of the domain of these complex systems in a single case base. On the other hand, usually these multiple case bases having different structures that cause main limitation for solving the problem. This research introduces integrating the case based systems using multiple case bases with agent-based technique. This enables the system to use different case base structures. The proposed system has been applied for designing the radiotherapy of the kidney, liver and skin cancers. It is found that, the suggested system has simplified, managed the complexity, increasing the accuracy of the of CBR systems. Therefore, it can be applied with a good performance for the practical sites
Patterson, Tracy Enright; Dinkin, Donna R; Champion, Heather
Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team. Most sponsors agreed that they were well informed about their role. The roles sponsors most frequently played were to provide the teams with input and support, serve as a liaison to the community and serve as a sounding board, motivator and cheerleader. The most common challenges or barriers team sponsors faced in this role were keeping engaged in the process, adjusting to the role and feeling disconnected from the program. Practical implications This work provides insights for program developers and community foundations who are interested in building the capacity for health leadership by linking community sponsors with emerging leaders engaged in an action learning experience. Originality/value This work begins to fill a gap in the literature. The role of team sponsors has been studied for single organization work teams but there is a void of understanding about the role of sponsors with multi-organizational teams working to improve health while also learning about leadership.
Umesh Prasad Acharya
Full Text Available This paper discusses upon the changes of Bote community of Nepal, in case of Patihani V.D.C. These changes are influenced by process of urbanization, globalization which has created constraints and opportunities on "Bote people of Patihani VDC". Historically these people had their livelihood from agriculture. Land was a major household asset and crop production (maize, millet, paddy, wheat etc. was the means of survival. But the rapid process of urbanization and globalization has pushed them in transition both with opportunities as well as constraints. The household assets have undergone rapid modification. Now they have no option other than modifying the traditional occupation. Land fragmentation and change in social institution are resulted from the urbanization and globalization. The livelihood diversification and foreign employment have recently emerged as how livelihood strategies in the study area. Due to the proximity to the market, the influence of the urbanization is more apparent in the Bote Village. Most of the households follow the multiple occupations besides agriculture. The role of agriculture activities in their life is substantial. Although a few households sell their crops however most of them sell vegetables. The livelihood strategy of Bote community in the study area is in transition. It is shifted from agriculture to non-agricultural one. It is necessary to ensure access to resources and increase social and political participation of Bote community for integral development of rural community in Nepal. Keywords: poverty; urbanization; commercial farming; tarai ethnic group; traditional occupation DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4524 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.247-260
Hienerth, Christoph; Lettl, Christopher; Biskjaer, Michael Mose
In the field of new product development, brand communities have attracted a great deal of attention from both academics and practitioners as a means of facilitating consumer-producer co-creation processes. In this paper, we extend the line of research on brand communities to the field...... of entrepreneurship studies by examining the conditions under which new firms emerge out of these social networks. Our empirical setting is the global LEGO brand community. As a well-known pioneering firm that is constantly experimenting with new ways of collaborating with its fan and customer base, LEGO recently...... invited lead users to start up new companies under its brand name. In this study, we use an explorative multiple case study design to identify patterns in this new firm creation process. Our findings show that each party derives specific returns in this entrepreneurial process: The LEGO company benefits...
Case-based reasoning is a methodology with a long tradition in artificial intelligence that brings together reasoning and machine learning techniques to solve problems based on past experiences or cases. Given a problem to be solved, reasoning involves the use of methods to retrieve similar past cases in order to reuse their solution for the problem at hand. Once the problem has been solved, learning methods can be applied to improve the knowledge based on past experiences. In spite of being a broad methodology applied in industry and services, case-based reasoning has often been forgotten in
Pratama, A. Y.; Sariffuddin, S.
This article aimed to review community-based disaster management in terms of its independent coordination and disaster management. Community resilience was tested during disaster emergency. While panic, the community is required to be viable and able to evacuate, manage logistic, collect data on damage and the victim, and coordinate with outsiders independently. The community in Gununglurah Village, Banyumas Regency which was hit by a landslide in 2015 provides a lesson learned about community based disaster management. This research used qualitative descriptive methodology with in-depth interview with 23 informants from the community, donor institution, village officers, and government officers. Through traditional and informal methods, the community implemented disaster management that was categorized into 3 mechanisms that were social, functional, and sequential mechanism. These mechanisms controlled different portion in which social mechanism holds the most important role in disaster management, then functional mechanism and sequential mechanism. Various community activities in the village equipped the community with organizational experience to manage logistic, human resource and other coordination. In 2007, in fact, there was vulnerability risk assessment done by the local government, which recommended efforts to be done by the community to reduce the disaster risk, yet it was not implemented. It was interesting to note that in spite of the independent disaster management there was a scientific assessment neglected. Based on this research, a new discussion on how to synchronize the endogenous knowledge with scientific modern knowledge was opened.
AJRH Managing Editor
Shumba et al. Community Mobilization and Home-based Testing. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2013 (Special Edition on HIV/AIDS); 17(4): 171. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Assessment of Community Mobilization and Home-based HIV. Counselling and Testing Offered by Health Facilities in Rural.
Community Based Distributors and Increased Ownership of the Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Rural Area of Jos Plateau State. ... those that served as community based distributors (CBDs) who were pregnant women themselves that could read and write and understood English, Hausa and the native language Birom.
A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)
textabstractDue to the limited ability of publicly financed health systems in developing countries to provide adequate access to health care, community-based health financing has been proposed as a viable option. This has led to the implementation of a number of Community- Based Health Insurance
Introduction: A Community-Based Health Insurance Scheme (CBHI) is any program managed and operated by a community-based organization that provides resource pooling and risk-sharing to cover the costs of health care services. CBHI reduces out of pocket expenditure and is the most appropriate insurance model for ...
Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...
Emge, Donald R.
Base Christian communities (also know as base-level ecclesial communities or CEBs) are small groups of Christians, mainly Catholics and mainly in Latin America, that come together for scripture study, prayer, and fellowship. They frequently turn their attention toward social ills and address problems existing within society. The origin of CEBs can…
Full Text Available It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.
Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul
Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…
Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul
Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…
Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul
Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…
Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul
Watts, Vanessa M.; Christopher, Suzanne; Streitz, Jana L.; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
Community-based participatory research directly involves community members and community-based service providers as partners in the research process. It is especially important in Native American communities, where egregious research practices have led some communities and individuals to be wary of researchers. Messengers for Health uses a lay…
Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards
Hacker, Karen; Tendulkar, Shalini A; Rideout, Catlin; Bhuiya, Nazmim; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Savage, Clara P; Grullon, Milagro; Strelnick, Hal; Leung, Carolyn; DiGirolamo, Ann
For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes. This paper describes a community-academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both. "Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health" was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher-community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee. Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to "transfer of knowledge" from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved. Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes.
A. O. Adejumo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Engagement of communities and civil society organizations is a critical part of the Post-2015 End TB Strategy. Since 2007, many models of community referral have been implemented to boost TB case detection in Nigeria. Yet clear insights into the comparative TB yield from particular approaches have been limited. Methods We compared four models of active case finding in three Nigerian states. Data on presumptive TB case referral by community workers (CWs, TB diagnoses among referred clients, active case finding model characteristics, and CWs compensation details for 2012 were obtained from implementers and CWs via interviews and log book review. Self-reported performance data were triangulated against routine surveillance data to assess concordance. Analysis focused on assessing the predictors of presumptive TB referral. Results CWs referred 4–22 % of presumptive TB clients tested, and 4–24 % of the total TB cases detected. The annual median referral per CW ranged widely among the models from 1 to 48 clients, with an overall average of 13.4 referrals per CW. The highest median referrals (48 per CW/yr and mean TB diagnoses (7.1/yr per CW (H =70.850, p < 0.001 was obtained by the model with training supervision, and $80/quarterly payments (Comprehensive Quotas-Oriented model. The model with irregularly supervised, trained, and compensated CWs contributed the least to TB case detection with a median of 13 referrals per CW/yr and mean of 0.53 TB diagnoses per CW/yr. Hours spent weekly on presumptive TB referral made the strongest unique contribution (Beta = 0.514, p < 0.001 to explaining presumptive TB referral after controlling for other variables. Conclusion All community based TB case-finding projects studied referred a relative low number of symptomatic individuals. The study shows that incentivized referral, appropriate selection of CWs, supportive supervision, leveraged treatment support roles, and a
Johnson, Crista E; Ali, Sagal A; Shipp, Michèle P-L
The U.S. has become home to growing numbers of immigrants and refugees from countries where the traditional practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is prevalent. These women under-utilize reproductive health care, and challenge healthcare providers in providing culturally appropriate care. This study examined Somali immigrant women's experiences with the U.S. healthcare system, exploring how attitudes, perceptions, and cultural values, such as FGC, influence their use of reproductive health care. A mixed-method community-based participatory research (CBPR) collaboration with a Somali refugee community was conducted from 2005 to 2008 incorporating surveys, semi-structured focus groups, and individual interviews. Providers caring for this community were also interviewed to gain their perspectives and experiences. The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around shared goals of voicing unique healthcare concerns of the community to inform the development of interventional programs to improve culturally-competent care. Community-based participatory research using mixed-methods is critical to facilitating trust-building and engaging community members as active participants in every phase of the research process, enabling the rigorous and ethical conduct of research with refugee communities.
Full Text Available Background: Community-based education (CBE is utilised by health science facultiesworldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service tounderserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits totraining institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities,too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in theplanning of such training programmes.Method: An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken by three South African universitiesin the provinces of Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. Focus group interviewswere conducted in their local languages with groups of community leaders, patients andsupervisors at community sites involved in CBE training. A thematic analysis of their viewswas undertaken with the aid of NVivo (version 9. Ethics approval was obtained from therespective universities and health care training sites.Results: Benefits to the community could be categorised into short-term and long-term benefits.Short-term benefits included improved service delivery, reduction in hospital referrals, homevisits and community orientated primary health care, improved communication with patientsand enhanced professionalism of the health care practitioner. Long-term benefits includedimproved teaching through a relationship with an academic institution and student familiaritywith the health care system. Students also became involved in community upliftment projects,thereby acting as agents of change in these communities.Conclusion: Communities can certainly benefit from well-planned CBE programmes involvinga training site ‑ community site partnership.
The Impact of Community Based Health Insurance in Enhancing Better Accessibility and Lowering the Chance of Having Financial Catastrophe Due to Health Service Utilization: A Case Study of Savannakhet Province, Laos.
Bodhisane, Somdeth; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn
The Lao population mostly relies on out-of-pocket expenditures for health care services. This study aims to determine the role of community-based health insurance in making health care services accessible and in preventing financial catastrophe resulting from personal payment for inpatient services. A cross-sectional study design was applied. Data collection involved 126 insured and 126 uninsured households in identical study sites. Two logistic regression models were used to predict and compare the probability of hospitalization and financial catastrophe that occurred in both insured and uninsured households within the previous year. The findings show that insurance status does not significantly improve accessibility and financial protection against catastrophic expenditure. The reason is relatively simple, as catastrophic health expenditure refers to a total out-of-pocket payment equal to or more than 40% of household income minus subsistence. When household income declines as a result of inability to work due to illness, the 40% threshold is quickly reached. Despite this, results suggest that insured households are not significantly better off under community-based health insurance. However, compared to uninsured households, insured households do have better accessibility and a lower probability of reaching the financial catastrophe threshold.
This project aims to improve people's understanding of the links between environment and health, with a focus on diarrheal diseases and malnutrition. Working with the community and other stakeholders, researchers will design and pilot interventions for improving health status and the environment that could be extended ...
White, Geoffry D.
A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…
Paris, Howard S.; And Others
Chronicles the efforts of North Carolina's James Sprunt Community College to improve the quality of life for residents of its service area through the use of community-based programming (C-BP). Reviews the C-BP process utilized at the college, highlighting the formation of three planning teams charged with developing coalitions, strategic plans,…
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Sousa, Fábio Alexandre Melo do Rego; Goulart, Maria José Garcia; Braga, Antonieta Manuela Dos Santos; Medeiros, Clara Maria Oliveira; Rego, Débora Cristina Martins; Vieira, Flávio Garcia; Pereira, Helder José Alves da Rocha; Tavares, Helena Margarida Correia Vicente; Loura, Marta Maria Puim
To describe the methodology used in the process of setting health priorities for community intervention in a community of older adults. Based on the results of a health diagnosis related to active aging, a prioritization process was conceived to select the priority intervention problem. The process comprised four successive phases of problem analysis and classification: (1) grouping by level of similarity, (2) classification according to epidemiological criteria, (3) ordering by experts, and (4) application of the Hanlon method. These stages combined, in an integrated manner, the views of health team professionals, community nursing and gerontology experts, and the actual community. The first stage grouped the identified problems by level of similarity, comprising a body of 19 issues for analysis. In the second stage these problems were classified by the health team members by epidemiological criteria (size, vulnerability, and transcendence). The nine most relevant problems resulting from the second stage of the process were submitted to expert analysis and the five most pertinent problems were selected. The last step identified the priority issue for intervention in this specific community with the participation of formal and informal community leaders: Low Social Interaction in Community Participation. The prioritization process is a key step in health planning, enabling the identification of priority problems to intervene in a given community at a given time. There are no default formulas for selecting priority issues. It is up to each community intervention team to define its own process with different methods/techniques that allow the identification of and intervention in needs classified as priority by the community. Descrever a metodologia utilizada no processo de estabelecimento de prioridades em saúde para intervenção comunitária, numa comunidade idosa. Partindo dos resultados de um diagnóstico de saúde no âmbito da promoção do envelhecimento
Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari
Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...
Fawcett, S B; Francisco, V T; Schultz, J A; Berkowitz, B; Wolff, T J; Nagy, G
Building healthier cities and communities requires an array of community-building skills that are not always taught in formal education. The Community Tool Box (http://ctb.ukans.edu) is an Internet-based resource for practical, comprehensive, accessible, and user-friendly information on community-building, which both professionals and ordinary citizens can use in everyday practice. It connects people, ideas, and resources, offering more than 200 how-to sections and more than 5,000 pages of text. PMID:10968769
Full Text Available This article explores the implementation and results of a service learning based Urban Studies program course, the student expectations at the beginning of the course, and the student feedback at the end of the course. Through detailed explanation and examples of the live community needs, in multiple communities, addressed in this course and the resulting student projects, this article presents the case for service learning as a vibrant, efficient, and effective pedagogy for use within Urban Studies programs. Specifically, this article explores service learning pedagogy as, perhaps, a uniquely effective and satisfying tool that enhances the educative process for students and communities alike. Additionally, this article explores the enhanced project effectiveness and external outreach realized by partnering not only with communities, but also with multiple institutions of higher education, simultaneously, in order to achieve project(s success. This article also includes, and explores, the results of the pre and post course student experience surveys, as well as community feedback, and presents comparative data in which multiple curriculum formats, including lecture and workshops, are weighed against service learning curriculum prepared and presented in the course examined in this article. KEYWORDSService Learning, Higher Education, Urban Studies, Outreach
Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas
in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function and type. Some......; develop novel predictive models that explicitly incorporate traits and associated trade-offs; and utilize these traits to explain and predict zooplankton community structure and dynamics under different environmental conditions, including global change scenarios......Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...
Richerson, Julia; Pendleton, Amber; Davis, Deborah Winders
Early childhood is an important period for development. Parents play an important role in structuring children's physical and psychosocial environments. Much remains unknown about the best methods for engaging parents in health promotion programs. It is critical that programs meet the needs of the families while encouraging the use of positive parenting strategies. The article describes how one pediatrician used the American Academy of Pediatrics' Community Access to Child Health grant program to develop and implement The Arts of Parenting program with input from predominantly low-income families. A community mapping and needs assessment was conducted as well as stakeholder interviews and parent focus groups to determine the needs of the families with preschoolers. Family programs that are centered in play and the arts provide families with a supportive environment in which to engage their children and learn about their child's socioemotional development, and build a network with neighborhood peers.
Luo, Lili; Kennedy, Marie; Brancolini, Kristine; Stephens, Michael
This study examines the role of online communities in connecting and supporting librarian researchers, through the analysis of member activities in the online community for academic librarians that attended the 2014 Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL). The 2014 IRDL cohort members participated in the online community via Twitter…
Latiner Raby, Rosalind, Ed.; Valeau, Edward J., Ed.
This book brings together distinguished scholars, community college practitioners, and emerging leaders to expand upon existing theories, provide reflection on practice, and demonstrate the dynamic nature of community college internationalization. There is a special challenge for United States community colleges to move from selected international…
Full Text Available they encounter in their job and the perception on where the services can be improved and if they think technology can assist in improving the challenges. The results from the case study are analysed and collated in Section 3; the results are then discussed... cellphone coverage) f) Health Workers reporting process/routine Based on how the Community Health Workers described their day-to-day activities of gathering household data, the following data collection protocol emerges: Community Health...
Full Text Available Community-based enterprises are of interest to commons researchers because they offer a means to study how local institutions respond to opportunities, develop networks, new skills and knowledge, and evolve. Nevertheless, the relationship between commons and community-based enterprises has received little attention, with a few exceptions (Bray et al. 2005; Berkes and Davidson-Hunt 2007. Therefore, we decided to organize a conference session and explore this relationship in more detail. We invited a diverse array of scholars and practitioners active with indigenous enterprises, community development, community forestry, ecotourism and conservation-development projects. This Special Issue includes peer-reviewed and edited versions of seven of the papers (plus two additional invited papers presented at the two panels on “Innovating through commons use: community-based enterprises”, at the 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC 2008 in Cheltenham, England.
Full Text Available India has a large burden of blindness and population-based screening is a strategy commonly employed to detect disease and prevent morbidity. However, not all diseases are amenable to screening. This communication examines the issue of "population-based screening" versus "case detection" in the Indian scenario. Using the example of glaucoma, it demonstrates that given the poor infrastructure, for a "rare" disease, case detection is more effective than population-based screening.
Community-based tourism is increasingly being developed and promoted as a means of reducing poverty in developing countries, assisting local communities to meet their needs through the offering of a tourism product. The Swaziland Tourism Authority with the support of the European Union Fund has made significant ...
Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna
Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…
Purpose: To analyze community pharmacy based research in Arab countries. Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2003 till December 31, 2013 was searched for documents with specific words pertaining to “community pharmacy” in any one of the 13 Middle ...
Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area ... It is expected that the project will result in greater accountability of leaders to local constituencies, and sharper awareness of environmental and economic opportunities on the part of participating communities.
SMS/MMS-based Enhancements to the Community Health Information Tracking System (CHITS) in the Philippines. The Community Health Information Tracking System (CHITS) is an electronic public health information system introduced by the Pasay City Health Office in 2004. Pasay City is home to one-fifth of Metro ...
Tourism has been widely proposed as a tool contributing to development. Community-based tourism (CBT) has been specifically recognised as a tourism development approach aimed at facilitating the development of disadvantaged communities. However, realising this potential is often difficult and it may additionally be ...
Green, Lawrence W.
The author comments on Meredith Minkler's article, "Ethical Challenges for the "Outside" Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research," Health Education & Behavior 31(6):684-697, 2004 [see EJ824234]. Specifically, this commentary notes along with Minkler that, in relation to the relatively uncharted territory of Community-Based…
Climate change impacts fall disproportionately on the world's poorest, most marginalised communities, particularly those highly dependent on direct use of natural ... Such community-based approaches should therefore play a key role in adaptation efforts within the western Indian Ocean region, where many coastal ...
The article explores the roots of Community-Based-Research (CBR) in Africa. The main questions are: How to access the knowledge produced and circulated within communities and make them subject of teaching in schools? Can we derive methodological questions that could be related specifically to the African context ...
Trolle, D.; Hamilton, D.P.; Hipsey, M.R.; Bolding, K.; Bruggeman, J.; Mooij, W.M.; Janse, J.H.; Nielsen, A.; Jeppesen, E.; Elliot, J.A.; Makler-Pick, V.; Petzoldt, T.; Rinke, K.; Flindt, M.R.; Arhonditsis, G.; Gal, G.; Bjerring, R.; Tominaga, K.; 't Hoen, J.; Downing, A.S.; Marques, D.M.; Fragoso Jr., C.R.; Søndergaard, M.; Hanson, P.C.
Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through a
This study reports on findings of a pilot of community-based distribution (CBD) of injectable contraceptives in two local government areas (LGAs) of Gombe State, Nigeria. From August 2009 to January 2010, the project enrolled, trained and equipped community health extension workers (CHEWs) to distribute condoms, oral ...
This paper explores local experiences of private - sector led community - based nature conservation near Fort Dauphin, southeastern Madagascar through the analysis of a conservation zone managed in partnership between the Rio Tinto mining corporation, local government and local communities. The article assesses ...
30 sept. 2009 ... Beyond Propietorship : Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Couverture du livre Beyond Propietorship ... Autonomy and Community Management of Protected Areas in Neuquen and Araucania (Argentina and Chile). The Mapuche are an indigenous ...
Background. A current challenge in the training of healthcare professionals is to produce socially responsive graduates who are prepared for work in community settings. Community-based education (CBE) and service learning (SL) are teaching approaches used in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Free ...
25 avr. 2016 ... Community based adaptation puts people at the centre of their own development. It is not just about responding to climate shocks, but is a learning process that empowers communities to solve problems and plan for climate events. Without underestimating the severity of climate change, this approach ...
In this paper, the requirements management based on use cases is theoretically explored, and a multi-layer use-case model is introduced, which combined with three levels of use cases and a single use-case refinement model. Through the practice in a software project, the multi-layer use-case model provides a good solution on how to control the requirements scope and change, and provides the balance of work assignment between customer departments, information management departments and software development outsourcing team. (authors)
Full Text Available In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks.
Accurso, Erin C.; Taylor, Robin M.; Garland, Ann F.
Context Clinical supervision is the principal method of training for psychotherapeutic practice, however there is virtually no research on supervision practice in community settings. Of particular interest is the role supervision might play in facilitating implementation of evidence-based (EB) care in routine care settings. Objective This study examines the format and functions of clinical supervision sessions in routine care, as well as the extent to which supervision addresses psychotherapeutic practice elements common to EB care for children with disruptive behavior problems, who represent the majority of patients served in publicly-funded routine care settings. Methods Supervisors (n=7) and supervisees (n=12) from four publicly-funded community-based child mental health clinics reported on 130 supervision sessions. Results Supervision sessions were primarily individual in-person meetings lasting one hour. The most common functions included case conceptualization and therapy interventions. Coverage of practice elements common to EB treatments was brief. Discussion Despite the fact that most children presenting to public mental health services are referred for disruptive behavior problems, supervision sessions are infrequently focused on practice elements consistent with EB treatments for this population. Supervision is a promising avenue through which training in EB practices could be supported to improve the quality of care for children in community-based “usual care” clinics. PMID:24761163
The focus of this article is on the management and social impacts of sport tourism events on the host community. This article specifically evaluates the Red Bull Big Wave Africa (RBBWA) event as a case study. Of cognisance is the host community\\'s involvement, perceptions, attitudes and an understanding of costs and ...
Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen
This paper examines the concept of learning communities as defined in the literature. An existing case study is described, and the issues that facilitated and constrained the development of this learning community are considered and discussed. Strategies to address threats to the ongoing viability and usefulness of a learning community to support…
This booklet advocates and describes the establishment of community run preschool and day care centers. The type described is based on the Laborie Community Education Centre in Saint Lucia, West Indies. Chapter 1 advocates establishing small, local institutions that are community managed, community owned, concerned with quality, and sustainable.…
Taylor, Judy; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Cargo, Margaret; Larkins, Sarah; Preston, Robyn
In regional Australia "communities of place," defined as bounded geographic locations with a local society, undertake community-wide primary prevention programs. In helping to prevent chronic illness, communities provide valuable resources to the health system. To understand the role of community-health sector partnerships for primary prevention and the community contextual factors that affect them, we studied eight partnerships. We used an embedded multiple case study design and collected data through interviews, nonparticipant observation, and document analysis. These data were analyzed using a typology of community-health sector partnerships and community interaction theory to frame the key community contextual factors that affected partnerships. The dominant factor affecting all partnerships was the presence of a collective commitment that communities brought to making the community a better place through developing health. We call this a communitarian approach. Additional research to investigate factors influencing a communitarian approach and the role it plays in partnerships is required.
Ncama, Busisiwe; Uys, Leana
The integration of HIV-prevention activities into care has received little attention within or outside formal healthcare settings. The contribution of community home-based care services in facilitating disclosure of HIV status and reducing stigma have also not been described. This study examines the community impact of an integrated community home-based care (ICHC) programme on HIV-prevention efforts and disclosure of status. Quantitative data was collected from 363 people living with HIV (PLHIV) and 1 028 members of their micro-communities; of these, 211 and 586, respectively, were in the ICHC programme (thus representing the ICHC-served group) and 152 and 442, respectively, were not in the programme (representing the non-served or control group). The micro-community group served by the ICHC programme reported significantly more positive attitudes towards HIV, better knowledge of HIV, fewer instances of sexually-transmitted infections, a tendency for fewer sexual partners, and less perceived risk of acquiring HIV than the non-served micro-community group. Also, the micro-community served by the programme did not show significantly better uptake of voluntary counselling and testing than did the non-served micro-community. There was no difference in condom-use between the two groups.
Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy
Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.
Guttmacher, Sally; Kelly, Patricia J; Ruiz-Janecko, Yumary
...: diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, HIV, asthma, and obesity. Following the trend begun by CDC and other agencies, the book takes a proactive and evidence-based approach reducing risk for individuals and communities...
Use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to facilitate direct neighbor-to-neighbor communication and influence to promote behavior change. In-person communications are often complemented by electronic social media tools.
Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.
Novelli, M.; Klatte, N.; Dolezal, C.
This paper reports findings from an opportunity study on the appropriateness of implementing community-based tourism standards (CBTS) certification through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) criteria, as a way to improve sustainable tourism provision in the region. Framed by critical reflections on community-based tourism (CBT) literature and existing sustainable tourism standards (STS) practices, qualitative research consisting of interviews with six key industry experts prov...
A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.
Urio, Elisaphinate Moses; Jeje, Benedict; Ndossi, Godwin
Full text: Malnutrition among children under the age of five continues to be a significant public health problem in Tanzania. Despite numerous nutritional interventions that have been implemented, the country still experiences high rates of malnutrition. According to Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey of 2010 the prevalence of underweight was estimated to be 16%, wasting 5% and stunting 42 %. Factors contributing to causes of malnutrition include immediate, underlying and basic causes. All these factors are interlinked and operate synergistically and not independently. Approaches for managing malnourished children in Tanzania evolved from facility based Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NURU) in the late 1960s to Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation (CBNR) in late 1980s. In the latter approach, malnourished children are rehabilitated in the same environment (village, home) that precipitated the condition, using resources and infrastructures available in the community. Mothers are taught about child feeding using family foods to make good food mixtures and of the importance of feeding frequency for the young child. Limitations for this approach include inadequate advocacy to leaders from districts down to the community level, few trained health providers and community health workers on knowledge and skills on community based nutrition rehabilitation, inadequate equipment and supplies for identification and categorization of malnutrition, low awareness of parents, care givers and community leaders on home rehabilitation of malnourished children. Nonetheless, Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation approach has the potential to address malnutrition in children given political will and resources. (author)
Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty
The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet. Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...
Burke, Edmund; Petrovic, Sanja; Qu, Rong
This paper presents a case-based heuristic selection approach for automated university course and exam timetabling. The method described in this paper is motivated by the goal of developing timetabling systems that are fundamentally more general than the current state of the art. Heuristics that worked well in previous similar situations are memorized in a case base and are retrieved for solving the problem in hand. Knowledge discovery techniques are employed in two distinct scenarios. Firstl...
Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.
Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…
Paterson, John W.
Community colleges have a greater portion of students at-risk for college completion than four-year schools and faculty at these institutions are overwhelmingly and increasingly part-time. Learning communities have been identified as a high-impact practice with numerous benefits documented for community college instructors and students: a primary…
Dilham, Ami; Putra, M. Umar Maya
This study aimed to analyze the socio economic community mapping around Dumai Timur Sub District with a case study: Tanjung Palas Village. The problem in this research is to analyze community needs and potential contained there. The data used are primary data that have been obtained to do data entry based on the guidance from the actors concerned, there is a transfer in the form of qualitative data into quantitative measurement techniques reference instrument of socio economic mapping activities. From the results of this study indicate that the necessary empowerment of social management in which short-term policy for the addition of water discharge, training on the concept of raising entrepreneurial innovation. For the long term necessary to make a business innovation and sustainability development pattern with operational assistance in the form of seeds, the manufacture of cages and chicken feed.
Hassink, Jan; Grin, John; Hulsink, Willem
Social care services provided by farmers provide a community-based collaboration that can empower people and improve their quality of life. The objective of this study was to increase understanding of the collaboration between care organizations and farmers. The study involves 4 cases, and all
Kong, Luis J.
In this chapter, the author will explore the significance of race from a social constructionist perspective. He will focus on immigration laws and on examples of legal cases that have set the stage for current definitions of whiteness and racial identification. A community-based transformational organizing model will be presented. The model will…
Preiser-Houy, Lara; Navarrete, Carlos J.
Service-learning projects are becoming more prevalent in Information Systems education. This study explores the use of community-based research, a special kind of a service-learning strategy, in an Information Systems web development course. The paper presents a case study of a service-learning project to develop an educational web portal for a…
Seixas, Cristiana Simão; Berkes, Fikret
Community-based institutions used to be driven by local needs, but in recent decades, some of them have been responding to national and global economic opportunities. These cases are of interest because they make it possible to investigate how local institutions can evolve in response to new
West, Richard E.; Williams, Greg; Williams, David
In this case study, we researched one cohort from the Center for Animation, a higher education teaching environment that has successfully fostered group creativity and learning outcomes through problem-based learning. Through live and videotaped observations of the interactions of this community over 18 months, in addition to focused interviews…
Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao
To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Maciak, B J; Guzman, R; Santiago, A; Villalobos, G; Israel, B A
LA VIDA--the Southwest Detroit Partnership to Prevent Intimate Violence Against Latina Women--evolved in response to community concern about the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the lack of culturally competent preventive and support services for Latino women and men in southwest Detroit. Since 1997, diverse organizations have mobilized as a community-academic partnership to ensure the availability, accessibility, and utilization of IPV services. This article describes and analyzes the evolution of LA VIDA within a community-based participatory research framework using a case study approach that draws on multiple data sources including group and individual interviews and field notes. The challenges and lessons learned in addressing a complex multifaceted problem such as IPV in an ethnic minority community are highlighted in an examination of the process of mobilizing diverse organizations, conducting community diagnosis and needs assessment activities, establishing goals and objectives within a social ecological framework, and integrating evaluation during the development phase.
Trombley, William H.
As part of an effort to end the California budget stalemate, an agreement was reached among state legislators to increase tuition fees for community college students and to impose a $50-per-unit "differential fee" on students already holding a baccalaureate degree. A survey by the Chancellor's Office for the California Community Colleges…
The paper analysed the role of women organizations in the development of rural communities in Orlu Agricultural zone of Imo state. Six communities were purposively selected from three Local Government Areas of the Zone for the study. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 randomly selected ...
This study demonstrates that there is great potential for the use of diatoms in community monitoring programmes, mainly due to the ease and rapidity with which samples can be collected. The participation of communities is also vital in gaining a more complete overview of the diatom species occurring in South Africa.
Kramer, Benjamin G.
The number of U.S. homeschooled students has steadily risen from the 1980's to the present, and many eventually choose to attend community colleges (Cogan, 2010; Mason, 2004; Ray, 2004a; Sorey & Duggan, 2008a). Homeschoolers who make community colleges their first structured educational setting outside the home do so for various reasons: (a)…
Xavier Úcar Martínez
Full Text Available Introduction: Participatory evaluation (PE is a hybrid methodology that can be used simultaneously to investigate and act in groups and communities. It can generate new knowledge about reality, but italso allows changes in the participants and their sociocultural context. This research project, developed over three years, aims to find out whether PE processes are useful and appropriate to evaluate community actionsand to generate learning that contribute to the empowerment of people who develop them.Method: The methodological structure of the research process design Participatory Evaluation processes that are applied in three selected communities-cases, over one year. The steering groups in each caseevaluated four dimensions of Community Development Plans: context, evolution, performance and results, using different techniques and group dynamics. Throughout this process, participants identify the acquiredknowledge and this is linked to indicators of empowerment, using questionnaires, content analysis and semi-structured interviews.Results: The development PE process in the three analyzed cases confirmed that PE is a useful strategy to assess participatory community actions of a territory; to report them to the people of the community; andto make shared decisions, about initiatives in order to improve community actions. The obtained results also verify that, throughout PE, there has been learning in the participants.Conclusions: The involvement of community members in the evaluation makes it more useful, fairer and more valid, but also a fourth positive consequence of PE is empowerment. From the process and the resultsof these cases of Participatory Evaluation, we consider that community EP is social transformation.
Nassar, A.M.; Mohamed, A.H.; Mohamed, A.H.
Case Based Reasoning (CBR) Systems is one of the important decision making systems applied in many fields all over the world. The effectiveness of any CBR system based on the quality of the storage cases in the case library. Similar cases can be retrieved and adapted to produce the solution for the new problem. One of the main issues faced the CBR systems is the difficulties of achieving the useful cases. The proposed system introduces a new approach that uses the genetic algorithm (GA) technique to automate constructing the cases into the case library. Also, it can optimize the best one to be stored in the library for the future uses. However, the proposed system can avoid the problems of the uncertain and noisy cases. Besides, it can simply the retrieving and adaptation processes. So, it can improve the performance of the CBR system. The suggested system can be applied for many real-time problems. It has been applied for diagnosis the faults of the wireless network, diagnosis of the cancer diseases, diagnosis of the debugging of a software as cases of study. The proposed system has proved its performance in this field
Yang Hui; Tang Ming; Zhang Haifeng
Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible–infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible–infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans. (paper)
Full Text Available The knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward childhood immunization was surveyed in 2 neighborhoods in greater Bombay, India. The areas were a slum of 75,000 called Malavani, and a nearby area called Kharodi. Measles and triple (DPT or DPV vaccines were available at local health centers, 1.5 km away at the most; oral polio vaccines were given by field workers to the Malavani community to children in their homes, but only in the center for those in Kharodi. BCG tuberculosis vaccinations were available to all, but from a center 5 km away. Malavani mothers had significantly better knowledge of triple and measles vaccines, but knowledge about BCG was similar in the 2 groups. Slightly more women from Kharodi expressed negative attitudes toward immunization. Coverage of children, established from clinic records, was significantly better in the Malavani area: 91% vs. 58% for polio; 71% vs 61% for BCG (n.s.; 85% vs. 55% for triple vaccine; and 21% vs 1% for measles. Evidently, visitation by field teams with polio vaccinations affected mothers′ knowledge and practice for other immunizations available only at the center.
Community solar is a renewable energy practice that's been adopted by multiple U.S. states and is being considered by many more, including the state of Oregon. A recent senate bill in Oregon, called the "Clean Electricity and Coal Transition Plan", includes a provision that directs the Oregon Public Utility Commission to establish a community solar program for investor-owned utilities by late 2017. Thus, energy consumers in Portland will be offered participation in community solar projects in the near future. Community solar is a mechanism that allows ratepayers to experience both the costs and benefits of solar energy while also helping to offset the proportion of fossil-fuel generated electricity in utility grids, thus aiding climate change mitigation. For community solar to achieve market success in the residential sector of Portland, ratepayers of investor-owned utilities must socially accept this energy practice. The aim of this study was to forecast the potential social acceptance of community solar among Portland residents by measuring willingness to participate in these projects. Additionally, consumer characteristics, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge were captured to assess the influence of these factors on intent to enroll in community solar. The theory of planned behavior, as well as the social acceptance, diffusion of innovation, and dual-interest theories were frameworks used to inform the analysis of community solar adoption. These research objectives were addressed through a mixed-mode survey of Portland residents, using a stratified random sample of Portland neighborhoods to acquire a gradient of demographics. 330 questionnaires were completed, yielding a 34.2% response rate. Descriptive statistics, binomial logistic regression models, and mean willingness to pay were the analyses conducted to measure the influence of project factors and demographic characteristics on likelihood of community solar participation. Roughly 60% of respondents
Full Text Available The development of commercial crop cocoa have altered the structure of agrarian : from collective owners to individual owners. For the cocoa peasant communities, the agrarian resources are a base of their life. So, the changing of agrarian structure gives a way to changing process of the social structure community. This research means to analyze the social structure that emergence on cocoa peasant community and the implication of it to the differentiation of peasant welfare. The result of this research indicate that the inequalities of agrarian resources control on cocoa peasant communities have developed the form of peasant community social structure : “stratification which progressively unequal”. Furthermore, these social structure have implication to the increasing of welfare differentiation. In this case, a cocoa peasant community divided to three levels, that is: rich farmer (upper level, middle farmer (middle level, and the poor farmer (low level. The result of research also indicates that on Outside Java generally owning a lower agrarian density – the landless and he poor farmer have been occur, and the poor farmer not only lay at land less farmer (tunakisma but also on an owner farmer. Base on gini ratio analysis, the equality of agrarian resource ownership generally have resided in high level. Even though, the equality of farmer household income and farmer household expenditure generally have resided in low level.Key words: social structure, welfare differentiation, peasant, cocoa.
Patel, Kavita K; Frausto, Kenneth A; Staunton, Anne D; Souffront, Janine; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin
Community health centers (CHCs) play a critical role in the primary care safety net. Partnerships between CHCs and faith-based organizations are promoted as a way to increase outreach to underserved populations and support health-promoting behaviors and effective disease management. Through six focus groups (totaling 58 participants), we explored low-income residents' perspectives (African American, Latino, and White) of their communities, the meaning of health, the role of spirituality, and their experiences with and preferences for congregation-based health programming to inform future outreach efforts of a CHC. We found that community perspectives varied based on race/ethnicity and neighborhood, but health concerns tended to cluster by race/ethnicity alone. We also found that spirituality was deemed important for health by all racial-ethnic groups, but attendance at religious services, religious affiliation, and preferences for congregation-based health programming varied across and within groups. Community health center-faith based partnerships could facilitate health care access in underserved communities but may have limited reach among certain subgroups and individuals.
Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea
Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Deogade, Suryakant C; Naitam, Dinesh
Community-based dental education (CBDE) is the implementation of dental education in a specific social context, which shifts a substantial part of dental clinical education from dental teaching institutional clinics to mainly public health settings. Dental students gain additional value from CBDE when they are guided through a reflective process of learning. We propose some key elements to the existing CBDE program that support meaningful personal learning experiences. Dental rotations of 'externships' in community-based clinical settings (CBCS) are year-long community-based placements and have proven to be strong learning environments where students develop good communication skills and better clinical reasoning and management skills. We look at the characteristics of CBDE and how the social and personal context provided in communities enhances dental education. Meaningfulness is created by the authentic context, which develops over a period of time. Structured reflection assignments and methods are suggested as key elements in the existing CBDE program. Strategies to enrich community-based learning experiences for dental students include: Photographic documentation; written narratives; critical incident reports; and mentored post-experiential small group discussions. A directed process of reflection is suggested as a way to increase the impact of the community learning experiences. We suggest key elements to the existing CBDE module so that the context-rich environment of CBDE allows for meaningful relations and experiences for dental students and enhanced learning.
Berka, Anna L.; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Roberts, Deborah; Phimister, Euan; Msika, Joshua
There is growing policy interest in increasing the share of community-owned renewable energy generation. This study explores why and how the costs of community-owned projects differ from commercially-owned projects by examining the case of onshore wind in the UK. Based on cross-sectoral literature on the challenges of community ownership, cost differences are attributed to six facets of an organisation or project: internal processes, internal knowledge and skills, perceived local legitimacy of the project, perceived external legitimacy of the organisation, investor motivation and expectations, and finally, project scale. These facets impact not only development costs but also project development times and the probability that projects pass certain critical stages in the development process. Using survey-based and secondary cost data on community and commercial projects in the UK, a model is developed to show the overall impact of cost, time and risk differences on the value of a hypothetical 500 kW onshore wind project. The results show that the main factors accounting for differences are higher pre-planning costs and additional risks born by community projects, and suggest that policy interventions may be required to place community- owned projects on a level playing field with commercial projects. - Highlights: • Policy support for community energy projects should be targeted at reducing early costs and risk factors. • Hurdle rates are critical in determining the financial viability of projects. • Shared ownership arrangements may help remove some of key challenges to community-only projects.
Sabin, Allison V; Levin, Pamela F
The Affordable Care Act requires nonprofit hospitals to collaborate with public health agencies and community stakeholders to identify and address community health needs. As a rural organization, Wabash County (Indiana) Hospital pursued new approaches to achieve these revised requirements of the community benefit mandate. Using a case study approach, the authors provide a historical review of governmental relationships with nonprofit community hospitals, offer a case study application for implementing legislative mandates and community benefit requirements, share the insights they garnered on their journey to meet the mandates, and conclude that drawing upon the existing resources in the community and using current community assets in novel ways can help conserve time, and also financial, material, and human resources in meeting legislative mandates.
Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.
Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).
Cynthia Agumanu McOliver
Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.
Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin
Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session. The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity. This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.
Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.
Tzeel, Albert; Lawnicki, Victor; Pemble, Kim R
As emergency department utilization continues to increase, health plans must limit their cost exposure, which may be driven by duplicate testing and a lack of medical history at the point of care. Based on previous studies, health information exchanges (HIEs) can potentially provide health plans with the ability to address this need. To assess the effectiveness of a community-based HIE in controlling plan costs arising from emergency department care for a health plan's members. Albert Tzeel. The study design was observational, with an eligible population (N = 1482) of fully insured plan members who sought emergency department care on at least 2 occasions during the study period, from December 2008 through March 2010. Cost and utilization data, obtained from member claims, were matched to a list of persons utilizing the emergency department where HIE querying could have occurred. Eligible members underwent propensity score matching to create a test group (N = 326) in which the HIE database was queried in all emergency department visits, and a control group (N = 325) in which the HIE database was not queried in any emergency department visit. Post-propensity matching analysis showed that the test group achieved an average savings of $29 per emergency department visit compared with the control group. Decreased utilization of imaging procedures and diagnostic tests drove this cost-savings. When clinicians utilize HIE in the care of patients who present to the emergency department, the costs borne by a health plan providing coverage for these patients decrease. Although many factors can play a role in this finding, it is likely that HIEs obviate unnecessary service utilization through provision of historical medical information regarding specific patients at the point of care.
María Luisa Burneo
Full Text Available This paper analyzes changes in community governance in the contextof negotiations with a mining company. We focus on three issues:the role played by the community government on the regulation ofcommunity resources and territory, the diverse and complex intereststhat emerge in the presence of mining activity; and, the communityas a political institution confronting external pressures over its land.We develop a study case focusing on the negotiation process betweenthe Michiquillay peasant community and Anglo American MiningCompany in Cajamarca, Peru. This information was obtained doingfieldwork in the community in 2009. In our analysis we observe thatchanges on community resources regulation, its uses and valorization,as well as changes on the balance of power between economicand political actors, have created a greater level of complexity in thecommunity, creating new levels of community decision and spaces fordisputing resources’ control. At the same time, new inter communalconflicts emerge and fragmentation of community lands increases.In this context the community as an institution plays a central rolein the negotiation process over access productive resource and thedistribution of financial capital.
Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos
Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.
Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.
a literature survey, we document the growing importance of numerical aquatic ecosystem models while also noting the difficulties, up until now, of the aquatic scientific community to make significant advances in these models during the past two decades. Through a common forum for aquatic ecosystem modellers we......Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv...
Full Text Available In 1999-2000 the Integrated Community-Based Home Care model for the care of people with AIDS in communities were implemented in seven sites across the country. The post-implementation evaluation showed that most respondents felt that the model could be replicated if a functioning and informed network including all partners, and a strong management team were in place. The effects of the project were mainly positive for all stakeholders (hospice, clinic, hospital, PWA and their carers, professionals and other community members. Hospitals and community- based services became more aware of and involved in the needs of PWA and felt that the model enabled them to address these needs. PWA and their carers felt supported and respected.
Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)
The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.
Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Mukute, Mutizwa; Chikunda, Charles; Baloi, Aristides; Pesanayi, Tichaona
Environment and sustainability education processes are often oriented to change and transformation, and frequently involve the emergence of new forms of human activity. However, not much is known about how such change emerges from the learning process, or how it contributes to the development of transformative agency in community contexts. The authors of this article present four cross-case perspectives of expansive learning and transformative agency development in community-based education in southern Africa, studying communities pursuing new activities that are more socially just and sustainable. The four cases of community learning and transformative agency focus on the following activities: (1) sustainable agriculture in Lesotho; (2) seed saving and rainwater harvesting in Zimbabwe; (3) community-based irrigation scheme management in Mozambique; and (4) biodiversity conservation co-management in South Africa. The case studies all draw on cultural-historical activity theory to guide learning and change processes, especially third-generation cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), which emphasises expansive learning in collectives across interacting activity systems. CHAT researchers, such as the authors of this article, argue that expansive learning can lead to the emergence of transformative agency. The authors extend their transformative agency analysis to probe if and how expansive learning might also facilitate instances of transgressing norms - viewed here as embedded practices which need to be reframed and changed in order for sustainability to emerge.
Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna
The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…
This paper is based on a project that employed a systematic approach to involve and mobilise rural communities in water quality control programmes. The aim of the project is to develop methodologies that could be employed in rural areas to control the generation of diffuse pollution. The investigation is based on a pilot ...
Peretz, Patricia J; Matiz, Luz Adriana; Findley, Sally; Lizardo, Maria; Evans, David; McCord, Mary
In 2005, local leaders in New York City developed the Washington Heights/Inwood Network for Asthma Program to address the burden of asthma in their community. Bilingual community health workers based in community organizations and the local hospital provided culturally appropriate education and support to families who needed help managing asthma. Families participating in the yearlong care coordination program received comprehensive asthma education, home environmental assessments, trigger reduction strategies, and clinical and social referrals. Since 2006, 472 families have enrolled in the yearlong program. After 12 months, hospitalizations and emergency department visits decreased by more than 50%, and caregiver confidence in controlling the child's asthma increased to nearly 100%. Key to the program's success was the commitment and involvement of community partners from program inception to date.
This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of
Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy
Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.
Sutedjo, A.; Prasetyo, K.; Sudaryono, L.
In Karangkepatihan village, it can be found some attractions that have the potential to develop. Some attractions have been developed by involving the community in its management, but its development has not been as expected. The purpose of this research is to know the attitude of the community and the level of human resources of the community of Karangkepatihan village in supporting the development of community-based tourism and the right strategy for its development. Subjects in this study were the head of the family and the physical condition of tourist objects, with a sample of 100 family heads taken randomly. Research data which are knowledge, understanding, participation, support to the development of tourism and level of education and skill obtained by interview while observation is done to get potential data of tourism object. The data obtained are analyzed by using scoring technique and SWOT analysis. The results show that community attitudes are positive in supporting community-based tourism development, but have not been shown to participate in developing tourism in Karangkepatihan village. The level of human resources in Karangkepatihan village to support the development of tourism is low so that the development of tourism is slow. An appropriate strategy for developing tourism development in Karangkepatihan village is to grow and build. Improving the skills of the community to fill the job opportunities in the field of tourism, increase the participation or involvement of the community in tourism activities, increasing the accessibility of tourism objects, increasing the facilities and infrastructure of tourism needs to be done.
Studies teacher-community relations in a community where teachers are becoming more involved in indigenous community issues. Argues that formal teacher education tends to emphasize modernity and consumer culture at the expense of distinct local customs. Draws connections between the case study and low-income minority communities in the United…
Stone, Mike; Wall, Geoffrey
The connections between people, parks, and tourism have received significant attention in recent years, recognizing the potential for mutually beneficial relationships. Ecotourism has been promoted and widely adopted as a strategy for funding conservation initiatives, while at the same time contributing to the socioeconomic development of host communities and providing for quality tourism experiences. Parks are among the most common ecotourism destinations. Employing interviews, observations and secondary sources, this study assesses the current status of ecotourism at two protected areas in Hainan, China, where it is being promoted as a strategy for balancing regional economic growth and conservation objectives. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage at both study sites. Socioeconomic benefits for the local communities have been limited and tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date. Community residents, nevertheless, generally support conservation and are optimistic that tourism growth will yield benefits. In light of the study findings and the salient literature, planning direction is offered with the intention of enhancing the capacity of ecotourism to generate benefits for both communities and the parks, and thus contribute to the sustainable development of the region more generally. Lessons derived have broad applicability for ecotourism destinations elsewhere.
This paper reports that in the United States, educational programs about radon gas have been developed and implemented by federal and state government entities and other organizations, including the Cooperative Extension Service and affiliated land grant universities. Approaches have included the production of brochures, pamphlets, workshops for targeted audiences, and consumer telephone hotlines. In a free market for radon mitigation products and services, these efforts can be appropriate for their credibility, lack of bias, and individualized approaches. The purpose of this paper is to report on an educational program about radon undertaken by Cornell Cooperative Extension, including county-based workshops targeted to homeowners, housing professionals, high school teachers, and others. An analysis of survey data from program participants forms the basis for a discussion of the effectiveness of the Cooperative Extension Service in reaching the public about this topic
Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T
Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...
Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C.; Ewing, N.; Riddell, D. J.
As coastal communities face a wide range of environmental changes, including threats from climate change, real-time data from cabled observatories can be used to support community members in making informed decisions about their coast and marine resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) deploys and operates an expanding network of community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia, which enable communities to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment. Community observatories comprise an underwater cabled seafloor platform and shore station equipped with a variety of sensors that collect environmental data 24/7. It is essential that data being collected by ONC instruments are relevant to community members and can contribute to priorities identified within the community. Using a community-based science approach, ONC is engaging local parties at all stages of each project from location planning, to instrument deployment, to data analysis. Alongside the science objectives, place-based educational programming is being developed with local educators and students. As coastal populations continue to grow and our use of and impacts on the ocean increase, it is vital that global citizens develop an understanding that the health of the ocean reflects the health of the planet. This presentation will focus on programs developed by ONC emphasizing the connection to place and local relevance with an emphasis on Indigenous knowledge. Building programs which embrace multiple perspectives is effective both in making ocean science more relevant to Indigenous students and in linking place-based knowledge to ocean science. The inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge into science-based monitoring programs also helps develop a more complete understanding of local conditions. We present a case study from the Canadian Arctic, in which ONC is working with Inuit community members to develop a snow and ice monitoring program to assist with predictions and
INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.
Ørngreen, Rikke; Guralnick, David
Abstract- This paper has its origin in the authors' reflection on years of practical experiences combined with literature readings in our preparation for a workshop on learn-by-doing simulation and case-based learning to be held at the ICELW 2008 conference (the International Conference on E...... they are applied in workplace related and e-learning contexts. In addition to the organizers, a small number of invited presenters will attend, giving demonstrations of their work within learn-by-doing simulation and cases-based learning, but still leaving ample of time for discussion among all participants....
Full Text Available In recent years, with the popularity of handheld Internet equipments like mobile phones, increasing numbers of people are becoming involved in the virtual social network. Because of its large amount of data and complex structure, the network faces new challenges of community mining. A label propagation algorithm with low time complexity and without prior parameters deals easily with a large networks. This study explored a new method of community mining, based on label propagation with two stages. The first stage involved identifying closely linked nodes according to their local adjacency relations that gave rise to a micro-community. The second stage involved expanding and adjusting this community through a label propagation algorithm (LPA to finally obtain the community structure of the entire social network. This algorithm reduced the number of initial labels and avoided the merging of small communities in general LPAs. Thus, the quality of community discovery was improved, and the linear time complexity of the LPA was maintained.
Full Text Available The essence of social entrepreneurship is the ability to initiate, lead and implement problem-solving strategies, through cooperation with others in all types of social networks. The purpose of this study analyzes: 1 entrepreneurship training, 2 adult education assumptions, and 3 community empowerment. This study is discussed by using a comparative theory analysis method that related to entrepreneurship training, andragogy, and community empowerment from various literary sources. Analysis is conducted to find conclusions that can be justified scientifically. The results of the study conclude that: 1 social entrepreneurship training is an organized learning process from planning, implementation, and evaluation on non-formal education path aimed at enhancing community knowledge, attitude and skills for learning and endeavor, 2 entrepreneurship training based on andragogy conducted through a learning process that implements adults’ assumptions of self-conceptual, learning experiences, learning readiness, and learning orientation. 3 Community empowerment is a process of empowerment or strength to community to have the ability of individuals who completely agreed with the community in building social and economic empowerment of the community.
Paige, Ciara; Peters, Ruth; Parkhurst, Malia; Beck, Leah Leilani; Hui, Brian; May, Vanessa Tui; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
Challenges in community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships often pertain to trust and power, dilemmas posed by funding sources, and equitable community participation. Although challenges in CBPR can be welcomed because they present opportunities for growth and development of partnerships, tools are needed to facilitate issue identification and resolution. Moreover, such tools need to align with CBPR principles involving equal feedback among partners to improve the partnership and its outcomes. To describe how appreciative inquiry (AI) was used as an evaluation tool to contribute to the strengthening of empowerment of ongoing and future community-university relationships in CBPR collaborations. AI was applied at the end of a community-university partnership to promote breast and cervical cancer screening among Tongan women in Southern California. Through individual interviews and group discussion, tensions were identified and discussed in light of partnership and community strengths. Through AI, program staff emphasized community and university strengths of shared key values related to the program and aspects of program management that enabled them to contribute to successful program outcomes. They also discussed the following challenges: 1) approach of partners, 2) role definition, and 3) and time span of program development and implementation. Based on these discussions, recommendations were made to overcome current challenges and improve ongoing and future CBPR collaborations. The AI process helped the partners recommit to collaborate with each other, renewed their excitement about working together, and assisted with reclarification of their roles to inform future collaborations.
Severino Salmo III
Full Text Available A community-based approach in the establishment and implementation of a marine protected area (MPA in Balingasay, Bolinao, Pangasinan is presented. The factors necessary to facilitate the successful establishment and implementation of a community-managed MPA include heightening of environmental awareness, community mobilization, and legal/institutional and financial assistance. A heightened environmental awareness encouraged the community to undertake resource management action. The formation of a people’s organization, SAMMABAL (Samahan ng mga Mangingisda at Mamamayan ng Balingasay, was crucial in assessing environmental problems (e.g., overfishing and identifying the establishment of an MPA as a management tool to address the problem. SAMMABAL was also instrumental in eliciting community support for the issuance of a municipal ordinance in the establishment of the MPA. Subsequently, the organization initiated the patrolling of the MPA. Institutions involved in the community-based management of the MPA also included the multi-sectoral council (BRMC – Balingasay Resource Management Council and representatives from the barangay council and the municipal government. This institutional arrangement has proven to be very resilient, indicating a high probability of sustaining its successes despite some obstacles and shortcomings. Clear delineation of the role and functions of the institutions and the stakeholders was essential in advancing the initiative. This case study will draw on the lessons from the experience of a four-year community-managed MPA.
Liu, Yunhua; Constable, Alicia
This article argues that ESD should be integrated into lifelong learning and provides an example of how this might be done. It draws on a case study of a joint project between the Shangri-la Institute and the Bazhu community in Diqing, southwest China, to analyse a community-based approach to Education for Sustainable Development and assess its…
Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A
Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.
Full Text Available With the further research on physical meaning and digital features of the community structure in complex networks in recent years, the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of the community mining algorithms in complex networks has become an important subject in this area. This paper puts forward a concept of the microcommunity and gets final mining results of communities through fusing different microcommunities. This paper starts with the basic definition of the network community and applies Expansion to the microcommunity clustering which provides prerequisites for the microcommunity fusion. The proposed algorithm is more efficient and has higher solution quality compared with other similar algorithms through the analysis of test results based on network data set.
Full Text Available Many tourism projects run by community in the rural areas are labelled as Community-based Rural Tourism (CBRT, a type of a more ‘responsible’ tourism that contributes to sustainable development. However, a framework is needed to enable planners and managers to understand its criteria thus ensuring that the CBRTs fulfil the sustainability requirement. This paper presents findings from a literature review on previous writings in this topic. Findings from an analysis on the criteria of a sustainable CBRT product are discussed. It is found that in order for it to play a role in sustainable development, a CBRT product must focus on competitive management, resource conservation, and benefit creation to the community. The three elements need to be supported, in turn, by community involvement and commitment. As the proposed conceptual framework of sustainable CBRT product can be a basis for further research in CBRT, it offers producing theoretical and practical implications.
Suzuki, T; Makizako, H; Doi, T; Park, H; Lee, S; Tsutsumimoto, K; Umemura, K; Maki, Y; Shimada, H
Population aging is accelerating, with prolonged life expectancy and a decrease in birth rate. As age is a significant risk factor for dementia, we are confronted with an ever-increasing prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia. Thus, the Japanese National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology launched a project to promote community-based research, including the development of an effective screening system for high-risk groups and intervention for dementia prevention. This review introduces the project, the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly, with the following strategic triad: 1) Identification of the target population by population screening; we regarded patients with MCI as the target population, and developed a screening test battery to identify MCI in a population screening setting. 2) Scientific evaluation of community-based intervention; we developed an interventional method combining exercise and cognitive training ("cognicise"). In practical settings, "cognicise" is programmed into multicomponent exercise intervention, which was reported to have benefits of cognitive improvement and reduction of brain atrophy based on randomized controlled trials. 3) Standardization of the methods of population screening and community-based intervention for evidence-based policy making and widespread implementation. Dementia prevention, or at least delaying the onset of dementia and/or stopping/slowing the progression of dementia, should benefit the whole society as well as individuals. It is our continuing challenge to improve the screening system and community-based intervention for dementia prevention through accumulation of evidence.
Full Text Available The Marine Fishery Resources Management Project (MFRMP hopes to facilitate partnership between the local government unit and the local communities in managing the coastal resources of Bolinao. Mobilization, both at the community and municipal levels, has been very important in promoting community-based strategies in coastal resources management. The community organization process in the municipality has gone through several levels; and different organizations have been formed. In empowering individuals and organizations, strategies tend to be varied and fluid depending on the need, the reason for mobilization, and the resources at hand. The Bolinao experience showcases different strategies used in implementing the resource enhancement, coastal zoning, harvest regulation, and capability building components of the program. These have included the formation of people's organizations, the mobilization of zonal action teams for each of the four zones, the creation and orientation of fishery and aquatic resources management councils at the barangay and municipal levels, and the active collaboration with the local government unit. These strategies and approaches have provided the people and the communities a wealth of experience and lessons that provide helpful insights in undertaking different endeavors. The strategies employed in the mobilization activities have significantly contributed to the empowerment of communities and individuals who are the primary managers of their resources.
Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099
Archives and the archivists are critical elements in the construction and reconstruction of social history. Archival institutions should not be viewed simply as repository institutions, but as this article argues, should be considered as extended memories of those communities whose records they house. It is through the archive ...
The purpose of this proposed research study is to empirically explore the nature of virtual communities of practice (CoP) in a global organisation within the context of its International Corporate Volunteer (ICV) Program. This study investigates whether and how the use of virtual CoP evolves and becomes embedded within this organization. Following…
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for college students; annually approximately 1,100 students in institutions of higher education die by suicide. However, most research related to college student suicide was conducted using the sample of 4-year institutions. Community colleges have seldom been included in the sample of suicide research…
Mercy Akrofi Ansah
Full Text Available In a multilingual community, the multilingual speaker needs to make the right language choice which principally depends on the domain of usage and the linguistic repertoire of speech participants. This paper investigates factors that govern language choices that multilingual speakers make in Larteh, a multilingual community. The study is informed by insights from the Markedness Model, developed by Myers- Scotton (1993, 1998. Larteh is a non-reciprocal bilingual community, where the people speak Leteh 2 and Akuapem Twi (Johnson, 1973, p. i. English is the third language for those who have had formal education. In this paper, three domains of language use are examined: education, tradition, and religion. Data from an interview survey on language use and participant observations are employed. The paper notes that due to changes in various spheres of life in Larteh, current language use patterns in the community differ from what pertained about three decades ago (Johnson, 1973, 1975. Subsequently, factors that determine language choice are gradually undergoing some modification.
The study focuses on the assessment of community awareness and challenges facing Zanzibar National Archives (ZNA). The study utilised convenient sampling to collect data from the members of the public (93 respondents) in Stone Town in Zanzibar. Data were augmentedthrough interviews with the staff of the Zanzibar ...
This paper evaluates impact of Community Driven Development programme on infrastructure under National Fadama II Project in Oyo State Nigeria. Data were collected from two hundred and sixty-four farmers using multistage sampling procedures. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and infrastructure index.
In a multilingual community, the multilingual speaker needs to make the right language choice which principally depends on the domain of usage and the linguistic repertoire of speech participants. This paper investigates factors that govern language choices that multilingual speakers make in Larteh, a multilingual ...
Soon after his election in 1995, Kentucky governor Paul E. Patton instituted a plan to restructure the commonwealth's system of postsecondary education to create a more efficient system designed to prepare Kentuckians for jobs in the new era. While Patton looked at all of postsecondary education, he focused on the 29 community and technical…
Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.
Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.
Moret, Fabio; Pinson, Pierre
for the community reflects prosumers' preferences. We show that community members can be influenced by a supervisory third-party in charge of interfacing with the market and system operator and of guaranteeing the collective common agreements. We simulate a number of test cases and we apply typical principles from......While power system organization has evolved from a hierarchical structure to a more decentralized model, electricity markets are still not up to date with the ongoing transformation towards more consumer-centric economies. As Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are broadly adopted......, they allow prosumers to have a more proactive role in power system operation. This work introduces the concept of energy collectives, as a community-based electricity market structure. We find that when prosumers are allowed to share energy at community level, overall electricity procurement...
Hamisu M. Salihu
Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.
Tyler, Carl V; Werner, James J
There is often a rich but untold history of events that occur and relationships that form before a practice-based research network (PBRN) is launched. This is particularly the case in PBRNs that are community based and comprise partnerships outside of the health care system. In this article we summarize an organizational "prenatal history" before the birth of a PBRN devoted to people with developmental disabilities. Using a case study approach, this article describes the historic events that preceded and fostered the evolution of this PBRN and contrasts how the processes leading to the creation of this multistakeholder, community-based PBRN differ from those of typical academic/clinical practice PBRNs. We propose potential advantages and complexities inherent to this newest iteration of PBRNs. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Adejumo, A. O.; Azuogu, B.; Okorie, O.; Lawal, O. M.; Onazi, O. J.; Gidado, M.; Daniel, O. J.; Okeibunor, J. C.; Klinkenberg, E.; Mitchell, E. M. H.
Engagement of communities and civil society organizations is a critical part of the Post-2015 End TB Strategy. Since 2007, many models of community referral have been implemented to boost TB case detection in Nigeria. Yet clear insights into the comparative TB yield from particular approaches have
Hart, Angie; Northmore, Simon
The growing importance of community and public engagement activities in universities has led to an increasing emphasis on auditing and evaluating university-community partnerships. However, the development of effective audit and evaluation tools is still at a formative stage. This article presents a case study of the University of Brighton's…
... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the time... elevation study consultation docket and shall be established for each community at the time the contract is...
This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…
Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Henry, James
A study investigated the effectiveness of a collaborative approach to the case management of child sexual abuse. Data from 323 criminal court files found a sex offense confession rate of 64 percent and plea rate of 70 percent. Fifteen cases went to trial and in six the offender was convicted. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Hilvano, Nestor T.; Mathis, Karen M.; Schauer, Daniel P.
Engaging students in discussion and creating high impact teaching and learning practices are a challenge in every classroom. Small group discussion and poster presentations were used to solve case-based problems to highlight issues for the learner and to allow each student to demonstrate understanding and application of theory to real life…
Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T
The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany.
Lin, Shu-Cheng; Tuan, Han-Wen; Tung, Cheng-Tan; Julian, Peterson
In this paper an improved algorithm is provided to detect communities within a network based on group action on sets (GAS). Modularity has been used as the criterion to revise the results of three previous papers, deriving a better method of partition for the network of Karate club. We developed a new method to replace the complicated GAS to achieve the same effect as GAS. Through four examples, we demonstrated that our revised approach reduced the computation amount of modularity values. Based on a branch marked example, a detailed example is provided by us to illustrate that there is too many cores in the initial stage of GAS approach to induce too many communities in the final partition. The findings shown here, will allow scholars to understand using GAS algorithm to partition a network into communities is an unreliable method.
Andrews, Jeannette O; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J; Bunting, Shelia
The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 participants) were conducted with academic and community participants who had experiences with CBPR partnerships. A 'framework analysis' approach was used to analyze the data and generate a new model, CBPR Partnership Readiness Model. Antecedents of CBPR partnership readiness are a catalyst and mutual interest. The major dimensions of the CBPR Partnership Readiness Model are (i) goodness of fit, (ii) capacity, and (iii) operations. Preferred outcomes are sustainable partnership and product, mutual growth, policy and social and health impact on the community. CBPR partnership readiness is an iterative and dynamic process, partnership and issue specific, influenced by a range of environmental and contextual factors, amenable to change and essential for sustainability and promotion of health and social change in the community.
Süsser, Diana; Döring, Martin; Ratter, Beate M.W.
Transition towards a renewable energy supply initiates a physical (re)shaping of places and a social transformation of communities into renewable energy communities. Although socio-cultural challenges of energy transition have been recognised (), understandings about socio-geographic places of energy transition and their underlying social processes and structures are insufficiently studied and often remain underestimated. To close this gap, we theoretically and empirically analysed the multifaceted interplay between place, local entrepreneurship and ‘community renewable energy’. Our study is based on an analysis of regional documents and policy reports, and on qualitative interviews undertaken with inhabitants in the case-study municipality of Reußenköge (Germany). Our findings reveal two important aspects: Firstly, people's individual and shared place meanings which materialised in social, physical, historical and climate-related place-attachments and meanings of contested and innovative place are important ingredients bearing an impact on processes of adopting or rejecting renewables. Secondly, differentiated characteristics of entrepreneurs, namely grounded, collaborative, innovative, change-making, economic, communicating, networking and political aspects, appeared to be relevant for the acceptance and support in community-based renewable energy projects. Our findings reveal that energy policies, funding schemes and administrative structures should recognise local socio-geographic important elements in the context of a sustained and decentralised energy transition. - Highlights: • Places are resources of experiences, creativity and innovation for community renewables. • Energy policies should recognise place-based approaches to grassroots community energy actions. • A located view of multifaceted entrepreneurship is relevant to support community renewable energy. • Supportive funding schemes should empower community-based concepts.
Barnett, Stephen; Jones, Sandra C; Caton, Tim; Iverson, Don; Bennett, Sue; Robinson, Laura
GP training in Australia can be professionally isolating, with trainees spread across large geographic areas, leading to problems with rural workforce retention. Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) may provide a way of improving knowledge sharing and thus reducing professional isolation. The goal of our study was to review the usefulness of a 7-step framework for implementing a VCoP for general practitioner (GP) training and then evaluated the usefulness of the resulting VCoP in facilitating knowledge sharing and reducing professional isolation. The case was set in an Australian general practice training region involving 55 first-term trainees (GPT1s), from January to July 2012. ConnectGPR was a secure, online community site that included standard community options such as discussion forums, blogs, newsletter broadcasts, webchats, and photo sharing. A mixed-methods case study methodology was used. Results are presented and interpreted for each step of the VCoP 7-step framework and then in terms of the outcomes of knowledge sharing and overcoming isolation. Step 1, Facilitation: Regular, personal facilitation by a group of GP trainers with a co-ordinating facilitator was an important factor in the success of ConnectGPR. Step 2, Champion and Support: Leadership and stakeholder engagement were vital. Further benefits are possible if the site is recognized as contributing to training time. Step 3, Clear Goals: Clear goals of facilitating knowledge sharing and improving connectedness helped to keep the site discussions focused. Step 4, A Broad Church: The ConnectGPR community was too narrow, focusing only on first-term trainees (GPT1s). Ideally there should be more involvement of senior trainees, trainers, and specialists. Step 5, A Supportive Environment: Facilitators maintained community standards and encouraged participation. Step 6, Measurement Benchmarking and Feedback: Site activity was primarily driven by centrally generated newsletter feedback. Viewing
Full Text Available Community detection has drawn a lot of attention as it can provide invaluable help in understanding the function and visualizing the structure of networks. Since single objective optimization methods have intrinsic drawbacks to identifying multiple significant community structures, some methods formulate the community detection as multi-objective problems and adopt population-based evolutionary algorithms to obtain multiple community structures. Evolutionary algorithms have strong global search ability, but have difficulty in locating local optima efficiently. In this study, in order to identify multiple significant community structures more effectively, a multi-objective memetic algorithm for community detection is proposed by combining multi-objective evolutionary algorithm with a local search procedure. The local search procedure is designed by addressing three issues. Firstly, nondominated solutions generated by evolutionary operations and solutions in dominant population are set as initial individuals for local search procedure. Then, a new direction vector named as pseudonormal vector is proposed to integrate two objective functions together to form a fitness function. Finally, a network specific local search strategy based on label propagation rule is expanded to search the local optimal solutions efficiently. The extensive experiments on both artificial and real-world networks evaluate the proposed method from three aspects. Firstly, experiments on influence of local search procedure demonstrate that the local search procedure can speed up the convergence to better partitions and make the algorithm more stable. Secondly, comparisons with a set of classic community detection methods illustrate the proposed method can find single partitions effectively. Finally, the method is applied to identify hierarchical structures of networks which are beneficial for analyzing networks in multi-resolution levels.
Activities only in HII town. General practitioner - Clinical management. FIG.l. COR'S community-based hypertension control pro- gramme. I. • Public meetings. • Local organisations. SMALL MEDIA. I. I BLOOD PRESSURE STATION. I. Billboards. Posters. Mailings. Motivation. Leaflets - weight control. - low sail diet. - prudent ...
Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa ... La résilience et les petits exploitants agricoles africains : accroître la capacité des collectivités de s'adapter aux changements climatiques. En raison de la prévalence et de la ...
This article examines the growth of Community-Based Tourism within the broader discipline of tourism. New topics in the field have emerged such as responsible tourism, pro-poor tourism, sports tourism and moral impacts of tourism. This phenomenon also reflects the multidisciplinarity of tourism. In this article, using the ...
The first objective of this exercise was to determine the extent of acute nutritional stress in the district as an indication of the appropriateness of food relief efforts in the region. The absence of wasting and the high prevalence of stunting (37,5%) in the community-based sample suggested that the main problem is chronic ...
Background: Globally, it has been estimated that almost 15% of world's population live with some form of disability, of which the majority are from developing nations. Objectives: To explore the role of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the health sector, identify the prevalent challenges, and to suggest measures to ...
The main objective of this review is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of community-based organizations (CBOs) to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention, care/support and control programs in Ethiopia. In order to put CBOs and programs in the context of HIV transmission and spread, the role of the Multisectoral ...
Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.
Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…
Seed, Mary St. John; Higgins, Sally
Recent research on temperament and attachment theory highlights the importance of early intervention to helping children develop secure attachments and prevent mental illnesses. A mental illness curriculum for nursing students should integrate concepts from psychiatry and public health to prepare community-based for participation in intervention.…
The objectives of this study are two folds: firstly to explore the magnitude of catastrophic expenditure, and secondly to determine its contributing factor,s including the protective impact of the voluntary community based health insurance schemes in Tanzania. The study covered 274 respondents. Study findings have shown ...
Limited access to seed of improved varieties is an impediment to agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Researchers in the national and international agricultural research systems have been piloting a community based seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal ...
Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean
This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…
Citizen-based Strategies to Improve Community Security: Working with Vulnerable Populations to Address Urban Violence in Medellin ... Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.
Community-Based Integrated Natural Resource Management in Okyeman Traditional Area of the Eastern Region, Ghana: Socio-Economic Profile of the Okyeman Traditional ... The hitherto rich biodiversity of the area is at risk of being eroded if urgent steps are not taken to stop illegal activities in surrounding forest reserves.
Background: HIV/AIDS is the major public health problem in our country. Studies need to be conducted to assess the behavioral risk factors of its transmission and prevention. Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of HIV/AIDS in the study population. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was ...
This survey examined the management of Community Based Education (CBE) field activities at Jimma University (JU). The study used both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected from students and academic staff through structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered from top university ...
A Community Based Study on Menstrual Hygiene among Reproductive Age Group Women in a Rural Area, Tamil Nadu. SS Balamurugan, S Shilpa, S Shaji. Abstract. Background: Women suffer due to their ignorance on hygienic requirement during menstruation. Hygiene‑related practices of women during menstruation ...
Majority of the HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa receive health care services at home. However, limited studies have been conducted to examine the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) situation in the homes of the care receivers and its impact on community-based care. The main objective of this study was to explore ...
ABSTRACT. Majority of the HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa receive health care services at home. How- ever, limited studies have been conducted to examine the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) situation in the homes of the care receivers and its impact on community-based care. The main objective of this study was ...
Caregiver satisfaction with a multidisciplinary community-based rehabilitation programme for children with cerebral palsy in South Africa. ... Caregivers perceived the benefit of rehabilitation but believed that lack of communication and consultation with health professionals limited the care. Keywords: caregivers, cerebral ...
Community-based medical and health education paradigm has become the accepted standard for undergraduate medical education worldwide since its evolution in the sixties. Its application to veterinary medicine is a recent phenomenon, but is now largely and effectively entrenched in veterinary epidemiology education ...
Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.
Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…
Community based intervention as a strategy to combat pipeline vandalization in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. A Rim-Rukeh, GO Ikhifa, IO Imide, D Uduh. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp. 23-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjes.v7i1.2507 · AJOL African Journals Online.
The situation in Craigieburn is representative of the widely-reported trend of erosion and collapse of community-based resource management regimes in the ... will allow the Association for Water and Rural Development (AWARD) and the Legal Entity Assessment Project (LEAP), to carry out an action-research project with a ...
Small-scale enterprise development is a recent phenomenon that adds to the complexity of the situation. This project will allow Keystone Foundation to design, implement and test a community-based model for monitoring and adaptive management of common pool resources. Keystone will involve harvesters, processors, ...
From September 24 through October 4,1997, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the status of Community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning as perceived by reproductive age groups aged 15-49 years and the CBD workers. The study covered 14 German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) ...
rural children. Implications for nutritional surveillance and the development of nutritional programmes. G. c. Solarsh, D. M. Sanders, C. A. Gibson, E. Gouws. A study of the anthropometric status of under-5-year-olds was conducted in the Nqutu district of Kwazulu by means of a representative community-based sample and.
This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...
Community Based Forest Management as a Tool for Sustainable Forest Management in Cross River State, Nigeria. ... creation of enabling environment; state economic and fiscal policies, policy to encourage forestry enterprises; effective monitoring and evaluation of forest management policy and adequate mechanisms for ...
Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular disease intervention programme - The Coronary Risk Factor Study. ... South African Medical Journal ... Smoking quit rates were strongly " associated with initial smoking level, with light smokers being significanty more successful quitters than heavy smokers.
The article explores specific challenges in supervising, accommodating and evaluating diverse candidates who pursue an action-led and community-based research approach rooted within the visual arts. I contend that there is a specific challenge in the field of postgraduate supervision of engaging evaluation strategies.
Participatory land use planning for community based forest management in South-Eastern Nigeria. FE Bisong, A Animashaun. Abstract. No Abstract. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 4 () 2007: pp.329-347. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has been recognised as an important management tool and has consequently been incorporated in Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) programmes in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Community-based coral reef monitoring (CB-CRM), which uses simplified procedures suitable for ...
Mitchell, Brian S.; Law, Victor J.
A method for incorporating community-based oral presentations into the undergraduate chemical engineering unit operations laboratory experience is described. Examples are given of appropriate topics and how these presentations can be incorporated into the experiment sequence. Course evaluations reflect the fact that these presentations are an…
Ingman, Benjamin C.
This autoethnography provides a description and thematic illustration of the student experience of a community-based research (CBR) course and partnership. Through evaluating personal experiences with CBR, the author identified three qualities of meaningful CBR experiences: trust, indeterminacy, and emotion. These qualities are explored, and…
In a community based study at Legon in 1997, a valuation method was used to assess the willingness of students on study leave to pay a percentage premium of their income ... The premium level was found to be influenced positively by financier, sex, age, income, and negatively by health expenditure, but not occupation.
It, therefore, becomes necessary to systematically manage uncertainty in community-based construction in order to increase the likelihood of meeting project objectives using necessary risk management strategies. Risk management, which is an iterative process due to the dynamic nature of many risks, follows three main ...
Objective: To assess the capacity of established community based organisations (CBOs) to disseminate information on sleeping sickness control. Design: Participatory interview process administered to randomly selected CBOs in a tsetse and trypanosomosis endemic area. Setting: Busia district, Western, Kenya. Results: ...
Dunbar, David; Terlecki, Melissa; Watterson, Nancy; Ratmansky, Lisa
This article describes how two faculty members at Cabrini College--one from biology and the other from psychology--incorporated interdisciplinary community-based research in an honors course on environmental watershed issues. The course, Environmental Psychology, was team-taught in partnership with a local watershed organization, the Valley Creek…
Sudiajeng, L.; Parwita, I. G. L.; Wiraga, I. W.; Mudhina, M.
The previous research showed that there were indicators of water crisis in the northern and eastern part of Denpasar city and most of coastal area experienced on seawater intrusion. The recommended water conservation programs were rainwater harvesting and educate the community to develop a water saving and environmentally conscious culture. This research was conducted to built the community based educational model on water conservation program through ergonomics SHIP approach which placed the human aspect as the first consideration, besides the economic and technically aspects. The stakeholders involved in the program started from the problem analyses to the implementation and the maintenance as well. The model was built through three main steps, included determination of accepted design; building the recharge wells by involving local communities; guidance and assistance in developing a water saving and environmentally conscious culture for early childhood, elementary and junior high school students, community and industry. The program was implemented based on the “TRIHITA KARANA” concept, which means the relationship between human to God, human-to-human, and human to environment. Through the development of the model, it is expected to grow a sense of belonging and awareness from the community to maintain the sustainability of the program.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne infection in North America, is increasingly reported. When the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is not recognized and treated, delayed manifestations of disseminated infection may occur. The accuracy of diagnosis and treatment of early Lyme disease in the community is unknown. Methods A retrospective, consecutive case series of 165 patients presenting for possible early Lyme disease between August 1, 2002 and August 1, 2007 to a community-based Lyme referral practice in Maryland. All patients had acute symptoms of less than or equal to 12 weeks duration. Patients were categorized according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and data were collected on presenting history, physical findings, laboratory serology, prior diagnoses and prior treatments. Results The majority (61% of patients in this case series were diagnosed with early Lyme disease. Of those diagnosed with early Lyme disease, 13% did not present with erythema migrans; of those not presenting with a rash, 54% had been previously misdiagnosed. Among those with a rash, the diagnosis of erythema migrans was initially missed in 23% of patients whose rash was subsequently confirmed. Of all patients previously misdiagnosed, 41% had received initial antibiotics likely to be ineffective against Lyme disease. Conclusion For community physicians practicing in high-risk geographic areas, the diagnosis of Lyme disease remains a challenge. Failure to recognize erythema migrans or alternatively, viral-like presentations without a rash, can lead to missed or delayed diagnosis of Lyme disease, ineffective antibiotic treatment, and the potential for late manifestations.
Belinson, Jerome L; Wang, Guixiang; Qu, Xinfeng; Du, Hui; Shen, Jingjing; Xu, Jiajia; Zhong, Liqun; Yi, Ji; Yi, Xin; Wu, Ruifang
To develop and implement a community based model for cervical cancer prevention that allows the communities to manage the screening and the healthcare system to focus resources on evaluation and management of the positives. Using self-sampling and the concepts founded in Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR), we progressively developed a model to efficiently reach the women, especially rural communities; and collect the volume of samples needed to support high throughput centralized low cost per case processing. 8382 eligible women, ages 35 to 59, in 130 rural communities participated. The screening was organized by the local government administration and conducted by the community leaders (CLs). The model used was progressively designed through detailed assessment of key elements at 6 decision points in 26 workshops that were used to train the CLs and the local promoters. The communities were able to accurately conduct the screening; in the final model a local medical worker conducted a 50-minute workshop featuring instructional posters and structured role-play. A manual and a workshop DVD were created for distribution to and implementation by local governments. The average callback rate was 84.3%, without involvement of the local doctors in the management of the positives. An efficient community based model capable of massive screening events was developed. We believe that the callback rate will be further improved when local doctors are trained in the management of the positives. Many elements impact coverage and further research is needed to define the influence of the identified key variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat...
Darling, Margaret; Gonzalez, Florencia; Graves, Kristi; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Leventhal, Kara-Grace; Caicedo, Larisa
Research exists on strategies for successful conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Unfortunately, few published resources are available to advise community-based organizations (CBOs) on preparation for and engagement in CBPR. We aimed to create a resource for CBOs that describes how an organization can prepare for and participate in CBPR. We used a case study approach of one CBO with a decade-long history of collaboration with academic researchers. We identified lessons learned through a retrospective review of organizational records and the documentation of experiences by CBO leadership and research partners. The findings were then labeled according to CBPR Partnership Readiness Model dimensions. The review of CBO documents and key informant interviews yielded ten practical tips to increase organizational readiness for and engagement in CBPR. By understanding the best practices for organizational readiness for and participation in CPBR, CBOs will be better equipped to actively participate in community-academic partnerships.
Sinclair, A. John; Sims, Laura; Spaling, Harry
This paper describes a community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA) using a case study of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad's (ICE) watershed management agricultural program (WMAP) in Costa Rica. The approach focused on four highly interactive workshops that used visioning, brainstorming and critical reflection exercises. Each workshop represented a critical step in the SEA process. Through this approach, communities in two rural watersheds assessed the environmental, social and economic impacts of a proposed second phase for WMAP. Lessons from this community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment include a recognition of participants learning what a participatory SEA is conceptually and methodologically; the role of interactive techniques for identifying positive and negative impacts of the proposed program and generating creative mitigation strategies; the effect of workshops in reducing power differentials among program participants (proponent, communities, government agencies); and, the logistical importance of notice, timing and location for meaningful participation. The community-based approach to SEA offers considerable potential for assessing regional (watershed) development programs focused on sustainable resource-based livelihoods
Undertaking Effective Cross-Language Questionnaire-Based Survey in Illiterate and Semi-Illiterate Rural Communities in the Developing Regions: Case of Communal Cattle Farmers in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa
Mavhungu Abel Mafukata
This paper investigated similarities and differences between questionnaire instruments – Source language instrument (untranslated) and target language (translated) instrument employed to gather research data in a cross-cultural background in the developing regions, with special reference to illiterate and semi-illiterate rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This paper premises that there are differences of responses between the responses sourced from a source language vers...
Wilensky, D S; Ginsberg, G; Altman, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Ben Yishay, F; Auerbach, J
OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of infants suffering from failure to thrive in a community based cohort in Israel and to ascertain the effect of failure to thrive on their cognitive development. METHODS: By review of records maintained at maternal and child health clinics in Jerusalem and the two of Beit Shemesh, epidemiological data were obtained at age 15 months on a cohort of all babies born in 1991. For each case of failure to thrive, a matched control was selected from the same maternal and child health clinic. At age 20 months, cognitive development was measured, and at 25 months a home visit was carried out to assess maternal psychiatric status by questionnaire, and the HOME assessment was performed to assess the home environment. RESULTS: 3.9% of infants were found to have fallen below the third centile in weight for at least three months during the first year of life. Infants with failure to thrive did not differ from the general population in terms of obstetric or neonatal complications, birth order, or parents' ethnic origin, age, or years of education. The infants with failure to thrive did have lower birthweights and marginally smaller head circumferences at birth. Developmental assessment at 20 months of age showed a DQ of 99.7 v 107.2 in the matched controls, with 11.5% having a DQ below 80, as opposed to only 4.6% of the controls. No differences were found in maternal psychiatric problems as measured by a self report questionnaire. There were, however, significant differences in subscales of the HOME scale. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Infants who suffered from failure to thrive had some physiological predispositions that put them at risk; (2) failure to thrive may be an early marker of families providing suboptimal developmental stimulation. PMID:8869197
Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L
This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.
Kotik, Michael; Davidová, Anna; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr
The compositions of bacterial groundwater communities of three sites contaminated with chlorinated ethenes were analyzed by pyrosequencing their 16S rRNA genes. For each location, the entire and the active bacterial populations were characterized by independent molecular analysis of the community DNA and RNA. The sites were selected to cover a broad range of different environmental conditions and contamination levels, with tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) being the primary contaminants. Before sampling the biomass, a long-term monitoring of the polluted locations revealed high concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC), which are toxic by-products of the incomplete bacterial degradation of PCE and TCE. The applied pyrosequencing technique enabled known dechlorinators to be identified at a very low detection level (study revealed that only a few species dominated the bacterial communities, with Albidiferax ferrireducens being the only highly prominent member found at all three sites. Only a limited number of OTUs with abundances of up to 1% and high sequence identities to known dechlorinating microorganisms were retrieved from the RNA pools of the two highly contaminated sites. The dechlorinating consortium was likely to be comprised of cDCE-assimilating bacteria (Polaromonas spp.), anaerobic organohalide respirers (mainly Geobacter spp.), and Burkholderia spp. involved in cometabolic dechlorination processes, together with methylotrophs (Methylobacter spp.). The deep sequencing results suggest that the indigenous dechlorinating consortia present at the investigated sites can be used as a starting point for future bioremediation activities by stimulating their anaerobic and aerobic chloroethene degradation capacities (i.e. reductive dechlorination, and metabolic and cometabolic oxidation). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU
Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.
Lowry, Roy K.
Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a
The study sought to investigate the role of the community in inhibiting girls' access and participation in formal education in Marsabit County-Kenya. As one of the marginalized counties in Kenya, the county had among the highest rate of illiteracy in Kenya with 68 per cent of residents with no formal education. The study involved a total of 128…
Nurbaiti, Siti Robiah; Bambang, Azis Nur
Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 on Development of Water Supply System, which the state guarantees the right of everyone water for basic daily minimum needs to meet the needs of a healthy, productive, and clean life. Norms every society has the right to get clean air to meet basic daily needs. One of the points in the goal of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the environment sector is the guarantee of the community to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. The SDG High Level Panel held in 2012 calls on countries around the world to do so in 2030. Fulfillment of clean air and sanitation in Indonesia is conducted through two sectoral approaches, the first through agencies, or related agencies and the second through a Society. In accordance with its community-based principles, the role itself is a key factor in the success of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to find out the forms of community participation and the factors that influence participation in community-based water supply and sanitation programs in the field of literature studies of previous research such as research journals, theses, theses, dissertations and related books This literature study topic.
Lowman, Warren; Kalk, Thomas; Menezes, Colin N.; John, Melanie A.; Grobusch, Martin P.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a prolific nosocomial pathogen renowned for its multidrug-resistant nature. We report a case of community-acquired meningitis due to A. baumannii. The case highlights the potential pathogenicity of this organism and raises concerns that this highly adaptable organism may
Full Text Available The challenge of facilitating a shift towards sustainable housing, food and mobility has been taken up by diverse community-based initiatives ranging from “top-down” approaches in low-carbon municipalities to “bottom-up” approaches in intentional communities. This paper compares intervention measures in four case study areas belonging to these two types, focusing on their potential of re-configuring daily housing, food, and mobility practices. Taking up critics on dominant intervention framings of diffusing low-carbon technical innovations and changing individual behavior, we draw on social practice theory for the empirical analysis of four case studies. Framing interventions in relation to re-configuring daily practices, the paper reveals differences and weaknesses of current low-carbon measures of community-based initiatives in Germany and Austria. Low-carbon municipalities mainly focus on introducing technologies and offering additional infrastructure and information to promote low-carbon practices. They avoid interfering into residents’ daily lives and do not restrict carbon-intensive practices. In contrast, intentional communities base their interventions on the collective creation of shared visions, decisions, and rules and thus provide social and material structures, which foster everyday low-carbon practices and discourage carbon-intensive ones. The paper discusses the relevance of organizational and governance structures for implementing different types of low-carbon measures and points to opportunities for broadening current policy strategies.
Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya
Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women.
Hammond, Lorie A.
Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer
Rith, Sam Ol
This study examines how policy intervention strategies facilitate or constrain the construction of positive social capital in a community-based ecotourism (CBET) context. It investigates CBET development policies in a specific Cambodian case study, explores implementation processes, assesses the level of social capital created, identifies the connections between social capital construction and development outcomes, and suggests how the policies contribute to social capital construction. The ...
Bardsley, N.; Buchs, M.; James, P.A.; Papafragrou, A.; Rushby, T.; Saunders, C.; Smith, G.; Wallbridge, R.; Woodman, N.
Can community-based behavioural intervention reduce energy use in the home? We report on initial data from an ongoing matched case and control field experiment on energy saving. Household energy use in 175 households is measured using monitoring equipment, recording electrical power consumption and temperature. Participants in treatment and control groups received improvements to the thermal insulation of their homes. A behavioural intervention in the treatment group began with a 2 hour works...
Purbasari, Novia; Manaf, Asnawi
Community-based tourism is one of the tourism development models that effectively used as a tool to alleviate poverty through empowerment strategy of the local community. Nevertheless, many people do not have adequate understanding on the characteristics of community-based tourism, which are used as a determinant in the tourism development. This article describes the comparison on characteristics of community-based tourism between Pentingsari and Nglanggeran. These villages were chosen because Pentingsari was a tourism village that able to apply the principles ethical codes of world tourism, shown by an award from the World Committee on Tourism Ethics Code and Nglanggeran was awarded as Best Tourism Village award in Indonesia from ASEAN Community Based Tourism Award 2017.The objectives of this study is to explore the characteristics of community-based tourism applied in the Pentingsari and Nglanggeran, and to identify any indicators that could be used to indicate those characteristics. The research achieves through in-depth interviews, observation, and review of documents. There were 17 persons as informants. Further, the observation was reached by directly observing in the both study cases. In addition, the data obtained through the review of secondary data from the local manager of tourism village. Generally, Pentingsari has characteristics as a community-based rural tourism, while Nglanggeran has characteristics as community-based ecotourism.
Lichtveld, Maureen; Kennedy, Suzanne; Krouse, Rebecca Z; Grimsley, Faye; El-Dahr, Jane; Bordelon, Keith; Sterling, Yvonne; White, LuAnn; Barlow, Natasha; DeGruy, Shannon; Paul, Dorothy; Denham, Stacey; Hayes, Claire; Sanders, Margaret; Mvula, Mosanda M; Thornton, Eleanor; Chulada, Patricia; Mitchell, Herman; Martin, William J; Stephens, Kevin U; Cohn, Richard D
To review how disasters introduce unique challenges to conducting population-based research and community-based participatory research (CBPR). From 2007-2009, we conducted the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) Study in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in a Gulf Coast community facing an unprecedented triple burden: Katrina's and other disasters' impact on the environment and health, historic health disparities, and persistent environmental health threats. The unique triple burden influenced every research component; still, most existing CBPR principles were applicable, even though full adherence was not always feasible and additional tailored principles govern postdisaster settings. Even in the most challenging postdisaster conditions, CBPR can be successfully designed, implemented, and disseminated while adhering to scientific rigor.
Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.
Kreitz, Patricia A
Innovations in scholarly communication have resulted in changing roles for authors, publishers and libraries. Traditionally roles are disappearing and players are actively seeking or reluctantly assuming new roles. Library roles are changing as they become involved in building and indexing electronic(e-)repositories and support new modes of e-research. A library-run service, the SPIRES particle physics databases, has not only weathered, but also lead, many of the transitions that have shaped the landscape of e-publishing and e-research. This has been possible through intense and in-depth partnership with its user community. The strategies used and lessons learned can help other libraries craft cost-effective roles in this new environment
Kreitz, Patricia A
Innovations in scholarly communication have resulted in changing roles for authors, publishers and libraries. Traditionally roles are disappearing and players are actively seeking or reluctantly assuming new roles. Library roles are changing as they become involved in building and indexing electronic(e-)repositories and support new modes of e-research. A library-run service, the SPIRES particle physics databases, has not only weathered, but also lead, many of the transitions that have shaped the landscape of e-publishing and e-research. This has been possible through intense and in-depth partnership with its user community. The strategies used and lessons learned can help other libraries craft cost-effective roles in this new environment.
Chowdhury, Touhidul Imran; Love, Richard Reed; Chowdhury, Mohammad Touhidul Imran; Artif, Abu Saeem; Ahsan, Hasib; Mamun, Anwarul; Khanam, Tahmina; Woods, James; Salim, Reza
Mortality from breast cancer is high in low- and middle-income countries, in part because most patients have advanced stage disease when first diagnosed. Case-finding may be one approach to changing this situation. We conducted a pilot study to explore the feasibility of population-based case finding for breast cancer by community health workers (CHWs) using different data collection methods and approaches to management of women found to have breast abnormalities. After training 8 CHWs in breast problem recognition, manual paper data collection and operation of a cell-phone software platform for reporting demographic, history and physical finding information, these CHWs visited 3150 women >age 18 and over they could find--from 2356 households in 8 villages in rural Bangladesh. By 4 random assignments of villages, data were collected manually (Group 1), or with the cell-phone program alone (Group 2) or with management algorithms (Groups 3 and 4), and women adjudged to have a serious breast problem were shown a motivational video (Group 3), or navigated/accompanied to a breast problem center for evaluation (Group 4). Only three visited women refused evaluation. The manual data acquisition group (1) had missing data in 80% of cases, and took an average of 5 minutes longer to acquire, versus no missing data in the cell phone-reporting groups (2,3 and 4). One woman was identified with stage III breast cancer, and was appropriately treated. Among very poor rural Bangladeshi women, there was very limited reluctance to undergo breast evaluation. The estimated rarity of clinical breast cancer is supported by these population-based findings. The feasibility and efficient use of mobile technology in this setting is supported. Successor studies may most appropriately be trials focusing on improving the suggested benefits of motivation and navigation, on increasing the numbers of cases found, and on stage of disease at diagnosis as the primary endpoint.
VanderBurgh, D; Jamieson, R; Beardy, J; Ritchie, S D; Orkin, A
Community-based first aid training is the collaborative development of locally relevant emergency response training. The Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative was developed, delivered, and evaluated through two intensive 5-day first aid courses. Sachigo Lake First Nation is a remote Aboriginal community of 450 people in northern Ontario, Canada, with no local paramedical services. These courses were developed in collaboration with the community, with a goal of building community capacity to respond to medical emergencies. Most first aid training programs rely on standardized curriculum developed for urban and rural contexts with established emergency response systems. Delivering effective community-based first aid training in a remote Aboriginal community required specific adaptations to conventional first aid educational content and pedagogy. Three key lessons emerged during this program that used collaborative principles to adapt conventional first aid concepts and curriculum: (1) standardized approaches may not be relevant nor appropriate; (2) relationships between course participants and the people they help are relevant and important; (3) curriculum must be attentive to existing informal and formal emergency response systems. These lessons may be instructive for the development of other programs in similar settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain features of peace-building distinguish it from peacekeeping, and make it an appropriate strategy in dealing with vertical conflict and low intensity conflict. However, some theorists suggest that attempts, through peace-building, to impose liberal values upon non-democratic cultures are misguided and lack an ethical basis. Discussion We have been investigating the peace-building properties of community based approaches to disability in a number of countries. This paper describes the practice and impact of peace-building through Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR strategies in the context of armed conflict. The ethical basis for peace-building through practical community initiatives is explored. A number of benefits and challenges to using CBR strategies for peace-building purposes are identified. Summary During post-conflict reconstruction, disability is a powerful emotive lever that can be used to mobilize cooperation between factions. We suggest that civil society, in contrast to state-level intervention, has a valuable role in reducing the risks of conflict through community initiatives.
Miguel Pajares Alonso
Full Text Available In the year 2000, Romanians barely figured in statistics for immigration into Spain, but since then it is the immigrant community that has grown most rapidly. By January 2007, this community had become the second-largest in terms of numbers (after that of the Moroccan community. The intensity of this migration flow has resulted from what has taken place in Romania since the mid-1990s, as well as from the characteristics of the Spanish labour market. Though Romanian immigration has mainly taken place through irregular channels, this has not prevented them from achieving access to the labour market, given that Spain’s “black economy” is large enough to easily absorb irregular immigration. Furthermore, the social network created between Romanian immigrants has encouraged the intensity of the migration flow, even though it is a network which – beyond the most direct family links – is extremely weak, at least for the largest sector of Romanian immigration (minorities such as gypsies and members of religious orders have very extensive, binding social networks. Thus, the job placement of the largest sector has been determined by their initial incorporation onto the “informal economy”, a fact that has meant that they have mainly been doing lowskilled jobs; nevertheless, they have now achieved a significant presence in skilled employment, and this trend is expected to continue in the future.
William T. Borrie; Joseph W. Roggenbuck
Benefits-based management is an approach to park and recreation management that focuses on the positive outcomes of engaging in recreational experiences. Because one class of possible benefits accrue to the community, a philosophical framework is discussed suggesting that communities are themselves the primary sources, generators, and repositories of knowledge....
Prathanee, Benjamas; Lorwatanapongsa, Preeya; Makarabhirom, Kalyanee; Suphawatjariyakul, Ratchanee; Thinnaithorn, Rattana; Thanwiratananich, Panida
To establish a Community-Based Model for Speech Therapy in Thailand and to implement it. The development of a Community-Based Model for Speech Therapy was based on the principles of primary healthcare, community-based rehabilitation and institutional sharing. Workshops for speech and language pathologists (SLPs), including "Training for Trainers" and six "Smart Smile & Speech" workshops were held. We held 1) a workshop for training SLPs in how to manage speech and language problems in cleft lip and palate (CLP); 2) a workshop for training healthcare providers who are not speech and language pathologists (para-speech and language pathologists: para-SLPs) how to identify speech, language and hearing problems in CLP and undertake early intervention; and, 3) four speech camps for continuing education via life demonstration and practice. Standard guidelines were produced for SLPs to remedy speech and language disorders in children with CLP in Thailand and para-SLP manuals for speech and language intervention for CLP were developed. Para-SLPs will be better equipped to identify and then provide early intervention for individuals with CLP, as well as to refer children with CLP and complicated speech and language disorders to speech clinics for the further management. Percentage of agreement among SLP, audiologists and para-SLPs ranged 50-93.33 while the Kappa coefficients ranged -0.07 to 0.86. The Community-Based Model for Speech Therapy for Children with CLP was an appropriate approach for coming up with solutions for the lack of speech services for children with CLP in Thailand.
Full Text Available Background. Given the dementia epidemic and the increasing cost of healthcare, there is a need to assess the economic benefit of community based dementia screening programs. Materials and Methods. Markov model simulations were generated using data obtained from a community based dementia screening program over a one-year period. The models simulated yearly costs of caring for patients based on clinical transitions beginning in pre dementia and extending for 10 years. Results. A total of 93 individuals (74 female, 19 male were screened for dementia and 12 meeting clinical criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (n=7 or dementia (n=5 were identified. Assuming early therapeutic intervention beginning during the year of dementia detection, Markov model simulations demonstrated 9.8% reduction in cost of dementia care over a ten-year simulation period, primarily through increased duration in mild stages and reduced time in more costly moderate and severe stages. Discussion. Community based dementia screening can reduce healthcare costs associated with caring for demented individuals through earlier detection and treatment, resulting in proportionately reduced time in more costly advanced stages.
Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet
Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... via web-based communities the intersection of culture and rhetoric in web-based communication rhetoric and discourse in the process of communicating knowledge via technology heuristics for knowledge communication from teaching in online forums connections between identity and knowledge communication...... This call for papers invites papers focused on theoretical frameworks or empirical research which highlights the cultural and/or rhetorical aspects of communicating knowledge in web based communities. We are looking for work that brings together methods and perspectives across disciplines...
Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Saberi Namin, Maryam; Ardalan, Ali; Majdzadeh, Behdad; Seydali, Elham
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based participatory intervention on earthquake preparedness in Tehran. This community-engaged research was conducted during 2011 to 2013. An intervention and a control neighborhood were chosen through systematic cluster sampling. In the intervention group 305 households and in the control group 314 households were sampled for pre- and post-assessment surveys. A participatory intervention was designed on the basis of consultation with the community advisory board and was implemented by trained volunteers. Changes in outcome variables in the intervention and control groups were detected in terms of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Pearson chi-square tests and covariance regression were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The results showed that the frequency of earthquake experience in the intervention and control groups was 69.2% and 79.0%, respectively. Moreover, the mean difference scores in knowledge, attitude, and practice in the intervention and control groups before and after the intervention were significant (Ppreparedness at a community level. To ensure sustainability, the participatory approach should be integrated into public health disaster planning.
This qualitative case study explored a community-university partnership for teacher preparation with an urban Indigenous community organization. The study examined the roles of Indigenous community partners as co-teacher educators working to better prepare teachers for the needs of urban Indigenous children and communities. The author collected…
Carvalho, Maria Eulina Pessoa de; Jeria, Jorge
Current educational policy in Latin America has been aiming to include community participation in a wider spectrum as part of decentralization reform. Much of the rhetoric of these policies seems to originate from neo-liberal policies of State modernization carried out under the auspices of international organizations. Based on a critical review…
These new forms of citizenship based on claims of sovereignty over natural, common goods are gradually transforming Colombian democratic space. The article draws on debates around active citizenship, deepening democracy, and participatory communication approaches to explain the aims of community organisations and the mechanisms by which they are self-organising and managing water at the local level.
Sharkey, Judy; Clavijo Olarte, Amparo; Ramírez, Luz Maribel
Here we share findings from a 9-month qualitative case study involving a school-university professional development inquiry into how teachers develop, implement, and interpret community-based pedagogies (CBPs), an asset-based approach to curriculum that acknowledges mandated standards but begins with recognizing and valuing local knowledge. After…
Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle
With this case study, we explored efforts to connect pre-service elementary teachers (PSTs) and campus scientists through place-based inquiry instruction. Using the framework of Community of Practice (CoP), the research question guiding this study was: what features of our place-based inquiry course intervention (involving PSTs and scientists)…
Karen H. Wang
Full Text Available Sustaining collaborations between community-based organization leaders and academic researchers in community-engaged research (CEnR in the service of decreasing health inequities necessitates understanding the collaborations from an inter-organizational perspective. We assessed the perspectives of community leaders and university-based researchers conducting community-engaged research in a medium-sized city with a history of community-university tension. Our research team, included experts in CEnR and organizational theory, used qualitative methods and purposeful, snowball sampling to recruit local participants and performed key informant interviews from July 2011–May 2012. A community-based researcher interviewed 11 community leaders, a university-based researcher interviewed 12 university-based researchers. We interviewed participants until we reached thematic saturation and performed analyses using the constant comparative method. Unifying themes characterizing community leaders and university-based researchers' relationships on the inter-organizational level include: 1 Both groups described that community-engaged university-based researchers are exceptions to typical university culture; 2 Both groups described that the interpersonal skills university-based researchers need for CEnR require a change in organizational culture and training; 3 Both groups described skepticism about the sustainability of a meaningful institutional commitment to community-engaged research 4 Both groups described the historical impact on research relationships of race, power, and privilege, but only community leaders described its persistent role and relevance in research relationships. Challenges to community-academic research partnerships include researcher interpersonal skills and different perceptions of the importance of organizational history. Solutions to improve research partnerships may include transforming university culture and community
Wang, Karen H; Ray, Natasha J; Berg, David N; Greene, Ann T; Lucas, Georgina; Harris, Kenn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Tinney, Barbara; Rosenthal, Marjorie S
Sustaining collaborations between community-based organization leaders and academic researchers in community-engaged research (CEnR) in the service of decreasing health inequities necessitates understanding the collaborations from an inter-organizational perspective. We assessed the perspectives of community leaders and university-based researchers conducting community-engaged research in a medium-sized city with a history of community-university tension. Our research team, included experts in CEnR and organizational theory, used qualitative methods and purposeful, snowball sampling to recruit local participants and performed key informant interviews from July 2011-May 2012. A community-based researcher interviewed 11 community leaders, a university-based researcher interviewed 12 university-based researchers. We interviewed participants until we reached thematic saturation and performed analyses using the constant comparative method. Unifying themes characterizing community leaders and university-based researchers' relationships on the inter-organizational level include: 1) Both groups described that community-engaged university-based researchers are exceptions to typical university culture; 2) Both groups described that the interpersonal skills university-based researchers need for CEnR require a change in organizational culture and training; 3) Both groups described skepticism about the sustainability of a meaningful institutional commitment to community-engaged research 4) Both groups described the historical impact on research relationships of race, power, and privilege, but only community leaders described its persistent role and relevance in research relationships. Challenges to community-academic research partnerships include researcher interpersonal skills and different perceptions of the importance of organizational history. Solutions to improve research partnerships may include transforming university culture and community-university discussions on race
Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.
This thesis contributes to Carlson et al.’s (2008) findings on a brand-based community and its psychological aspects. The research aimed to investigate the influences of psychological sense of brand community (PSBC) on mobile game loyalty. Particularly, it attempted to, first, look at sense of brand community from the social identity viewpoint, and second, explore the influence of PSBC on game loyalty as well as the role PSBC plays in the satisfaction–loyalty relationship. The relevant studie...
Zimmerman, Deena R
Intermittent treatment of acute lower acuity situations has come to be defined as urgent rather than emergent care. The location of urgent care delivery has been shifting from exclusively hospital or office settings to other community locales. To review the concept of urgent care and the new models of health care delivery in the niche between hospitals and primary care. To highlight the roles of urgent care in Israel and compare these roles with those in other countries. Narrative review of the literature. The new models of community based urgent care include 1) the urgent care center; 2) the retail or convenience clinic, 3) the free standing emergency center, and 4) the walk-in clinic. These models fall on a continuum of comprehensiveness. They offer care at a lower cost than hospital-based emergency departments and greater temporal convenience than primary care physicians. However, their impact on emergency department utilization and overcrowding or primary care physician overload is unclear.Israel has integrated its urgent care centers into its national health system by encouraging the use of urgent care centers and by requiring all health insurance funds to reimburse patients who use these centers. This integration is similar to the approach in England; however, the type of service is different in that the service in England is provided by nurses. It is different from most other countries where urgent care facilities are primarily private ventures. Community-based acute care facilities are becoming a part of the medical landscape in a number of countries. Still, they remain primarily on the fringe of organized medicine. Despite the important role of community-based acute care facilities in Israel, no nationwide study has been done in two decades. Health policy planning in Israel necessitates further study of urgent care use and its clinical outcomes.
For approximately 20 years, the indigenous nationalities of Ecuador have been searching for new alternatives in order to adapt to the new social and cultural changes in the society and also to face economic problems. For this reason new alternatives of community based tourism have been built according to their own cultural rationalities. The tourism activity has facilitated the possibility to improve the living conditions and create intercultural encounters.
Denise L Buchner
Full Text Available Integrated community case management (iCCM involves delivery of simple medicines to children with pneumonia, diarrhea and/or malaria by community health workers (CHWs. Between 2010 and 2012, an iCCM intervention trial was implemented by Healthy Child Uganda. This study used qualitative tools to assess whether project stakeholders perceived that iCCM improved access to care for children under five years of age.The intervention involved training and equipping 196 CHWs in 98 study villages in one sub-county in Uganda in iCCM. During the eight-month intervention, CHWs assessed sick children, provided antimalarials (coartem for fever, antibiotics (amoxicillin for cough and fast breathing, oral rehydration salts/zinc for diarrhea, and referred very sick children to health facilities. In order to examine community perceptions and acceptability of iCCM, post-intervention focus groups and key respondent interviews involving caregivers, health workers, CHWs and local leaders were carried out by experienced facilitators using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques.Respondents reported increased access to health care for children as a result of iCCM. Access was reportedly closer to home, available more hours in a day, and the availability of CHWs was perceived as more reliable. CHW care was reported to be trustworthy and caring. Families reported saving money especially due to reduced transportation costs, and less time away from home. Respondents also perceived better health outcomes. Linkages between health facilities and communities were reportedly improved by the iCCM intervention due to the presence of trained CHWs in the community.iCCM delivered by CHWs may improve access to health care and is acceptable to families. Policymakers should continue to seek opportunities to implement and support iCCM, particularly in remote communities where there are health worker shortages.
Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin
One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Functional diversity in plant communities is a key driver of ecosystem processes. The effective methods for measuring functional diversity are important in ecological studies. A new method based on neural network, self-organizing feature map (SOFM index, was put forward and described. A case application to the study of functional diversity of Phellodendron amurense communities in Xiaolongmen Forest Park of Beijing was carried out in this paper. The results showed that SOFM index was an effective method in the evaluation of functional diversity and its change in plant communities. Significant nonlinear correlations of SOFM index with the common used methods, FAD, MFAD, FDp, FDc, FRic, and FDiv indices, also proved that SOFM index is useful in the studies of functional diversity.
Bastida, Elena M; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard
Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues regarding data collection and sharing. Thereafter, this article concludes with a brief discussion of six principles that can inform the practice of ethical conduct when implementing CBPR studies. This article also lists additional reading resources on the importance of ethics in the conduct of CBPR.
Sheng, Nan; Jia, Youwei; Xu, Zhao; Ho, Siu-Lau; Wai Kan, Chi
Water distribution network (WDN) is a typical real-world complex network of major infrastructure that plays an important role in human's daily life. In this paper, we explore the formation of isolated communities in WDN based on complex network theory. A graph-algebraic model is proposed to effectively detect the potential communities due to pipeline failures. This model can properly illustrate the connectivity and evolution of WDN during different stages of contingency events, and identify the emerging isolated communities through spectral analysis on Laplacian matrix. A case study on a practical urban WDN in China is conducted, and the consistency between the simulation results and the historical data are reported to showcase the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.
Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Oliveras, Elizabeth
Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are one approach to addressing the health workforce shortage in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in using female volunteer CHWs as core workers in its successful health programmes. After 25 years of implementing the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC is now using CHWs in urban slums of Dhaka through Manoshi, a community-based maternal and child health project. However, high dropout rates among CHWs in the slums suggested a need to better understand factors associated with their retention, and consequently recommend strategies for increasing their retention. This mixed-method study included a case-control design to assess factors relating to the retention of volunteer CHWs, and focus group discussions (FGDs) to explore solutions to problems. In total, 542 current and 146 dropout CHWs participated in the survey. Six FGDs were held with groups of current and groups of dropout CHWs. Financial incentives were the main factor linked to CHW retention. CHWs who joined with the expectation of income were almost twice as likely to remain as CHWs. This finding was reinforced by the inverse association between wealth quintile of the CHWs and retention; the poorest CHWs were significantly more likely to stay in the programme than the richest. However, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were important non-financial factors associated with CHW retention. Restructuring and expansion of existing financial incentives to better compensate CHWs were recommended by CHWs to improve their retention. Factors found to be important in this study are similar to those from earlier studies in rural areas. While the data indicate that financial incentives are the most commonly discussed factor regarding CHW retention in urban slums, the results also suggest other avenues that could be strengthened to improve their retention.
Rogers, Jennifer C.; Simmons, Eunice A.; Convery, Ian; Weatherall, Andrew
There is much current interest in the potential of community-based renewable energy projects to contribute to transition towards low carbon energy systems. As well as displacing fossil fuel consumption by increasing renewable energy generation, projects are expected to have a range of social impacts which may result in additional positive sustainability outcomes. These include potential to increase: acceptance of renewable energy developments; awareness of renewable and sustainable energy technologies and issues; uptake of low carbon technologies; and sustainable/pro-environmental behaviours. To date however, there has been little investigation of whether and how these impacts occur. This paper presents results from qualitative research investigating the social impacts of a community woodfuel project as experienced by project participants and other local stakeholders. Findings show projects can raise awareness of renewable energy technologies and increase uptake of renewables. Overall the case study project successfully changed the local social context for development of woodfuel heating, reducing risk for all involved in the future development of this sector, particularly in the immediate locality. There was some evidence of increased engagement with wider sustainability issues but this was limited to direct participants, suggesting local projects need to be supported by wider systemic change to maximise impacts. - Highlights: ► We assessed the social impacts of a community woodfuel project. ► The project increased awareness and uptake of woodfuel heating. ► Impacts were achieved as a result of the locally-specific approach. ► Local projects can seed cultural change promoting transition to a low carbon society.
Delafield, Rebecca; Hermosura, Andrea Nacapoy; Ing, Claire Townsend; Hughes, Claire K; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Dillard, Adrienne; Kekauoha, B Puni; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Gamiao, Shari; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe
Dissemination is a principle within community-based participatory research (CBPR); however, published research focuses on the dissemination of findings from CBPR projects but less on dissemination of interventions developed through CBPR approaches. To disseminate an evidence-based lifestyle intervention tailored for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, the PILI 'Ohana Project (POP), an 11-year CBPR initiative, developed an innovative dissemination model. The community-to-community mentoring (CCM) model described in this paper extends the application of CBPR values and principles used in intervention development to intervention dissemination. The CCM model combines a CBPR orientation with the diffusion of innovation theory, the social cognitive theory, and key concepts from community organizing and community building to address the multilevel factors that influence uptake of an evidence-based intervention (EBI). Grounding the model in CBPR principles provides benefits for intervention dissemination and integrates a focus on community benefits and capacity building. By establishing co-equal, mutually beneficial relationships at the core of the CCM model, opportunities are created for building critical consciousness, community capacity, and social capital. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this model of intervention dissemination which may enhance diffusion of CBPR interventions and empower communities in the process.
Communities have an important role to play in biodiversity conservation. However, community-based conservation as a panacea, like government-based conservation as a panacea, ignores the necessity of managing commons at multiple levels, with vertical and horizontal interplay among institutions. The study of conservation in a multilevel world can serve to inform an interdisciplinary science of conservation, consistent with the Convention on Biological Diversity, to establish partnerships and link biological conservation objectives with local development objectives. Improving the integration of conservation and development requires rethinking conservation by using a complexity perspective and the ability to deal with multiple objectives, use of partnerships and deliberative processes, and learning from commons research to develop diagnostic tools. Perceived this way, community-based conservation has a role to play in a broad pluralistic approach to biodiversity protection: it is governance that starts from the ground up and involves networks and linkages across various levels of organization. The shift of attention to processes at multiple levels fundamentally alters the way in which the governance of conservation development may be conceived and developed, using diagnostics within a pluralistic framework rather than a blueprint approach.
Benítez Leyva, Lázaro Ventura; Jerez Pereira, Rubén; Pompa Chávez, Yanel; Tamayo Saborit, Michel; Rosa Andino, Alain de la
This work refers the experience of a study of case realized in the rural community Las Peladas, located in the municipality Bartolome Maso Marquez, of the Granma province. In the same the application of a multi-objective mathematical model like computer tool of aid to the planning appears energetics, in agreement with the specific characteristics of the analyzed locality. The field study was based on the results of a participating survey, the observation and compilation of data that it made possible to obtain a characterization of the community and, this way, of delimiting the necessary parameters for the application of the tool. Five alternatives were evaluated: Aeolian energy, biomass, to pave, hydraulics and the connection to the national network. Of them, the model suggests, that the photovoltaic energy solar exerts the greater influence in the improvement of the integral sustainability of the capitals natural, physical, financial, human and social in the community. (author)
Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities (Wildcat 2013), variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation (Maldonado et al. 2013), affecting Tribal water resources (Cozzetto et al. 2013), traditional foods (Lynn et al. 2013; Gautam et al. 2013), forests and forest resources (Voggesser et al. 2013) and Tribal health (Donatuto et al 2014; Doyle et al. 2013). This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by Tribal communities (USEPA, 2014a, www.epa.gov/ncer/tribalresearch). The Tribal Research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STA
Kaschak, Jennifer Cutsforth; Letwinsky, Karim Medico
This study investigates the unexpected emergence of a community of practice in a middle level mathematics and science methods course. The authors describe how preservice teacher participation in a collaborative, project-based service-learning experience resulted in the formation of a community of practice characterized by teamwork, meaningful…