WorldWideScience

Sample records for base case community

  1. Initial Impressions of Community-Dwelling Older Adults and Case Managers about Community-Based Telehealth Kiosks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A.; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W.; Olshansky, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding community-based telehealth. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults as a first step in feasibility assessment. Participants included residents (n=6) and community agency case managers (n=3) of a HUD-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide the plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. PMID:20509594

  2. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  3. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602

  4. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  5. Community-based enterprises and the commons: The case of San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro, Mexico

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    Alejandra Orozco-Quintero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Commons scholarship has tended to focus on the administration and use of commons by individuals and households and less so on collective enterprises that extract, transform and market what they harvest from the commons. In this paper, we consider Nuevo San Juan, a Mexican case that is well known in the community forestry and commons literature. In San Juan, indigenous community members who hold the rights for the commons are also the members of the enterprise that transforms and markets goods from the commons. We argue that such a strategy is one way to confront internal and external pressures on a commons. We draw upon the transcripts of 40 interviews undertaken during 2006 which are analyzed using a framework developed from the social, community-based and indigenous enterprise literature. Our goal was to utilize this framework to analyze the San Juan Forest Enterprise and understand its emergence and formation as a long-standing community-based enterprise that intersects with a commons, and thereby identify factors that increase chances of success for community enterprises. We found that by starting from the community-based and indigenous enterprise literature and using that literature to engage with thinking on commons, it was possible to consider the enterprise from the perspective of a regulatory framework rather than from the poles of dependency and modernization theories in which much commons work has been based. Enterprise and commons intersect when both are guided by core cultural values and the enterprise can become a new site for the creation of social and cultural cohesion. We also found that there were a number of necessary conditions for commons-based community-enterprises to retain internal and external legitimacy, namely: (1 leadership representative of the broad social mission rooted in the customary institutions, values and norms of the community; (2 accountability of enterprise leaders to the memberships they represent; and (3

  6. Pragmatism and Community Inquiry: A Case Study of Community-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bertram C.; Bloch, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a philosophical basis for the concept of community inquiry. Community inquiry derives from pragmatist theory as articulated by Dewey, Peirce, Addams, and others. Following Brendel, we discuss pragmatism in terms of its emphasis on the practical dimensions of inquiry, the pluralistic nature of the tools that are used to study…

  7. Pragmatism and Community Inquiry: A Case Study of Community-Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Bertram C.; Bloch, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a philosophical basis for the concept of community inquiry. Community inquiry derives from pragmatist theory as articulated by Dewey, Peirce, Addams, and others. Following Brendel, we discuss pragmatism in terms of its emphasis on the practical dimensions of inquiry, the pluralistic nature of the tools that are used to study phenomena, the participatory role of individuals with different perspectives, and the provisional nature of inquiry. We then apply this framework in a...

  8. Using computer aided case based reasoning to support clinical reasoning in community occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce; Robertson, David; Wiratunga, Nirmalie; Craw, Susan; Mitchell, Dawn; Stewart, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    Community occupational therapists have long been involved in the provision of environmental control systems. Diverse electronic technologies with the potential to improve the health and quality of life of selected clients have developed rapidly in recent years. Occupational therapists employ clinical reasoning in order to determine the most appropriate technology to meet the needs of individual clients. This paper describes a number of the drivers that may increase the adoption of information and communication technologies in the occupational therapy profession. It outlines case based reasoning as understood in the domains of expert systems and knowledge management and presents the preliminary results of an ongoing investigation into the potential of a prototype computer aided case based reasoning tool to support the clinical reasoning of community occupational therapists in the process of assisting clients to choose home electronic assistive or smart house technology. PMID:17576021

  9. 77 FR 41986 - Division of Nursing, Public Health Nursing Community Based Model of PHN Case Management Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Division of Nursing, Public Health Nursing Community Based Model of...), Community Based Model of Public Health Nursing Case Management Services. This program is authorized under... IHS OCPS Public Health Nursing (PHN) Program serves as the primary source for national...

  10. RURAL TOURISM COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT BASED ON LOCAL RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING COMMUNITY WELFARE: Case on Pentingsari Village, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih, Anna; Pudianti, Anna; Surya, Reni Vita

    2014-01-01

    Yogyakarta is the second tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. It offers rural tourism as alternative tourist attractions in a natural and cultural heritage scheme which has been the mainstay of the local government . Rural tourism offer the tourist experience into a new way with direct involvement in the daily life of the rural community. The rural tourism is managed by the rural community itself (called as CBT-Community Based Tourism). This study aimed to measure the s...

  11. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  12. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by

  13. Determinants of Individual Level Satisfaction with Community Based Natural Resources Management: A Case of Five Communities in Namibia

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    Shylock Muyengwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a logistic regression model, this paper examines key factors that influence individual support for communal conservancies in Namibia. It tests the hypothesis that if individuals are compensated for their wildlife related losses, they are more likely to support community based wildlife management projects. Data for this study were collected from 472 members of five conservancies in the Caprivi Region of Namibia. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling. The key findings are that receiving meat, activity during the Annual General Meeting (AGM, and being a member of a specific conservancy are the key predictors of satisfaction with the conservancy among the respondents. On the other hand, cash and jobs have no significant impact on individual attitudes toward communal conservancies. Based on these findings, the paper argues that the focus on incentives omits broader factors that motivate individuals to participate in community-based conservation.

  14. Social acceptance of community-based DEWATS - A case from two urban communities of Madhyapur Thimi municipality of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, Udhab

    2013-01-01

    Challenge of wastewater management is increasing with rapid population growth in urban areas. Rivers are heavily polluted as more than 90 percent of wastewater is being discharged directly without any treatment in many developing countries. Urban centres of Nepal are facing the same problem. A community-based DEWATS (decentralized wastewater treatment system) as a pilot and demonstration project was initiated by an NGO in Madhyapur Thimi municipality with an attempt to tackle this situation. ...

  15. Social acceptance of community-based DEWATS: A case study from two urban communities of Madhyapur Thimi municipality of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, Udhab

    2013-01-01

    Challenge of wastewater management is increasing with rapid population growth in urban areas. Rivers are heavily polluted as more than 90 percent of wastewater is being discharged directly without any treatment in many developing countries. Urban centres of Nepal are facing the same problem. A community-based DEWATS (decentralized wastewater treatment system) as a pilot and demonstration project was initiated by an NGO in Madhyapur Thimi municipality with an attempt to tackle this situation. ...

  16. A Case Study of Student Engagement in Collaborative Group Learning in a Blended Community Based (Service) Learning Module

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrigle, John

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: A participatory action research case study employed mixed methods to examine student collaboration and engagement in a Community Based (Service) learning module. A quasi experimental testing of Coates (2007) typology of student engagement found low agreement between students and lecturers in assigning the terms, passive, intense, independent or collaborative to student postings to discussion fora. Evidence from this case study found greater student collaboration in discussion fora w...

  17. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention. PMID:22467637

  18. Analysing a Web-Based E-Commerce Learning Community: A Case Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…

  19. Community-based tourism and local culture: the case of the amaMpondo

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    Andrea Giampiccoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, managed constructively, can play a role in poverty alleviation and community development. This paper suggests ways in which Community-based tourism (CBT can be used as a strategy to develop poor communities. Looking at the specific social context of contemporary rural Mpondoland, which is characterised by high degrees of poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and unemployment, the paper considers ways in which local culture itself can contribute towards positive CBT outcomes. Local culture is not only seen as a tourism attraction, but also a resource upon which CBT development can be built. This paper considers various ways in which the local cultural context can be linked to CBT development, thereby enhancing the CBT development process.

  20. Case Study Report: Community-Based Monitoring Systems for REDD+ in Guyana

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    Helen Bellfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental component of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+; will be the development of robust and cost-effective measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV instruments for national forest monitoring and safeguard information systems. It is increasingly recognized that community-based monitoring (CBM offers a positive model for greater participation and engagement of indigenous and forest-dependent communities within a REDD+ framework. Yet plans for CBM within REDD+ MRV systems remain limited, and there are currently relatively few concrete examples of CBM informing national forest monitoring systems. This paper outlines findings from a community MRV project with Amerindian communities in the North Rupununi, Guyana; and demonstrates that a CBM approach can enable key REDD+ requirements: in understanding local deforestation drivers and measuring carbon stocks; and for providing information on safeguards through social and environmental assessments. In addition, the authors discuss community capacity-building on smartphone technology for monitoring as a challenging yet viable pathway for scaling the use and adoption of indigenous knowledge and local skills for REDD+ programs.

  1. Exploring Collaborative and Community Based Planning in Tourism Case Study Sitia-Cavo Sidero Project

    OpenAIRE

    Katsouli, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    The present paper has explored the policy planning and development in emerging tourism settings in Sitia. Comprehensively, this study, in the name of sustainable development, focused on the extent of collaborative and community-based planning. For that reason exploratory research has been used; the context and the structure of this paper aimed to uncover the socially constructed reality of Sitia's stakeholders, within the dynamic environment, and respond to and questions. Therein significant ...

  2. Community-led Watershed-based Water Resources Management: The Case of Balian, Pangil, Laguna

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Antonio P.

    2004-01-01

    In Balian, the presence of indigenous institutions borne by a well entrenched and historically rooted and highly developed sociopolitical arrangement has enabled the local community to effectively link their governance and production activities to the watershed resource, despite opposition from some local political interests. The core of this is the Samahan ng Balian para sa Pagpapauwi ng Tubig, Inc. (SBPTI), a barangay based people’s organization formed in 1926 with the goal of managing the ...

  3. Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM): a Case Study f Mariveles, Bataan, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Lou L. Mungcal

    2013-01-01

    This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM) Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, ...

  4. Formulation of an Integrated Community Based Disaster Management for Hydroelectric facilities: The Malaysia Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazzi, Norshamirra; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ghazali, Azrul; Kamal Kadir, Ahmad; Hakimie, Hazlinda; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Hasini, Hasril; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Itam, Zarina; Fadhli Mohamad, Mohd; Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Dams, however significant their contributions are to the society, are not immune to failures and diminishing lifespan not unlike other structural elements in our infrastructure. Despite continuing efforts on design, construction, operation, and maintenance of dams to improve the safety of the dams, the possibility of unforeseen events of dam failures is still possible. Seeing that dams are usually integrated into close approximities with the community, dam failures may consequent in tremendous loss of lives and properties. The aims of formulation of Integrated Community Based Disaster Management (ICBDM) is to simulate evacuation modelling and emergency planning in order to minimize loss of life and property damages in the event of a dam-related disaster. To achieve the aim above, five main pillars have been identified for the formulation of ICBDM. A series of well-defined program inclusive of hydrological 2-D modelling, life safety modelling, community based EWS and CBTAP will be conducted. Finally, multiple parties’ engagement is to be carried out in the form of table top exercise to measure the readiness of emergency plans and response capabilities of key players during the state of a crisis.

  5. Developing an Interventional Pulmonary Service in a Community-Based Private Practice: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kim D; Desai, Neeraj R; Diamond, Edward; Kovitz, Kevin L

    2016-04-01

    Interventional pulmonology (IP) is a field that uses minimally invasive techniques to diagnose, treat, and palliate advanced lung disease. Technology, formal training, and reimbursement for IP procedures have been slow to catch up with other interventional subspecialty areas. A byproduct of this pattern has been limited IP integration in private practice settings. We describe the key aspects and programmatic challenges of building an IP program in a community-based setting. A philosophical and financial buy-in by stakeholders and a regionalization of services, within and external to a larger practice, are crucial to success. Our experience demonstrates that a successful launch of an IP program increases overall visits as well as procedural volume without cannibalizing existing practice volume. We hope this might encourage others to provide this valuable service to their own communities. PMID:26836941

  6. Pro Poor and Community Based Tourism: Case Study of an Investigation into PPT and CBT in Les Village, Bali

    OpenAIRE

    weigall, vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the case study of an attempt to introduce tourism as a tool to alleviate poverty in a Balinese village. Despite a positive feasibility study in 2011, tourism has failed to develop. The case study describes the series of events which occurred before, during and after the feasibility study. It then reviews these events in light of themes uncovered during an extensive literature review of Pro-poor and Community-Based Tourism. The study concludes that that the failure to imp...

  7. Best practice model for community capacity-building: A case study of community-based tourism enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Manyara, Geoffrey; Jones, Eleri

    2007-01-01

    As tourism continues to play a major role in the global economy, key international organisations, such as the United Nations World Tourism Organisation and the World Bank, have endorsed it as a tool for poverty alleviation particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this endorsement, local community involvement in tourism development is now urgent. The Local Agenda 21, for instance, advocates for participative and collaborative approaches in which the local communities play a significant r...

  8. Community based adaptation options for climate change impacts on water resources: The case of Jordan

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    Hammouri Nezar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources, existing demands and use per sector served to assess the nation’s historic water status. Taking into account the effect of both population growth and rainfall reduction, future per sector demands were predicted by linear temporal trend analysis. Water sector vulnerability and adaptation options were assessed by engaging thirty five stakeholders. A set of weighed-criterions were selected, adopted, modified, and then framed into comprehensive guidelines. A quantitative ratio-level approach was used to quantify the magnitude and likelihood of risks and opportunities associated with each proposed adaptation measure using the level of effectiveness and severity status. Prioritization indicated that public awareness and training programs were the most feasible and effective adaptation measures, while building new infrastructure was of low priority. Associated barriers were related to a lack of financial resources, institutional arrangements, and data collection, sharing, availability, consistency and transparency, as well as willingness to adapt. Independent community-based watershed-vulnerability analyses to address water integrity at watershed scale are recommended.

  9. Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM: a Case Study f Mariveles, Bataan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lou L. Mungcal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions

  10. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

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    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  11. The Impact of Community Based Forest management on Communities' Livelihoods. A Comparative Case Study between CBFM and Non CBFM Villages in Kilwa District, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano, Pilly

    2012-01-01

    In 1990's the government of Tanzania introduced Community Forest management (CBFM) as a solution towards sustainable forest management with the main objectives of improving forest condition and the livelihoods of the forest dependent communities. However in many cases the most emphasis has been on the improvement of the forest condition and less focus on the livelihood impact of CBFM to local communities. Livelihood aspect of forest management remains poorly defined and little awareness has b...

  12. Concept and Method of Asset-Based Community Development Planning: A Case Study on Minlecun Community in Chongqing’s Yuzhong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Ling; Liu; Yang; Xu; Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation of the Chinese economy from an extensive growth to intensive development, city development is also gradually turning from incremental construction to stock management. Community, as a basic unit of human settlements, is an important platform to build and improve the social governance capability. In 2013, Shiyoulu Jiedao Offi ce of Yuzhong District led the 1st urban community development planning, which was a milestone of Chongqing’s city regeneration and governance innovation. This paper focuses on two key issues: how to understand the community values and make the community development planning based on the above, and how to integrate with the local forces so that the community development planning can be integrated into the action plan. Combined with the practice of Minlecun Community Development Planning, using the concept of asset-based community development, a comprehensive survey is conducted on community assets(including three aspects of physical, human, and social capital), and a community comprehensive planning strategy is formulated which covers two parts: the optimization of community spaces and the upgrading of community governance. The paper explores the local-based community planning theories and methods from such aspects as value attitude, public participation, role transformation of urban planners, and others.

  13. Mobilising community-based research on zoonotic infections: A case study of longitudinal cohorts in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Saylors; Tue Ngo Tri; Toan Tran Khanh; Kiet Bach Tuan; Heiman FL Wertheim; Stephen Baker; Hoa Ngo Thi; Bryant, Juliet E

    2015-01-01

    We initiated the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) research program to better understand the epidemiology of disease transmission at the human–animal interface in Vietnamese rural communities and to integrate One Health approaches to disease surveillance. We established a longitudinal community cohort study of individuals with occupational exposure to animals, which involves concurrent targeted sampling from domestic livestock species and follow-up monitoring of human clinic...

  14. Does case management for patients with heart failure based in the community reduce unplanned hospital admissions?:A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huntley, Alyson L; Johnson, Rachel A; King, Anna J L; Morris, Richard; Purdy, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled trials (NRCTs) is to investigate the effectiveness and related costs of case management (CM) for patients with heart failure (HF) predominantly based in the community in reducing unplanned readmissions and length of stay (LOS). Setting CM initiated either whilst as an inpatient, or on discharge from acute care hospitals, or in the community and then continuing on in the community. Participants A...

  15. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    T.I. Borokini; Babalola, F. D.; T.O. Amusa; S.T. Ivande; Z.J. Wala; JEGEDE, O. O.; D. Tanko; J.O. Ihuma

    2012-01-01

    In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption o...

  16. The Performance of Community based Forest Management in Tanzania: The Case of Selected Villages in Morogoro District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominico B. Kilemo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Community based forest management is one of the participatory forest management approaches practiced in Tanzania. This paper is based on the study conducted between November, 2008 and February, 2009 in selected villages of Morogoro district. It analyses the performance of community based forest management in selected villages, by considering both policy and practice. Five case study villages namely Fulwe, Kiwege, Muhungamkola, Bagilo and Tegetelo were selected. Six variables were assessed: cooperation; rule compliance; participation in decision making; rule satisfaction; credibility of monitors; and, success in rule enforcement. The study revealed that Muhungamkola and Tegetelo villages have succeeded in the management of village land forest reserves while Fulwe, Kiwege and Bagilo were found to have failed. Success observed in those two villages is attributed to a convincingly high level of peoples’ participation in rule formulation, cooperation, compliance with rules, credible monitors and a highly decreasing trend of illegal activities. The opposite accounts for the failure observed in the other three villages. The study ends with two conclusions: (1 The findings indicate that the performance of monitors differs across the villages depending on the level of commitment, enthusiasm and incentives; (2 The project approach employed in implementing CBFM activities has no far-reaching outcomes, thus is not a sustainable solution to the deforestation problem in Tanzania.

  17. Blessings for All? Community-Based Ecotourism in Bali Between Global, National, and Local Interests – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Byczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine

  18. The CES Case Competition: A Valuable Resource for Community-Based Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Natasha; Welsh, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Illustrates the contribution that the Student Case Competition of the Canadian Evaluation Society can make to agencies with evaluation needs by describing the experience of an addiction and family services program whose gambling addiction treatment program used as the case in the qualifying round of the 1998 competition. (SLD)

  19. Social capital and community-based water management: A case study in Bukidnon

    OpenAIRE

    Paunlagui, M.M.; Rola, Agnes C.; Nguyen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation seeks to address whether building social capital through policy and other incentives can affect the state of the environment. "Social capital" is operationalized into measurements of level of trust, membership in associations/ organizations, reciprocity and collective action applied in a survey in Lantapan. Conclusions reached are: social capital and environmental degradation are found to be non-linear in nature; if there were good relations between the community and the vil...

  20. Community based adaptation options for climate change impacts on water resources: The case of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouri Nezar; Al-Qinna Mohammad; Salahat Mohammad; Adamowski Jan; Prasher Shiv O.

    2015-01-01

    A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources...

  1. Community Based Tourism (CBT) Planning and Possibilities: The Case of Shahmirzad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahmirzadi, Esmaeil Khasar

    2012-01-01

    One of the critical issues regarding mass tourism is that communities have not been necessarily part of the decision making process in its development; therefore, have not been necessarily a beneficiary of its social and economic benefits. Most of the tourism development projects have designed without those communities’ consent and mostly disregarded the community’s involvement and not benefited from community’s immense knowledge and cooperation. However, there has been a shift in the general...

  2. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. Case description The health system was refor...

  3. Humidifier Disinfectants Are a Cause of Lung Injury among Adults in South Korea: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Hyuk Park; Hwa Jung Kim; Geun-Yong Kwon; Jin Gwack; Young-Joon Park; Seung-Ki Youn; Jun-Wook Kwon; Byung-Guk Yang; Moo-Song Lee; Miran Jung; Hanyi Lee; Byung-Yool Jun; Hyun-Sul Lim

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD). However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study’s findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Methods Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years), s...

  4. A Semi-supervised learning approach to enhance health care Community-based Question Answering: A case study in alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Wongchaisuwat, Papis; Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Community-based Question Answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for online health communities. In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within online heal...

  5. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: A case study for Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pratihast, A.K.; M. Herold; Avitabile, V.; Bruin, de, R.J.; Bartholomeus, H; Souza Jr., C.M.; Ribbe, L.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challengin...

  6. Mobile Devices for Community-Based REDD+ Monitoring: A Case Study for Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. Souza Jr.; Lars Ribbe; Harm Bartholomeus; Sytze de Bruin; Valerio Avitabile; Martin Herold; Arun Kumar Pratihast

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challengin...

  7. Off-grid community electrification projects based on wind and solar energies: A case study in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Domenech, Bruno; Reyes, Gustavo Alberto; Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; García Villoria, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite various institutional efforts, about 22% of the total Nicaraguan population still do not have access to electricity. Due to the dispersed nature of many rural inhabitants, off-grid electrification systems that use renewable energy sources are a reliable and sustainable option to provide electricity to isolated communities. In this study, the design of an off-grid electrification project based on hybrid wind-photovoltaic systems in a rural community of Nicaragua is developed. Firstly t...

  8. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug

  9. Predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea in Eastern Ethiopia: a community based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistie Bezatu; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 un...

  10. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension: A Community-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension.We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis.After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46-3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified analyses

  11. Modelling of occupational respirable crystalline silica exposure for quantitative exposure assessment in community-based case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roe; Portengen, Lutzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoue, Jerome; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborate

  12. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  13. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a 'snapshot' or 'base case' look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future

  14. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lorent

    Full Text Available While community-based active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers.Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively.Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs.TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers

  15. Community-Based Tourism and Peasant Differentiation: Considerations from an Andean case Turismo rural comunitario y diferenciación campesina: Consideraciones a partir de un caso andino

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Gascón

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, Community-Based Tourism has created expectations in many latin american rural communities as an strategy to increase their income and to diversify the sources of this income. But it is an activity that is not free of risks. From a specific case (Amantaní Island, Titikaka Lake, Peru), the article studies one of these risks: the impact of tourism in the socio-economical communitarian cohesion.En los últimos años, el turismo rural comunitario se ha presentado como un instrumen...

  16. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  17. Achieving research impact through co-creation in community-based health services: literature review and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, PM; Jackson, C.; Shaw, S; Janaiman, T

    2016-01-01

    Context Co-creation – collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders – reflects a ‘Mode 2’ relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co-creation is widely believed to increase research impact. Methods We undertook a narrative review of different models of co-creation relevant to community-based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their commo...

  18. SUSTAINABILITY OF COMMUNITY-BASED RICE SEED PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY IN THE TARAI REGION OF NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Community-based seed production system is considered to supply diversified rice varieties in rural areas in a cost effective way. Development agencies have been promoting this concept to address poverty, food security and climate change adaptation issues. However, how this system could continue is a contested issue among the researchers and policy makers due to handling of seed production and marketing activities by resource poor farmers without business skills. Very limited studies have been...

  19. Stakeholder collaboration in community-based organizations (CBOs): The case of a sanitation CBO working in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman Figueroa, Nathaly

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of the stakeholder relations of PHAST Ujenzi, a community-based organization (CBO) that provides sanitation services in a slum area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. My research aims at describing how this CBO has established and maintained relations with different stakeholders, and it looks for highlighting interests, benefits, and challenges in such collaborations. Additionally, my study aims at contributing to the Stakeholder Theory literature, by providing relev...

  20. Community-based river management in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia: a case study of the Bau-Bau River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, A; Ibrahim, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explain the current condition of the Bau-Bau River, examine community participation for management of the river system, and consider options for improving the institutional capacity for a community-based approach. This assessment is based on a research project with the following objectives: (1) analyse the biophysical and socio-economic condition of the river as a basis for future planning; (2) identify current activities which contribute waste or pollution to the river; (3) assess the status and level of pollution in the river; (4) analyse community participation related to all stages of river management; and (5) identify future river management needs and opportunities. Due to the increasing population in Bau-Bau city, considerable new land is required for housing, roads, agriculture, social facilities, etc. Development in the city and elsewhere has increased run-off and erosion, as well as sedimentation in the river. In addition, household activities are generating more solid and domestic waste that causes organic pollution in the river. The research results show that the water quality in the upper river system is still good, whilst the quality of water in the vicinity of Bau-Bau city, from the mid-point of the watershed to the estuary, is not good, being contaminated with heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and organic pollutants. However, the levels of those pollutants are still below regulatory standards. The main reasons for pollution in the river are mainly lack of management for both liquid and solid wastes, as well as lack of community participation in river management. The government of Bau-Bau city and the community are developing a participatory approach for planning to restore and conserve the Bau-Bau River as well as the entire catchment. The activities of this project are: (1) forming institutional arrangements to support river conservation; (2) implementing extension initiatives to empower the community; (3) identifying a specific location to

  1. Humidifier Disinfectants Are a Cause of Lung Injury among Adults in South Korea: A Community-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyuk Park

    Full Text Available An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD. However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study's findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury.Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years, sex, residence, and history of childbirth since 2006 (for women. Environmental risk factors, which included type and use of humidifier and HD, were investigated using a structured questionnaire during August 2011. The exposure to HD was calculated for both cases and controls, and the corresponding risks of lung injury were compared.Among 28 eligible cases, 16 patients agreed to participate, and 60 matched controls were considered eligible for this study. The cases were more likely to have been exposed to HD (odds ratio: 116.1, 95% confidence interval: 6.5-2,063.7. All cases were exposed to HDs containing polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate, and the risk of lung injury increased with the cumulative exposure, duration of exposure, and exposure per day.This study revealed a statistically significant exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Therefore, continuous monitoring and stricter evaluation of environmental chemicals' safety should be conducted.

  2. Development and implementation of a geriatric care/case management program in a military community-based family medicine residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M; Petrelli, J; Murphy, M

    2000-11-01

    This article discusses how the development of a longitudinal geriatric assessment form facilitated a case management program in identifying high-risk frail elders within a military family practice clinic. A careful review of geriatric assessment tools was performed. From this review, a model geriatric assessment form was developed. A "SWOT" (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of the family medicine department was completed to determine if the environment was ready for case management. Analysis of the SWOT data revealed that the environment was favorable for a population-based approach to case management. Results of this initial study are encouraging. The new longitudinal geriatric assessment form has assisted family practice residents in organizing problems and data while seeing elderly patients. As a direct result, higher-risk frail elders have been identified for closer evaluation and follow-up. Future goals are to measure outcomes-based data and to refine the geriatric assessment process. PMID:11143424

  3. Conservation, livelihoods and tourism: A case study of the Buhoma-Mukono Community-based Tourism Project in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, communities neighboring protected areas continue to bear a disproportionate amount of the costs associated with conservation. Traditional community livelihood strategies such as hunting, logging, and plant harvesting are seen as major threats to protected areas. Therefore, p

  4. The Web of Community Trust - Amateur Fiction Online: A Case Study in Community Focused Design for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, K. F.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a case study online community: online amateur authors. Taking this case study community as a base, this thesis considers how the concept of community is applied within the Semantic Web domain. Considering the community structures that can be demonstrated through the case study, this thesis makes the case for the recognition of a specific type of social network structure, one that fulfils the traditional definitions of ‘community’. We argue that this sub-type occupies an ...

  5. Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized...... controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result...... patients were randomized into two groups: the case-managed group and the usual-care group. Participant characteristics were obtained at baseline, and measures on effectiveness and costs were obtained through questionnaires and registries within a 12-month follow-up period. In the forthcoming analysis...

  6. Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients sufferig from COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Ehlers, Lars Holger

    2015-01-01

    Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized...... controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result in a......, effectiveness will be evaluated on COPD-related hospital admissions, mortality, health- related quality of life, and self-care. An economic evaluation will examine the cost-effectiveness of case management against current usual care from the perspective of the health care sector. Results: Baseline...

  7. Care-related preferences and values of elderly community-based LTC consumers: can case managers learn what's important to clients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenholtz, H; Kane, R A; Kivnick, H Q

    1997-12-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of a brief values assessment protocol to be used by case managers working in community-based long-term care (LTC) for the elderly and presents data on the values and preferences of 790 LTC clients at two locations. The importance that clients placed on selected issues related to their care (e.g., privacy, daily routines, activities, involvement of family in care, the trade-off between freedom and safety) varied as did the specific content of those issues. Associations were found between the content and strength of preferences. The work has implications for research and practice. PMID:9432993

  8. Danish case report: The Danish Food Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon; Laursen, Klaus Brønd

    2014-01-01

    The Food Communities was chosen as a case for HealthyGrowth because they constitute a major novelty within the Danish foodscape. As indicated in section 3, the Food 2 Communities have emerged as the latest incarnation of a series of attempts to forge alternative food networks operating beyond the supermarket system. Denmark is distinguished by a large market share of organic food being sold via supermarkets, but The Food Communities are a novelty due to two factors, (1) they have experienced ...

  9. Community Based Networks and 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument is...... hinged on a research aimed at understanding how and why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated.Two Community Based Network Mobilization models were identified. The...... findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....

  10. Risk factors for hospitalization due to community-acquired sepsis - a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Pottegård, Anton; Laursen, Christian B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate risk factors for hospitalization due to sepsis and to determine whether these risk factors vary by age and gender. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study of all adult patients admitted to a medical ED from September 2010.......3%) were male. 621 (36.3%) patients were admitted with sepsis, 1071 (62.5%) with severe sepsis and 21 (1.2%) with septic shock. Episodes with sepsis of any severity were associated with older age (85+ years adjusted OR 6.02 [95%CI: 5.09-7.12]), immunosuppression (4.41 [3.83-5.09]), alcoholism...

  11. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  12. User fluctuation in communities: a forum case

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushyna, Zinayida

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fluctuation of users help stakeholders to provide a better support to communities. Below we present an experiment where we detect communities, their evolution and based on the data characterize users that stay, leave or join a community. Using a resulted feature set and logistic regression we operate with models of users that are joining and users that are staying in a community. In the related work we emphasize a number of features we will include in our future experiments to enhance train accuracy. This work represents a ?first from a series of experiments devoted to user fluctuation in communities.

  13. Case Base Maintenance Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Haouchine, Mohamed-Karim; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2007-01-01

    Case base Maintenance is an active Case Based Reasoning research area. The main stream focuses on the method for reducing the size of the case-base while maintaining case-base competence. This paper gives an overview of these works, and proposes a case deletion strategy based on competence criteria using a novel approach. The proposed method, even if inspired from existing literature, combines an algorithm with a Competence Metric (CM). A series of tests are conducted using two standards data...

  14. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  15. Blessings for all? Community-based ecotourism in Bali between global, national, and local interests - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Byczek

    2011-01-01

    As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the pas...

  16. Community based intervention on adolescent risk taking: using research for community action

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, C.; Disley, B.; P Patterson

    1998-01-01

    Design—Case study, based on a community action model and formative evaluation. This involved: a community profile on adolescent risk taking behaviour; interviews with service providers; dissemination of research findings to local policy makers; development and implementation of a community action plan to address adolescent risk taking; and assessment of its impact.

  17. Building Community Linkages: Some Thoughts on Community Based Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juana

    An original goal of Chicano Studies was to promote improvement of social and economic conditions in the community, with Chicana and Chicano scholars at the forefront of community struggles. Within this perspective, research is problem-based and part of the community action process. Chicano community groups want to work with researchers and…

  18. Community-Based Tourism and Peasant Differentiation: Considerations from an Andean case Turismo rural comunitario y diferenciación campesina: Consideraciones a partir de un caso andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Gascón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Community-Based Tourism has created expectations in many latin american rural communities as an strategy to increase their income and to diversify the sources of this income. But it is an activity that is not free of risks. From a specific case (Amantaní Island, Titikaka Lake, Peru, the article studies one of these risks: the impact of tourism in the socio-economical communitarian cohesion.En los últimos años, el turismo rural comunitario se ha presentado como un instrumento adecuado para aumentar la renta de la población campesina y diversificar sus fuentes de ingresos. Pero se trata de una actividad económica que no está exenta de riesgos. A partir de un caso específico (la isla peruana de Amantaní, en el Lago Titicaca el artículo estudia uno de ellos: el impacto del turismo en la cohesión socioeconómica comunitaria.

  19. Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptot, E.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.   The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known a

  20. Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen SS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina Storgaard Sørensen,1 Kjeld Møller Pedersen,1 Ulla Møller Weinreich,2,3 Lars Holger Ehlers,1 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Aalborg East, Denmark; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3The Clinical Institute, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result in a reduced number of COPD-related hospital admissions. Patients and methods: The design was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2012 to 2014 with randomization and intervention at patient level. The study took place in Aalborg Municipality, a larger municipality in Denmark. A total of 150 COPD patients were randomized into two groups: the case-managed group and the usual-care group. Participant characteristics were obtained at baseline, and measures on effectiveness and costs were obtained through questionnaires and registries within a 12-month follow-up period. In the forthcoming analysis, effectiveness will be evaluated on COPD-related hospital admissions, mortality, health- related quality of life, and self-care. An economic evaluation will examine the cost-effectiveness of case management against current usual care from the perspective of the health care sector. Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups except for the

  1. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  2. Predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea in Eastern Ethiopia: a community based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistie Bezatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. Result The study revealed that caregivers’ previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63–6.22, seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06–5.11 and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97–4.85 were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Conclusion Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities.

  3. Sustainability and power in health promotion: community-based participatory research in a reproductive health policy case study in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders.We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power

  4. Community-based management of Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai) Singer: a case study of South Korean mountain villages

    OpenAIRE

    Terry van Gevelt

    2014-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai) Singer commercialisation provides significant economic benefits to rural communities, mainly in China, Japan and South Korea. Recently, a growing body of research has questioned the impact of commercialization on harvesting behavior and the supply of matsutake. One key question arising from this literature is whether or not community-based management (CBM) has a positive impact on matsutake supply. I surveyed nine mountain villages in Gangwon and Nort...

  5. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  6. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  7. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  8. Block-based Community in China’s Social Housing Development:A Case Study on Old City Renovation of Kashgar,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis of the international definition and classification of slums,this paper explores the development of China’s social housing system and the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar.It argues that one of the issues in China’s social housing system is to solve the problems of the scarcity of spatial elements and the lack of developmental driving force in large mixed communities of the Han and minority nationalities.Then it examines the elements of renovation and approaches based on a survey of the local residents in different parts of Kashgar City.Comparing the international development of traditional residential quarters and block-based communities,the paper points out that the block-based community is preferred for its impartiality and sustainability,and applies this mode to the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar in the form of design guidelines.

  9. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs...... under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community......As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart...

  10. Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kiptot, E.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.   The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and the World Agrofore...

  11. Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%, only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. Method This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs. Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Results Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ Conclusion The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  12. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    OpenAIRE

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Community-based ecotourism (CBET) is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encoun...

  13. Implementing a knowledge application program for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care: a multiple case study research protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Roberge, Pasquale; Fournier, Louise; Brouillet, Hélène; Hudon, Catherine; Houle, Janie; Provencher, Martin D.; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depressive disorders are increasingly recognized as a health care policy priority. Reducing the treatment gap for common mental disorders requires strengthening the quality of primary mental health care. We developed a knowledge application program designed to improve the organization and delivery of care for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care teams in Quebec, Canada. The principal objectives of the study are: to implement and evaluate ...

  14. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Zhang; Shushu Li; Lu Liu; Li Wang; Xue Xiao; Zhenzhen Sun; Xichen Wang; Chao Wang; Meilin Wang; Lei Li; Qiujin Xu; Weimin Gao; Shou-Lin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based stu...

  15. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lupala, Z. J.; Lusambo, L. P.; Y. M. Ngaga; Makatta, Angelingis A.

    2015-01-01

    In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM) has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefor...

  16. A case study on knowledge communication based on friends-list links in the science blogging community at Sciencenet.cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping; QIU; Feifei; WANG; Houqiang; YU

    2011-01-01

    Sciencenet.cn is the leading online portal serving the Chinese scientific community.This paper intends to analyze the interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary knowledge communication patterns based on friends-list links in the blog community at Sciencenet.cn by using hyperlink analysis and social network analysis.The major findings are:1)More bloggers have an academic background in management science and life science;2)there are some core actors in co-inlink network and co-outlink network,who take the lead in engaging with knowledge exchange activities and produce a great influence on interdisciplinary communication;3)interactive relationships commonly exist between a blogger and those on his/her friends list,and the most linked-to blogs usually play a key role in generating interactive communication;4)management science has the highest co-inlink count with life science or information science and it has the highest co-outlink count with life science or mathematical and physical science;5)management science and life science have the greatest impact on information science and the interdisciplinary knowledge communication will also produce relatively significant influence on the development of information science discipline.It is our hope that this research can serve as a reference source for the future studies of academic virtual communities,and the development of mechanisms for facilitating increased engagement in knowledge exchange activities in academic virtual communities.

  17. Community-based technology transfer in rural aquaculture: the case of mudcrab Scylla serrata nursery in ponds in Northern Samar, Central Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baticados, Didi B; Agbayani, Renato F; Quinitio, Emilia T

    2014-12-01

    Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies. PMID:24817087

  18. Community-based Co-management in Vietnamese fisheries. The case of the Fisheries Associations in Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Anh, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    The open access fisheries regime has led to the degradation of marine resources and to conflicts in sharing them and the fishing grounds in Tam Giang Cau Hai lagoon in Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam. In 2003, community-based fisheries management (CBFM), particularly through Fisheries Associations (FA), was introduced and established. As of 2011, there were 62 local FAs. It means that local FAs have played an important role in the implementation of CBFM and as a major partner of the Government in pro...

  19. Community-Based Integrated Watershed Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong

    2005-01-01

    Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.

  20. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  1. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  2. Community Development Strategic Planning with a Focus on Social Variables, Case study: Tollab Community of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mafi

    2012-01-01

    and strategic planning and systemic planning displaced. Strategy means having central long term aims and thinking about their access methods. Strategic planning is a systematic planning method in making continuity among priority action by considering pros and cons (abilities and resources of organization and opportunities and threats (outer factors and affective cases on organization with essential procedure to reach organization mission. This study tries to reply three following questions:-. Where are we now?-. Where do we want to go?-. How do we reach that?Various models are introduced for strategic planning procedure, but their communal property is their cycling and planning process, at this manner that they begin from inner and outer periphery recognition and after underpinning the strategies lead to executive phase and all phases evaluate and feedback affects are checked. SWOT model in terms of date consequence is last model in underpinning strategic planning that is one of the most efficient among qualitative models. From this model᾿s point of view, an appropriate strategy makes strengths and opportunities extreme and weaknesses and threats at least. In executive phase of SWOT avoiding of weaknesses and threats is necessary and must consider the weaknesses as potential to making strength and threats as a power to making opportunity.2-2- Community DevelopmentOne of the negative effects of traditional comprehensive plans is gravitating toward totalism and incorporating the methods and solutions and for reaction to compensate this basic deficient, the strategic planning trends to planning and designing in small scales and human tangible subjects in community domain. Thus, nowadays urban planning and management attention assigned to lower and more objective levels of urban life, community is most appropriate base to access to urban sustainable development, cause ecologic relationships to general experiences and under community covenant and stakeholder moral

  3. Community-based management of Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai Singer: a case study of South Korean mountain villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry van Gevelt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai Singer commercialisation provides significant economic benefits to rural communities, mainly in China, Japan and South Korea. Recently, a growing body of research has questioned the impact of commercialization on harvesting behavior and the supply of matsutake. One key question arising from this literature is whether or not community-based management (CBM has a positive impact on matsutake supply. I surveyed nine mountain villages in Gangwon and North Gyeongsang provinces in South Korea. Four villages were found to have begun CBM of matsutake in the mid-1980s to early-1990s. All four villages continued to engage in CBM as of September 2013. Data suggest that CBM has had a positive impact on matsutake supply, although the exact magnitude and explanatory power of CBM is uncertain. Analysis of the nine villages suggests that CBM may not be a feasible strategy in all villages due to existing property rights regimes and that an external catalyst may be required in villages where harvesters do not perceive any economic benefit to CBM.

  4. Can community change be measured for an outcomes-based initiative? A comparative case study of the success by 6 initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minich, Lisa; Howe, Steven; Langmeyer, Daniel; Corcoran, Kevin

    2006-12-01

    One of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations today is the demand for measurable results. Increasingly, these organizations are focusing less on program outputs and program outcomes in favor of community outcomes or changes demonstrated in the larger community. Success by 6(R) is a popular United Way initiative that emphasizes defining and measuring community outcomes. In this paper, we describe our work with 24 Success by 6(R) initiatives around the country. It is clear that not all of these initiatives are measuring community outcomes. Of those initiatives that are experiencing some success measuring community outcomes, similar measurement strategies are reported. Additionally, our experience suggests several United Way employees express dissatisfaction with the logic model as a framework for defining and measuring community outcomes although no preferred alternative model is identified. Evaluators working with community-wide initiatives must find ways to communicate the differences between program and community outcomes to key stakeholders and funders. PMID:17004126

  5. Lived experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a university community-based education programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Engelbrecht

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community involvement is one of the crucial principles in the implementation of successful community-based education programmes. However, a gap continues to exist between the rhetoric of this principle and the reality of involving or engaging communities in the education of health professionals. Objectives: This study investigated the experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a community-based education programme offered by a university nursing school in Durban, South Africa. Methods: An interpretive existentialist-phenomenological design was employed for its richness in extracting human experiences. Individual interviews were held with school teachers and coordinators from non-government organisations, whilst focus groups were used for school children and community health workers. Although focus group discussions are not well suited for phenomenological studies, they can promote active participation and reduce possible intimidation by providing support through group interaction. Analysis of data was guided by Schweitzer’s model for analysing phenomenological data. Results: Themes that emerged from the data include: (1 Community experience of unmet expectations; (2 Benefits to the community from its involvement in the University Nursing School community-based education programme; (3 Existing partnership between the community and the university; (4 Sharing in the case-based learning activities; (5 Awareness of available services, human rights and self-reliance. Conclusion: The researched community indeed benefited in its participation in the University Nursing School (UNS CBE programme. However, there is a need to improve the communication between partners to make the partnership more sustainable through close relationships and interaction. There is also a need for further research on related aspects of the community’s involvement.

  6. Lived experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a university community-based education programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa S.B. Linda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community involvement is one of the crucial principles in the implementation of successful community-based education programmes. However, a gap continues to exist between the rhetoric of this principle and the reality of involving or engaging communities in the education of health professionals. Objectives: This study investigated the experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a community-based education programme offered by a university nursing school in Durban, South Africa.Methods: An interpretive existentialist-phenomenological design was employed for its richness in extracting human experiences. Individual interviews were held with school teachers and coordinators from non-government organisations, whilst focus groups were used for school children and community health workers. Although focus group discussions are not well suited for phenomenological studies, they can promote active participation and reduce possible intimidation by providing support through group interaction. Analysis of data was guided by Schweitzer’s model for analysing phenomenological data.Results: Themes that emerged from the data include: (1 Community experience of unmet expectations; (2 Benefits to the community from its involvement in the University Nursing School community-based education programme; (3 Existing partnership between the community and the university; (4 Sharing in the case-based learning activities; (5 Awareness of available services, human rights and self-reliance.Conclusion: The researched community indeed benefited in its participation in the University Nursing School (UNS CBE programme. However, there is a need to improve the communication between partners to make the partnership more sustainable through close relationships and interaction. There is also a need for further research on related aspects of the community’s involvement.

  7. 社区糖尿病患者痴呆患病率调查%Prevalence of dementia in diabetics: a community-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊云云; 赵倩华; 郭起浩; 罗剑锋; 丁玎; 洪震

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查社区糖尿病患者痴呆患病率,计算年龄别、性别患病率,并与非糖尿病组相比较.方法 对上海市某社区50岁以上常住居民中糖尿病患者及与其年龄、性别相匹配1:1对照的非糖尿病患者进行调查.运用问卷采集人口学及病史资料,MMSE筛查认知功能.对于文盲≤19分、小学≤21分、初中及以上文化程度≤24分者,进一步给予成套神经心理学量表检查,依据DSM-Ⅳ诊断痴呆.结果 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率[4.75%(23/484),95%CI:3.03%~7.04%]高于非糖尿病患者[2.24%(11/490),95%CI:1.13%~3.98% X~2=4.54,P=0.03].糖尿病组60~69、70~79和80岁以上各年龄段的痴呆患病率分别为1.94%(2/103)、4.43%(9/203)和14.12%(12/85)(趋势X~2=18.04,P<0.01);非糖尿病组相应年龄段痴呆患病率分别为1.43%(2/140)、2.86%(6/210)和5.00%(3/60,趋势X~2=4.58,P:0.03).糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为6.55%(19/290)和2.06%(4/194,X~2=5.18,P=0.02);非糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为3.01%(9/299)和1.05%(2/191).结论 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率显著高于非糖尿病患者,2组痴呆患病率均随年龄增大而升高,并且女性痴呆患病率高于男性.%Objective To determine prevalence of dementia in diabetics and non-diabetics, and in different age and gender groups. Methods A case-control study was conducted among participants aged 50 and over in Jing' an temple community in Shanghai. Subjects in diabetics group were matched to non-diabetics groups for age and sex with 1:1 matching. Personal information and case history were collected through questionnaire. The subjects were screened for dementia using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects that screened positively (indicated by an MMSE score below 19, 21 and 24 among those with illiteracy, elementary school and above junior middle school education, respectively) were subsequently examined by a series of neuropsychological tests. Based

  8. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: Budgetary and other cost considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeft, Theresa J.; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B.; James, Rosalina D.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR proje...

  9. Community Based Research by Applying Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Donnell, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Students have been involved in several chemistry research projects with communities: breath and urine testing for alcohol with the Garda Road Safety Unit; a long-term study of soil Quality for a Grangegorman Community Garden; and work placements with Wells for Zoe, a charity based in Malawi, including soil and water testing, and development of teaching materials for science.

  10. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations. PMID:24556796

  11. Estimation of the building energy loads and LNG demand for a cogeneration-based community energy system: A case study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We estimated energy demand of building groups in a town using an in-house tool. • We developed an operation simulator to match supply–demand processes of energy. • Detailed technological information to operate the CES is provided by the simulation. • LNG demand is forecasted for the expansion of the CES up to 14 years in the future. - Abstract: We analyzed energy consumption by a newly constructed part of a city in Korea to forecast the LNG demand for 14 years. The electricity, heating, cooling, and hot-water demands for a cogeneration-based CES (Community Energy System) accommodating 86,000 people in 29,000 houses are estimated using load models developed through direct measurements and statistical surveys. Based on published occupancy rates and forecasts of the rate of increase in energy consumption by third parties through independent study, the energy demands were driven in the form of 8760-h time series for each of the 14 years. Next, we simulate the demand–supply matching processes of a specifically chosen cogeneration engine for the CES to forecast the LNG consumption and the electricity trade for each year. We simulated the demand–supply matching processes with an automation tool specifically developed for this study. The methodology we established in this study can be applied to similar problems which may arise anywhere in the world

  12. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  13. An academic practice's transition to the business of medicine in the community. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S L; Schryver, D L

    2000-01-01

    This case study highlights the problems confronting a clinical practice corporation affiliated with a major medical school, and the business realizations it made in the acquisition of a community-based clinic. Launching a financially viable enterprise requires careful planning, determination of formal goals and expectations, an appropriate mix of physicians and services, a specific marketing campaign and community support. PMID:11010507

  14. Case Management in Community Corrections: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew; Hardcastle, Lesley; Birgden, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Case management is commonly regarded as the foundation of effective service provision across a wide range of human service settings. This article considers the case management that is offered to clients of community corrections, identifying the distinctive features of case management in this particular setting, and reviewing the empirical evidence…

  15. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P  Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.

  16. Overlapping Community Detection based on Network Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  17. Fostering engagement in private online customer community: case YIT Plus

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of the study is to explore different communicative actions the case organization can use in a private online customer community YIT Plus. The focus is on the challenges of the customer community that may prevent engagement as well as on the specific features, which can in turn enhance customer engagement by providing after-sale added value. The study also seeks to explore the privacy aspect of the online community and changing stakeholder roles in a t...

  18. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  19. Multi-level natural resources governance based on local community: A case study on semi-natural grassland in Tarōji, Nara, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Shimada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Japan is facing a bio-diversity crisis as a result of rapid industrialisation. The Japanese Ministry of the Environment formulated a National Biodiversity Strategy based on the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the Earth Summit in 1992. After an amendment in 2002, the National Biodiversity Strategy addressed three crises in biodiversity: over-exploitation and development that destroys habitats, underutilisation (the satoyama problem and artificially introduced factors (chemicals, alien species and so on. This paper focuses on the second problem. Secondary natural environments called satoyama have been created and maintained over the centuries by human activity. Because natural environments in Japan have been affected by human-induced disturbances for 35,000 years, many species have evolved in response to these disturbances. If the human activities cease, many of the species that have evolved to survive in managed environments become threatened. Many satoyama have been managed as commonage or common lands, called iriai in Japan. One natural resource system created by commoners is semi-natural grassland, and economic modernisation has led to abandonment of traditional management practices on these grasslands – one of the more evident changes in Japanese iriai practices. Before industrialisation, semi-natural grasslands were managed as a source of green manure, as a harvest for roofing materials (thatch and as pasture for animals. After industrialisation, however, introduction of chemical fertilizers, changes in building practices and importation of animal feeds rapidly decreased the use value of these grasslands for local residents. On the other hand, their value as public goods – as historical, cultural landscapes and places of biodiversity – which concern a much broader population than the local community – became relatively more important. The resulting problem is how to manage this resource with its new value for new

  20. Case Based Reasoning: Case Representation Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker H. El-Sappagh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case Based Reasoning (CBR is an important technique in artificial intelligence, which has been applied to various kinds of problems in a wide range of domains. Selecting case representation formalism is critical for the proper operation of the overall CBR system. In this paper, we survey and evaluate all of the existing case representation methodologies. Moreover, the case retrieval and future challenges for effective CBR are explained. Case representation methods are grouped in to knowledge-intensive approaches and traditional approaches. The first group overweight the second one. The first methods depend on ontology and enhance all CBR processes including case representation, retrieval, storage, and adaptation. By using a proposed set of qualitative metrics, the existing methods based on ontology for case representation are studied and evaluated in details. All these systems have limitations. No approach exceeds 53% of the specified metrics. The results of the survey explain the current limitations of CBR systems. It shows that ontology usage in case representation needs improvements to achieve semantic representation and semantic retrieval in CBR system.

  1. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.

  2. Too far, too little, too late: a community-based case-control study of maternal mortality in rural west Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, B R; Coyaji, K J; Rao, V N

    1998-01-01

    A total of 121 maternal deaths, identified through multiple-source surveillance in 400 villages in Maharashtra, were prospectively enrolled during 1993-95 in a population-based case-control study, which compared deaths with the survivors of similar pregnancy complications. The cases took significantly longer to seek care and to make the first health contact after the decision to seek care was taken. They also travelled significantly greater distances through a greater number of health facilities before appropriate treatment was started. Multivariate analysis showed the negative effect of excessive referrals and the protective effect of the following: residing in and not away from the village; presence of a resident nurse in the village; having an educated husband and a trained attendant at delivery; and being at the woman's parents' home at the time of illness. Other significant findings showed that deaths due to domestic violence were the second-largest cause of deaths in pregnancy, that more than two-thirds of maternal deaths were underreported in official records, and that liveborn infants of maternal deaths had a markedly higher risk of dying in the first year of life. This study points to the need for information-education-communication (IEC) efforts to increase family (especially male) preparedness for emergencies, decentralized obstetric management with effective triage, and a restructuring of the referral system. PMID:10191555

  3. Digital Technology, Diabetes and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities: A Case Study with Elderly Women from the Vietnamese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Ben; Gill, Gurjeet K.; Babacan, Hurriyet; Donahoo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To report the processes and outcomes of a case study on digital technology, diabetes and culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. Design: The qualitative study was based on a literature review, consultations and testing of a framework through workshops and an interactive information session. Setting: Consultations,…

  4. On the Applicability of Surrogate-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo-Bayesian Inversion to the Community Land Model: Case Studies at Flux Tower Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Maoyi; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Ren, Huiying; Liu, Ying; Swiler, Laura P.

    2016-07-04

    The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesian model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically-average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.

  5. Community Based Astronomy: Bringing families and communities together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy in K-12 formal education is still largely underrepresented as a science. Yet, it is arguably one of the most engaging and entertaining of the physical sciences. Many school systems have been slow to adopt curriculum frameworks that include astronomy. Even when astronomy is required either as a distinct subject or hidden within the catagory of "Earth science", many teachers spend little time on it in their classrooms since they have no formal training in this subject. A community based, informal astronomy education model that encorporates resources from government agencies, industry, local colleges, science centers and planetariums, families, civic groups, schools, and amateur astronomy clubs can provide a solution and be highly effective in creating sustained learning environments in this discipline as well as fostering an atmosphere of general acceptance and promotion of astronomy by whole communities. In addition, the opportunity exists to reinforce the teaching of astronomy in schools through the involvement of these groups in an informal education setting. This paper will discuss a Community Based Astronomy program that has been implemented in Montgomery County, Maryland. The tie-in to formal education through both schools and systemic reform initiatives will be presented. In addition, detailed guidelines for running astronomy clubs in conjunction with family astronomy nights will be provided.

  6. RESEARCH AND INFESTATION OF CASES OF DENGUE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Silva Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate to the infestation of Aedes aegypti and dengue cases that occurred in the rural communities covered by the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand – PR. The survey was conducted during 2009, divided into two stages, to survey the infestation was used to house infestation (IIP. Five communities were considered positive when the presence of Aedes aegypti infestation levels of communities was higher Charmed the West, Newfoundland, Nice. These data showed that higher rates will be higher infestation rate risk of people being affected by the mosquito. Dengue cases occurred more frequently in communities that had high rates of infestation. The population through prevention and awareness is one way to prevent the spread of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in rural communities.

  7. Ambulatory and Community-Based Services

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Fred

    1999-01-01

    The shift in the site of service delivery from inpatient and institutional to ambulatory and community settings has been prompted by concerns over cost and the prospect for improving the quality of life. In response to these concerns, Medicare has implemented several demonstrations that emphasize ambulatory and community-based services. In this issue, articles are presented on four demonstrations, which focus on the extent to which coordinated care models reduce health care costs, and the cos...

  8. Sampling and Recruiting Community-Based Programs Using Community-Partnered Participation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Susan E; Tang, Lingqi; Pudilo, Esmeralda; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Chung, Bowen; Horta, Mariana; Masongsong, Zoe; Jones, Felica; Belin, Thomas R; Sherbourne, Cathy; Wells, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    The inclusion of community partners in participatory leadership roles around statistical design issues like sampling and randomization has raised concerns about scientific integrity. This article presents a case study of a community-partnered, participatory research (CPPR) cluster-randomized, comparative effectiveness trial to examine implications for study validity and community relevance. Using study administrative data, we describe a CPPR-based design and implementation process for agency/program sampling, recruitment, and randomization for depression interventions. We calculated participation rates and used cross-tabulation to examine balance by intervention status on service sector, location, and program size and assessed differences in potential populations served. We achieved 51.5% agency and 89.6% program participation rates. Programs in different intervention arms were not significantly different on service sector, location, or program size. Participating programs were not significantly different from eligible, nonparticipating programs on community characteristics. We reject claims that including community members in research design decisions compromises scientific integrity. This case study suggests that a CPPR process can improve implementation of a community-grounded, rigorous randomized comparative effectiveness trial. PMID:26384926

  9. Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers' professional identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers provide healthcare services to people with severe and persistent mental illness. These case managers take on generic roles in multidisciplinary teams and provide all-around services in the clients' private homes. This focus group study aimed to gain...... sustain interpersonal relationships with clients were an important part of their service. Basic nursing tasks were described as an important part of their everyday work, and even though such tasks were not distinctive for ACT case managers, the representations of their work seemed to give them a sense of...... worth as professionals and legitimized a unique role in the community mental healthcare services....

  10. Online Music Community System based on SNM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the community structure algorithms proposed by most scholars are contraposing un-weighted network, while there still lacks research on the discovery of weighted network community. In un-weighted networks, the relation between the nodes is simplified as two states, which will neglect too much valuable information. To construct more actual structure of mined community, a novel discovery algorithm for weighted network community is put forward. The social network technology is implemented to a music forum. It can find out the social relation and interactive behavior of users in the music forum, to help the music resource to find suitable consumers. The music community system using social network mining is based on extracted replying and quoting information of users. For the user social network and topic social network of forum, two social network mining methods are proposed: One is applied to the user social network mining, which can find out the use groups who have similar interest in network; The other is applied to the topic social network mining, based on merging idea of weighted network community, and it can find out the similar groups of hot topics. Finally the mining process of network relationship in a certain music forum is described in detail as an example and it has verified the effectiveness of mining results

  11. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer…

  12. Chemosynthesis-based communities through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaim, Andrzej

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of chemosynthesis-based communities in late 1970s was probably one of the biggest surprises in the marine biology of 20th century. There are three basic types of locations where such communities may develop: hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and vertebrate falls. Also sunken wood communities are partially chemosynthetically fueled. Reports of these unusual aggregation of benthic animals in the deep sea prompted a quest for their counterparts in the fossil record. Soon it has been revealed that a number of exotic carbonate rocks rich in fossils in otherwise siliciclastic deep water facies could easily be interpreted as a result of ancient cold seeps' activity. Later on also numerous hot vent, whale fall, and sunken wood associations have been described from the geological past. The earliest-known chemosynthesis-based association containing metazoan animals has been described from Silurian of Ural Mountains. This and the other Paleozoic chemosynthesis-based associations are dominated by worm tubes, mollusks (monoplacophorans, bivalves, and gastropods), and brachiopods. Nothing is known from the period encompassing Permian and Triassic and the Mesozoic record of chemosynthesis-based communities starts in Jurassic. The Lower Jurassic hydrothermal vent association from California consists of worm tubes, gastropods, and brachiopods which are not really comparable to their counterparts from Recent chemosynthesis-based communities. First associations composed of fossils recollecting animals from the Recent chemosynthesis-based communities appear in Late Jurassic. Oxfordian cold seep deposits from France are dominated by lucinid bivalves and similar deposits from Tithonian of Alexander Island in the Antarctic are known to contain lucinids and mass aggregations of hokkaidoconchids-extinct group of gastropods related to Recent Provannidae. Early Cretaceous is an epoch of rhynchonellide brachiopod Peregrinella which occurs worldwide abundantly at hydrocarbon seep

  13. Determining attainable ecological quality requirements for the Upper Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment, based on human community requirements : the case of Bekkersdal / Simone Laila Liefferink

    OpenAIRE

    Liefferink, Simone Laila

    2015-01-01

    In order for an economy to survive and thrive it requires resources. Water is a resource that not only the economy is dependent on but also ecological and human communities. The deteriorated state of South African rivers suggests the intensive use of the country’s freshwater reserves by the population and industry. Such a source of freshwater is the Wonderfonteinspruit. It flows through an area that requires water for gold mining that has taken place in the area for more than 1...

  14. Cancer Patient Navigation Case Studies in Hawai‘i: The Complimentary Role of Clinical and Community Navigators

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo, Jermy B; Davis, Elise L; Allison, Amanda L; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the activities performed by cancer patient navigators in community-based and hospital settings. The case study demonstrates the depth and breadth of navigation activities and illustrates how hospital-based and community-based navigators work together to help individuals access cancer care and complete cancer treatment.

  15. Improving information for community-based adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-10-15

    Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.

  16. No “Magic Bullet”: Exploring Community Mobilization Strategies Used in a Multi-site Community Based Randomized Controlled Trial: Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrow, Virginia A.; Carla E Zelaya; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Morin, Stephen F; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D.; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualit...

  17. Community organizing among the elderly poor in the United States: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, M

    1992-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the role of community organizing as a vehicle for enhancing individual and community-level empowerment. Building on social support theory, Freire's "education for critical consciousness," and the principles and strategies of community organization practice, the 12-year-old Tenderloin Senior Organizing Project reflects the World Health Organization definition of health promotion as a means of helping individuals and communities to take increasing control over the factors influencing their health. Through the Project, low-income elders have successfully identified and addressed shared problems in such areas as crime and safety, undernutrition, and tenants rights. They further have developed ongoing tenants' associations and other community-based organizations that have provided continuity over time and contributed to the development of a "competent community." Problems in areas such as funding, evaluation, and volunteer burnout are discussed, as are the potentials for project replication in other settings. PMID:1601548

  18. Eight years of building community partnerships and trust: the UCLA family medicine community-based participatory research experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A; Lopez, Glenn A; Bholat, Michelle A; Dowling, Patrick T

    2009-10-01

    Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000-2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County.The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data.Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic-community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States.Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic-community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437

  19. Engineering Hybrid Learning Communities: The Case of a Regional Parent Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Strickroth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach (and a corresponding system design for supporting regionally bound hybrid learning communities (i.e., communities which combine traditional face-to-face elements with web based media such as online community platforms, e-mail and SMS newsletters. The goal of the example community used to illustrate the approach was to support and motivate (especially hard-to-reach underprivileged parents in the education of their young children. The article describes the design process used and the challenges faced during the socio-technical system design. An analysis of the community over more than one year indicates that the hybrid approach works better than the two separated “traditional” approaches separately. Synergy effects like advertising effects from the offline trainings for the online platform and vice versa occurred and regular newsletters turned out to have a noticeable effect on the community.

  20. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis; Gregory Clive; Brown Richard; Marchesi Julian Roberto; Hoogendoorn Bastiaan; Matthews Ian Price

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case cont...

  1. Building Dynamic Learning Communities: Ten Regional Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmania Univ., Launceston (Australia). Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia.

    This report presents the second phase of a 4-year study commissioned by the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) to examine the dynamics of Vocational Education and Training (VET). Ten case studies, most involving rural or indigenous communities, are presented, each illustrating an aspect of VET. Twenty-six findings and implications for…

  2. Environmental Impact Evaluation of Community Composting by Using Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study Based on Types of Compost Product Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki AZIZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA was applied to evaluate environmental impacts contributed by 2 community composting systems, consisting of powder and granular compost production. The main raw materials of these composts were waste from agricultural and agro industrial activities, including animal manures, and solid waste from palm oil mills and rice mills. Data from field operations of both of the composting systems were collected and analyzed. Both composting systems were classified into 5 sub systems, consisting of raw material collection, composting process, electricity consumption, material transfer, and distribution of the compost product to consumers. Impact assessments of both composting systems revealed that the composting process sub system was the main contributor on impact categories of acidification potential (AP, eutrophication potential (EP, global warming potential (GWP, and photochemical oxidation potential (POP, while on human toxicity potential (HTP the distribution sub system was the main contributor. In comparing both systems, it was found that granular compost systems contributed a higher impact than powder compost systems, at 1.1 times on GWP, while the remaining sub systems had almost similar impacts. In order to improve composting systems, it is recommended that compost blanket and fuel substitution be applied, to enable gaseous emission reduction to the composting process and transportation operations.

  3. Cohorts and community: a case study of community engagement in the establishment of a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Allotey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community engagement is an increasingly important requirement of public health research and plays an important role in the informed consent and recruitment process. However, there is very little guidance about how it should be done, the indicators for assessing effectiveness of the community engagement process and the impact it has on recruitment, retention, and ultimately on the quality of the data collected as part of longitudinal cohort studies. Methods: An instrumental case study approach, with data from field notes, policy documents, unstructured interviews, and focus group discussions with key community stakeholders and informants, was used to explore systematically the implementation and outcomes of the community engagement strategy for recruitment of an entire community into a demographic and health surveillance site in Malaysia. Results: For a dynamic cohort, community engagement needs to be an ongoing process. The community engagement process has likely helped to facilitate the current response rate of 85% in the research communities. The case study highlights the importance of systematic documentation of the community engagement process to ensure an understanding of the effects of the research on recruitment and the community. Conclusions: A critical lesson from the case study data is the importance of relationships in the recruitment process for large population-based studies, and the need for ongoing documentation and analysis of the impact of cumulative interactions between research and community engagement.

  4. Socioeconomic effects of operating reactors on two host communities: a case study of Pilgrim and Millstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This exploratory case study examines the social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. This work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing. The study concludes that construction impacts were minor due to a dispersed commuting pattern by construction workers and that the only significant construction impact that can be identified retrospectively is construction-worker traffic. The primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was the massive increase in property tax payments paid to the local communities by the utilities and the option chosen by each community to maintain the existing tax rate while using the additional revenue to significantly increase and enhance the public service delivery systems and facilities within the community. Second-order consequences of the direct, first-order economic impact were: (1) changes in community land use policies, (2) increase in salience of growth issues, and (3) alteration of both inter- and intra-community relationships. The majority of residents in both communities express favorable attitudes toward the nuclear plants, primarily because of the substantial increase in the tax base of their communities

  5. Group Maturity in a Community-Based Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John W; Franz, Berkeley A; Callaghan, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Community-based projects have become popular as a method to address various community problems. Specifically important is that community members take an active role in these interventions resulting in sustainable social change. Although considerable literature exists on the dynamics of small group interaction, this article addresses how group processes differ in community-based projects. Instead of constructing a static model for group interaction, this discussion focuses on experiences from a recent community-based health project on the island of Grenada. Because community-based projects are directed by a diverse group of community members, maturity is described as a process of negotiation rather than consensus. PMID:27050809

  6. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM......) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons......, resource conservation and good governance, and whether other resource management systems would be better will always be subject to context analysis and political debate. Accordingly, CBNRM is rather a development process and constant power struggle. Thus, even after years of implementation, donors are...

  7. Consulting, Mediating, Conducting, and Supporting: How Community-Based Organizations Engage with Research to Influence Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in critical policy theories and democratic conceptions of research, case studies of three community-based organizations, one in Canada and two in the U.S., were analyzed to determine if and how the groups engaged with research in their efforts to influence education policy. The findings demonstrate that the community-based organizations…

  8. Community-based care coordination: practical applications for childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Sally; Rosenthal, Michael; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Damitz, Maureen; Lara, Marielena; Mansfield, Carol; Matiz, Adriana; Nourani, Vesall; Peretz, Patricia; Persky, Victoria W; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Uyeda, Kimberly; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-11-01

    Care coordination programs have been used to address chronic illnesses, including childhood asthma, but primarily via practice-based models. An alternative approach employs community-based care coordinators who bridge gaps between families, health care providers, and support services. Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN) sites developed community-based care coordination approaches for childhood asthma. Using a community-based care coordination logic model, programs at each site are described along with program operational statistics. Four sites used three to four community health workers (CHWs) to provide care coordination, whereas one site used five school-based asthma nurses. This school-based site had the highest caseload (82.5 per year), but program duration was 3 months with 4 calls or visits. Other sites averaged fewer cases (35 to 61 per CHW per year), but families received more (7 to 17) calls or visits over a year. Retention was 43% to 93% at 6 months and 24% to 75% at 12 months. Pre-post cross-site data document changes in asthma management behaviors and outcomes. After program participation, 93% to 100% of caregivers had confidence in controlling their child's asthma, 85% to 92% had taken steps to reduce triggers, 69% to 100% had obtained an asthma action plan, and 46% to 100% of those with moderate to severe asthma reported appropriate use of controller medication. Emergency department visits for asthma decreased by 36% to 63%, and asthma-related hospitalizations declined by 26% to 78%. More than three fourths had fewer school absences. In conclusion, MCAN community-based care coordination programs improved management behaviors and decreased morbidity across all sites. PMID:22068360

  9. A process for community-based fisheries co-management

    OpenAIRE

    Pomeroy, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    There are many similarities, and some differences, between community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) and co-management. When CBCRM is considered an integral part of co-management, there is a new category of co-management which can be called community-based co-management. Community-based co-management is people-centered, community-oriented, resources-based and partnership-based. The implementation of community-based co-management has four components: resources management, community a...

  10. CASE-BASED CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Weiqing; Yan Junwei; Wang Jian; Xie Youbai

    2004-01-01

    The current method of case-based design (CBD) can be well practiced for configuration design in which design experience knowledge is involved.However, since the design case is confined to a certain application domain, it is difficult for CBD to be applied to conceptual design process that develops concepts to meet design specifications.Firstly, a function factor description space is erected to provide an exhibition room for all functions of design cases.Next, the approach for identifying the space state of function factor in description space is proposed, including the determination of the similarities between function factors of design case.And then a general object-oriented representation for design case is presented by bringing the class of function and in-out flow into the current case representation.Finally, a living example for electro-pet design that illustrates the implementation of the method for case-based conceptual design based on distributed design case repositories is described.

  11. Cost of dengue and other febrile illnesses to households in rural Cambodia: a prospective community-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3/1,000 among children Methods In 2006, active fever surveillance was conducted among a cohort of 6,694 children aged ≤ 15 years in 16 villages in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Subsequently, a case-control study was performed by individually assigning one non-dengue febrile control from the cohort to each laboratory-confirmed dengue case. Parents of cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to determine household-level, illness-related expenditures for medical and non-medical costs, and estimated income loss (see Additional file 1. The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. Additional File 1 2006 cost study survey questionnaire, Cambodia. the questionnaire represents the data collection instrument that was developed and used during the present study. Click here for file Results Between September and November 2006, a total of 60 household heads were interviewed: 30 with dengue-positive and 30 with dengue-negative febrile children. Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44. Hospitalization almost tripled the costs of dengue (from 14.3 to 40.1 US$ and doubled the costs of other febrile illnesses (from 17.0 to 36.2 US$. To finance the cost of a febrile illness, 67% of households incurred an average debt of 23.5 US$ and higher debt was associated with hospitalization compared to outpatient treatment (US$ 23.1 vs. US$ 4.5, p Conclusion In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts.

  12. The local community development and the community-based tourism : a comparative conceptual analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie PARENT; Klein, Juan-Luis; Jolin, Louis

    2009-01-01

    According to the authors of this paper, mass tourism does not generate the development of local communities but rather their devitalization. This paper presents a cross-literature survey on community-based tourism and local community development. It proposes some links between these two approaches and asserts that community-based tourism can be a strategy to trigger local community development. It address the conditions under which the convergence of these two approaches may allow the launchi...

  13. The keys to governance and stakeholder engagement: the southeast michigan beacon community case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardins, Terrisca R

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals. PMID:25848612

  14. Community Garden Information Systems: Analyzing and Strengthening Community-Based Resource Sharing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…

  15. Urban Community, poverty and corruption: the case of Annaba, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadji KAHOUA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.

  16. Mobile Elderly Living Community (MELCO: The Development of the Social Community Model: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Kouta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly prefer to be in their own homes rather than being in hospital or residential homes. Communication between elderly and community nurses is essential in caring and mutual interaction andmodern technologies like MELCO provides the elderly the feeling of independence and safety.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the social community model within the objectives of the MELCO project and its application within the community.Methodology: Three axes were taken in consideration: a ontology, b ecological theory and c social network and information systems analyses for the development of the social community model. Fourelderly women participated as a case study in piloting the mobile virtual system. The participants also responded to a short closed ended questionnaire.Results: The analysis of the questionnaire and the discussions with the participants showed that elders found the mobile system useful, easy to use and expressed the actual use of this would help them maintain active. Participants concern of social isolation or dependency on others seems to be trounced through the use of the mobile technology.Conclusions: MELCO social community model is a centric network that enables effective management and collaboration of social and health care teams around the elderly in the community. The teams arevirtual, dynamic and collaborative.

  17. Community-Based Decision Making and Priority Setting Using the R Software: The Community Priority Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hamisu M. Salihu; Abraham A. Salinas-Miranda; Arnut Paothong; Wei Wang,; Lindsey M. King

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines how to compute community priority indices in the context of multicriteria decision making in community settings. A simple R function was developed and validated with community needs assessment data. Particularly, the first part of this paper briefly overviews the existing methods for priority setting and reviews the utility of a multicriteria decision-making approach for community-based prioritization. The second part illustrates how community priority indices can be calcu...

  18. Case-based medical informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arocha José F

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "applied" nature distinguishes applied sciences from theoretical sciences. To emphasize this distinction, we begin with a general, meta-level overview of the scientific endeavor. We introduce the knowledge spectrum and four interconnected modalities of knowledge. In addition to the traditional differentiation between implicit and explicit knowledge we outline the concepts of general and individual knowledge. We connect general knowledge with the "frame problem," a fundamental issue of artificial intelligence, and individual knowledge with another important paradigm of artificial intelligence, case-based reasoning, a method of individual knowledge processing that aims at solving new problems based on the solutions to similar past problems. We outline the fundamental differences between Medical Informatics and theoretical sciences and propose that Medical Informatics research should advance individual knowledge processing (case-based reasoning and that natural language processing research is an important step towards this goal that may have ethical implications for patient-centered health medicine. Discussion We focus on fundamental aspects of decision-making, which connect human expertise with individual knowledge processing. We continue with a knowledge spectrum perspective on biomedical knowledge and conclude that case-based reasoning is the paradigm that can advance towards personalized healthcare and that can enable the education of patients and providers. We center the discussion on formal methods of knowledge representation around the frame problem. We propose a context-dependent view on the notion of "meaning" and advocate the need for case-based reasoning research and natural language processing. In the context of memory based knowledge processing, pattern recognition, comparison and analogy-making, we conclude that while humans seem to naturally support the case-based reasoning paradigm (memory of past experiences

  19. Assessing participatory practices in community-based natural resource management: experiences in community engagement from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S

    2014-05-01

    The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by

  20. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practice-based study and a community-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on

  1. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated with Community-Based Research in a Mexican-Origin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…

  2. Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Hummel, Hans; Tattersall, Colin; Brouns, Francis; Kurvers, Hub; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Hummel, H., Tattersall, C., Brouns, F., Kurvers, H., & Koper, R. (2006). Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Web Based Communities 2006. February, 16-18,2006, San

  3. Introduction to Ecological Description of a Community Intervention: Building Prevention through Collaborative Field Based Research

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced alon...

  4. Now for the Science Bit: Implementing Community-based Learning in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Donnell, Claire; Ennis, Patricia; Shoemaker, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of student learning from community engagement by critically assessing the implementation of this pedagogical approach in the context of teaching and learning chemistry and also evaluating the role of personal development in student-community engagement. Design/methodology/approach – A case study on the implementation since 2007 of community-based learning (also called service-learning) projects in an academic departm...

  5. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...

  6. Perceived Outcomes of a Community-based Urban Agriculture and Nutrition Education Program: A Case Study of Common Good City Farm’s Green Tomorrows Program in Washington, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Trutko, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Urban farm education programs can provide opportunities for community members to acquire skills and knowledge related to agriculture, food production, and nutrition. This project proposed a case study focusing on the Common Good City Farm’s Green Tomorrows program, an urban agriculture and nutrition education program for residents of Washington D.C., which aims to increase participant level of food security, ability to grow crops in urban locations, and knowledge of nutrition, food preparatio...

  7. Local Community Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of the Lenggong Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Jaafar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been acknowledged as the best approach to empower the socio-economic development of rural communities in various countries. Lenggong Valley is in its first phase of tourism development and entrepreneurship of local community is still under studied in Lenggong. By looking at various business activities that could be generated by the development, their involvement in business would contribute to a better economic return. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship of local community in Lenggong Valley. Based on quantitative face to face survey conducted on 500 residents in Lenggong Valley, the finding indicates that some of the local communities in Lenggong are already involved in entrepreneurship activities; however their business survivability should be a concern as they face limited financial sources and support. Furthermore, the majority of them are still involve in agricultural related activities making an indication that major effort is required to transform their life-style from agriculture to entrepreneurship. The finding provides a suggestion to the government on the needs to implement various entrepreneurship related programme in Lenggong Valley. Strategies to increase their involvement could be done through innovative programs, awareness, preparedness, and education on future entrepreneurs. Having newly declared as a world heritage site, this paper demonstrates the preliminary result on the need for a deeper examination on local community entrepreneurship in Lenggong Valley.

  8. Volume of Home and Community Based Services and...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...

  9. Patient and community experiences of tuberculosis diagnosis and care within a community-based intervention in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tulloch, Olivia; Theobald, Sally; Morishita, Fukushi; Datiko, Daniel G.; Asnake, Girum; Tesema, Tadesse; Jamal, Habiba; Markos, Paulos; Cuevas, Luis E.; Yassin, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian TB control programme relies on passive case finding of TB cases. The predominantly rural-based population in Ethiopia has limited access to health facilities creating barriers to TB services. An intervention package aimed to bring TB diagnosis and treatment services closer to communities has been implemented through partnership with health extension workers (HEWs). They undertook advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) activities, identified symptomatic...

  10. Community-based complex cloud data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiposka, Sonja; Juiz, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The communication infrastructure is a critical component of a large-scale cloud data center. It needs to provide the best performance available while keeping overprovisioning and, lately even more important, power consumption, to the minimum. Aiming to provide a unified solution that will have high performance together with economical benefits and power consumption reduction, in this paper, we propose a new community-based scale-free model for data center network architecture. By comparing the proposed model to other similar solutions we show that the performance of the network in terms of average path length, bandwidth and resilience is similar to the state-of-the-art models. In our presented detailed analysis of the model properties, our focus is set on exploring how heterogeneity in terms of different type of network equipment influences the basic network properties. We also present solutions and network metrics that can be used in conjunction to the introduced community structure in order to additionally increase the performance.

  11. EMERGENCE OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AS MEANS OF COMMUNICATION: A Case Study On Virtual Health Care Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpare Tokay ARGAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, like in all areas, the Internet has had an important effect in the area of health as well. With the development of the Internet many new and different applications have developed and one of the most important of these are probably virtual communities. Virtual communities, which are used as a tool for providing information and word of mouth communication, have become a widely used marketing tool in the area of healthcare services in recent years. A virtual community is a group that does not depend on space and time to maintain ties or participation in the group whose members share the same interest and to maintain closeness, that is based on internet communications and whose membership is based on free will. In these kinds of communities whose services are provided on a membership basis, health services of various kinds are offered to the members. In virtual communities, virtual interactive communications established between the members can be an important determining factor when choosing a product, service or doctor.

  12. Building climate change adaptation on community experiences: Lessons from community-based natural resource management in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chishakwe, Nyasha; Murray, Laurel; Chambwera, Muyeye

    2012-05-15

    This publication, produced in collaboration with WWF Southern Africa, looks at how community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) can inform and contribute to climate change adaptation at the community level, specifically to community-based adaptation (CBA) to climate change. It provides a framework for analysing the two approaches at conceptual and practical levels. Using case studies from southern Africa, the publication demonstrates the synergies between CBA and CBNRM, most important of which are the adaptation co-benefits between the two. While local incentives have driven community action in CBNRM, it is the evolution of an enabling environment in the region, in the form of institutions, policies, capacity and collaboration which characterises the scaling up of CBNRM to national and regional levels.

  13. Online Music Community System based on SNM

    OpenAIRE

    Yunjing Wang; Leonardo Marzagalia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the community structure algorithms proposed by most scholars are contraposing un-weighted network, while there still lacks research on the discovery of weighted network community. In un-weighted networks, the relation between the nodes is simplified as two states, which will neglect too much valuable information. To construct more actual structure of mined community, a novel discovery algorithm for weighted network community is put forward. The social network technology is implemen...

  14. Assessing community perspectives of the community based education and service model at Makerere University, Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okullo Isaac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES, facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region. The College is motivated to improve the health of Ugandans through innovative responsive teaching, provision of service, and community partnerships. Evaluating the COBES program from the community perspective can assist the College in refining an innovative and useful model that has potential to improve the health of Ugandans. Methods A stratified random sample of 11 COBES sites was selected to examine the community’s perception of the program. Key Informant Interviews of 11 site tutors and 33 community members were completed. The data was manually analyzed and themes developed. Results Communities stated the students consistently engaged with them with culturally appropriate behaviour. They rated the student’s communication as very good even though translators were frequently needed. Half the community stated they received some feedback from the students, but some communities interpreted any contact after the initial visit as feedback. Communities confirmed and appreciated that the students provided a number of interventions and saw positive changes in health and health seeking behaviours. The community reflected that some programs were more sustainable than others; the projects that needed money to implement were least sustainable. The major challenges from the community included community fatigue, and poor motivation of community leaders to continue to take students without compensation. Conclusions Communities hosting Makerere students valued the

  15. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

  16. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... zooplankton in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function...... and type. Some traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for...

  17. Community-Based Learning: The Core Competency of Residential, Research-Based Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gerhard; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    Traditionally, universities focus primarily on instructionist teaching. Such an understanding has been criticized from theoretical and practical points of view. We believe that sociocultural theories of learning and the concepts of social capital and social creativity hold considerable promise as a theoretical base for the repositioning of universities in the knowledge society. To illustrate our assumption, we provide case studies from the University of Colorado and the University of Siegen. These cases indicate how approaches to community-based learning can be integrated into a curriculum of applied computer science. We also discuss the role these didactical concepts can play within a practice-oriented strategy of regional innovation.

  18. Expert supervision based on cases

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez i Frigola, Joaquim; Colomer Llinàs, Joan; Rosa, Josep Lluís de la

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on taking advantage of large amounts of data that are systematically stored in plants (by means of SCADA systems), but not exploited enough in order to achieve supervisory goals (fault detection, diagnosis and reconfiguration). The methodology of case base reasoning (CBR) is proposed to perform supervisory tasks in industrial processes by re-using the stored data. The goal is to take advantage of experiences, registered in a suitable structure as cam, avoiding the tedious ta...

  19. The local community development and the community-based tourism : a comparative conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie PARENT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the authors of this paper, mass tourism does not generate the development of local communities but rather their devitalization. This paper presents a cross-literature survey on community-based tourism and local community development. It proposes some links between these two approaches and asserts that community-based tourism can be a strategy to trigger local community development. It address the conditions under which the convergence of these two approaches may allow the launching of development initiatives liable to counter the devitalization and impoverishment process which characterizes certain mass tourism oriented places.

  20. Developing a Sustainable Community via Community Enterprise: Approaches and Case Studies in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalee Santipolvut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This action research project started from an analysis of the competitiveness potential of community enterprises based on Porter’s Diamond Model. The SWOT analysis and TOWS Matrix are employed to determine the development plans including strategies, programmes, and details of various projects for all targeted enterprises in the five Southern border provinces of Thailand. The performances of the selected pilot projects are in line with the key performance indicators. Furthermore, all the targeted community enterprises initiating their medium-term development plans during the fiscal year 2013 to 2017 have received more revenue since project implementation. All enterprises have also expanded distribution channels, have more involvement with their communities, and the participant members of all enterprises are satisfied with the project implementation and performance at a high level.

  1. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  2. Community-based prevention marketing: organizing a community for health behavior intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described. PMID:16923844

  3. Place-power-prognosis: Community-based conservation, partnerships, and ecotourism enterprises in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Frederick Hoole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Namibia’s community-based natural resource management program (CBRNM and communal conservancies have gained international acclaim for rural poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation on the commons. Community-based ecotourism enterprise development has played a central role in the generation of community revenues, employment and additional benefits. The place of community-based ecotourism enterprises in the evolution of Namibia’s conservancies is examined. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach was conducted in Namibia as part of recent doctoral research in 2006 and 2007, featuring participant observation, semi-structured key informant interviews and structured communal villager interviews. Findings demonstrate some tangible successes of community-based ecotourism enterprise development, as well as emerging issues in related benefits distribution and power brokering. The case of the Torra Conservancy is profiled as a leading model for success in partnerships between conservancies, as community-based conservation institutions, and tourism enterprises. The experience of Ehi-rovipuka Conservancy is also detailed, to illuminate challenges and prospects for replicating the Torra model. Power relationships between and among private enterprise, community, and the state are elucidated. Ecotourism enterprise development can contribute successfully to community-based conservation. But, issues of power sharing, governance and competition necessitate the further evolution of commons institutions to capture future, sustainable benefits from community-based conservation premised on wildlife and related ecotourism development.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition by community health workers in southern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Chloe; Sadler, Kate; Alderman, Harold; Coates, Jennifer; Fiedler, John L; Myatt, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (CMAM) to a community-based health and nutrition programme delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in southern Bangladesh. The cost-effectiveness of this model of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of the 'standard of care' for SAM (i.e. inpatient treatment), augmented with community surveillance by CHWs to detect cases, in a neighbouring area. An activity-based cost model was used, and a societal perspective taken, to include all costs incurred in the programme by providers and participants for the management of SAM in both areas. Cost data were coupled with programme effectiveness data. The community-based strategy cost US$26 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, compared with US$1344 per DALY averted for inpatient treatment. The average cost to participant households for their child to recover from SAM in community treatment was one-sixth that of inpatient treatment. These results suggest that this model of treatment for SAM is highly cost-effective and that CHWs, given adequate supervision and training, can be employed effectively to expand access to treatment for SAM in Bangladesh. PMID:22879522

  5. 'A Farmer, a Place and at least 20 Members': The Development of Artifact Ecologies in Volunteer-based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Korsgaard, Henrik; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna

    In this paper, we present a case study of an urban organic food community and examine the way the community shapes its artifact ecology through a combination of appropriation of freely or cheaply available tools, and the long-term effort of building the community's own website. Based on...

  6. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  7. Community-based curriculum in psychiatric nursing science

    OpenAIRE

    S Arunachallam; AC Botes; A Gmeiner

    2000-01-01

    As community-based health care delivery is now a prominent feature of the health care system in South Africa, nursing curricula are being challenged to prepare student nurses for community based nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to describe guidelines for a community-based curriculum in psychiatric nursing science for a nursing college in KwaZulu-Natal. A qualitative, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was employed. To reach the purpos...

  8. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Methods Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connec...

  9. Women capacity, community resilience and sustainable post disaster reconstruction: case study from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Yumarni

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to flesh out women capacity for creating community resilience and practices of sustainable post disaster reconstruction in Bantul district Central Java Indonesia. Based on case study, the findings show women grassroots organizations have insight, information, experience, networks and resources vital within earthquake reconstruction as such capacities increasing resilience. During reconstruction women demonstrated their capacity as income-earners, producers and managers of food...

  10. Organic Agriculture as Livelihood Strategy: A Case Study in a Rural Community of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Peñaranda, Raquel; Egelyng, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study of a Brazilian community pursuing a livelihood strategy based on certified organic agriculture. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods framework, the paper identifies three different organic livelihood strategies involving varying degrees of capitals. The paper concludes that understanding the implications of these different organic strategies and their rationales is a prerequisite for policy-makers to tailor policies and programmes aiming to ...

  11. Inside case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Riesbeck, Christopher K

    2013-01-01

    Introducing issues in dynamic memory and case-based reasoning, this comprehensive volume presents extended descriptions of four major programming efforts conducted at Yale during the past several years. Each descriptive chapter is followed by a companion chapter containing the micro program version of the information. The authors emphasize that the only true way to learn and understand any AI program is to program it yourself. To this end, the book develops a deeper and richer understanding of the content through LISP programming instructions that allow the running, modification, and

  12. Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

  13. Developing a Sustainable Community via Community Enterprise: Approaches and Case Studies in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sumalee Santipolvut

    2015-01-01

    This action research project started from an analysis of the competitiveness potential of community enterprises based on Porter’s Diamond Model. The SWOT analysis and TOWS Matrix are employed to determine the development plans including strategies, programmes, and details of various projects for all targeted enterprises in the five Southern border provinces of Thailand. The performances of the selected pilot projects are in line with the key performance indicators. Furthermore, all the target...

  14. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

  15. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  16. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093

  17. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  18. Acceptability by community health workers in Senegal of combining community case management of malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T;

    2013-01-01

    Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs)....

  19. Base Christian Communities: A Challenge to the Status Quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emge, Donald R.

    Base Christian communities (also know as base-level ecclesial communities or CEBs) are small groups of Christians, mainly Catholics and mainly in Latin America, that come together for scripture study, prayer, and fellowship. They frequently turn their attention toward social ills and address problems existing within society. The origin of CEBs can…

  20. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, JE.; Duran, B.; Tafoya, G.; Baker, EA.; CHAN, D; Chang, C.; Greene-Moton, E.; Kelley, M.; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A national community based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual/logic model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus-building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nation-wide. Participants val...

  1. Benefits of community-based education to the community in South African health science facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Diab; Penny Flack

    2013-01-01

    Background: Community-based education (CBE) is utilised by health science facultiesworldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service tounderserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits totraining institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities,too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in theplanning of such training programmes.Method: An explo...

  2. Therapeutic community and community education - a client based research at Häkkinen Juvenile Home

    OpenAIRE

    Jokirinne, Jari; Johnsen, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This research was a client-based qualitative research with a deep background research on therapeutic community end community education. The basis of the empirical research is Häkkinen Juvenile Home in Jyväskylä, which is an educative community that specializes in youth with drug with drug experimenting and addictive behavior. The idea of the research came from the researchers’ common interest in youth work and substance care, as well as an interest in deepening own knowledge about therapeuti...

  3. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases.Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  4. Community Governance for Disaster Recovery and Resilience: Four Case Studies in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Florano, Ebinezer R.

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the role of communities in disaster recovery and in building resilience to answer the questions: "What is the role of community in the disaster recovery process? What roles do various stakeholders play in community-led disaster recovery? Is community-based disaster recovery affected by exposure to hazards and disasters, or by the community`s level of socioeconomic development?" To answer these questions, five hypotheses were tested in the 12 barangays from Ta...

  5. Community-based dialogue: engaging communities of color in the United states' genetics policy conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Vence L; Citrin, Toby; Modell, Stephen M; Franklin, Tené Hamilton; Bleicher, Esther W B; Fleck, Leonard M

    2009-06-01

    Engaging communities of color in the genetics public policy conversation is important for the translation of genetics research into strategies aimed at improving the health of all. Implementing model public participation and consultation processes can be informed by the Communities of Color Genetics Policy Project, which engaged individuals from African American and Latino communities of diverse socioeconomic levels in the process of "rational democratic deliberation" on ethical and policy issues stretching from genome research to privacy and discrimination concerns to public education. The results of the study included the development of a participatory framework based on a combination of the theory of democratic deliberation and the community-based public health model which we describe as "community-based dialogue." PMID:19451407

  6. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fuzzy case-based reasoning system, using a case-based reasoning (CBR system that learns from experience to solve problems. Different from a traditional case-based reasoning system that uses crisp cases, our system works with fuzzy ones. Specifically, we change a crisp case into a fuzzy one by fuzzifying each crisp case element (feature, according to the maximum degree principle. Thus, we add the “vague” concept into a case-based reasoning system. It is these somewhat vague inputs that make the outcomes of the prediction more meaningful and accurate, which illustrates that it is not necessarily helpful when we always create accurate predictive relations through crisp cases. Finally, we prove this and apply this model to practical weather forecasting, and experiments show that using fuzzy cases can make some prediction results more accurate than using crisp cases.

  7. Faith Wellness Collaboration: A Community-Based Approach to Address Type II Diabetes Disparities in an African-American Community

    OpenAIRE

    AUSTIN, SANDRA A.; CLAIBORNE, NANCY

    2011-01-01

    Community-based participatory action research was utilized to form a collaboration that developed a Health Ministry program in four Northeastern urban Black Churches, in which they designed and implemented a culturally competent Type II Diabetes self management education program. Minister sponsorship and a program coordinator synchronized the four Health Ministries’ development and diabetes program planning. A case study design, and participant observations and a focus group methodology were ...

  8. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  9. A Small, Rural Community College's Role in Community-Based Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Howard S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Chronicles the efforts of North Carolina's James Sprunt Community College to improve the quality of life for residents of its service area through the use of community-based programming (C-BP). Reviews the C-BP process utilized at the college, highlighting the formation of three planning teams charged with developing coalitions, strategic plans,…

  10. Review of community-based ICM: best practices and lessons learned in the Bay of Bengal, South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Samarakoon, J.I.; Nightingale, Maeve; Hermes, Rudi; Joseph, B.L.; Salagrama, V.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations of the report were based upon eighteen case studies of community-based Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) in Bangladesh, India, Maldives and Sri Lanka. These include empowerment of coastal communities; failure of imposed fishery co-operatives; and the application of territorial use rights in fisheries(TURF).

  11. Assessment of Community Event-Based Surveillance for Ebola Virus Disease, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ruwan; Crowe, Samuel J; Jasperse, Joseph; Privette, Grayson; Stone, Erin; Miller, Laura; Hertz, Darren; Fu, Clementine; Maenner, Matthew J; Jambai, Amara; Morgan, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, community event-based surveillance (CEBS) was implemented in Sierra Leone to assist with the detection of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. We assessed the sensitivity of CEBS for finding EVD cases during a 7-month period, and in a 6-week subanalysis, we assessed the timeliness of reporting cases with no known epidemiologic links at time of detection. Of the 12,126 CEBS reports, 287 (2%) met the suspected case definition, and 16 were confirmed positive. CEBS detected 30% (16/53) of the EVD cases identified during the study period. During the subanalysis, CEBS staff identified 4 of 6 cases with no epidemiologic links. These CEBS-detected cases were identified more rapidly than those detected by the national surveillance system; however, too few cases were detected to determine system timeliness. Although CEBS detected EVD cases, it largely generated false alerts. Future versions of community-based surveillance could improve case detection through increased staff training and community engagement. PMID:27434608

  12. Ensemble method: Community detection based on game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.

  13. Urban Studies, Students, and Communities: An Ideal Partnership A Case Study of Urban Studies Service Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Cherrington

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the implementation and results of a service learning based Urban Studies program course, the student expectations at the beginning of the course, and the student feedback at the end of the course. Through detailed explanation and examples of the live community needs, in multiple communities, addressed in this course and the resulting student projects, this article presents the case for service learning as a vibrant, efficient, and effective pedagogy for use within Urban Studies programs. Specifically, this article explores service learning pedagogy as, perhaps, a uniquely effective and satisfying tool that enhances the educative process for students and communities alike. Additionally, this article explores the enhanced project effectiveness and external outreach realized by partnering not only with communities, but also with multiple institutions of higher education, simultaneously, in order to achieve project(s success. This article also includes, and explores, the results of the pre and post course student experience surveys, as well as community feedback, and presents comparative data in which multiple curriculum formats, including lecture and workshops, are weighed against service learning curriculum prepared and presented in the course examined in this article. KEYWORDSService Learning, Higher Education, Urban Studies, Outreach

  14. An Index for Measuring Functional Diversity in Plant Communities Based on Neural Network Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Naiqi Song; Jin-Tun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Functional diversity in plant communities is a key driver of ecosystem processes. The effective methods for measuring functional diversity are important in ecological studies. A new method based on neural network, self-organizing feature map (SOFM index), was put forward and described. A case application to the study of functional diversity of Phellodendron amurense communities in Xiaolongmen Forest Park of Beijing was carried out in this paper. The results showed that SOFM index was an effec...

  15. Effects of the Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration on the use of community-based services.

    OpenAIRE

    Newcomer, R; Spitalny, M; Fox, P.; Yordi, C

    1999-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Did the Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration with its case management and community service waivers affect the use of community-based long-term care services among people with dementia and their primary caregivers? DATA SOURCES: Baseline and periodic caregiver interviews. Measures include client and caregiver attributes and self-reported service use. STUDY DESIGN: The demonstration randomly assigned voluntary applicants into treatment and control groups. Treatment group ...

  16. BULB: Onion-Based Measuring of OSS Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kilamo, Terhi; Aaltonen, Timo; Heinimäki, Teemu J.

    2010-01-01

    Up to date information on the associated developer community plays a key role when a company working with open source software makes business decisions. Although methods for getting such information have been developed, decisions are often based on scarce information. In this paper a measuring model for open source communities, BULB, is introduced. BULB provides a way of collecting relevant information and relates it to the well-known onion model of open source communities.

  17. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  18. Community-based intervention to manage an outbreak of MRSA skin infections in a county jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Abdallah F; Chaussee, Michael S; McDowell, Emily J; Huntington, Mark K

    2010-07-01

    This article describes a community-based intervention to manage an outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin infections in a midwestern county jail. A systematic investigation conducted by a family medicine residency program identified 64 total cases and 19 MRSA cases between January 1 and December 31, 2007. Factors contributing to MRSA transmission included inadequate surveillance, lack of antibacterial soap, and a defective laundry process. All 19 isolates were CA-MRSA and all seven tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were USA300. Four of the seven isolates showed variation of their PFGE patterns. A primary care approach using community-based resources effectively reduced the number of cases in this heterogeneous outbreak of CA-MRSA, with the last MRSA being isolated in October 2007. PMID:20466702

  19. Model-based clustering in networks with Stochastic Community Finding

    CERN Document Server

    McDaid, Aaron F; Friel, Nial; Hurley, Neil J

    2012-01-01

    In the model-based clustering of networks, blockmodelling may be used to identify roles in the network. We identify a special case of the Stochastic Block Model (SBM) where we constrain the cluster-cluster interactions such that the density inside the clusters of nodes is expected to be greater than the density between clusters. This corresponds to the intuition behind community-finding methods, where nodes tend to clustered together if they link to each other. We call this model Stochastic Community Finding (SCF) and present an efficient MCMC algorithm which can cluster the nodes, given the network. The algorithm is evaluated on synthetic data and is applied to a social network of interactions at a karate club and at a monastery, demonstrating how the SCF finds the 'ground truth' clustering where sometimes the SBM does not. The SCF is only one possible form of constraint or specialization that may be applied to the SBM. In a more supervised context, it may be appropriate to use other specializations to guide...

  20. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  1. Transition to Community-Based Nursing Curriculum: Processes and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joellen B.; Alley, Nancy M.

    2002-01-01

    The East Tennessee State University nursing school's transition to a community-based nursing curriculum was built on five key concepts: (1) relevance and accountability to health and social needs; (2) meeting of basic health needs through teaching and learning; (3) community experiences throughout the curriculum; (4) interdisciplinary…

  2. Adaptation Knowledge Discovery from a Case Base

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aquin, Mathieu; Badra, Fadi; Lafrogne, Sandrine; Lieber, Jean; Napoli, Amedeo; Szathmary, Laszlo

    2006-01-01

    In case-based reasoning, the adaptation step depends in general on domain-dependent knowledge, which motivates studies on adaptation knowledge acquisition (AKA). CABAMAKA is an AKA system based on principles of knowledge discovery from databases. This system explores the variations within the case base to elicit adaptation knowledge. It has been successfully tested in an application of case-based decision support to breast cancer treatment.

  3. Community structure in traffic zones based on travel demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Ling, Ximan; He, Kun; Tan, Qian

    2016-09-01

    Large structure in complex networks can be studied by dividing it into communities or modules. Urban traffic system is one of the most critical infrastructures. It can be abstracted into a complex network composed of tightly connected groups. Here, we analyze community structure in urban traffic zones based on the community detection method in network science. Spectral algorithm using the eigenvectors of matrices is employed. Our empirical results indicate that the traffic communities are variant with the travel demand distribution, since in the morning the majority of the passengers are traveling from home to work and in the evening they are traveling a contrary direction. Meanwhile, the origin-destination pairs with large number of trips play a significant role in urban traffic network's community division. The layout of traffic community in a city also depends on the residents' trajectories.

  4. Vegetative community control of freshwater availability: Phoenix Islands case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, M.; Heinse, R.

    2014-12-01

    On small low islands with limited freshwater resources, terrestrial plant communities play a large role in moderating freshwater availability. Freshwater demands of vegetative communities are variable depending on the composition of the community. Hence, changes to community structure from production crop introductions, non-native species invasions, and climate change, may have significant implications for freshwater availability. Understanding how vegetative community changes impact freshwater availability will allow for better management and forecasting of limited freshwater supplies. To better understand these dynamics, we investigated three small tropical atolls in the Phoenix Island Protected Area, Kiribati. Despite their close proximity, these islands receive varying amounts of rainfall, are host to different plant communities and two of the islands have abandoned coconut plantations. Using electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, soil samples, climate and satellite data, we present preliminary estimates of vegetative water demand for different tropical plant communities.

  5. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants that...... planning can be a complex and time-consuming process. Many municipalities hesitate to initiate such a process, because of missing guidelines and uncertainty about possible energy potentials. Case studies help to understand applied methodologies and could show available energy potentials in different local...

  6. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  7. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. PMID:26251479

  8. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  9. COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM IN NATURE RESERVE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Yan-li; FANG Yan-gang; LIU Ji-sheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of community-based ecotourism (CBET) that originated in foreign countries.Then it analyzes the significance ofCBET development in nature reserve (NR).The authors think that community participation is the evitable choice of nature reserve's conservation and development.CBET,as the self-improved model of ecotourism,can promote tourism community sustainable development.Based on the stakeholder analysis of CBET in NRs,this paper addresses the reality,especially the problem of CBET development in NRs of China.In order to develop CBET in NRs of China,this paper takes some suggestions to promote the community participation:1)gradual political empowerment,2) deep level economic incentive,3) widespread educational support,4) impartial distribution of community benefits,and 5) stakeholders cooperation.

  10. Community created open source hardware: A case study of "eCars - Now!"

    OpenAIRE

    Malinen, Tiina; Mikkonen, Teemu; Tienvieri, Vesa; Vadén, Tere

    2011-01-01

    Based on a survey, we describe the demographic and motivational structure of one open source hardware (OSH) community and compare it to open source software (OSS) communities. Taken separately, both the demographics and the motivational structure of the OSH community fall clearly within the typology of OSS communities, but when the two are taken together the OSH community forms a type of its own. We also discuss bottlenecks in OSH development revealed by the survey and subsequent interviews.

  11. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  12. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.

    2012-06-04

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  13. Participatory evaluation of community actions as a learning methodology for personal and community empowerment: case studies and empowerment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Úcar Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Participatory evaluation (PE is a hybrid methodology that can be used simultaneously to investigate and act in groups and communities. It can generate new knowledge about reality, but italso allows changes in the participants and their sociocultural context. This research project, developed over three years, aims to find out whether PE processes are useful and appropriate to evaluate community actionsand to generate learning that contribute to the empowerment of people who develop them.Method: The methodological structure of the research process design Participatory Evaluation processes that are applied in three selected communities-cases, over one year. The steering groups in each caseevaluated four dimensions of Community Development Plans: context, evolution, performance and results, using different techniques and group dynamics. Throughout this process, participants identify the acquiredknowledge and this is linked to indicators of empowerment, using questionnaires, content analysis and semi-structured interviews.Results: The development PE process in the three analyzed cases confirmed that PE is a useful strategy to assess participatory community actions of a territory; to report them to the people of the community; andto make shared decisions, about initiatives in order to improve community actions. The obtained results also verify that, throughout PE, there has been learning in the participants.Conclusions: The involvement of community members in the evaluation makes it more useful, fairer and more valid, but also a fourth positive consequence of PE is empowerment. From the process and the resultsof these cases of Participatory Evaluation, we consider that community EP is social transformation.

  14. Power, peasant communities and mining industry: community government and access to resources in Michiquillay’s case

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Burneo; Anahí Chaparro Ortiz de Zevallos

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes changes in community governance in the contextof negotiations with a mining company. We focus on three issues:the role played by the community government on the regulation ofcommunity resources and territory, the diverse and complex intereststhat emerge in the presence of mining activity; and, the communityas a political institution confronting external pressures over its land.We develop a study case focusing on the negotiation process betweenthe Michiquillay peasant commu...

  15. What motivates use of community-based human immunodeficiency virus testing in rural South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Devesh; Moll, Anthony P; Brooks, Ralph P; Friedland, Gerald; Shenoi, Sheela V

    2016-07-01

    Despite substantial progress in implementing HIV testing, challenges remain in achieving widespread uptake particularly in rural resource-limited settings. We sought to understand motivations for HIV testing in a community-based HIV testing programme in rural South Africa. We conducted a questionnaire survey in participants undergoing voluntary HIV testing within an ongoing community-based integrated HIV/tuberculosis intensive case finding programme at congregate rural settings. Participants responded to a six-item non-mutually exclusive motivations survey which included the topics of feeling ill, recent HIV exposure, risky lifestyle, illness in a family member, and pregnancy. Among 2068 respondents completing the survey, 1393 (67.4%) were women, median age was 40 years (IQR 19-56), and 1235 (59.7%) were first-time testers. Among all testers, 142 (6.9%) were HIV-positive with median CD4 count was 346 cells/mm(3) (IQR 218-542). Community-based testing for HIV is acceptable and meets the needs of community members in rural South Africa. Motivations for HIV testing at the community level are complex and differ according to gender, age, site of community testing, and HIV status. These differences can be utilised to improve the focus and yield of community-based HIV screening. PMID:26134323

  16. Cultural Relevance for Rural Community Development in China: A Case Study in Bai, Jingpo and Huyaodai Communities of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Kui; Du Juan; Dai Cong; Hu Huabin

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study over the Bai, Jingpo and Huayaodai communities in Yunnan Province reveals that the community development is significantly influenced in various ways by such cultural factors as the concepts of development; concepts and traditions of inter-community relationships, consumption, marriage and gender; patterns of decision-making and production, resource and income allocation; as well as the role of information dissemination systems, religion and ritual. Based on the analysis over the interactive relevance between each factor and community development, some strategies and methods for dealing with such a cultural relevance in development projects are recommended.

  17. Community-based enterprises: The significance of partnerships and institutional linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seixas, Cristiana Simão; Berkes, Fikret

    2010-01-01

    Community-based institutions used to be driven by local needs, but in recent decades, some of them have been responding to national and global economic opportunities. These cases are of interest because they make it possible to investigate how local institutions can evolve in response to new challen

  18. Encounters with Difference: Community-Based New Media Programs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit; Castro, Juan Carlos; Lin, Ching-Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Community-based new media programs offer a distinct place of arts learning in the larger learning and media ecologies that teens and young adults navigate. As part of a 3-year case study of new media programs, the Gulf Islands Film and Television School (GIFTS) presents pedagogical and curricular insights that are relevant to both out-of- and…

  19. Improving Problem-Based Learning in Creative Communities through Effective Group Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard E.; Williams, Greg; Williams, David

    2013-01-01

    In this case study, we researched one cohort from the Center for Animation, a higher education teaching environment that has successfully fostered group creativity and learning outcomes through problem-based learning. Through live and videotaped observations of the interactions of this community over 18 months, in addition to focused interviews…

  20. Immigration, Racial Profiling, and White Privilege: Community-Based Challenges and Practices for Adult Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Luis J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the author will explore the significance of race from a social constructionist perspective. He will focus on immigration laws and on examples of legal cases that have set the stage for current definitions of whiteness and racial identification. A community-based transformational organizing model will be presented. The model will…

  1. Hyperbolic mapping of complex networks based on community information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Case-based reasoning a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    López, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is a methodology with a long tradition in artificial intelligence that brings together reasoning and machine learning techniques to solve problems based on past experiences or cases. Given a problem to be solved, reasoning involves the use of methods to retrieve similar past cases in order to reuse their solution for the problem at hand. Once the problem has been solved, learning methods can be applied to improve the knowledge based on past experiences. In spite of being a broad methodology applied in industry and services, case-based reasoning has often been forgotten in

  3. A local fuzzy method based on “p-strong” community for detecting communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shen; Gang, Ren; Yang, Liu; Jia-Li, Xu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a local fuzzy method based on the idea of “p-strong” community to detect the disjoint and overlapping communities in networks. In the method, a refined agglomeration rule is designed for agglomerating nodes into local communities, and the overlapping nodes are detected based on the idea of making each community strong. We propose a contribution coefficient to measure the contribution of an overlapping node to each of its belonging communities, and the fuzzy coefficients of the overlapping node can be obtained by normalizing the to all its belonging communities. The running time of our method is analyzed and varies linearly with network size. We investigate our method on the computer-generated networks and real networks. The testing results indicate that the accuracy of our method in detecting disjoint communities is higher than those of the existing local methods and our method is efficient for detecting the overlapping nodes with fuzzy coefficients. Furthermore, the local optimizing scheme used in our method allows us to partly solve the resolution problem of the global modularity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51278101 and 51578149), the Science and Technology Program of Ministry of Transport of China (Grant No. 2015318J33080), the Jiangsu Provincial Post-doctoral Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1501046B), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. Y0201500219).

  4. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, JE.; Duran, B.; Tafoya, G.; Baker, EA.; Chan, D.; Chang, C.; Greene-Moton, E.; Kelley, M.; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A national community based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual/logic model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus-building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nation-wide. Participants validated and expanded upon existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on “real-world” praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792

  5. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible–infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible–infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans. (paper)

  6. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agumanu McOliver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  7. From Homeschool to the Community College: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Benjamin G.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. homeschooled students has steadily risen from the 1980's to the present, and many eventually choose to attend community colleges (Cogan, 2010; Mason, 2004; Ray, 2004a; Sorey & Duggan, 2008a). Homeschoolers who make community colleges their first structured educational setting outside the home do so for various reasons:…

  8. The European hadron therapy community touches base

    CERN Multimedia

    Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty

    2010-01-01

    The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet.   Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...

  9. Test Case Generation Based on Use case and Sequence Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Swain

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive test case generation technique from UML models. We use the features in UML 2.0 sequence diagram including conditions, iterations, asynchronous messages and concurrent components. In our approach, test cases are derived from analysis artifacts such as use cases, their corresponding sequence diagrams and constraints specified across all these artifacts. We construct Use case Dependency Graph (UDG from use case diagram and Concurrent Control Flow Graph (CCFG from corresponding sequence diagrams for test sequence generation. We focus testing on sequences of messages among objects of use case scenarios. Our testing strategy derives test cases using full predicate coverage criteria. Our proposed test case generation technique can be used for integration and system testing accommodating the object message and condition information associated with the use case scenarios. The test cases thus generated are suitable for detecting synchronization and dependency of use cases and messages, object interaction and operational faults. Finally, we have made an analysis and comparison of our approach with existing approaches, which are based on other coverage criterion through an example.

  10. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  11. Power, peasant communities and mining industry: community government and access to resources in Michiquillay’s case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Burneo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes changes in community governance in the contextof negotiations with a mining company. We focus on three issues:the role played by the community government on the regulation ofcommunity resources and territory, the diverse and complex intereststhat emerge in the presence of mining activity; and, the communityas a political institution confronting external pressures over its land.We develop a study case focusing on the negotiation process betweenthe Michiquillay peasant community and Anglo American MiningCompany in Cajamarca, Peru. This information was obtained doingfieldwork in the community in 2009. In our analysis we observe thatchanges on community resources regulation, its uses and valorization,as well as changes on the balance of power between economicand political actors, have created a greater level of complexity in thecommunity, creating new levels of community decision and spaces fordisputing resources’ control. At the same time, new inter communalconflicts emerge and fragmentation of community lands increases.In this context the community as an institution plays a central rolein the negotiation process over access productive resource and thedistribution of financial capital.

  12. CASE STORAGE BASED ON RELATIONAL DATABASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper focused on the integration of case base and relational database management system (RDBMS). The organizational and commercial impact will be far greater if the case-based reasoning (CBR) system is integrated with main stream information system, which is exemplified by RDBMS. The scalability, security and robustness provided by a commercial RDBMS facilitate the CBR system to manage the case base.The virtual table in relational database (RDB) is important for CBR systems to implement the flexibility of case template. It was discussed how to implement a flexible and succinct case template, and a mapping model between case template and RDB was proposed. The key idea is to build the case as the virtual view of underlying data.

  13. Developing and Conducting a Dissertation Study through the Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, S.B.; Van Devanter, N.; Kavathe, R.; Islam, N.

    2016-01-01

    The community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach has been shown to be innovative and effective in conducting research with communities experiencing health disparities. Doctoral nursing students, and other doctoral students in the health sciences, who are interested in this approach can benefit through structured CBPR training experiences in learning how to engage with communities, build community capacity, share resources, implement CBPR study plans, and disseminate results of CBPR-focused studies. The objectives of this case-study are to demonstrate ways in which one doctoral student aligned with academic mentors and a funded CBPR project to build a relationship with the Sikh Asian Indian (AI) community of New York City to develop and implement a CBPR-focused doctoral dissertation study. The purpose of the research was to examine the relationship between the experience of perceived discrimination and health outcomes in this community. CBPR methods utilized in developing the study entailed the author partaking in formal and informal CBPR learning experiences, building relationships with community and academic partners early on through volunteering, developing a research plan in collaboration with members of the community and academic partners, identifying an appropriate setting and methods for recruitment and data collection, increasing capacity and resources for all partners (the author, community, and academic), and presenting dissertation study findings to the community. In conclusion, CBPR-focused doctoral experiences are novel pedagogical and professional approaches for nursing and health science students which can lead to mutual benefits for all involved, and ultimately successful and effective community-based health research.

  14. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216507

  15. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Allender

    Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.

  16. The Teacher and the Community: A Case Study of Teacher-Community Relations among the Zapotec and Mixtec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Studies teacher-community relations in a community where teachers are becoming more involved in indigenous community issues. Argues that formal teacher education tends to emphasize modernity and consumer culture at the expense of distinct local customs. Draws connections between the case study and low-income minority communities in the United…

  17. Community resilience in resource-dependent communities: a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    David Matarrita-Cascante; Bernardo Trejos

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of studies have been conducted to better understand community resilience in the context of changing resource-dependent communities. This study is intended to start bridging this gap by empirically examining three key factors associated with community resilience: local ownership of resources, residents’ organizational capacities, and local institutional capacity to respond to change. Our objective is to deepen the understanding of such factors by uncovering the processes behin...

  18. Mobile Elderly Living Community (MELCO): The Development of the Social Community Model: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Christiana Kouta; Charis Kaite; George Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elderly prefer to be in their own homes rather than being in hospital or residential homes. Communication between elderly and community nurses is essential in caring and mutual interaction andmodern technologies like MELCO provides the elderly the feeling of independence and safety.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the social community model within the objectives of the MELCO project and its application within the community.Methodology: Three axes were t...

  19. CAD-based modeling of sustainable community tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In global terms, communities can be open-quotes readclose quotes as tissues on the land. In both their placement and physical form, they demonstrate varying degrees of environmental fit. They can work with and support, or conquer and degrade the natural environment. Energy resources in their acquisition, delivery and conversion play an insidious but fundamental role in this linkage. CAD-based modeling offers a powerful tool for interpreting the role of energy resource in community patterning/community form -- the open-quote tissuing of the landclose quotes. When linked to database capability (e.g. GIS), the very opportunity for open-quote designing environmental impactclose quotes is possible. This paper presents CAD-based models which examine the organizational impact of energy resources and environmental forces as prime determinants in community form. Included is a discussion of global and local determinants. As a rule, the community models presented attempt to consider tissuing of the land as a transparent/interactive condition. That is, the layering of the community is structured to interpret and express opportunities for the design of earth/sky connection through, the community fabric. The plan/footprint patterning reflects consideration of orientation and encompasses reference to infrastructure options for tissue support. Extensive descriptive, and experiential, images will be provided during presentation of the paper to support the written explanation of the models examined

  20. Community Detection in Social Networks Based on Influential Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Su

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale social networks emerged rapidly in recent years. Social networks have become complex networks. The structure of social networks is an important research area and has attracted much scientific interest. Community is an important structure in social networks. In this paper, we propose a community detection algorithm based on influential nodes. First, we introduce how to find influential nodes based on random walk. Then we combine the algorithm with order statistics theory to find community structure. We apply our algorithm in three classical data sets and compare to other algorithms. Our community detection algorithm is proved to be effective in   the experiments. Our algorithm also has applications in data mining and recommendations.

  1. Evaluation of the integrated community based home care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Uys

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1999-2000 the Integrated Community-Based Home Care model for the care of people with AIDS in communities were implemented in seven sites across the country. The post-implementation evaluation showed that most respondents felt that the model could be replicated if a functioning and informed network including all partners, and a strong management team were in place. The effects of the project were mainly positive for all stakeholders (hospice, clinic, hospital, PWA and their carers, professionals and other community members. Hospitals and community- based services became more aware of and involved in the needs of PWA and felt that the model enabled them to address these needs. PWA and their carers felt supported and respected.

  2. Developing a community-based graduate medical education consortium for residency sponsorship: one community's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Peter W; Nocella, Kiki

    2012-08-01

    Faced with a funding crisis that threatened a single-sponsor family medicine residency program critical to a county-wide health system, health care organizations located in the California community described in this article formed a nonprofit, corporate graduate medical education (GME) consortium to sponsor a new residency program. Institutional GME sponsors are typically single hospitals or academic medical centers associated with medical schools. However, as the authors describe, community-based residency sponsorship through a GME consortium can allow multiple stakeholders to assume a model of shared ownership that reflects alignment of pooled community resources with the distributive benefits associated with residencies. Although this community's stakeholders encountered expected governance complexities as they worked to reconcile competing interests, they successfully collaborated to develop the Valley Consortium for Medical Education by addressing a variety of fiscal, workforce benefit, and community coordination challenges. The authors describe the key phases of development and discuss the challenges that must be overcome to establish an institutional sponsor with multiple stakeholders. The financial pressure that traditional institutional sponsors are experiencing with the inexorable decline in GME funding may prompt them to explore partnerships in which they can share expenses for the mutual benefit of physician workforce development. The authors believe that the community-based GME consortium is a viable model to consider. PMID:22722363

  3. Impact of community-based immunization services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing K

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward childhood immunization was surveyed in 2 neighborhoods in greater Bombay, India. The areas were a slum of 75,000 called Malavani, and a nearby area called Kharodi. Measles and triple (DPT or DPV vaccines were available at local health centers, 1.5 km away at the most; oral polio vaccines were given by field workers to the Malavani community to children in their homes, but only in the center for those in Kharodi. BCG tuberculosis vaccinations were available to all, but from a center 5 km away. Malavani mothers had significantly better knowledge of triple and measles vaccines, but knowledge about BCG was similar in the 2 groups. Slightly more women from Kharodi expressed negative attitudes toward immunization. Coverage of children, established from clinic records, was significantly better in the Malavani area: 91% vs. 58% for polio; 71% vs 61% for BCG (n.s.; 85% vs. 55% for triple vaccine; and 21% vs 1% for measles. Evidently, visitation by field teams with polio vaccinations affected mothers′ knowledge and practice for other immunizations available only at the center.

  4. Educational principles of community-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K B

    1996-12-01

    Much of medical education remains teacher centered, as exemplified by the continued emphasis on lectures. Increasingly, however, the importance of the learner is being recognized and acknowledged in medical school curricula. The distinction between teaching and learning is also an issue for graduate medical education; accreditation bodies focus on programs and teaching, and credentialing bodies determine whether individuals have accomplished sufficient learning. The true mission of teaching is to facilitate learning, and adult learning is enhanced by four elements: respect, building on previous experiences, immediacy of application, and the opportunity to practice. These elements should be considered when designing educational experiences in the community. Educational planning includes five steps, represented by the mnemonic GNOME: goals, needs assessment, objectives, methods, and evaluation. Goals are broad aspirations, which are refined by the learners' needs to specific, measurable objectives. Methods are selected to match the objective, and evaluation determines whether the objectives were achieved. The results of the evaluation serve as another needs assessment, and the process continues until the goals are achieved. Throughout the process, the primary focus should be on the resident, with the program in a supporting role. PMID:8951330

  5. Case-based Agile Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize the agility of the fixture design, such asreconfigurability, rescalability and reusability, fixture structure is function unit-based decomposed from a fire-new point of view. Which makes it easy for agile fixture to be reconfigured and modified. Thereby, the base of case-based agile fixture design system info is established.Whole case-based agile fixture design model is presented. In which, three modules are added relative to the other models, including case matching of fixture planning module, conflict arbitration module and agile fixture case modify module. The three modules could solve the previous problem that the experience and result are difficult to be reused in the process of design.Two key techniques in the process of the agile fixture design, the evaluation of case similarity, and restriction-based conflict arbitration, are listed. And some methods are presented to evaluate the similarity and clear up the conflict.

  6. Photovoice for healthy relationships: community-based participatory HIV prevention in a rural American Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Susan F

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an example of a culturally responsive, community-based project for addressing social determinants of health in rural American Indian (AI) communities through: 1) empowering youth and community voices to set directions for HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy prevention and education efforts; 2) using Photovoice to promote healthy relationships among AI youth; 3) using the socioecological model (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004; 2011) as a framework for organizing the creation and subsequent sharing of Photovoice messages from individual empowerment, to relationships, communities, institutions, and general society; and 4) framing analysis of Photovoice projects in alignment with Bell's (2010) model of storytelling for social justice that connects narrative and the arts in anti-racist teaching. A discussion on future steps and recommendations for future research is provided. PMID:22569727

  7. Gender Differentiated Preferences for a Community-Based Conservation Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Aidan; Gurd, Heather; Kaelo, Dickson; Said, Mohammed Y.; De Leeuw, Jan; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Homewood, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Community-based conservation (CBC) aims to benefit local people as well as to achieve conservation goals, but has been criticised for taking a simplistic view of “community” and failing to recognise differences in the preferences and motivations of community members. We explore this heterogeneity in the context of Kenya’s conservancies, focussing on the livelihood preferences of men and women living adjacent to the Maasai Mara National Reserve. Using a discrete choice experiment we quantify t...

  8. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  9. Community-based efforts in health promotion in indigenous villages on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Ann N

    2016-03-01

    This case study of mainly Karen and Mon communities in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, offers insight into the challenges that these rural villages face with regard to food security and environmental health issues. As non-Thai communities, these villages receive little support from the Thai government, and are often vulnerable in terms of access to food markets, infrastructure, and education and livelihood opportunities. This discussion further considers the involvement of Pattanarak Foundation, a Thai NGO, in health promotion and economic development in these villages as an example of a community partnership at the grassroots level. Examining Pattanarak's efforts to build skills in household vegetable gardening and livestock-raising, raise awareness about child nutrition issues, and improve community sanitation illustrates the value of a participatory process, and also demonstrates some of the challenges associated with on-the-ground health promotion in disadvantaged rural communities. Applying a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to pursue partnerships between communities, NGOs, and researchers may offer an avenue for effective interventions to improve health in marginalized communities. PMID:26953703

  10. Enrollment Management in the Comprehensive Community College: A Case Study of Bronx Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritze, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Faced with growing pressure to demonstrate student success and achieve financial stability, community colleges have increasingly turned to enrollment management. Using Bronx Community College as an example, this chapter examines the role institutional research can play in the enrollment management process.

  11. Professional Learning Communities as a Leadership Strategy to Drive Math Success in an Urban High School Serving Diverse, Low-Income Students: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Scheurich, James Joseph; Morgan, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a qualitative case-study design, this study explored how a mid-sized urban high school professional learning community was used as a reform effort to increase student achievement in mathematics on standards-based assessments. From a year-long interaction with the math professional learning community, which consisted of 3 school leaders…

  12. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  13. Special Education Directors' Views of Community-Based Vocational Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Julie L.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of special education directors toward community-based vocational instruction (CBVI). Participants included a non-proportional random sample of 47 directors from one state who completed an online or paper-based survey. Independent variables were directors' years of experience, geographic…

  14. Community Health Nursing in a Former Soviet Union Republic: A Case Study of Change in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Henrietta; And Others

    1995-01-01

    To combat extreme health conditions in Armenia, nurses and physicians were given pretraining in community health at home and additional training in the United States on change strategies and community-based practice. Unforeseen barriers to change hindered progress, but participants were committed to preventive community health care. (SK)

  15. Community Development in Rural Texas: A Case Study of Balmorhea Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Sarah; Velazquez, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    In a West Texas community that is 70% Hispanic, school-based community services build solidarity and contribute to well-being. The school provides social services, a community clinic, and service learning opportunities for students. This model is successful because it is self-initiated and self-organized. (Contains 43 references.) (SK)

  16. Establishment and Implementation of the Balingasay Marine Protected Area: A Community-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A community-based approach in the establishment and implementation of a marine protected area (MPA in Balingasay, Bolinao, Pangasinan is presented. The factors necessary to facilitate the successful establishment and implementation of a community-managed MPA include heightening of environmental awareness, community mobilization, and legal/institutional and financial assistance. A heightened environmental awareness encouraged the community to undertake resource management action. The formation of a people’s organization, SAMMABAL (Samahan ng mga Mangingisda at Mamamayan ng Balingasay, was crucial in assessing environmental problems (e.g., overfishing and identifying the establishment of an MPA as a management tool to address the problem. SAMMABAL was also instrumental in eliciting community support for the issuance of a municipal ordinance in the establishment of the MPA. Subsequently, the organization initiated the patrolling of the MPA. Institutions involved in the community-based management of the MPA also included the multi-sectoral council (BRMC – Balingasay Resource Management Council and representatives from the barangay council and the municipal government. This institutional arrangement has proven to be very resilient, indicating a high probability of sustaining its successes despite some obstacles and shortcomings. Clear delineation of the role and functions of the institutions and the stakeholders was essential in advancing the initiative. This case study will draw on the lessons from the experience of a four-year community-managed MPA.

  17. An audit of hospital based outpatient infusions and a pilot program of community-based monoclonal antibody infusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doran, J-P

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.

  18. Local community detection based on modularity metric G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhengyou; Gao, Xiangying; Zhang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    In complex network analysis, the local community detection problem is getting more and more attention. Because of the difficulty to get complete information of the network, such as the World Wide Web, the local community detection has been proposed by researcher. That is, we can detect a community from a certain source vertex with limited knowledge of an entire graph. The previous methods of local community detection now are more or less inadequate in some places. In this paper, we have proposed a new local modularity metric G and based on it, a two-phase algorithm is proposed. The method we have taken is a greedy addition algorithm which means adding vertices into the community until G does not increase. Compared with the previous methods, when our method is calculating the modularity metric, the range of vertices what we considered may affect the quality of the community detection wider. The results of experiments show that whether in computer-generated random graph or in the real networks, our method can effectively solve the problem of the local community detection.

  19. 社区旅游的网络治理框架:一个案例分析%A Network Framework for Community-Based Tourism: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锁利铭; 马捷; 经戈

    2012-01-01

    社区旅游(CBT)是以社区的全面参与为基础,集合多部门共同协作实现旅游可持续发展的一种旅游发展模式.论文以CBT的利益相关者与社区关系的分析为基础,提出网络治理的行政型网络治理(NAO)模式是改善CBT绩效的一种制度创新.文章构建了CBT的网络治理框架,并以江苏常熟的CBT发展为案例,提出了网络治理的重点领域和关键要素.%Taking Changshu in Jiangsu as an example, this paper elaborates a network framework and its applications for community-based tourism (CBT). It begins by outlining different definitions of CBT. Next it identifies who will be the stakeholders in the CBT and how relationship influences the structure of network. Specific proposition regarding important fields and key factors is efficient way to improve network governance for CBT is presented.

  20. Considerations for community-based mHealth initiatives: insights from three Beacon Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Nebeyou A; Capozza, Korey L; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Kulick, David A; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Turske, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs. PMID:24128406

  1. Strategies in Mobilizing Coastal Communities for Community-Based Coastal Resource Management in Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Pinat

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Fishery Resources Management Project (MFRMP hopes to facilitate partnership between the local government unit and the local communities in managing the coastal resources of Bolinao. Mobilization, both at the community and municipal levels, has been very important in promoting community-based strategies in coastal resources management. The community organization process in the municipality has gone through several levels; and different organizations have been formed. In empowering individuals and organizations, strategies tend to be varied and fluid depending on the need, the reason for mobilization, and the resources at hand. The Bolinao experience showcases different strategies used in implementing the resource enhancement, coastal zoning, harvest regulation, and capability building components of the program. These have included the formation of people's organizations, the mobilization of zonal action teams for each of the four zones, the creation and orientation of fishery and aquatic resources management councils at the barangay and municipal levels, and the active collaboration with the local government unit. These strategies and approaches have provided the people and the communities a wealth of experience and lessons that provide helpful insights in undertaking different endeavors. The strategies employed in the mobilization activities have significantly contributed to the empowerment of communities and individuals who are the primary managers of their resources.

  2. Any qualified provider: a qualitative case study of one community NHS Trust's response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walumbe, Jackie; Swinglehurst, Deborah; Shaw, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how those managing and providing community-based musculoskeletal (MSK) services have experienced recent policy allowing patients to choose any provider that meets certain quality standards from the National Health Service (NHS), private or voluntary sector. Design Intrinsic case study combining qualitative analysis of interviews and field notes. Setting An NHS Community Trust (the main providers of community health services in the NHS) in England, 2013–2014. Participants NHS Community Trust employees involved in delivering MSK services, including clinical staff and managerial staff in senior and mid-range positions. Findings Managers (n=4) and clinicians (n=4) working within MSK services understood and experienced the Any Qualified Provider (AQP) policy as involving: (1) a perceived trade-off between quality and cost in its implementation; (2) deskilling of MSK clinicians and erosion of professional values; and (3) a shift away from interprofessional collaboration and dialogue. These ways of making sense of AQP policy were associated with dissatisfaction with market-based health reforms. Conclusions AQP policy is poorly understood. Clinicians and managers perceive AQP as synonymous with competition and privatisation. From the perspective of clinicians providing MSK services, AQP, and related health policy reforms, tend, paradoxically, to drive down quality standards, supporting reconfiguration of services in which the complex, holistic nature of specialised MSK care may become marginalised by policy concerns about efficiency and cost. Our analysis indicates that the potential of AQP policy to increase quality of care is, at best, equivocal, and that any consideration of how AQP impacts on practice can only be understood by reference to a wider range of health policy reforms. PMID:26908521

  3. The practice of neogeography in community-based organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Patrick

    Neogeography and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) are two terms that have emerged recently to describe the practice of geography by those not formally trained in it as a discipline and spatial data provided by individuals through social media and other Web-based tools. Both neogeography and VGI can be directly linked to the growth of various online mapping websites and applications that allow for the creation of electronic maps that are interactive, adaptable, and easily shared via the Internet and Web. As recent phenomena, the practice of neogeography and VGI is not well understood, nor are the links these new fields have to previously established knowledge on Geographic Information Systems and its associated practices. This thesis attempts to fill this knowledge gap through a participatory study of neogeographic practice. Using a participatory workshop format, I observed and documented representatives of community-based organizations in Syracuse, NY as they encountered online mapping tools for the first time. I followed up with two of those organizations in longer case studies to better understand how organizations with no obvious geographic focus come to see geography as a way of communicating complex ideas about space. This study revealed that while the technical complexity of the online mapping software continues to prove to be a hindrance to its use, there remains space for professional geographers to interact with laypeople who make maps. Furthermore, such engagement is necessary to begin to understand the issues involved with location-based information and privacy, access to data, and ability to use and communicate geographic concepts and knowledge.

  4. Public library services and the Polish community in England: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Listwon, A.; Sen, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the needs of the Polish community (established and newly arrived Poles) and how those needs are met by the public library service. Design/methodology/approach: A case study method was used in partnership with Sheffield City Libraries. The methodology included interviews with library professionals and interviews and questionnaires targeted at members of the Polish community. Findings: The Polish community are generally satisfied with th...

  5. The optimal community detection of software based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyan; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bing; Yin, Tengteng; Ren, Jiadong

    2016-02-01

    The community structure is important for software in terms of understanding the design patterns, controlling the development and the maintenance process. In order to detect the optimal community structure in the software network, a method Optimal Partition Software Network (OPSN) is proposed based on the dependency relationship among the software functions. First, by analyzing the information of multiple execution traces of one software, we construct Software Execution Dependency Network (SEDN). Second, based on the relationship among the function nodes in the network, we define Fault Accumulation (FA) to measure the importance of the function node and sort the nodes with measure results. Third, we select the top K(K=1,2,…) nodes as the core of the primal communities (only exist one core node). By comparing the dependency relationships between each node and the K communities, we put the node into the existing community which has the most close relationship. Finally, we calculate the modularity with different initial K to obtain the optimal division. With experiments, the method OPSN is verified to be efficient to detect the optimal community in various softwares.

  6. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

    2010-03-01

    Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  7. Immigrant Communities from Eastern Europe: The Case of the Romanian Community in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Pajares Alonso

    2009-01-01

    In the year 2000, Romanians barely figured in statistics for immigration into Spain, but since then it is the immigrant community that has grown most rapidly. By January 2007, this community had become the second-largest in terms of numbers (after that of the Moroccan community). The intensity of this migration flow has resulted from what has taken place in Romania since the mid-1990s, as well as from the characteristics of the Spanish labour market. Though Romanian immigration has mainly tak...

  8. Establishing a School-based Research Community (SRC) for Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    A School-based Research Community brings students into explicit collaboration with education and public outreach (E/PO) activities of scientific organizations and thus unites educational and research components of the scientific community. This poster presents an account of the nature of an SRC, and of the conditions required for planting one. An overview is given of elements required to nurture and protect such a community, and in that context the role of wiki use in such a course will be highlighted. Finally, the kind of fruit to be expected from such a community will be presented, with examples provided from an SCR established at Saint Joseph's High School in South Bend, Indiana (now in its third year.) The advantages of situating astronomy research in the context of an interdisciplinary SCR will also be sketched.

  9. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.; Bolding, Karsten; Bruggeman, J.; Mooij, W. M.; Janse, J. H.; Nielsen, A.; Jeppesen, E.; Elliott, J. A.; Makler-Pick, V.; Petzoldt, T.; Rinke, K.; Flindt, M. R.; Arhonditsis, G. B.; Gal, G.; Bjerring, R.; Tominaga, K.; Hoen, J.; Downing, A. S.; Marques, D. M.; Fragoso, C. R.; Sondergaard, M.; Hanson, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    , and (viii) avoid 're-inventing the wheel', thus accelerating improvements to aquatic ecosystem models. We intend to achieve this as a community that fosters interactions amongst ecologists and model developers. Further, we outline scientific topics recently articulated by the scientific community...... a literature survey, we document the growing importance of numerical aquatic ecosystem models while also noting the difficulties, up until now, of the aquatic scientific community to make significant advances in these models during the past two decades. Through a common forum for aquatic ecosystem...... modellers we aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental...

  10. Community-Based Rural Tourism: A Proposed Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayat Kalsom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tourism projects run by community in the rural areas are labelled as Community-based Rural Tourism (CBRT, a type of a more ‘responsible’ tourism that contributes to sustainable development. However, a framework is needed to enable planners and managers to understand its criteria thus ensuring that the CBRTs fulfil the sustainability requirement. This paper presents findings from a literature review on previous writings in this topic. Findings from an analysis on the criteria of a sustainable CBRT product are discussed. It is found that in order for it to play a role in sustainable development, a CBRT product must focus on competitive management, resource conservation, and benefit creation to the community. The three elements need to be supported, in turn, by community involvement and commitment. As the proposed conceptual framework of sustainable CBRT product can be a basis for further research in CBRT, it offers producing theoretical and practical implications.

  11. A robust University-NGO partnership: Analysing school efficiencies in Bolivia with community-based management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Neiva de Figueiredo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based management research is a collaborative effort between management, academics and communities in need with the specific goal of achieving social change to foster social justice. Because it is designed to promote and validate joint methods of discovery and community-based sources of knowledge, community-based management research has several unique characteristics, which may affect its execution. This article describes the process of a community-based management research project which is descriptive in nature and uses quantitative techniques to examine school efficiencies in low-income communities in a developing country – Bolivia. The article describes the partnership between a US-based university and a Bolivian not-for-profit organisation, the research context and the history of the research project, including its various phases. It focuses on the (yet unpublished process of the community-based research as opposed to its content (which has been published elsewhere. The article also makes the case that the robust partnership between the US-based university and the Bolivian NGO has been a determining factor in achieving positive results. Strengths and limitations are examined in the hope that the experience may be helpful to others conducting descriptive quantitative management research using community-engaged frameworks in cross-cultural settings. Keywords: international partnership, community-engaged scholarship, education efficiency, multicultural low-income education.

  12. [Team-based community psychiatry: importance of context factors and transferability of evidence from studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T

    2012-07-01

    The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany. PMID:22688090

  13. Auditing and Evaluating University-Community Engagement: Lessons from a UK Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Angie; Northmore, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The growing importance of community and public engagement activities in universities has led to an increasing emphasis on auditing and evaluating university-community partnerships. However, the development of effective audit and evaluation tools is still at a formative stage. This article presents a case study of the University of Brighton's…

  14. Adult Learners in Cyberspace: A Collective Case Study of Reentry Women in a Virtual Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study is to describe and explore a virtual learning community as experienced by women reentering higher education in an online graduate degree program. The grand tour question for this study was: How do reentry women in an online graduate program describe their experience in a virtual learning community? …

  15. 基于文化适应性评价的社区主导旅游开发模式研究——以朗德苗寨为例%Evaluation the Model of Community-led Tourism Development Based on Cultural Adaptation: A Case Study of Langde Miao Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虹; 曹兴平

    2012-01-01

    本文以贵州省黔东南州雷山县朗德苗寨社区主导旅游开发模式为案例,探讨其社区主导式旅游开发参与机制与苗族“议榔”文化传统的适应性,寻找中国旅游开发中社区参与模式与社会文化系统因素的深层逻辑关系,揭示其现象背后的规律及相关性。%China's practice in rural tourism community participation faces a lot of difficulty and the communi- ties are always out of control to some extent. Community participation as an institutional arrangement always pene- trates in different time, space and stages of development in different countries, regions and communities with the corresponding political and cultural background. In process of mutual interact, the western community involvement theories can not be directly applied to technical analysis without considering cultural conflict. Only in-depth analy- sis of the cultural background, the participation pattern can be selected to adapt the operation of political, economic and cultural systems in communities. However, previous studies rarely focus on adaptive localization and cultural adaptation in community participation. On the basis of existing literatures, the research will be an exploratory at- tempt to deep into the community and cultural background levels. In this paper, after comprehensive consideration of two factors such as level of community-based community in- volvement and the cultural heterogeneity, the author takes Langde Miao village as a case to research the adaptation of the community participation mechanism and Miao cultural tradition called "Yilang". Langde Miao village locates in Leishan County of Guizhou Southeast State and developed the typical community-led tourism development model. The aim of this article is looking for the relationship between Chinese community participation in tourism develop- ment and the social and cultural system to reveal the laws and relevance behind the phenomenon. Cultural

  16. Categorizing Bugs with Social Networks: A Case Study on Four Open Source Software Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bug triaging procedures are an important precondition for successful collaborative software engineering projects. Triaging bugs can become a laborious task particularly in open source software (OSS) projects with a large base of comparably inexperienced part-time contributors. In this paper, we propose an efficient and practical method to identify valid bug reports which a) refer to an actual software bug, b) are not duplicates and c) contain enough information to be processed right away. Our classification is based on nine measures to quantify the social embeddedness of bug reporters in the collaboration network. We demonstrate its applicability in a case study, using a comprehensive data set of more than 700,000 bug reports obtained from the Bugzilla installation of four major OSS communities, for a period of more than ten years. For those projects that exhibit the lowest fraction of valid bug reports, we find that the bug reporters' position in the collaboration network is a strong indicator for ...

  17. Community-based radon education programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in the United States, educational programs about radon gas have been developed and implemented by federal and state government entities and other organizations, including the Cooperative Extension Service and affiliated land grant universities. Approaches have included the production of brochures, pamphlets, workshops for targeted audiences, and consumer telephone hotlines. In a free market for radon mitigation products and services, these efforts can be appropriate for their credibility, lack of bias, and individualized approaches. The purpose of this paper is to report on an educational program about radon undertaken by Cornell Cooperative Extension, including county-based workshops targeted to homeowners, housing professionals, high school teachers, and others. An analysis of survey data from program participants forms the basis for a discussion of the effectiveness of the Cooperative Extension Service in reaching the public about this topic

  18. Demystifying Virtual Communities of Practice: A Case Study of IBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study is to empirically explore the nature of virtual communities of practice (CoP) in a global organisation within the context of its International Corporate Volunteer (ICV) Program. This study investigates whether and how the use of virtual CoP evolves and becomes embedded within this organization. Following…

  19. Case Base Mining for Adaptation Knowledge Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    D'Aquin, Mathieu; Lafrogne, Sandrine; Lieber, Jean; Napoli, Amedeo; Szathmary, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    In case-based reasoning, the adaptation of a source case in order to solve the target problem is at the same time crucial and difficult to implement. The reason for this difficulty is that, in general, adaptation strongly depends on domain-dependent knowledge. This fact motivates research on adaptation knowledge acquisition (AKA). This paper presents an approach to AKA based on the principles and techniques of knowledge discovery from databases and data-mining. It is implemented in CABAMAKA, a system that explores the variations within the case base to elicit adaptation knowledge. This system has been successfully tested in an application of case-based reasoning to decision support in the domain of breast cancer treatment.

  20. CaseWorld™: Interactive, media rich, multidisciplinary case based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, David; Tucker, Katie; Parker, Steve; Wright, Victoria; Kargillis, Christina

    2015-11-01

    Nurse educators are challenged to keep up with highly specialised clinical practice, emerging research evidence, regulation requirements and rapidly changing information technology while teaching very large numbers of diverse students in a resource constrained environment. This complex setting provides the context for the CaseWorld project, which aims to simulate those aspects of clinical practice that can be represented by e-learning. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of CaseWorld, a simulated learning environment that supports case based learning. CaseWorld provides nursing students with the opportunity to view unfolding authentic cases presented in a rich multimedia context. The first round of comprehensive summative evaluation of CaseWorld is discussed in the context of earlier formative evaluation, reference group input and strategies for integration of CaseWorld with subject content. This discussion highlights the unique approach taken in this project that involved simultaneous prototype development and large scale implementation, thereby necessitating strong emphasis on staff development, uptake and engagement. The lessons learned provide an interesting basis for further discussion of broad content sharing across disciplines and universities, and the contribution that local innovations can make to global education advancement. PMID:26522447

  1. What is the role of a case manager in community aged care? A qualitative study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the perceptions of case managers about their roles in providing community aged care in Australia. Purposeful sampling was used and 33 qualitative semi-structured interviews with 47 participants were conducted. Participants were drawn from a list of all case managers working in aged care organisations that provided publicly funded case-managed community aged care programmes in the State of Victoria, Australia. Participant selection criteria included age, gender, job titles, professional backgrounds, practice locations, organisational attributes and organisational size. Data collection was implemented between September 2012 and March 2013. Thematic analysis was performed. Participants believed that case managers performed diverse roles based on clients' needs. They also articulated 16 important roles of case managers, including advisors, advocates, carers, communicators, co-ordinators, educators, empowering clients, engaging clients and families, liaising with people, managing budgets, navigators, negotiators, networking with people, facilitators, problem solvers and supporters. However, they were concerned about brokers, mediators and counsellors in terms of the terminology or case managers' willingness to perform these roles. Moreover, they perceived that neither gatekeepers nor direct service provision was case managers' role. The findings of this study suggest that case managers working in community aged care sectors may be more effective if they practised the 16 roles aforementioned. With the value of helping rather than obstructing clients to access services, they may not act as gatekeepers. In addition, they may not provide services directly as opposed to their peers working in medical care settings. The findings will also assist organisations to design job descriptions specifying case managers' roles and associated job responsibilities. Clear job descriptions will further benefit the organisations in staff recruitment, orientation

  2. Case Base Mining for Adaptation Knowledge Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aquin, Mathieu; Badra, Fadi; Lafrogne, Sandrine; Lieber, Jean; Napoli, Amedeo; Szathmary, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    International audience In case-based reasoning, the adaptation of a source case in order to solve the target problem is at the same time crucial and difficult to implement. The reason for this difficulty is that, in general, adaptation strongly depends on domain-dependent knowledge. This fact motivates research on adaptation knowledge acquisition (AKA). This paper presents an approach to AKA based on the principles and techniques of knowledge discovery from databases and data-mining. It is...

  3. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lois A.

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which influence their contributions to America's science literacy and school science education. This emergent design nested case study described how an innovative program provided professional development and enabled growth in participants' abilities to contribute to science literacy. Data were collected through interviews, participant observations, and class artifacts. The program by design and constituency was the overarching entity that accounted for members' experiences. Three principal aspects of the ISI certificate program and cohort which influenced perceptions and reported positive outcomes were (1) the cohort's composition and their collaborative activities which established a vigorous community of practice and fostered community building, mentoring, and networking, (2) long term program design and implementation which promoted experiential learning in a generative classroom, and (3) ability of some members who were able to be independent or autonomous learners to embrace science education reform strategies for greater self-efficacy and career advancement. This research extends the limited literature base for professional development of informal science educators and may benefit informal science institutions, informal and formal science educators, science education reform efforts, and public education and science-technology-society understanding. The study may raise awareness of the need to establish more professional development opportunities for ISEs and to fund professional development. Further, recognizing and appreciating informal science educators as a diverse committed community of professionals who positively

  4. Diagnostic challenges of early Lyme disease: Lessons from a community case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzwalder Alison

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne infection in North America, is increasingly reported. When the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is not recognized and treated, delayed manifestations of disseminated infection may occur. The accuracy of diagnosis and treatment of early Lyme disease in the community is unknown. Methods A retrospective, consecutive case series of 165 patients presenting for possible early Lyme disease between August 1, 2002 and August 1, 2007 to a community-based Lyme referral practice in Maryland. All patients had acute symptoms of less than or equal to 12 weeks duration. Patients were categorized according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and data were collected on presenting history, physical findings, laboratory serology, prior diagnoses and prior treatments. Results The majority (61% of patients in this case series were diagnosed with early Lyme disease. Of those diagnosed with early Lyme disease, 13% did not present with erythema migrans; of those not presenting with a rash, 54% had been previously misdiagnosed. Among those with a rash, the diagnosis of erythema migrans was initially missed in 23% of patients whose rash was subsequently confirmed. Of all patients previously misdiagnosed, 41% had received initial antibiotics likely to be ineffective against Lyme disease. Conclusion For community physicians practicing in high-risk geographic areas, the diagnosis of Lyme disease remains a challenge. Failure to recognize erythema migrans or alternatively, viral-like presentations without a rash, can lead to missed or delayed diagnosis of Lyme disease, ineffective antibiotic treatment, and the potential for late manifestations.

  5. Community capacity for sustainable community-based dengue prevention and control:domain, assessment tool and capacity building model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charuai Suwanbamrung

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the community capacity for sustainable community-based dengue prevention and control, this paper proposes the approach of a previous study about meaning and domains of dengue prevention and control, an assessment tool and a community capacity building model for sustainable community-based dengue prevention and control in the Southern Thailand. A study of dengue community capacity domains was conducted by utilizing a qualitative method, whereby ten initial community domains were identified by means of a literature review, in-depth interviews of sixty community leaders, and eight focus group discussions with sixty non-leaders in four sub-districts of southern Thailand. In the final study, there were 14 identifiable domains in leaders group and 11 domains in non-leaders. The resulting dengue community capacity-assessment tool (DCCAT) consisted of two parts:one for leaders (DCCAT-L) and the other for non-leaders (DCCAT-NL). DCCAT-L was composed of 115 items within 14 domains and 83 items within 11 domains for the DCCAT-NL. The key domains of leaders and non-leaders had a partial overlap of domains such as critical situation management, personal leadership, health care provider capacity, needs assessment, senses of community, leader group networking, communication of dengue information, community leadership, religious capacity, leader group and community networking, resource mobilization, dengue working group, community participation, and continuing activities. The application of the new tool consisted of five steps:1) community preparation, 2) assessment, 3) a community hearing meeting, 4) interventions, and 5) conclusion and improvement step. All stakeholders in the community should use the new tool based on a clear understanding of the measurement objectives, the desired outcomes, resources available and characteristics of their community. If communities need to develop and build dengue community capacity, then the designed pre

  6. Community-based approaches to strategic environmental assessment: Lessons from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA) using a case study of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad's (ICE) watershed management agricultural program (WMAP) in Costa Rica. The approach focused on four highly interactive workshops that used visioning, brainstorming and critical reflection exercises. Each workshop represented a critical step in the SEA process. Through this approach, communities in two rural watersheds assessed the environmental, social and economic impacts of a proposed second phase for WMAP. Lessons from this community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment include a recognition of participants learning what a participatory SEA is conceptually and methodologically; the role of interactive techniques for identifying positive and negative impacts of the proposed program and generating creative mitigation strategies; the effect of workshops in reducing power differentials among program participants (proponent, communities, government agencies); and, the logistical importance of notice, timing and location for meaningful participation. The community-based approach to SEA offers considerable potential for assessing regional (watershed) development programs focused on sustainable resource-based livelihoods

  7. Sexual transgression and social disconnection: healing through community-based sociotherapy in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Annemiek; Rutayisire, Théoneste; Slegh, Henny

    2013-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi and the preceding 1990-1994 war in Rwanda was the social intimacy of the crimes committed. The legacy of this kind of violence includes distrust in social relations within communities and families, an increase of violence in everyday social interaction, transgressive sexual engagements, and a range of psychological problems. Many people feel nostalgia for their past social life, but are unable to change their current situation. In 2005, a community-based sociotherapy programme was introduced into this context of mental and social distress. The goal was to help people regain feelings of dignity and safety and to reduce distress. This paper is based on qualitative research, in particular, case studies. It explores how sociotherapy, as a specific form of peer group counselling, may facilitate the healing of suffering related to issues of sexuality, violence within the family and the breakdown of social connections on a community level. PMID:23651140

  8. Virtual communities of practice in web-based second language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The work of Lave and Wenger on learning in 'communities of practice' has evoked a considerable response in e-learning environments through-out the world including Denmark in the last few decades. Within the development of web-based second language learning, the ideas of learning...... on language interaction and case studies of e-learning language platforms within the area of teaching Danish as a second language for adult foreigners. The concepts of communities of practice are also discussed and developed....... in communities of practice and of situated and collaborative learning have deeply inspired educators and teachers and, to a certain degree, become the theoretical and practical framework for developing web-based learning platforms, while findings from this research indicate that students perceive e-learning...

  9. Gender Differentiated Preferences for a Community-Based Conservation Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Aidan; Gurd, Heather; Kaelo, Dickson; Said, Mohammed Y; de Leeuw, Jan; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Homewood, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Community-based conservation (CBC) aims to benefit local people as well as to achieve conservation goals, but has been criticised for taking a simplistic view of "community" and failing to recognise differences in the preferences and motivations of community members. We explore this heterogeneity in the context of Kenya's conservancies, focussing on the livelihood preferences of men and women living adjacent to the Maasai Mara National Reserve. Using a discrete choice experiment we quantify the preferences of local community members for key components of their livelihoods and conservancy design, differentiating between men and women and existing conservancy members and non-members. While Maasai preference for pastoralism remains strong, non-livestock-based livelihood activities are also highly valued and there was substantial differentiation in preferences between individuals. Involvement with conservancies was generally perceived to be positive, but only if households were able to retain some land for other purposes. Women placed greater value on conservancy membership, but substantially less value on wage income, while existing conservancy members valued both conservancy membership and livestock more highly than did non-members. Our findings suggest that conservancies can make a positive contribution to livelihoods, but care must be taken to ensure that they do not unintentionally disadvantage any groups. We argue that conservation should pay greater attention to individual-level differences in preferences when designing interventions in order to achieve fairer and more sustainable outcomes for members of local communities. PMID:27022918

  10. Intelligent Adaptation Process for Case Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case Based Reasoning (CBR) Systems is one of the important decision making systems applied in many fields all over the world. The effectiveness of any CBR system based on the quality of the storage cases in the case library. Similar cases can be retrieved and adapted to produce the solution for the new problem. One of the main issues faced the CBR systems is the difficulties of achieving the useful cases. The proposed system introduces a new approach that uses the genetic algorithm (GA) technique to automate constructing the cases into the case library. Also, it can optimize the best one to be stored in the library for the future uses. However, the proposed system can avoid the problems of the uncertain and noisy cases. Besides, it can simply the retrieving and adaptation processes. So, it can improve the performance of the CBR system. The suggested system can be applied for many real-time problems. It has been applied for diagnosis the faults of the wireless network, diagnosis of the cancer diseases, diagnosis of the debugging of a software as cases of study. The proposed system has proved its performance in this field

  11. South Street Centre: A Model For Community-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Betsy

    1998-01-01

    For 11 years, a private school operated out of a rented house has offered homeschoolers, charter- and public-school students, families, preschoolers, community activists, college students, apprentices, and educators programs that reflect the homeschooling lifestyle and incorporate feminine-based education. Describes the school's structure,…

  12. Reducing carbon transaction costs in community based forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the potential for community based forest management (of existing forests) in developing countries, as a future CDM strategy, to sequester carbon and claim credits in future commitment periods. This kind of forestry is cost effective, and should bring many more benefits to local p

  13. Reducing carbon transaction costs in community-based forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    The article considers the potential for community-based forest management (of existing forests) in developing countries, as a future CDM strategy, to sequester and mitigate carbon and to claim credits in future commitment periods. This kind of forestry is cost-effective, and should bring many more b

  14. Community-Based Presentations in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brian S.; Law, Victor J.

    2005-01-01

    A method for incorporating community­-based oral presentations into the undergraduate chemical engineering unit operations laboratory experience is described. Examples are given of appropriate topics and how these presentations can be incorporated into the experiment sequence. Course evaluations reflect the fact that these presentations are an…

  15. Exploring Students' Perceptions of Academically Based Living-Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Jessup-Anger, Jody Elizabeth; Stolz, Katherine; Helman, Cynthia; Beaulieu, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study employed focus group interviews to explore students' perceptions of three well established academically based living-learning communities at a large, land-grant university in the Midwest. Three themes merged that illustrated students' perceptions of a culture that promoted seamless learning, a scholarly environment, and an…

  16. Community-Based Solid Waste Management: A Training Facilitator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…

  17. Which Microbial Communities Are Present? Sequence-Based Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Sean M.

    The use of metagenomic methods that directly sequence environmental samples has revealed the extraordinary microbial diversity missed by traditional culture-based methodologies. Therefore, to develop a complete and representative model of an environment's microbial community and activities, metagenomic analysis is an essential tool.

  18. "Place Based Tourism Curriculum: Making Connections to Community"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robin Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a research project with the Thompson Rivers University (TRU) and from place based curriculum and literature, this paper explores the effectiveness of a student-created half hour walking tour and postcard assignment as a way of deepening student engagement with course content and the local community. The project was designed to engage…

  19. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  20. Voices from the Fields: Community-Based Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Loida C.

    1996-01-01

    A complex interaction of factors shapes migrant adults' participation in adult basic education: sociocultural context (gender roles, powerlessness) and perceptions of schooling, learning, and education (painful experiences, dropping out but not rejecting learning). Community-based adult education is an appropriate response to the reality of…

  1. Community-based enterprise as an instrument for sustainable development?

    OpenAIRE

    Soviana, Soviana

    2013-01-01

    Along with the increasing efforts to create a sustainable world, community-based enterprise (CBE) has been increasingly acknowledged as a potential solution. However, despite the increasing implementation of CBE, knowledge about the organizational architecture and performance is still lacking. The paper presents a brief overview of how CBE can be assessed from the perspective of organizational theory.

  2. Community-Based Montessori Education at La Esperanza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada-Davidson, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Describes a community-based education program for women and children in extreme poverty. The program educates women in a nonformal education program that uses Montessori pedagogical methods as its underlying philosophy. The women also develop a daycare center as part of this pilot program that adapts conventional Montessori practices to educate…

  3. A Curriculum-Based Classification System for Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and tests a community college classification system based on curricular characteristics and their association with institutional characteristics. Seeks readily available data correlates to represent percentage of a college's course offerings that are in the liberal arts. A simple two-category classification system using total enrollment…

  4. Staffing Strategies for Implementing Community-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Diane; VanWalleghem, John

    1986-01-01

    Eight field-tested staffing strategies for community-based programs for severely handicapped students are described. Advantages and disadvantages are summarized, and a decision-making process for selecting strategies is discussed. Among recommendations are the need to maximize coordination between school and nonschool instruction and to collect…

  5. Joint Forest Management or Community Based Forest Management program

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzanian government

    2007-01-01

    This project is being implemented as a way for local villagers to obtain rights of use and benefits from forests. This is done in one either as a Joint Forest Management or a Community Based Forest Management program. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  6. An Honors Interdisciplinary Community-Based Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David; Terlecki, Melissa; Watterson, Nancy; Ratmansky, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how two faculty members at Cabrini College--one from biology and the other from psychology--incorporated interdisciplinary community-based research in an honors course on environmental watershed issues. The course, Environmental Psychology, was team-taught in partnership with a local watershed organization, the Valley Creek…

  7. Engaging Local Communities in Low Emissions Land-Use Planning: a Case Study from Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Bourgoin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+ is a performance-based payment mechanism currently being debated in international and national environmental policy and planning forums. As the mechanism is based on conditionality, payments must reflect land stewards' level of compliance with carbon-efficient management practices. However, lack of clarity in land governance and carbon rights could undermine REDD+ implementation. Strategies are needed to avoid perverse incentives resulting from the commoditization of forest carbon stocks and, importantly, to identify and secure the rights of legitimate recipients of future REDD+ payments. We propose a landscape-level approach to address potential conflicts related to carbon tenure and REDD+ benefit sharing. We explore various land-tenure scenarios and their implications for carbon ownership in the context of a research site in northern Laos. Our case study shows that a combination of relevant scientific tools, knowledge, and participatory approaches can help avoid the marginalization of rural communities during the REDD+ process. The findings demonstrate that participatory land-use planning is an important step in ensuring that local communities are engaged in negotiating REDD+ schemes and that such negotiations are transparent. Local participation and agreements on land-use plans could provide a sound basis for developing efficient measurement, reporting, and verification systems for REDD+.

  8. A Research on Knowledge Collaboration Mechanisms in Virtual Community Based on Tag:A Case Study on Douban%虚拟社区中基于Tag的知识协同机制——基于豆瓣网社区的案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓卫华; 易明; 王伟军

    2012-01-01

    This article researches the relations of the knowledge collaboration and the social tag in virtual community based on the theory of cognitive, and analyzes knowledge collaboration mechanisms in virtual community. The study shows that the effective knowledge collaboration occur between user groups which have similar use patterns of tag, and the collaborative process include four sessions, which are tag indicating, tag clustering, knowledge absorbing based on the tag and knowledge innovation based on the tag. Finally, it takes the Douban as a case study to validate the above-mentioned conclusions.%借鉴认知科学理论探讨Tag与虚拟社区知识协同的关系,深入剖析了虚拟社区中基于Tag的知识协同机制问题.研究发现,具有相似Tag使用模式的用户群体之间知识协同效应的发生机率较高.基于Tag的虚拟社区知识协同过程由Tag标注、Tag聚类、基于Tag的知识吸收以及基于Tag的知识创新4个环节组成.以豆瓣网社区为案例研究对象,探讨了虚拟社区知识协同过程,进一步验证了研究结论.

  9. Facet joint septic arthritis due to community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Rajesh; Inassi, Jojo; Marthya, Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Septic arthritis of facet joint (SAFJ) is extremely rare. Only about sixty cases have been reported so far. A single case of SAFJ in a series of 491 cases of spinal infections was first reported by David-Chaussé in 1981. A case report of SAFJ was published by Halpin in 1987. With the growing availability and use of MRI, more and more cases are being reported. The most common organism that causes SAFJ is Staphylococcus aureus. We are reporting a case of SAFJ caused by community acquired, methicillin resistant S aureus (MRSA) successfully treated by Linezolid. PMID:26719620

  10. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.

  11. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeshaft Anthony; Petrie Dennis; Doran Christopher; Breen Courtney; Sanson-Fisher Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional...

  12. Assessing community perspectives of the community based education and service model at Makerere University, Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Okullo Isaac; Oria Hussein; Mwanika Andrew; Kaye Dan; Burnham Gilbert; Plover Colin M; Mbalinda Scovia N; Muhwezi Wilson; Groves Sara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES), facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region...

  13. Evaluation of Diverse Community Asthma Interventions: Balancing Health Outcomes with Developing Community Capacity for Evidence-Based Program Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Lynn D; Livingood, William C; Toal, Russ; Keene, DeAnna; Hines, Robert B; Tedders, Stuart; Charles, Simone M; Lawrence, Raymona H; Gunn, Laura H; Williams, Natalie; Kellum, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The challenge of evaluating community asthma management programs is complicated by balancing the emphasis on health outcomes with the need to build community process capacity for conducting and monitoring evidence-based programs. The evaluation of a Georgia Childhood Asthma Management Program, a Healthcare Georgia Foundation-supported initiative for multiple diverse programs and settings, provides an example of an approach and the results that address this challenge. A "developmental evaluation" approach was applied, using mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis, to assess the progress of community asthma prevention programs in building community within the context of: where the community is starting, community-level systems changes, and the community's progress toward becoming more outcome measurement oriented and evidence based. Initial evaluation efforts revealed extensive mobilization of community assets to manage childhood asthma. However, there were minimal planned efforts to assess health outcomes and systems changes, and the lack of a logic model-based program design linking evidence-based practices to outcomes. Following developmental technical assistance within evaluation efforts, all programs developed logic models, linking practices to outcomes with data collection processes to assess progress toward achieving the selected outcomes. This developmental approach across diverse projects and communities, along with a quality improvement benchmarking approach to outcomes, created a focus on health status outcome improvement. Specifically, this approach complemented an emphasis on an improved community process capacity to identify, implement, and monitor evidence-based asthma practices that could be used within each community setting. PMID:25658512

  14. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.

    2000-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  15. Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

  16. Label propagation algorithm based on local cycles for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Kun; Fei, Song; Song, Chen; Tian, Xue; Ao, Yang-Yue

    2015-12-01

    Label propagation algorithm (LPA) has been proven to be an extremely fast method for community detection in large complex networks. But an important issue of the algorithm has not yet been properly addressed that random update orders in label propagation process hamper the algorithm robustness of algorithm. We note that when there are multiple maximal labels among a node neighbors' labels, choosing a node' label from which there is a local cycle to the node instead of a random node' label can avoid the labels propagating among communities at random. In this paper, an improved LPA based on local cycles is given. We have evaluated the proposed algorithm on computer-generated networks with planted partition and some real-world networks whose community structure are already known. The result shows that the performance of the proposed approach is even significantly improved.

  17. Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a

  18. Facebook community managementin tuoma arvo yritykselle - Case: Yritys X

    OpenAIRE

    Lasola, Tanu

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, minkälaista lisäarvoa asiakkaat kokevat saavansa Yritys X:n tuottamasta community management -palvelusta (yhteisön hallinta) sosiaalisessa mediassa ja tarkemmin Facebookissa. Toteutetulla tutkimuksella oli tarkoitus löytää ne tekijät, joista yritykset kokevat saavansa lisäarvoa palvelun ulkoistamisessa verrattuna siihen, että se toteutettaisiin sisäisesti. Tutkimuksesta saatua tietoa hyödynnetään toimeksiantajayrityksen digitaalisten palveluiden kehitt...

  19. Drinking water in drinkingan urban area in South India – A community based cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Mithra P

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation estimates that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are preventable through interventions to increase the availability of clean water, and to improve sanitation and hygiene. This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mangalore in South India. Seventeen percent of those surveyed had a private water source The team found that 5% of the sample did not use any method to treat water in their households. All these belonged to lower socio economic groups and it cou...

  20. Community-based water quality monitoring: From data collection to sustainable management of water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, William; Busby, A; Orprecio, J.; Labis, J.; Cequina, E.

    2001-01-01

    The following is an account of how a rural community in the Philippines worked side by side with researchers, nongovernmental and governmental workers over a five-year period to develop science-based indicators of water quality that proved relevant for developing environmental policy. The case primarily focused on the early stages of implementing a municipal-level, natural resource management plan in Lantapan. The setting and background of the project are briefly described, followed by the na...

  1. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS: A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Hanpachern

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS. This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried to include tourism stakeholders of the destination. This study argues that although a community may contain many tourism assets, it is not the only factor necessary for a ‘sustainable’ tourism to be developed in that community. Through a case study, its natural features, cultural activities, local lifestyle and the serene landscape of its location are exemplified as the important community-based tourism assets. However, a number of complex components and holistic approaches that worked well together Chiang Khan becoming a sustainable tourism destination. There elements and approaches that contribute to starting up Chiang Khan as a sustainable tourist destination include: its unique features of recreational activities and local businesses, knowledge and skills of the locals to develop tourism related businesses, and direct proper marketing strategies.

  2. Malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test at the community level in Ghana: consumer perception and practitioners’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Danquah, Daniel A.; Buabeng, Kwame O; Asante, Kwaku P; Mahama, Emmanuel; Bart-Plange, Constance; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Background Ghana has scaled-up malaria control strategies over the past decade. Much as malaria morbidity and mortality seem to have declined with these efforts, there appears to be increased consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study explored the perception and experiences of community members and medicines outlet practitioners on malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) to guide malaria therapy. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using both...

  3. Community Knowledge Sharing and Co-Production of Water Services: Two Cases of Community Aqueduct Associations in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Llano-Arias

    2015-06-01

    These new forms of citizenship based on claims of sovereignty over natural, common goods are gradually transforming Colombian democratic space. The article draws on debates around active citizenship, deepening democracy, and participatory communication approaches to explain the aims of community organisations and the mechanisms by which they are self-organising and managing water at the local level.

  4. Immigrant Communities from Eastern Europe: The Case of the Romanian Community in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pajares Alonso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2000, Romanians barely figured in statistics for immigration into Spain, but since then it is the immigrant community that has grown most rapidly. By January 2007, this community had become the second-largest in terms of numbers (after that of the Moroccan community. The intensity of this migration flow has resulted from what has taken place in Romania since the mid-1990s, as well as from the characteristics of the Spanish labour market. Though Romanian immigration has mainly taken place through irregular channels, this has not prevented them from achieving access to the labour market, given that Spain’s “black economy” is large enough to easily absorb irregular immigration. Furthermore, the social network created between Romanian immigrants has encouraged the intensity of the migration flow, even though it is a network which – beyond the most direct family links – is extremely weak, at least for the largest sector of Romanian immigration (minorities such as gypsies and members of religious orders have very extensive, binding social networks. Thus, the job placement of the largest sector has been determined by their initial incorporation onto the “informal economy”, a fact that has meant that they have mainly been doing lowskilled jobs; nevertheless, they have now achieved a significant presence in skilled employment, and this trend is expected to continue in the future.

  5. Role of local community in tourism development: Case study village Zabrega

    OpenAIRE

    Belij Маrija; Veljković Јоvana; Pavlović Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Studies and researches on the role of a local community in tourism development of rural areas emphasize the significance of inhabitants’ attitudes about the state and perspectives of this activity. In this context, in the professional literature, the term CBT (community-based tourism) is used, which implies the involvement of local communities and planning of tourism development. The aim of the study is to determine the local population’s influence on start...

  6. Local community involvement in cultural heritage management: a case study of Melaka Heritage Trail, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ismail, mohd hafizal

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of cultural heritage management of the resources is strongly related to support from local community via participation. It is evident that active community involvement can improve local residents’ quality of life based on better environment, social and economic conditions. However, there is little research into the question of whether the involvement of local community in heritage management derives from a genuine interest and desires to protect and conserve their local her...

  7. Reciprocal Exchange and Community Vitality: The Case of Gortshom Village in Eastern Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Kinga, Sonam

    2008-01-01

    The vibrancy and vitality of community life is indispensable in realising the goals of Gross National Happiness. The fact that Bhutan is largely a Kingdom consisting of many subsistence farming villages require an objective understanding of the dynamics of community life. A 'hot' community that retains and regenerates its vitality overtime is one that takes cognizance of social, cultural, economic and political life based on active participation of its members characterised by upholding its c...

  8. Gender Differentiated Preferences for a Community-Based Conservation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Aidan; Gurd, Heather; Kaelo, Dickson; Said, Mohammed Y.; de Leeuw, Jan; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Homewood, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Community-based conservation (CBC) aims to benefit local people as well as to achieve conservation goals, but has been criticised for taking a simplistic view of “community” and failing to recognise differences in the preferences and motivations of community members. We explore this heterogeneity in the context of Kenya’s conservancies, focussing on the livelihood preferences of men and women living adjacent to the Maasai Mara National Reserve. Using a discrete choice experiment we quantify the preferences of local community members for key components of their livelihoods and conservancy design, differentiating between men and women and existing conservancy members and non-members. While Maasai preference for pastoralism remains strong, non-livestock-based livelihood activities are also highly valued and there was substantial differentiation in preferences between individuals. Involvement with conservancies was generally perceived to be positive, but only if households were able to retain some land for other purposes. Women placed greater value on conservancy membership, but substantially less value on wage income, while existing conservancy members valued both conservancy membership and livestock more highly than did non-members. Our findings suggest that conservancies can make a positive contribution to livelihoods, but care must be taken to ensure that they do not unintentionally disadvantage any groups. We argue that conservation should pay greater attention to individual-level differences in preferences when designing interventions in order to achieve fairer and more sustainable outcomes for members of local communities. PMID:27022918

  9. Community based rehabilitation: a strategy for peace-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgson Jennifer

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain features of peace-building distinguish it from peacekeeping, and make it an appropriate strategy in dealing with vertical conflict and low intensity conflict. However, some theorists suggest that attempts, through peace-building, to impose liberal values upon non-democratic cultures are misguided and lack an ethical basis. Discussion We have been investigating the peace-building properties of community based approaches to disability in a number of countries. This paper describes the practice and impact of peace-building through Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR strategies in the context of armed conflict. The ethical basis for peace-building through practical community initiatives is explored. A number of benefits and challenges to using CBR strategies for peace-building purposes are identified. Summary During post-conflict reconstruction, disability is a powerful emotive lever that can be used to mobilize cooperation between factions. We suggest that civil society, in contrast to state-level intervention, has a valuable role in reducing the risks of conflict through community initiatives.

  10. Community based rehabilitation: a strategy for peace-building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, William; Koros, Michael; Hodgson, Jennifer

    2002-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Certain features of peace-building distinguish it from peacekeeping, and make it an appropriate strategy in dealing with vertical conflict and low intensity conflict. However, some theorists suggest that attempts, through peace-building, to impose liberal values upon non-democratic cultures are misguided and lack an ethical basis. DISCUSSION: We have been investigating the peace-building properties of community based approaches to disability in a number of countries. This paper describes the practice and impact of peace-building through Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) strategies in the context of armed conflict. The ethical basis for peace-building through practical community initiatives is explored. A number of benefits and challenges to using CBR strategies for peace-building purposes are identified. SUMMARY: During post-conflict reconstruction, disability is a powerful emotive lever that can be used to mobilize cooperation between factions. We suggest that civil society, in contrast to state-level intervention, has a valuable role in reducing the risks of conflict through community initiatives. PMID:12417012

  11. Successful case-based reasoning applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    Case-based reasoning paradigms offer automatic reasoning capabilities which are useful for the implementation of human like machines in a limited sense. This research book is the second volume in a series devoted to presenting Case-based reasoning (CBR) applications. The first volume, published in 2010, testified the flexibility of CBR, and its applicability in all those fields where experiential knowledge is available. This second volume further witnesses the heterogeneity of the domains in which CBR can be exploited, but also reveals some common directions that are clearly emerging in recent years. This book will prove useful to the application engineers, scientists, professors and students who wish to develop successful case-based reasoning applications.

  12. Screening of Household Family Members of Brucellosis Cases and Neighboring Community Members in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis ca...

  13. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  14. Building Communities in Higher Education: The Case of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nicola; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima; Lima, Ilda

    2014-01-01

    The historic and current case to retain a focused clinical nursing identity within an academic context is explicit; however there is tension between the need for excellence in teaching and research, and obligation to maintain a credible clinical identity. Nursing is politically and vocationally advanced but, arguably, weaker academically.…

  15. Stakeholders' perceptions of integrated community case management by community health workers: a post-intervention qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Buchner

    Full Text Available Integrated community case management (iCCM involves delivery of simple medicines to children with pneumonia, diarrhea and/or malaria by community health workers (CHWs. Between 2010 and 2012, an iCCM intervention trial was implemented by Healthy Child Uganda. This study used qualitative tools to assess whether project stakeholders perceived that iCCM improved access to care for children under five years of age.The intervention involved training and equipping 196 CHWs in 98 study villages in one sub-county in Uganda in iCCM. During the eight-month intervention, CHWs assessed sick children, provided antimalarials (coartem for fever, antibiotics (amoxicillin for cough and fast breathing, oral rehydration salts/zinc for diarrhea, and referred very sick children to health facilities. In order to examine community perceptions and acceptability of iCCM, post-intervention focus groups and key respondent interviews involving caregivers, health workers, CHWs and local leaders were carried out by experienced facilitators using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques.Respondents reported increased access to health care for children as a result of iCCM. Access was reportedly closer to home, available more hours in a day, and the availability of CHWs was perceived as more reliable. CHW care was reported to be trustworthy and caring. Families reported saving money especially due to reduced transportation costs, and less time away from home. Respondents also perceived better health outcomes. Linkages between health facilities and communities were reportedly improved by the iCCM intervention due to the presence of trained CHWs in the community.iCCM delivered by CHWs may improve access to health care and is acceptable to families. Policymakers should continue to seek opportunities to implement and support iCCM, particularly in remote communities where there are health worker shortages.

  16. Advances In Mining Engineering Education: A Case For Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hitch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining engineering involves the design, planning and management of operations for the development, production and eventual rehabilitation of resource extraction. These activities draw on a diverse set of skills. University of British Columbia mining engineers have traditionally been highly regarded for their strengths in the technical aspects of mining and mineral process but also for their understanding of the application of principles of sustainability and social responsibility. The current view of the UBC Mining curriculum demands the integration of aspects of environmental and social sciences shaping the future of tertiary engineering education. The solution is developing a curriculum that is focused on key learning objectives that are a reflection of all these external pressures. This paper examines the challenge of curriculum reform and the emergence of learning communities at the Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

  17. Subject Access through Community Partnerships: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovations in scholarly communication have resulted in changing roles for authors, publishers and libraries. Traditionally roles are disappearing and players are actively seeking or reluctantly assuming new roles. Library roles are changing as they become involved in building and indexing electronic(e-)repositories and support new modes of e-research. A library-run service, the SPIRES particle physics databases, has not only weathered, but also lead, many of the transitions that have shaped the landscape of e-publishing and e-research. This has been possible through intense and in-depth partnership with its user community. The strategies used and lessons learned can help other libraries craft cost-effective roles in this new environment

  18. Community-based approach to refugee relief: experiences from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'agnes, T; D'agnes, L

    1982-10-01

    The Community Based Emergency Relief Services (CBERS) of Thailand pioneered a new approach to solving the problem of assisting Cambodian refugees. In 1980 following the influx of more than 150,000 Cambodians into Thailand CBERS proposed family planning to address the potential infant and maternal health threat posed by hazardous conditions within the refugee camps. Based on a survey CBERS launched a voluntary family planning and maternal and child health care program which offered oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, and injectables through existing health units, mobile service vans, and community-based distributors. Approximately 1500 Khmer leaders were trained in family planning and mass media techniques passed the information to the general population. Movies were shown and desensitization techniques were used. Each acceptor was counseled about choice and method as well as use of contraceptives and appropriate health education; sessions were held in groups of 30 women. A total of 8236 women chose to practice family planning during the campaign with 95% of all acceptors choosing the injectable contraceptive. Following service delivery a community-based family planning program was initiated to provide followup services. Other services provided by CBERS include sanitation services, vector control, and waste disposal as well as agriculture and skills development programs to train the refugees. By the end of 1981 over 12,000 people received specialized training. These programs have heightened the refugees' self esteem and they are well prepared to begin their return to Cambodia. PMID:12311796

  19. Cost Effective Community Based Dementia Screening: A Markov Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given the dementia epidemic and the increasing cost of healthcare, there is a need to assess the economic benefit of community based dementia screening programs. Materials and Methods. Markov model simulations were generated using data obtained from a community based dementia screening program over a one-year period. The models simulated yearly costs of caring for patients based on clinical transitions beginning in pre dementia and extending for 10 years. Results. A total of 93 individuals (74 female, 19 male were screened for dementia and 12 meeting clinical criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (n=7 or dementia (n=5 were identified. Assuming early therapeutic intervention beginning during the year of dementia detection, Markov model simulations demonstrated 9.8% reduction in cost of dementia care over a ten-year simulation period, primarily through increased duration in mild stages and reduced time in more costly moderate and severe stages. Discussion. Community based dementia screening can reduce healthcare costs associated with caring for demented individuals through earlier detection and treatment, resulting in proportionately reduced time in more costly advanced stages.

  20. Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    2007-01-01

    We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results with large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, obtaining the population size as a function of an average interspecies interaction strength. Over time, the models self-optimize through mutation and selection to approximately maximize a community fitness function, subject only to constraints internal to the particular model. If the interspecies interactions are randomly distributed on an interval including positive values, the system evolves toward self-sustaining, mutualistic communities. In contrast, for the predator-prey case the matrix of interactions is antisym...

  1. Ethics and community-based participatory research: perspectives from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Elena M; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues regarding data collection and sharing. Thereafter, this article concludes with a brief discussion of six principles that can inform the practice of ethical conduct when implementing CBPR studies. This article also lists additional reading resources on the importance of ethics in the conduct of CBPR. PMID:20038649

  2. Dynamic systems and the role of evaluation: The case of the Green Communities project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzoise, Valentina; Sardo, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    The crucial role evaluation can play in the co-development of project design and its implementation will be addressed through the analysis of a case study, the Green Communities (GC) project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Environment within the EU Interregional Operational Program (2007-2013) "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". The project's broader goals included an attempt to trigger a change in Italian local development strategies, especially for mountain and inland areas, which would be tailored to the real needs of communities, and based on a sustainable exploitation and management of the territorial assets. The goal was not achieved, and this paper addresses the issues of how GC could have been more effective in fostering a vision of change, and which design adaptations and evaluation procedures would have allowed the project to better cope with the unexpected consequences and resistances it encountered. The conclusions drawn are that projects should be conceived, designed and carried out as dynamic systems, inclusive of a dynamic and engaged evaluation enabling the generation of feedbacks loops, iteratively interpreting the narratives and dynamics unfolding within the project, and actively monitoring the potential of various relationships among project participants for generating positive social change. PMID:26215766

  3. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Case-Based Knowledge and Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Itzhak Gilboa; David Schmeidler

    1995-01-01

    "Case-Based Decision Theory" is a theory of decision making under uncertainty, suggesting that people tend to choose acts that performed well in similar cases they recall. The theory has been developed from a decision-/game-/economic-theoretical point of view, as a potential alternative to expected utility theory. In this paper we attempt to re-consider CBDT as a theory of knowledge representation and of planning, to contrast it with the rule-based approach, and to study its implications rega...

  5. Examining Enabling Conditions for Community-Based Fisheries Comanagement: Comparing Efforts in Hawai'i and American Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle S. Levine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention in global fisheries management has been directed toward increasing the involvement of local communities in managing marine resources. Although community-based fisheries comanagement has the potential to address resource conservation and societal needs, the success of these programs is by no means guaranteed, and many comanagement regimes have struggled. Although promising in theory, comanagement programs meet a variety of political, social, economic, ecological, and logistical challenges upon implementation. We have provided an analysis of two community-based fisheries comanagement initiatives: Hawai'i's Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA legislation and American Samoa's Community-Based Fisheries Management Program (CFMP. Although Hawai'i's initiative has struggled with only two CBSFAs designated, neither of which has an approved management plan, American Samoa's program has successfully established a functioning network of 12 villages. We have explored the factors contributing to the divergent outcomes of these initiatives, including cultural and ethnic diversity, the intactness of traditional tenure systems and community organizing structures, local leadership, and government support. Differences in program design, including processes for program implementation and community involvement, supportive government institutions, adequate enforcement, and adaptive capacity, have also played important roles in the implementation of comanagement regimes on the two island groups. The different outcomes manifested in these case studies provide insight regarding the conditions necessary to enable successful community-based comanagement, particularly within U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions.

  6. Community-based participatory research: a collaborative study to measure capabilities towards recovery in mental health community organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a theoretical review on community based research, namely about collaborative processes and qualitative participatory methodologies, and to present an application of this framework to the research design. Method: It is provided a review on community-based research methodology, university-community partnerships, and is described the qualitative participatory methodology used in one collaborative study. Conclusion: following the partnership guidelines for ...

  7. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogwang Simon

    2012-03-01

    sensitization by empowered community based resource persons rather than health workers and improvement in quality of health care can contribute towards effective management of obstetric complications.

  8. Social impacts of community renewable energy projects: findings from a woodfuel case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is much current interest in the potential of community-based renewable energy projects to contribute to transition towards low carbon energy systems. As well as displacing fossil fuel consumption by increasing renewable energy generation, projects are expected to have a range of social impacts which may result in additional positive sustainability outcomes. These include potential to increase: acceptance of renewable energy developments; awareness of renewable and sustainable energy technologies and issues; uptake of low carbon technologies; and sustainable/pro-environmental behaviours. To date however, there has been little investigation of whether and how these impacts occur. This paper presents results from qualitative research investigating the social impacts of a community woodfuel project as experienced by project participants and other local stakeholders. Findings show projects can raise awareness of renewable energy technologies and increase uptake of renewables. Overall the case study project successfully changed the local social context for development of woodfuel heating, reducing risk for all involved in the future development of this sector, particularly in the immediate locality. There was some evidence of increased engagement with wider sustainability issues but this was limited to direct participants, suggesting local projects need to be supported by wider systemic change to maximise impacts. - Highlights: ► We assessed the social impacts of a community woodfuel project. ► The project increased awareness and uptake of woodfuel heating. ► Impacts were achieved as a result of the locally-specific approach. ► Local projects can seed cultural change promoting transition to a low carbon society.

  9. Understanding the Business Case for Telemental Health in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John; Hartley, David; Croll, Zachariah; Hansen, Anush

    2016-07-01

    Telemental health has been promoted to address long-standing access barriers to rural mental health care, including low supply and long travel distances. Examples of rural telemental health programs are common; there is a less clear picture of how widely implemented these programs are, their organization, staffing, and services. There is also a need to understand the business case for these programs and assess whether and how they might realize their promise. To address these gaps, a national study was conducted of rural telemental health programs including an online survey of 53 programs and follow-up interviews with 23 programs. This article describes the current landscape and characteristics of these programs and then examines their business case. Can rural telemental health programs be sustained within current delivery systems and reimbursement structures? This question is explored in four areas: need and demand, infrastructure and workforce, funding and reimbursement, and organizational fit and alignment. PMID:26695645

  10. A multi-site, randomized study of strengths-based case management with substance-abusing parolees

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Michael; Frisman, Linda; Sacks, Joann Y; Staton-Tindall, Michele; GREENWELL, LISA; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Cartier, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To test whether strengths-based case management provided during an inmate’s transition from incarceration to the community increases participation in community substance abuse treatment, enhances access to needed social services, and improves drug use, crime, and HIV risk outcomes. Methods In a multi-site trial, inmates (men and women) in four states (n = 812) were randomly assigned (within site) to receive either Transitional Case Management (TCM group), based on strengths-based p...

  11. Increasing the prevalence of successful children: The case for community intervention research

    OpenAIRE

    Biglan, Anthony; Metzler, Carol W.; Ary, Dennis V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper makes a case for research on community interventions on child rearing. Sufficient evidence has accumulated about the development of children's problem behavior to justify evaluating efforts to reduce the prevalence of these problems in whole communities. The contextual risk factors for diverse child behavior problems are well understood, and interventions to ameliorate individual risk factors have been developed and evaluated. Because interventions with individual children have pro...

  12. A community of practice: a case study exploring safety and quality through professional leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Smith, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This research reports an emerging Community of Practice (CoP), informing how knowledge, understanding and learning were shared through professional leaders using stories to influence change and improve the safety and quality of services. The research focused on generating knowledge and dramatising leadership experiences in integrated community health and social care services. A case study design and multiple qualitative data collection methods were used. The analysis of all data sources revea...

  13. Catholic Secondary Schools and Community Relations: A Case Study in East London 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a case study of Catholic secondary school provision in the Inner London Borough of Tower Hamlets during the period 2000-2010. Its main emphasis is on the school/community relations during the period, indicating the Church’s concern to promote community cohesion while maintaining high standards of education, particularly in an inner-city borough noted for its areas of extreme poverty and the diversity of its immigrant population. By working collaboratively with the statutory aut...

  14. Cuban communities of educational research: exchange or ignorance? A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Paúl A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the levels of exchange established between Cuban scientific communities in the field of educational research. A case study was conducted with three scientific communities of Cuban educational researchers with a considerable level of scientific output in three different geographical regions of influence. A critical assessment and recommendations are made on the basis of the body of references they generate and the citation they made of them and sources of the ...

  15. Bridging Certification and Community Forestry through NTFPs: A Case Study from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, N; Satyal, Poshendra; Humphreys, David; Rayner, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Issue - For a variety of reasons, community forestry is not always well suited to existing forest certification schemes. Using the case of Nepal, this paper considers the extent to which promoting the trade in nontimber forest products can complement, or even provide an alternative to, forest certification for timber while promoting sustainable community forestry. The paper develops recent work on the interaction of transnational business governance (TBG) schemes to suggest how these two a...

  16. FORMATION OF YOUTH GROUP FROM COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WORK PERSPECTIVE: A NAMIBIAN CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Prakash Dhakal. Formation of a youth group from community development work perspective: A Namibian case. Järvenpää, Autumn 2010, P. 67, 5 appendices. Language: English, Autumn 2010. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak-south, Järvenpää Unit, Degree Program in Social Services (DSS). The starting point for the thesis was to elucidate the process of forming a youth group from a community development work perspective, in line to my own experiences and involvement, in Namibia. In...

  17. Online communities of payments and consumer behaviour : The Second Life Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hueber, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    International audience This paper asserts that the online communities of electronic money (e-money) users affect the traditional mechanisms of price determination by introducing anonymity in money payments. By studying the Second Life case it is possible to show the main characteristics of such a communities and raise new questions linked to the online behaviours of the consumers. In the aim of shedding light on the online consumer behaviour we turn to Thorstein Veblen works and to network...

  18. Service-Learning and Emergent Communities of Practice: A Teacher Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Jennifer Cutsforth; Letwinsky, Karim Medico

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the unexpected emergence of a community of practice in a middle level mathematics and science methods course. The authors describe how preservice teacher participation in a collaborative, project-based service-learning experience resulted in the formation of a community of practice characterized by teamwork, meaningful…

  19. Developing Governance for Federated Community-based EHR Data Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Stephens, Kari A.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Keppel, Gina A.; Whitener, Ron J.; Echo-Hawk, Abigail; Korngiebel, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Bi-directional translational pathways between scientific discoveries and primary care are crucial for improving individual patient care and population health. The Data QUEST pilot project is a program supporting data sharing amongst community based primary care practices and is built on a technical infrastructure to share electronic health record data. We developed a set of governance requirements from interviewing and collaborating with partner organizations. Recommendations from our partner...

  20. Community-based co-design in Okomakuara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapuire, Gereon Koch; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Chivuno-Kuria, Shilumbe;

    2014-01-01

    Although the wider motivation and principles of Participatory Design (PD) are universal its concepts and techniques are highly contextual. Community-based codesign is a variation of PD, where processes are negotiated within the interaction. Thus this workshop gives participants the opportunity to...... validate their own conceptualisations, techniques in-situ application against a selected Herero community’s evaluation. Besides a day of new impressions and thoughts we intend to record the discussions and present a shortened video at the conference....

  1. Community based rehabilitation: a strategy for peace-building

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson Jennifer; Koros Michael; Boyce William

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Certain features of peace-building distinguish it from peacekeeping, and make it an appropriate strategy in dealing with vertical conflict and low intensity conflict. However, some theorists suggest that attempts, through peace-building, to impose liberal values upon non-democratic cultures are misguided and lack an ethical basis. Discussion We have been investigating the peace-building properties of community based approaches to disability in a number of countries. This p...

  2. Review of a Community-based Youth Counselling Service

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin; O'Dwyer, Sinead; McCrann, Denis

    2006-01-01

    The structure and operation of a community-based youth counselling service operated by the Kildare Youth Services (KYS) is examined with a view to highlighting its preventative nature. Presenting problems are explored, in the context of the wider social milieu. Particularly, recent trends in sexual behaviour, substance abuse and child sexual abuse are examined. Interviews were conducted with a sample of professionals who referred clients, patients and students to the KYS Youth Counselling ...

  3. Education for arthritis patients: a community pharmacy based pilot project

    OpenAIRE

    Petkova VB

    2009-01-01

    There are different kinds of arthritis, widely spread among the population, that make them a clinical problem with social, psychological and economic burden. Different education programs have been developed in order to improve patients’ disease management, medication compliance and from there patients’ quality of life. Objective: To develop and implement a community pharmacy-based educational program for patients with arthritis. Improvements in pain, medication compliance, decrease in general...

  4. Grounded Design of Web-Enhanced Case-Based Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Cases have been used in education through a variety of methods, such as case written analysis, case discussion, and case development. Recent case definitions and uses have extended their traditional uses. In case-based reasoning, cases are considered to represent knowledge, and the use of cases is integral to an individual's problem-solving…

  5. Community-based participatory research and policy advocacy to reduce diesel exposure in West Oakland, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Priscilla A; Minkler, Meredith; Garcia, Analilia P; Gordon, Margaret; Garzón, Catalina; Palaniappan, Meena; Prakash, Swati; Beveridge, Brian

    2011-12-01

    We conducted a multimethod case study analysis of a community-based participatory research partnership in West Oakland, California, and its efforts to study and address the neighborhood's disproportionate exposure to diesel air pollution. We employed 10 interviews with partners and policymakers, participant observation, and a review of documents. Results of the partnership's truck count and truck idling studies suggested substantial exposure to diesel pollution and were used by the partners and their allies to make the case for a truck route ordinance. Despite weak enforcement, the partnership's increased political visibility helped change the policy environment, with the community partner now heavily engaged in environmental decision-making on the local and regional levels. Finally, we discussed implications for research, policy, and practice. PMID:21551381

  6. Balancing power among academic and community partners: the case of El Proyecto Bienestar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Julie

    2008-06-01

    Balancing power among academic and community partners, addressing community-identified needs, and strengthening community capacity are ethical values unique to community-based participatory research (CBPR). Negotiation of these values in one CBPR environmental justice project was evaluated to advance the environmental and occupational health of a Hispanic agricultural community in central Washington State. Data were collected through document review and participant observation. Applied conversation and discourse analysis were used to interpret the data. Within the organization, farmworkers primarily served an advisory role. Facilitation style influenced how participants negotiated environmental justice. Research goals were advanced in the project, but no direct actions were taken to improve farmworker health. Implementing CBPR's ethical values requires a willingness to confront institutional and interpersonal challenges, and offers a vision of research that builds knowledge and strengthens communities. PMID:19385743

  7. Improving Image Search based on User Created Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Amruta; Radev, Dragomir; Hassan, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Tag-based retrieval of multimedia content is a difficult problem, not only because of the shorter length of tags associated with images and videos, but also due to mismatch in the terminologies used by searcher and content creator. To alleviate this problem, we propose a simple concept-driven probabilistic model for improving text-based rich-media search. While our approach is similar to existing topic-based retrieval and cluster-based language modeling work, there are two important differences: (1) our proposed model considers not only the query-generation likelihood from cluster, but explicitly accounts for the overall "popularity" of the cluster or underlying concept, and (2) we explore the possibility of inferring the likely concept relevant to a rich-media content through the user-created communities that the content belongs to. We implement two methods of concept extraction: a traditional cluster based approach, and the proposed community based approach. We evaluate these two techniques for how effectiv...

  8. Community-based social services: practical advice based upon lessons from outside the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Mcleod, Dinah

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gather information in both developed and developing countries, on design and delivery of community based social service initiatives. While the field is sufficiently new that best practice may not yet be fully identifiable, there are many initiatives funded by other governments, NGOs, and donor agencies, which taken along with acknowledged good practice from the industrialized world, can help task managers with the design of community-based social service projects.

  9. Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... communication processes? To begin to answer this question, we are looking for papers which engage concepts such as: communities of practice (Wenger 1998) the emerging field of knowledge communication the connections between communicating knowledge and discourse structures cultural situatedness of communication...... linguistics, media studies, educational technology, intercultural communication, cultural studies, linguistics, rhetoric, technical communication and knowledge communication....

  10. Heterogeneous Community-based mobility model for human opportunistic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Human opportunistic networks can facilitate wireless content dissemination while humans are on the move. In such a network, content is disseminated via nodes relaying and nodes mobility (human mobility). Thus it is essential to understand and model the real human mobility. We present a...... heterogeneous community-based random way-point (HC-RWP) mobility model that captures the four important properties of real human mobility. These properties are based on both intuitive observations of daily human mobility and analysis of empirical mobility traces. By discrete event simulation, we show HC...

  11. Getting better at chronic care in remote communities: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled of community based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence and incidence of diabetes and other common comorbid conditions (hypertension, coronary heart disease, renal disease and chronic lung disease are extremely high among Indigenous Australians. Recent measures to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous community settings, while apparently successful at increasing screening and routine check-up rates, have shown only modest or little improvements in appropriate care such as the introduction of insulin and other scaled-up drug regimens in line with evidence-based guidelines, together with support for risk factor reduction. A new strategy is required to ensure high quality integrated family-centred care is available locally, with continuity and cultural safety, by community-based care coordinators with appropriate system supports. Methods/design The trial design is open parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. The objective of this pragmatic trial is to test the effectiveness of a model of health service delivery that facilitates integrated community-based, intensive chronic condition management, compared with usual care, in rural and remote Indigenous primary health care services in north Queensland. Participants are Indigenous adults (aged 18–65 years with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>=8.5 and at least one other chronic condition. The intervention is to employ an Indigenous Health Worker to case manage the care of a maximum caseload of 30 participants. The Indigenous Health Workers receive intensive clinical training initially, and throughout the study, to ensure they are competent to coordinate care for people with chronic conditions. The Indigenous Health Workers, supported by the local primary health care (PHC team and an Indigenous Clinical Support Team, will manage care, including coordinating access to multidisciplinary team care based on best practice standards. Allocation by cluster to the intervention and control groups is by simple

  12. SOMWeb: A Semantic Web-Based System for Supporting Collaboration of Distributed Medical Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Marie; Jontell, Mats; Torgersson, Olof

    2008-01-01

    Background Information technology (IT) support for remote collaboration of geographically distributed communities of practice (CoP) in health care must deal with a number of sociotechnical aspects of communication within the community. In the mid-1990s, participants of the Swedish Oral Medicine Network (SOMNet) began discussing patient cases in telephone conferences. The cases were distributed prior to the conferences using PowerPoint and email. For the technical support of online CoP, Semantic Web technologies can potentially fulfill needs of knowledge reuse, data exchange, and reasoning based on ontologies. However, more research is needed on the use of Semantic Web technologies in practice. Objectives The objectives of this research were to (1) study the communication of distributed health care professionals in oral medicine; (2) apply Semantic Web technologies to describe community data and oral medicine knowledge; (3) develop an online CoP, Swedish Oral Medicine Web (SOMWeb), centered on user-contributed case descriptions and meetings; and (4) evaluate SOMWeb and study how work practices change with IT support. Methods Based on Java, and using the Web Ontology Language and Resource Description Framework for handling community data and oral medicine knowledge, SOMWeb was developed using a user-centered and iterative approach. For studying the work practices and evaluating the system, a mixed-method approach of interviews, observations, and a questionnaire was used. Results By May 2008, there were 90 registered users of SOMWeb, 93 cases had been added, and 18 meetings had utilized the system. The introduction of SOMWeb has improved the structure of meetings and their discussions, and a tenfold increase in the number of participants has been observed. Users submit cases to seek advice on diagnosis or treatment, to show an unusual case, or to create discussion. Identified barriers to submitting cases are lack of time, concern about whether the case is interesting

  13. The impact of social media based brand communities on brand trust in tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanlari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building and maintaining brand trust has long been a major concern for marketers. One of the latest marketing concepts is social media based marketing. With the widespread use of social media, a group of marketers decided to make a linkage between social media and brand communities. In order to take advantage of both brand communities and social media, many firms are utilizing social media to develop brand communities. While offline brand communities had been sufficiently studied, few researches have been done about online brand communities, particularly the new phenomenon of “social media based brand community”. As brand communities are growing in popularity, both marketers and researchers must gain more insight on this phenomenon. This paper aims to determine the impact of social media based brand community on brand trust in tourism industry. For this purpose, we investigated Setareh Almas Hali Tour and Travel Agency as our case study. This is an applied research using descriptive-correlational survey method and structural equation modeling. From among the statistical population consisting of 100,000 people, 384 people were selected using Morgan table. Since some of the questionnaires were likely to be not completed, the total sample was 410. To perform the opinion poll, the questionnaire was placed in various social media within a specified time period. As the research model was supposed to be examined in social media, the data were collected through an online opinion poll in social media. Data collection tool was a multiple-choice questionnaire which enabled to assess the research variables. In general, the required data were collected using library and questionnaire methods. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were established by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient method. According to the results, total validity for 27 items of the questionnaire was 90%. After collecting the questionnaires, we analyzed the data using LISREL

  14. Occupational therapy synergy between Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania and Heifer International to reduce poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie W. Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article describes a partnership between a community-based rehabilitation organisation and a non-governmental organisation (NGO in Tanzania. The partnership focused on income-generating (IG activities to tackle the problems of poverty faced by families with a child with a disability (CWD. Objectives: The aim of this case study was to describe the partnership between Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Moshi (CCBRT-Moshi, a non-governmental organisation, and families to create an income-generating business, namely raising goats.Method: This was a team approach between CCBRT-Moshi and Heifer International, an organisation that focuses on IG activities to create a synergy or partnership between community-based rehabilitation and IG activities.Results: This partnership between occupational therapy rehabilitation services at CCBRT-Moshi and the NGO resulted in strengthening the effectiveness of occupational therapy services and leaving a more lasting impact on the people they served within the community by helping to reduce poverty in addition to providing rehabilitation and prevention interventions.Conclusion: This collaboration was successful as it provided a means for families to generate income from raising goats. Although the results have not been empirically verified, observational and anecdotal evidence suggests that families with CWDs have better quality of life and ultimately improved health through this synergistic partnership.

  15. Exploring the Implications of Community Mural Arts: A Case Analysis of a 'Groundswell' Mural Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pontious, Jacquelyn Rae

    2014-01-01

    Groundswell, a New York-based nonprofit community arts organization, creates high quality public art with youth and artists throughout the five boroughs of the City. This study examines how the nonprofit utilizes mural making, a potentially democratic art form, to provide opportunities for individual and collective impact. I undertook key informant interviews and documents analysis to explore the complex model the nonprofit employs to create a collaborative and community-based art process fo...

  16. Community-based adaptation to climate change: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul

    2009-06-15

    Over a billion people - the world's poorest and most bulnerable communities – will bear the brunt of climate change. For them, building local capacity to cope is a vital step towards resilience. Community-based adaptation (CBA) is emerging as a key response to this challenge. Tailored to local cultures and conditions, CBA supports and builds on autonomous adaptations to climate variability, such as the traditional baira or floating gardens of Bangladesh, which help small farmers' crops survive climate-driven floods. Above all, CBA is participatory – a process involving both local stakeholders, and development and disaster risk reduction practitioners. As such, it builds on existing cultural norms while addressing local development issues that contribute to climate vulnerability. CBA is now gaining ground in many regions, and is ripe for the reassessment offered here.

  17. Performance of a community detection algorithm based on semidefinite programming

    CERN Document Server

    Javanmard, Adel; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The problem of detecting communities in a graph is maybe one the most studied inference problems, given its simplicity and widespread diffusion among several disciplines. A very common benchmark for this problem is the stochastic block model or planted partition problem, where a phase transition takes place in the detection of the planted partition by changing the signal-to-noise ratio. Optimal algorithms for the detection exist which are based on spectral methods, but we show these are extremely sensible to slight modification in the generative model. Recently Javanmard, Montanari and Ricci-Tersenghi (arXiv:1511.08769) have used statistical physics arguments, and numerical simulations to show that finding communities in the stochastic block model via semidefinite programming is quasi optimal. Further, the resulting semidefinite relaxation can be solved efficiently, and is very robust with respect to changes in the generative model. In this paper we study in detail several practical aspects of this new algori...

  18. Data Publication: The Role of Community-Based, Disciplinary Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Hsu, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    Data publication is increasingly recognized as a new paradigm to achieve broad and open access to data for their re-use while ensuring proper citation and attribution of the data to their creator. Current models of data publication include special data journals, institutional repositories, and programmatic or disciplinary repositories. This presentation focuses on the critical role that community-based disciplinary repositories should play, using the example of the IEDA data facility (www.iedadata.org). Disciplinary repositories ensure that data publication is successfully implemented and adopted by the science community, so that it can fulfill its promise to advance data reuse, enhance reproducibility of scientific results, and offer new opportunities for scientific discoveries. Disciplinary repositories are ideally poised to address the challenges that can lead to 'data reuse failure' (Rees 2010), which in turn obstruct the successful development and implementation of new data infrastructures for the sciences. Among these challenges are: professional motivation for investigators to publish the data; effort and economic burden of publication; discovery and long-term accessibility of data; adequate documentation of data provenance (measured parameters, uncertainty, reproducibility, materials, methods, data manipulation); and usability (file formats, interfaces to software tools for data analysis, visualization, modeling). The relevant function of a disciplinary repository is to coordinate and bridge the needs of its community with recognized requirements for data curation and demands of evolving technologies. IEDA meets that function, gathering regular guidance from the community, developing community-approved best practices and guidelines; providing guidance and tools to investigators that facilitate the process of data publication; and performing data quality control. IEDA's sustainable infrastructure supports the discovery and access of the data, and IEDA

  19. Poaching risks in community-based natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Jessica S; Roloff, Gary J; Gore, Meredith L

    2013-02-01

    Poaching can disrupt wildlife-management efforts in community-based natural resource management systems. Monitoring, estimating, and acquiring data on poaching is difficult. We used local-stakeholder knowledge and poaching records to rank and map the risk of poaching incidents in 2 areas where natural resources are managed by community members in Caprivi, Namibia. We mapped local stakeholder perceptions of the risk of poaching, risk of wildlife damage to livelihoods, and wildlife distribution and compared these maps with spatially explicit records of poaching events. Recorded poaching events and stakeholder perceptions of where poaching occurred were not spatially correlated. However, the locations of documented poaching events were spatially correlated with areas that stakeholders perceived wildlife as a threat to their livelihoods. This result suggests poaching occurred in response to wildlife damage occurred. Local stakeholders thought that wildlife populations were at high risk of being poached and that poaching occurred where there was abundant wildlife. These findings suggest stakeholders were concerned about wildlife resources in their community and indicate a need for integrated and continued monitoring of poaching activities and further interventions at the wildlife-agricultural interface. Involving stakeholders in the assessment of poaching risks promotes their participation in local conservation efforts, a central tenet of community-based management. We considered stakeholders poaching informants, rather than suspects, and our technique was spatially explicit. Different strategies to reduce poaching are likely needed in different areas. For example, interventions that reduce human-wildlife conflict may be required in residential areas, and increased and targeted patrolling may be required in more remote areas. Stakeholder-generated maps of human-wildlife interactions may be a valuable enforcement and intervention support tool. PMID:23163302

  20. The Study of Network Structure of Community Participation in Agricultural Eco-tourism——Based on the Case of Sichuan Longquanyi District Hongfu Village%社区参与农业生态旅游的网络结构研究——以四川龙泉驿区洪福村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马捷; 江坤

    2015-01-01

    Community participation in agricultural eco-tourism is not only a new way to get rich, but also the innovation and development of eco-tourism industry. By the way, the richness of the product and the virtuality of the service of agriculture eco-tourism are belong to the generalized virtual economy .The ar-ticle, based on literature research, first discusses the relationship between community participation and eco-tourism from the view of the generalized virtual economy .Then this paper, studying Sichuan Long-quanyi District Hongfu Village area as a case study, analyzes the network structure of local community participation in agricultural eco-tourism based on the survey data ,draws their network structure and makes an analysis of network density and centrality .This paper aims at providing a better understanding of the community involved in agricultural eco-tourism micro-practices. It also offers reference for industrial development and related departments management, providing a basis for the further promotion of eco-tourism, social progress.%社区参与农业生态旅游不仅是社区致富的新途径,也是生态旅游产业的创新发展.同时,农业生态旅游的产品的丰富性和服务的虚拟性属于广义虚拟经济的范畴,首先,文章从广义虚拟经济的视角基于文献研究论述了社区参与和生态旅游之间的关系, 其次以四川省龙泉驿区洪福村为案例区并依据调研数据对当地社区参与农业生态旅游的网络结构进行分析,画出其网络结构图,分析其网络密度和中心度.旨在更好的理解社区参与农业生态旅游的微观实践,以期对产业发展和有关部门的管理和支持具有借鉴意义,为进一步推动生态旅游发展、社会进步提供基础.

  1. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  2. From "community" to "commercial" FLOSS: The case of moodle

    OpenAIRE

    Capiluppi, A; Baravalle, A; Heap, NW

    2010-01-01

    This is the post-print version of the final published article that is available from the link below. Copyright © 2010 ACM, Inc. This paper documents the evolution of Moodle, an advanced Content Management System, and its transition from a purely volunteer-based project to one driven by commercial interests and stakeholders. The study of its evolution provides evidence of the sustainability of its process: increasing amounts of provided effort by developers correspond to similarly increasin...

  3. Building a Community-Academic Partnership: Implementing a Community-Based Trial of Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Rural Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Aisenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.

  4. Community-based Ecotourism in Tenganan Dauh Tukad: An Indigenous Conservation Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    I Ketut Sardiana; Ni Luh Ramaswati Purnawan

    2015-01-01

    AbstractCommunity-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between commun...

  5. A new freshwater biodiversity indicator based on fish community assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Clavel

    Full Text Available Biodiversity has reached a critical state. In this context, stakeholders need indicators that both provide a synthetic view of the state of biodiversity and can be used as communication tools. Using river fishes as model, we developed community indicators that aim at integrating various components of biodiversity including interactions between species and ultimately the processes influencing ecosystem functions. We developed indices at the species level based on (i the concept of specialization directly linked to the niche theory and (ii the concept of originality measuring the overall degree of differences between a species and all other species in the same clade. Five major types of originality indices, based on phylogeny, habitat-linked and diet-linked morphology, life history traits, and ecological niche were analyzed. In a second step, we tested the relationship between all biodiversity indices and land use as a proxy of human pressures. Fish communities showed no significant temporal trend for most of these indices, but both originality indices based on diet- and habitat- linked morphology showed a significant increase through time. From a spatial point of view, all indices clearly singled out Corsica Island as having higher average originality and specialization. Finally, we observed that the originality index based on niche traits might be used as an informative biodiversity indicator because we showed it is sensitive to different land use classes along a landscape artificialization gradient. Moreover, its response remained unchanged over two other land use classifications at the global scale and also at the regional scale.

  6. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup;

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational...

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia secondary to acute right leg cellulitis: case of community-acquired infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Asrul Abdul; Rahman, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus that causes wide spectrum clinical infections. However, it is most frequently associated with hospital-acquired infection. In this case a 58-year-old male with underlying hypertension and dyslipidaemia was admitted for acute right leg cellulitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified from the case, though it was not a usual suspected organism. It might be due to community-acquired infection.

  8. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Serrano, Maria del Mar; Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Vanwildemeersch, Pieter;

    2015-01-01

    Several examples of community-based natural resource management in Latin American social-ecological systems exist in which communities control the management of common-pool resources. Understanding community perceptions of the performance of these systems is essential to involve communities in...... sustainable management strategies. In this analysis of three areas in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina, we analyzed the local perceptions of the social and environmental challenges faced by these social-ecological systems and how these challenges and drivers affect their resilience. To do this, we combined...... prospective structural analysis to unravel stakeholders’ perceptions of each system’s functioning along with network analysis to assess resilience. We identified external variables as the most influential variables in the Colombian and Argentine cases. In the Mexican case, larger influence is exerted by...

  9. Undertaking Effective Cross-Language Questionnaire-Based Survey in Illiterate and Semi-Illiterate Rural Communities in the Developing Regions: Case of Communal Cattle Farmers in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated similarities and differences between questionnaire instruments – Source language instrument (untranslated and target language (translated instrument employed to gather research data in a cross-cultural background in the developing regions, with special reference to illiterate and semi-illiterate rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This paper premises that there are differences of responses between the responses sourced from a source language version questionnaire and that of the translated cross-language version questionnaire. The results of this paper revealed that the majority (60% of the responses differed in both sets of questionnaires while some (40% responses on both sets of questionnaires were similar. The implication is that collecting survey data from a cross-language translated version questionnaire might provide a better and reliable data collection option than collecting survey data from a directly translated – or untranslated version during interviews. The differences appear to be influenced mainly by the socio-demographic factors of the respondents. The noted differences might affect the over-all quality of results of the particular survey. This paper argues that such differences might have implications for the design of policy and strategic intervention measures since such interventions might have emanated from flawed results.

  10. A Community "Hub" Network Intervention for HIV Stigma Reduction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Catharina D; Greeff, Minrie

    2016-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a community "hub" network intervention to reduce HIV stigma in the Tlokwe Municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A holistic case study design was used, focusing on community members with no differentiation by HIV status. Participants were recruited through accessibility sampling. Data analyses used open coding and document analysis. Findings showed that the HIV stigma-reduction community hub network intervention successfully activated mobilizers to initiate change; lessened the stigma experience for people living with HIV; and addressed HIV stigma in a whole community using a combination of strategies including individual and interpersonal levels, social networks, and the public. Further research is recommended to replicate and enhance the intervention. In particular, the hub network system should be extended, the intervention period should be longer, there should be a stronger support system for mobilizers, and the multiple strategy approach should be continued on individual and social levels. PMID:26627447

  11. Community Health Workers Support Community-based Participatory Research Ethics:: Lessons Learned along the Research-to-Practice-to-Community Continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for ...

  12. Citizen Science for Post-disaster Sustainable Community Development in Ecologically Fragiel Regions - A Case from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ming, Meng; Lu, Ye; Jin, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The world's mountains host some of the most complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems and are also hotspots for natural disasters, such as earthquake, landslide and flood. One factor that limits the mountain communities to recover from disasters and pursue sustainable development is the lack of locally relevant scientific knowledge, which is hard to gain from global and regional scale observations and models. The rapid advances in ICT, computing, communication technologies and the emergence of citizen science is changing the situation. Here we report a case from Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary World Natural Heritage in China on the application of citizen science in a community reconstruction project. Dahe, a mountainous community (ca. 8000 ha in size) is located covering part of the World Heritage's core and buffer zones, with an elevation range of 1000-3000 meters. The community suffered from two major earthquakes of 7.9 and 6.9 Mw in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Landslides and flooding threat the community and significantly limit their livelihood options. We integrated participatory disaster risk mapping (e.g., community vulnerability and capacity assessment) and mobile assisted natural hazards and natural resources mapping (e.g., using free APP GeoODK) into more conventional community reconstruction and livelihood building activities. We showed that better decisions are made based on results from these activities and local residents have a high level of buy-in in these new knowledge. We suggest that initiatives like this, if successfully scale-up, can also help generate much needed data and knowledge in similar less-developed and data deficient regions of the world.

  13. Multidisciplinary partnerships in community-specific writing or storytelling projects – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneretha Combrink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships are used as strategy in various sectors of society, especially in order to reach goals which are unattainable for independent individuals, institutions or academic disciplines. The complexity of community-specific creative writing and storytelling projects (including the variety of languages, literacy levels and socio-economic issues in the country, as well as practical aspects such as funding, access to communities et cetera means that such projects cannot easily be run by individual persons or organisations but that collaboration is needed. The aim of this overview article is to investigate multidisciplinary partnerships in community projects which promote community-specific writing and storytelling, focusing on one such project in particular. As background the situation in South Africa with regard to writing and storytelling in communities is sketched. The focus then shifts to multidisciplinary partnerships. A case study is discussed to highlight the complexity of such partnerships. This article addresses the dearth of research on partnerships in the context of creative writing or storytelling projects in communities. Although multidisciplinary partnerships do have their challenges, the article concludes that they can bring balance and wealth to community development previously unexplored.

  14. Simulation and case-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Guralnick, David

    2008-01-01

    in the Workplace). The purpose of this paper is to describe the two online learning methodologies and to raise questions for future discussion. In the workshop, the organizers and participants work with and discuss differences and similarities within the two pedagogical methodologies, focusing on how......Abstract- This paper has its origin in the authors' reflection on years of practical experiences combined with literature readings in our preparation for a workshop on learn-by-doing simulation and case-based learning to be held at the ICELW 2008 conference (the International Conference on E-Learning...... they are applied in workplace related and e-learning contexts. In addition to the organizers, a small number of invited presenters will attend, giving demonstrations of their work within learn-by-doing simulation and cases-based learning, but still leaving ample of time for discussion among all...

  15. Community-based Ecotourism in Tenganan Dauh Tukad: An Indigenous Conservation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sardiana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCommunity-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between community participation to their practices and perspective of conservation. This includes conservation of biodiversity environment and cultural heritage of the local community.

  16. The effect of community-based drug rehabilitation programs on recidivism in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Axiak, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background: The argument for financing therapeutic community-based drug rehabilitation programs for inmates is compelling. Numerous studies have established the positive effect of such treatment on reducing recidivism, especially treatment based on the therapeutic community model. Methods: This quasiexperimental retrospective cohort study examined the impact of therapeutic community-based drug rehabilitation programs on recidivism amongst drug inmates released from ...

  17. 42 CFR 440.180 - Home or community-based services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Services not included. Any home and community-based service, including those indicated in paragraph (b)(8) of this section, may not be included in home and community-based service waivers for the following... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Home or community-based services. 440.180...

  18. The Impact of Management Decision-Making on Student Success in Community Colleges: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Albert G.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined a multi-college community college district in northern California in a primarily rural area, to understand how their practices compared to management best practices designed to improve student success, barriers that may exist in implementing best practices, and how the institution may improve its own practices. The problem…

  19. The TRY Foundation: A Case Study in Private Community Development Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Paul T.

    This is a case study of the TRY Foundation, a privately funded non-profit corporation devoting its resources to "community and human development in disadvantaged areas." Activities sponsored by its primate unit, the Willowbrook Chapter of Watts, Los Angeles, include: thrift shop, preventive dentistry clinic, Operation Vegetable Basket--which…

  20. Responses to Islam in the Classroom: A Case of Muslim Girls from Minority Communities of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Natasha Hakimali

    2016-01-01

    Coinciding with the rise of "Islamophobia" in the United States is a small but growing set of educational scholarship around the curricular impact of and response to Islamophobia. The qualitative case study discussed in this manuscript aims to contribute to this conversation by investigating how Muslim girls from minority communities of…

  1. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  2. Community of Practice or Affinity Space: A Case Study of a Professional Development MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle M. L.; Stephens, Michael; Branch-Mueller, Jennifer; de Groot, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have brought about new questions regarding the construction of virtual learning environments and course delivery systems. One such question that researchers and instructors alike are considering is the role of community in learning spaces. This paper uses a professional development (PD) MOOC as a case study to…

  3. A Community Organizes for Action: A Case Study of the Mon-Yough Region in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Robert W.; Chesler, Herbert A.

    This case study examines the development and problems of the Mon-Yough Community Action Committee, Inc. (MYCAC), one of the local anti-poverty agencies in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The agency's major effort is to overcome problems created by the decline of the local steel industry by supporting existing welfare agencies, and through such…

  4. Case Studies of School Community and Climate: Success Narratives of Schools in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli; Grenville, Heather; Flessa, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a Canadian qualitative case study project funded by the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario. The paper describes success stories of students and communities affected by poverty from a diverse sample of eleven elementary schools throughout the province of Ontario. Over the period of one school year (2007-2008) and…

  5. Potential for Integrating Community-Based Monitoring into REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries at the United Nations Framework on the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC have decided to engage local communities and indigenous groups into the activities for the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV of the program to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and increase carbon removals (REDD+. Previous research and projects have shown that communities can produce reliable data on forest area and carbon estimates through field measurements. The objective of this article is to describe the framework that is being created for REDD+ under the UNFCCC to identify the potential inclusion of local information produced through community-based monitoring (CBM into monitoring systems for REDD+. National systems could use different sources of information from CBM: first, local information can be produced as part of public programs by increasing sample size of national or regional inventories; second, government can collect information to produce carbon estimates from on-going management practices implemented at local level driven by access to local direct benefits (e.g., forest management plans, watershed conservation; third, national data systems could include information from projects participating in carbon markets and other certification schemes; and finally information will be produced as part of the activities associated to the implementation of social and environmental safeguards. Locally generated data on carbon and areas under different forms of management can be dovetailed into national systems and be used to describe management practices, complement existing information or replace Tier 1/2 values with more detailed local data produced by CBM.

  6. The Study on the ecological education of community residents based on the viewpoint of ecological civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文明; 黄辉

    2015-01-01

    The essay focuses on the analysis of necessity and urgency of the mobilization to conduct a comprehensive ecological protection for community residents.The author emphasizes the significance of strengthen community residents ecological education.Based on the present situation of the ecological education of community residents,community residents' ecological education is carried out,has great significance and importance.

  7. Interactive Knowledge Acquisition in Case Based Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Amélie; Fuchs, Béatrice; Lieber, Jean; Mille, Alain

    2007-01-01

    International audience In Case Based Reasoning (CBR), knowledge acquisition plays an important role as it allows to progressively improve the system's competencies. One of the approaches of knowledge acquisition consists in performing it while the system is used to solve a problem. An advantage of this strategy is that it is not to constraining for the expert: the system exploits its interactions to acquire pieces of knowledge it needs to solve the current problem and takes the opportunity...

  8. Applying Case-Based Reasoning to Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkle, David; Toomey, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    CLAVIER is a case-based reasoning (CBR) system that assists in determining efficient loads of composite material parts to be cured in an autoclave. CLAVIER's central purpose is to find the most appropriate groupings and configurations of parts (or loads) to maximize autoclave throughput yet ensure that parts are properly cured. CLAVIER uses CBR to match a list of parts that need to be cured against a library of previously successful loads and suggest the most appropriate next load. clavier al...

  9. Participant experiences of a community-based maintenance program post-pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desveaux, Laura; Rolfe, Debbie; Beauchamp, Marla; Goldstein, Roger; Brooks, Dina

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the perspectives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who participated in a minimally supervised maintenance exercise intervention and identify the barriers and facilitators associated with participation. The intervention was delivered in a community center and was designed to maintain exercise capacity and quality of life following discharge from pulmonary rehabilitation. This study utilized qualitative focus groups (FGs) involving individuals with COPD (n = 12) who had been attending the maintenance community program for at least 6 months. All individuals who met the inclusion criteria for the FGs consented to participate. Four themes were identified: (1) issues around attendance; (2) perceived benefits of the program; (3) perceived burdens of the program; and (4) recommendations for program improvement. Participants expressed more benefits than barriers, stating that their experience of improved function and quality of life facilitated their attendance. Barriers included exacerbations, fatigue, access to transportation, and weather. Participants endorsed the benefits of a community-based maintenance exercise program after pulmonary rehabilitation. Minimally supervised community-based programs with access to a case manager may provide a useful approach to enhancing adherence to exercise. PMID:24431408

  10. Community based intervention to optimize osteoporosis management: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaschini Patricia M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis-related fractures are a significant public health concern. Interventions that increase detection and treatment of osteoporosis are underutilized. This pragmatic randomised study was done to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted community-based care program aimed at optimizing evidence-based management in patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Methods This was a 12-month randomized trial performed in Ontario, Canada. Eligible patients were community-dwelling, aged ≥55 years, and identified to be at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures. Two hundred and one patients were allocated to the intervention group or to usual care. Components of the intervention were directed towards primary care physicians and patients and included facilitated bone mineral density testing, patient education and patient-specific recommendations for osteoporosis treatment. The primary outcome was the implementation of appropriate osteoporosis management. Results 101 patients were allocated to intervention and 100 to control. Mean age of participants was 71.9 ± 7.2 years and 94% were women. Pharmacological treatment (alendronate, risedronate, or raloxifene for osteoporosis was increased by 29% compared to usual care (56% [29/52] vs. 27% [16/60]; relative risk [RR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29 to 3.40. More individuals in the intervention group were taking calcium (54% [54/101] vs. 20% [20/100]; RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.74 to 4.12 and vitamin D (33% [33/101] vs. 20% [20/100]; RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.65. Conclusions A multi-faceted community-based intervention improved management of osteoporosis in high risk patients compared with usual care. Trial Registration This trial has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov (ID: NCT00465387

  11. Agent Community based Peer-to-Peer Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Tsunenori; Matsuno, Daisuke; Amamiya, Makoto

    This paper proposes an agent community based information retrieval method, which uses agent communities to manage and look up information related to users. An agent works as a delegate of its user and searches for information that the user wants by communicating with other agents. The communication between agents is carried out in a peer-to-peer computing architecture. In order to retrieve information related to a user query, an agent uses two histories : a query/retrieved document history(Q/RDH) and a query/sender agent history(Q/SAH). The former is a list of pairs of a query and retrieved documents, where the queries were sent by the agent itself. The latter is a list of pairs of a query and sender agents and shows ``who sent what query to the agent''. This is useful to find a new information source. Making use of the Q/SAH is expected to cause a collaborative filtering effect, which gradually creates virtual agent communities, where agents with the same interests stay together. Our hypothesis is that a virtual agent community reduces communication loads to perform a search. As an agent receives more queries, then more links to new knowledge are achieved. From this behavior, a ``give and take''(or positive feedback) effect for agents seems to emerge. We implemented this method with Multi-Agents Kodama which has been developed in our laboratory, and conducted preliminary experiments to test the hypothesis. The empirical results showed that the method was much more efficient than a naive method employing 'broadcast' techniques only to look up a target agent.

  12. Tourism Planning: A Case Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the tourism marketing and attraction strategies adopted by various countries. A case study based approach is adopted in this study. On the basis of investigation of tourism development strategies adopted by various countries, suggestions are also made at the end. These suggestions are aimed to increase visitors our tourists’ base in a country. These suggestions can be used by any country to increase visitors or tourists. Future directions are also given at the end.

  13. Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinqi; Li, Yawen; Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research…

  14. Nursing Students as Change Agents and Problem Solvers in the Community: Community-based Nursing Education in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, Ermalynn M.; Wink, Diane M.

    2000-01-01

    A nursing school operates nine community nursing centers in which students practice community-based learning and act as problem solvers and change agents. Examples include effecting systemwide change in school health services, coordinating multiple agencies to meet a health need, and solving a patient's complex problems involving multiple…

  15. The School-Community Interface: A Practitioner's Approach to Launching School/Community-Based Management. HSLA Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Moss

    Parents and community members can become involved with schools in at least three ways: (1) direct involvement in an advisory capacity through school advisory councils, various parent organizations, or as individuals through involvement and shared decision making in School/Community-Based Management (S/C-BM); (2) hands-on involvement in school…

  16. The Business of Creating Small Businesses: A Case Study of the Springfield Business Incubator at Springfield Technical Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauber, James Shuler, Sr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to understand and explain the characteristics of a small business incubator located on the campus of a community college. Business incubation and entrepreneurship programs are increasing in number on community college campuses across the country (Montoya, 2009). As community colleges have traditionally played a…

  17. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  18. Test Case Generation Based on Use case and Sequence Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar Swain; Durga Prasad Mohapatra; Rajib Mall

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive test case generation technique from UML models. We use the features in UML 2.0 sequence diagram including conditions, iterations, asynchronous messages and concurrent components. In our approach, test cases are derived from analysis artifacts such as use cases, their corresponding sequence diagrams and constraints specified across all these artifacts. We construct Use case Dependency Graph (UDG) from use case diagram and Concurrent Control Flow Graph (CCFG) from cor...

  19. Facilitators' perceptions of problem-based learning and community-based education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula P du Rand

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 the School for Nursing, University of the Orange Free State, changed from the traditional lecture method of teaching to problem-based learning and from a curative to a community-based approach. Lecturers from a traditional environment became facilitators and new skills such as listening, dialogue, negotiation, counselling and problemsolving were expected from them. Besides the role change, the environment changed from a structural classroom to an unstructured community. The aim of this research was to determine the perceptions and experiences of facilitators in problem-based learning and community-base education. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. Case-based Reasoning in Conflict Negotiation in Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a kind of analogous reasoning that is widely used in artificial intelligence. Conflicts are pervasive in Concurrent Engineering design environment. Conflict negotiation is necessary when conflicts occur. It is difficult to resolve conflicts due to several reasons. An approach to resolving conflicts by case-based reasoning is proposed in this paper. The knowledge representation of conflict negotiation cases, the judgment of case similarity, the retrieval model of cases, the management of case bases, and the process of case-based conflict negotiation are studied. The implementation structure of the Case-based Conflict Solving System (CCSS) is also given.

  1. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  2. A case of community-acquired Acinetobacter junii-johnsonii cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Martínez, Andrés F; González-Fontal, Guido R; Johnson, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Acinetobacter skin and soft tissue infection outside of the traumatic wound setting are rare occurrences. The majority of cases occur in the presence of significant comorbilities and by Acinetobacter baumanii. Herein a case is reported of community-onset, health-care-associated, non-traumatic cellulitis caused by Acinetobacter, species junii-johnsonii with bacteremia. This is the first reported case of Acinetobacter junii-johnsonii skin and soft tissue infection. Hemorrhagic bullae might be one of the clinical features of Acinetobacter cellulitis. PMID:23242290

  3. Using Forest Certification to Strengthen Rural Communities: Cases from Northwest Russia.

    OpenAIRE

    Meidinger, E.; Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid globalization of forest products markets has placed many rural forest-based communities under considerable pressure to rapidly exploit forest resources. To counter, transnational environmental organizations have promoted programs for forest certification, seeking to use global market forces to support environmentally and socially responsible forest management. This paper reports the impacts of the Forest Stewardship Council certification program on four rural communities in northwes...

  4. Characterizing the Use of Research-Community Partnerships in Studies of Evidence-Based Interventions in Children's Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Herschell, Amy; Garland, Ann F

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized the use of research community partnerships (RCPs) to tailor evidence-based intervention, training, and implementation models for delivery across different childhood problems and service contexts using a survey completed by project principal investigators and community partners. To build on previous RCP research and to explicate the tacit knowledge gained through collaborative efforts, the following were examined: (1) characteristics of studies using RCP models; (2) RCP functioning, processes, and products; (3) processes of tailoring evidence-based practices for community implementation; and (4) perceptions of the benefits and challenges of collaborating with community providers and consumers. Results indicated that researchers were solely or jointly involved in the formation of almost all of the RCPs; interpersonal and operational processes were perceived as primary challenges; community partners' roles included greater involvement in implementation and participant recruitment than more traditional research activities; and the partnership process was perceived to increase the relevance and "fit" of interventions and research. PMID:25578512

  5. 某社区产褥期接受三次家庭访视的产妇健康状况分析%Maternal Health Status During Puerperium: A community-based retrospective analysis of 338 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓英; 郭玲; 刘素珍; 杨梅兰; 高喜莲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out the current status and the influence factors of maternal health during puerperium, and to provide an evidence to improvement the home visiting service provided by community health nursing. Methods The data of maternal health status of 338 puerperae who accepted three -time home visiting during puerperium were retrospectively analyzed. Results The proportion of cesarean section was high to 71% and there were significant differences among the puerperae with different ages and degrees of education ( P < 0. 05 ). Some 61. 2% of them had hypogalactia, and there was significant difference among the puerperae of different age groups ( P < 0. 05 ). Only 47. 9% of the puerperae insisted pure breastfeeding during one month of puerperium. Univariate analysis revealed that the hypogalactia had a remarkable influence to breastfeeding ( P =0. 00 ); 53. 3% of the puerperae had sub - involution of uterus, 52. 1% had the prolonged lochia; and only 5. 3% had other disorders or health problems. Conclusion It is important to improve the home visiting service, to enhance the health promotion work for perinatal women, and raise their self - managing healthability so as to ensure the maternal health and life quality.%目的 分析某社区产妇接受产后家庭访视期间的健康状况及其影响因素,明确家庭访视的效果.方法 回顾性分析338例产妇的家庭访视资料.结果 选择剖宫产产妇比例较大(占71.0%),不同年龄、文化程度产妇对分娩方式的选择差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);61.2%的产妇曾有乳汁不足问题,且在不同年龄段产妇间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);1个月内产妇全程纯母乳喂养执行率低(47.9%),单因素分析显示乳汁不足对母乳喂养有明显影响(P=0.00);产妇子宫复旧不佳(53.3%)问题突出,主要是恶露延迟(52.1%),但其他疾病或健康问题发生率较低(5.3%).结论 社区卫生服务中心应从提高自身访视质量出

  6. Performance of a community detection algorithm based on semidefinite programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The problem of detecting communities in a graph is maybe one the most studied inference problems, given its simplicity and widespread diffusion among several disciplines. A very common benchmark for this problem is the stochastic block model or planted partition problem, where a phase transition takes place in the detection of the planted partition by changing the signal-to-noise ratio. Optimal algorithms for the detection exist which are based on spectral methods, but we show these are extremely sensible to slight modification in the generative model. Recently Javanmard, Montanari and Ricci-Tersenghi [1] have used statistical physics arguments, and numerical simulations to show that finding communities in the stochastic block model via semidefinite programming is quasi optimal. Further, the resulting semidefinite relaxation can be solved efficiently, and is very robust with respect to changes in the generative model. In this paper we study in detail several practical aspects of this new algorithm based on semidefinite programming for the detection of the planted partition. The algorithm turns out to be very fast, allowing the solution of problems with O(105) variables in few second on a laptop computer.

  7. Social responsibility and educational communication in communities accessed by the works: a case study. IEGA - enterprise implementations for gasene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Elisangela Assis de; Farias, Aline Marianne Magalhaes [LP Empreendimentos, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Yanna Oliveira [Cia. Nacional de Dutos (Conduto S/A), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Penido, Rita de Cassia [Sinopec Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Construction and assembly in a gas pipeline project is a constant study of realities and in some cases situations which involve interferences in communities, the company's interests must be wholly integrated with the primary need of the project which is to construct with Social-Environmental Responsibility, establish a good relationship, respect the communities values in which the project passes through and around and surround itself with measures guaranteeing safety, information about the activities and cause minimal impact in the day to day lives of the residents. At Spread 2A of the Pipeline project Cacimbas-Catu, the necessity to develop a specific project for the communities surrounding the access areas was elaborated principally because the topography only permitted the transportation of pipes, equipment and personnel to pass through these areas. This unique situation was drafted based on the transit of vehicles and heavy machinery, through communities with a low IDH (Human Development Index), dangerous living conditions and a high demographic density. Preventive and pacifying actions for Communities and Social responsibility were drafted and developed, involving a multidisciplinary collective effort with other sectors of the project, applying a global theme to ensure safety for the residents around the access areas, also to divulge information in regards to project activities, establish ethical and transparent communication and implement measures that assist in building a solid relationship between the enterprise and community, anticipating risky situations and possible conflicts. This Case Study has as an objective to present projects that were developed in the area of Communication and Social Responsibility in the Access Communities and that, proved effective, became standard within the entire work force's Trainings and Daily Safety, Environmental, and Occupational Health Dialoguing. During the development of the Project 'Street of Leisure

  8. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  9. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Gebresilassie, Begashaw Melaku; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Woldie, Habtamu Gebremeskel

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia. Methods A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance. Results Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69%) of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90.3%), whereas “chief complaint” was the least to be taken (23%), for patients presenting with diarrhea. Approximately 96 (85.0%) cases were provided with one or more medications. The remaining 17 (15%) cases did not receive any medication. A total of six pharmacologic groups of medications were given to alleviate acute diarrheal symptoms. Majority (66, 29.6%) of the medications were oral rehydration salts with zinc. The mean number of medications was 1.99 per visit. Components of advice

  10. Trachoma control in two Central Australian Aboriginal communities: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansingh, Van C; Mukesh, Bickol N; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2010-08-01

    This prospective case study assessed the additional impact of environmental changes (E) within the SAFE strategy in controlling trachoma in two Aboriginal communities (populations 315 and 385) in Central Australia. Baseline levels for trachoma, facial cleanliness, and nasal discharge were measured in children <15 years old. Health and facial cleanliness promotion were initiated in each community and housing and environmental improvements were made in one community. Azithromycin was distributed to all members of each community (coverage 55-73%). Assessments of trachoma and facial cleanliness were made at 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Baseline trachoma rates were similar for the two communities (48 and 50%). Rates were significantly lower at 3, 6, and 12 months compared to baseline, but there was no significant difference between the two communities. The A/F components of the SAFE strategy significantly reduced the prevalence of trachoma; however, while the E intervention did not bring any apparent benefits, several factors might have masked them. PMID:20358257

  11. Use of strong opioids for non-cancer pain in the community: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, David T; While, Alison; Griffiths, Peter

    2004-02-01

    The continued extension of prescribing rights among nurses may necessitate that effective pain management will require more involvement of nurses in the prescription of controlled drugs. The prescription of strong opioid analgesic drugs for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is viewed as controversial. Misconceptions about opioid drugs fuel this controversy. This case study highlights the knowledge gap that exists between pain and addiction medicine and highlights the problems that CNCP patients treated in the community with opioid therapy may encounter. Community nurses are in an ideal position to be instrumental in identifying such vulnerable patients and ensuring that appropriate interventions are available. PMID:15007281

  12. A community based surveillance system for perinatal and neonatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal Chand, A; Khale, M

    1989-11-01

    The impact of maternal health services on perinatal and neonatal mortality depends on both the quantitative and qualitative coverage of pregnant women with obstetric services. In rural areas this becomes all the more difficult because of the requirement of a large decentralized infrastructure extending from village based health workers and subcentres to the Primary Health Centre and tertiary levels of referral. An effective introduction of socio-cultural, biomedical and managerial interventions is required to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality. A community based surveillance and monitoring system is central to and facilitates the introduction of all other interventions. Finally, the system operated by grass-root level workers is a motivational tool for achieving expected levels of performance. PMID:2630471

  13. Communities and the environment: Ethnicity, gender, and the state in community-based conservation

    OpenAIRE

    A Agrawal; Gibson, C C

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This book investigates the connection between community and resource conservation and management, with strong consideration of concepts of "community" and the impact of gender. The connection between ethnicity and the state is explored in order to examine the strengths and weaknesses of community resource management.

  14. Lessons learnt from comprehensive evaluation of community-based education in Uganda: a proposal for an ideal model community-based education for health professional training institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Atuyambe Lynn; Oria Hussein; Nabirye Rose C; Okullo Isaac; Mbalinda Scovia N; Kijjambu Steven; Kasozi Ann N; Muhwezi Wilson W; Kaye Dan K; Groves Sarah; Burnham Gilbert; Mwanika Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Community-based education (CBE) can provide contextual learning that addresses manpower scarcity by enabling trainees acquire requisite experiences, competence, confidence and values. In Uganda, many health professional training institutions conduct some form of community-based education (CBE). However, there is scanty information on the nature of the training: whether a curriculum exists (objectives, intended outcomes, content, implementation strategy), administration and...

  15. Mechanisms of Power within a Community-Based Food Security Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, Christine; Pelletier, David; Barr, Donald; Wilkins, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A community food security movement has begun to address problems of hunger and food insecurity by utilizing a community-based approach. Although various models have been implemented, little empirical research has assessed how power operates within community-based food security initiatives. The purpose of this research was to determine how power…

  16. Challenges of Emerging Leadership: Community Based Independent Living Programs and The Disability Rights Movement. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Robert

    The report is based on a 1982 conference on the status of independent living programs, community based programs run by disabled persons to provide advocacy and support services to the disabled community. The philosophy of independent living is reviewed and its attributes of community responsiveness, provision of support services and advocacy, and…

  17. 42 CFR 435.217 - Individuals receiving home and community-based services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individuals receiving home and community-based... receiving home and community-based services. The agency may provide Medicaid to any group or groups of individuals in the community who meet the following requirements: (a) The group would be eligible for...

  18. Exploring Partnership Functioning within a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Improve Disaster Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Daniel E.; Paré, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Disasters happen worldwide, and it is necessary to engage emergency management agencies, health and social services, and community-based organizations in collaborative management activities to enhance community resilience. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely accepted in public health research as an approach to develop…

  19. Drinking water in drinkingan urban area in South India – A community based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Mithra P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation estimates that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are preventable through interventions to increase the availability of clean water, and to improve sanitation and hygiene. This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mangalore in South India. Seventeen percent of those surveyed had a private water source The team found that 5% of the sample did not use any method to treat water in their households. All these belonged to lower socio economic groups and it could lead to higher chances of water borne diseases among them.

  20. A Population-Based Study of Parkinsonism in an Amish Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Brad A.; Good, Laura M.; Kissel, Abigail M.; Criswell, Susan R.; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with unknown cause. Genetic mutations account for a minority of cases but the role of environmental factors is unclear. Methods We performed a population-based screening for PD in subjects in an Amish community over age 60. PD was diagnosed using standard clinical criteria and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection 3 (UPDRS3). Community prevalence was calculated. We constructed a community pedigree and calculated kinship coefficients, a measure of relatedness between 2 subjects, for every pair of subjects in diagnostic categories: clinically definite PD, UPDRS3 score >9, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score 9. The prevalence of PD was 5,703/100,000 with increasing prevalence in every decade of age. Excluding first-degree relatives, normal subjects were more related to each other (0.0102, SD = 0.0266) than subjects with clinically definite PD (0.0054, SD = 0.0100; p = 0.00003), subjects with UPDRS >9 (0.0076, SD = 0.0155; p = 0.00001), and subjects with MMSE <25 (0.0090, SD = 0.0180; p = 0.00003). Conclusions PD and parkinsonian signs are common in this population and the prevalence increases with age. The finding that subjects with PD were not more related than normal subjects suggests that environmental factors may contribute to the parkinsonian phenotype in this community. PMID:19641327

  1. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart of a cohort of residents (n = 909 in the intervention area (n = 520 (Fairfield and Liverpool and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389 (Bankstown. Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels.

  2. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Identify Environmental Justice Issues in an Inner-City Community and Inform Urban Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, Carol Leler; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Holloman, Erica; DeBrew, Linwood

    2016-01-01

    The Southeast CARE Coalition has been using community-based participatory research to examine environmental degradation in the Southeast Community, Newport News, Virginia. A survey was developed to collect assessment data. Up to 66% of respondents were concerned about environmental problems in their community. Those with health conditions were significantly more likely to identify specific environmental problems. The top 5 environmental concerns included coal dust, air quality, crime, water quality, and trash. The community-based participatory research process is building community capacity and participation, providing community input into strategic planning, and empowering community members to take control of environmental justice issues in their community. PMID:27214672

  3. Digital Communication and a Concern with the Community: A Case Study in a Cooperative Credit Araguaina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeninng Abrantes Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to address the attributes of Digital Communication used by a cooperative of Credit to meet the seventh cooperative principle of Concern for Community. The same occurred in a credit union in the city of Araguaina Tocantins, with the aim of identifying the digital communication developed by the cooperative. The article begins with a literature review on the emergence of cooperative, then the conceptualization of the credit union and its history in Brazil, then the cooperative principles and their evolution, conceptualizations of concern for the community, digital communication, social marketing and the presentation and analysis of results. The methodology was based on the case study, which according to Yin (2001 it is important because it is the reality studied. The research showed that the performance of the cooperative is geared entirely to their members and do not have a lot of focus related to social actions, but it promotes actions to attract members and to promote community development through digital media. Another important result of the research was that the principle addressed is one of the goals of the cooperative that aims to meet the interests, promote the welfare of members and the entire community where the cooperative operates.

  4. The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yorukkoyo Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiper, Tugba; Arslan, Mukerrem

    The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. In this study, the topics were questioned with a research based on questionnaires, observations and related literature are (1) What is the visitors= land use and satisfaction level? (2) What are the expectations of the local community from tourism and what are they able to do? With this aim, different questionnaires were applied to the visitors and the local community in the case of the Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu Village. These questionnaires were applied to a total of randomly selected 194 people. One hundred and forty four of them were composed of visitors and 50 of them were from the local community. Questionnaires have been applied to people having different socio-economic structures in June and July of 2004. The research shows that Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu has a suitable potential for rural tourism with its historical, cultural and natural resources. These resources can contribute to the diversification and distribution of tourism to different seasons and the local people can have active roles during this process.

  5. ‘We are a community [but] that takes a certain amount of energy’: Exploring shared visions, social action, and resilience in place-based community-led energy initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We engage with conceptual characteristics of 3 community-led energy case studies. • We examine data from interviews to explore the issues community energy groups face. • Shared visions, social action and social resilience are important to community energy. • Creating and maintaining shared visions, social action and social resilience is extremely challenging. - Abstract: In UK energy policy, community-led energy initiatives are increasingly being imbued with transformative power to facilitate low carbon transitions. The ways that such expectations for communities are manifesting in practice remains, however, relatively poorly understood. In particular, key conceptual developments in unpacking what constitutes ‘community’ that highlight the significance of ‘place’ along with important characteristics, such as shared visions, collective social action, and resilience, have yet to be comprehensively explored in the context of community-led energy initiatives. This paper uses an interpretive stance to engage with these conceptual ideas about community and provides insights into the nature of community and its meaning for developing energy-related initiatives and realising the wider goals of energy policy. The paper draws on data from in-depth qualitative, longitudinal interviews undertaken in two residential communities and one purely workplace-based community, which are engaged in community energy initiatives. We argue that there are difficulties and ambiguities in creating shared visions, achieving social action, and developing resilience that are related to the specificities of community in place, but that all three characteristics are likely to be important for the making of sustainable places

  6. Novel approach for decentralized energy supply and energy storage of tall buildings in Latin America based on renewable energy sources: Case study – Informal vertical community Torre David, Caracas – Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the concept of a decentralized power system based on wind energy and a pumped hydro storage system in a tall building. The system reacts to the current paradigm of power outage in Latin American countries caused by infrastructure limitations and climate change, while it fosters the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) for a more diversified and secure electricity supply. An explicit methodology describes the assessment of technical, operational and economic potentials in a specific urban setting in Caracas/Venezuela. The suitability, applicability and the impacts generated by such power system are furthermore discussed at economic, social and technical level. - Highlights: ► We have modeled an innovative pico pumped hydro-storage system and wind power system for tall buildings. ► We conducted technical, economic and social analysis on these energy supply and storage alternatives. ► The energy storage system can achieve efficiencies within 30% and 35%. ► The energy storage is realistic and economic sensible in comparison to other solutions. ► The impacts of such a system in the current living conditions and safety issues of the building are minimum

  7. SPATIAL AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ASPECTS IN COMMUNITY BASED MOSQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Maslucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as one of the biggest Muslim countries in the world are very rich in the quality and quantity ofmosques architecture. The largest number of mosques in Indonesia is designed, built, and developed by localcommunities. Unfortunately, the potention of these kind of mosques is often unconsciously forgotten in thefield of architectural studies. Therefore, this research is held to define these mosques’ spatial andarchitectural design aspects which were considered as appropriate for the needs of their local communities’.As a descriptive-qualitative architectural research, the methods employed in this research are (1 fieldsurveying, (2 architectural documenting, and (3 informal interview, which were held in three purposivesample of mosques: Masjid An-Nur Jagalan, Masjid Gading Pesantren, and Masjid Jami’ Kauman Malang. Thesethree mosques were chosen because of their close relations with their surrounding communities and their longtime developments by their local societies. The result of this study shows that some specific spatial andarchitectural elements which were found in these community based mosques are (1 the scale, size, and depthof space, (2 the classification and the placement of space, (3 the architectural expressions, (4 the openness,the boundaries, and the relationship between spaces, (5 the athmospherical qualities of space, (6 theclassification of the users in spaces, (7 the intensity of the users in spaces, and (8 the manner and theposition of the users in spaces.

  8. A trait-based framework for stream algal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Katharina; Townsend, Colin Richard; Matthaei, Christoph David

    2016-01-01

    The use of trait-based approaches to detect effects of land use and climate change on terrestrial plant and aquatic phytoplankton communities is increasing, but such a framework is still needed for benthic stream algae. Here we present a conceptual framework of morphological, physiological, behavioural and life-history traits relating to resource acquisition and resistance to disturbance. We tested this approach by assessing the relationships between multiple anthropogenic stressors and algal traits at 43 stream sites. Our "natural experiment" was conducted along gradients of agricultural land-use intensity (0-95% of the catchment in high-producing pasture) and hydrological alteration (0-92% streamflow reduction resulting from water abstraction for irrigation) as well as related physicochemical variables (total nitrogen concentration and deposited fine sediment). Strategic choice of study sites meant that agricultural intensity and hydrological alteration were uncorrelated. We studied the relationships of seven traits (with 23 trait categories) to our environmental predictor variables using general linear models and an information-theoretic model-selection approach. Life form, nitrogen fixation and spore formation were key traits that showed the strongest relationships with environmental stressors. Overall, FI (farming intensity) exerted stronger effects on algal communities than hydrological alteration. The large-bodied, non-attached, filamentous algae that dominated under high farming intensities have limited dispersal abilities but may cope with unfavourable conditions through the formation of spores. Antagonistic interactions between FI and flow reduction were observed for some trait variables, whereas no interactions occurred for nitrogen concentration and fine sediment. Our conceptual framework was well supported by tests of ten specific hypotheses predicting effects of resource supply and disturbance on algal traits. Our study also shows that investigating a

  9. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Piedad; Hough Richard L; Lebowitz Barry; Lindamer Laurie A; Aguirre Alfredo; Halpain Maureen C; Depp Colin; Jeste Dilip V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, a...

  10. Mind the Gap - Building Profitable Community Based Businesses on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    KRIEGER, Bernhard; Müller, Philipp

    2001-01-01

    Building Internet communities will become a strategic tool both as a stand-alone model and as a supplement to sustain competitive advantage for "normal" businesses. Community based business models aim to profit from the value, which is created when Internet communities solve problems of collective action, by controlling access, aggregating data, or realizing side-payments. The current literature on community based business models refers to rational choices by individuals to explain why member...

  11. Supporting close-to-community providers through a community health system approach: case examples from Ethiopia and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lunsford, Sarah Smith; Fatta, Kate; Stover, Kim Ethier; Shrestha, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Close-to-community (CTC) providers, including community health workers or volunteers or health extension workers, can be effective in promoting access to and utilization of health services. Tasks are often shifted to these providers with limited resources and support from CTC programmes or communities. The Community Health System Strengthening (CHSS) model is part of an improvement approach which draws on existing formal and informal networks within a community, such as agricultu...

  12. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Delgado-Serrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of community-based natural resource management in Latin American social-ecological systems exist in which communities control the management of common-pool resources. Understanding community perceptions of the performance of these systems is essential to involve communities in sustainable management strategies. In this analysis of three areas in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina, we analyzed the local perceptions of the social and environmental challenges faced by these social-ecological systems and how these challenges and drivers affect their resilience. To do this, we combined prospective structural analysis to unravel stakeholders' perceptions of each system's functioning along with network analysis to assess resilience. We identified external variables as the most influential variables in the Colombian and Argentine cases. In the Mexican case, larger influence is exerted by internal variables, particularly those linked to the governance system. The case study analysis revealed that the community-based natural resource management approach needs external support and recognition to work effectively. In the Argentine and Colombian cases, megaprojects were perceived as controllers with medium or strong influence but low dependence. The use of ancestral knowledge (Colombia, the history of land use (Mexico, and the history of the artisanal fishery (Argentina were all perceived as common challenges to community-based natural resource management. In terms of social-ecological resilience, framed within the three-dimensional model of the adaptive cycle, all three social-ecological systems were considered to be highly connected and resilient but with different degrees of capacity or cumulative potential.

  13. Virtual communities for elderly healthcare: user-based requirements elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Jan-Willem; Beijnum, van Bert-Jan; Pawar, Pravin; Sikkel, Klaas; Meertens, Lucas; Hermens, Hermie

    2011-01-01

    Virtual communities for elderly healthcare have a potential to improve the community building process and to facilitate care services through support for activities, participation and information needs. This paper expounds on this idea by proposing a mobile virtual community (MVC) platform for elder

  14. Creating a New University-Based Community College Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Juanita Gamez

    2013-01-01

    The author describes the process for developing a new Community College Leadership (CCL) curriculum for a certificate, master's, and doctoral degree in adult and higher education. The article details the research strategy in learning about Oklahoma's community colleges, existing national community college leadership programs, relevant courses…

  15. Proposing Community-Based Learning in the Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Susan; Atwong, Catherine; Lebard, Aubrey

    2013-01-01

    Community service and service learning (CS&SL) exposes students to the business practice of giving back to society while reinforcing classroom learning in an applied real-world setting. However, does the CS&SL format provide a better means of instilling the benefits of community service among marketing students than community-based…

  16. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L;

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Austral......-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR.......Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia...

  17. Developing Governance for Federated Community-based EHR Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Stephens, Kari A; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Keppel, Gina A; Whitener, Ron J; Echo-Hawk, Abigail; Korngiebel, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Bi-directional translational pathways between scientific discoveries and primary care are crucial for improving individual patient care and population health. The Data QUEST pilot project is a program supporting data sharing amongst community based primary care practices and is built on a technical infrastructure to share electronic health record data. We developed a set of governance requirements from interviewing and collaborating with partner organizations. Recommendations from our partner organizations included: 1) partner organizations can physically terminate the link to the data sharing network and only approved data exits the local site; 2) partner organizations must approve or reject each query; 3) partner organizations and researchers must respect local processes, resource restrictions, and infrastructures; and 4) partner organizations can be seamlessly added and removed from any individual data sharing query or the entire network. PMID:25717404

  18. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  19. Impact of Mercury Use in Artisanal Gold Mining on Community Health: Kahama Case Study, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwani, Jumanne Daudi; Fumbuka, Colorine

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of the main research carried out in 2010 which investigated social economic impact of uncontrolled artisanal mining on local communities and the environment using a case study of sampled gold mining sites in selected villages in Lunguya and Segese wards in Kahama District, Tanzania. The methodology involved a study sample size of 210 households, forming 70% of the targeted mining villages. They were interviewed on various social economic variables related to artisanal minin...

  20. Notation of Depression in Case Records of Older Adults in Community Long-Term Care

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Enola K

    2008-01-01

    Although significant numbers of social service clients experience mental health problems, virtually no research has examined the responsiveness of social service agencies to mental disorder. This article examines the extent to which client depression is reflected in records of a public social service agency, community long-term care (CLTC). Researchers assessed new, consenting CLTC clients for depression using standardized research criteria in a telephone interview. Agency case records were a...

  1. Widening the audience: cultural institutions and the use of virtual communities: two Belgian cases

    OpenAIRE

    Laenen, Ann; Kolgen, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in Information Technology have resulted in changes that affected our way of living. These technological innovations have made the Internet more accessible. It is found that more people use the Net nowadays within their work and home environment. Through the Internet people can meet with friends and relatives who live close by and far away. Online social networks or virtual communities continue to develop. In some cases this results in a very ‘local’ translation of these ‘...

  2. Community-Based Dialogue: Engaging Communities of Color in the United States’ Genetics Policy Conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Bonham, Vence L.; Citrin, Toby; Modell, Stephen M.; Franklin, Tené Hamilton; Bleicher, Esther W. B.; Fleck, Leonard M.

    2009-01-01

    Engaging communities of color in the genetics public policy conversation is important for the translation of genetics research into strategies aimed at improving the health of all. Implementing model public participation and consultation processes can be informed by the Communities of Color Genetics Policy Project, which engaged individuals from African American and Latino communities of diverse socioeconomic levels in the process of “rational democratic deliberation” on ethical and policy is...

  3. Community Wise: A formative evaluation of a community based health intervention

    OpenAIRE

    WINDSOR, LILIANE CAMBRAIA; Jessell, Lauren; Lassiter, Teri; Benoit, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with histories of incarceration and substance abuse residing in distressed communities often receive suboptimal services partly due to a lack of empirically supported substance abuse treatments targeting this population. Grounded in community-engaged research, we developed Community Wise, a manualized, 12-week, group behavioral intervention. The intervention aims to reduce substance use frequency, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, and reoffending among individuals with histories of substanc...

  4. A rare case of community acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection presenting as pyopneumothorax in an immunocompetent individual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman S Karanth; Hariharan Regunath; Kiran Chawla; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) infection is rarely reported in an immunocompetent host. It is a well known occurence in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease where it increases both morbidity and mortality. It has also been included in the list of organisms causing nosocomial infections in an immunocompetent host, most of them transmitted from the immunocompromised patient in which this organism harbors. We report a rare case of isolation of B. cepacia from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of an immunocompetent agriculturist who presented with productive cough and fever associated with a pyopneumothorax. This is the first case of community acquired infection reported in an immunocompetent person in India.

  5. IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.

  6. Professional development using student-led, community-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley E; Cunningham, Stacey C; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2011-01-01

    As a community health education center affiliated with an academic institution, we recognize that by investing in the professional development of our students, we not only maximize our own outcomes but those of our students as well. Our project, Creating Community Connections, was developed to aid the work of our Center in characterizing the evolving community landscape following Hurricane Katrina while providing opportunities for students to engage in experiential learning. Students in the project could gain skills in program planning and community assessment, as well as leadership and communications. Twenty-three students worked on the project during its 2 years, developing data collection tools, organizing and conducting key informant interviews, facilitating focus groups and community forums, managing data, and summarizing project findings for community presentations. Participation in this project allowed our students to grow as public health leaders and researchers while gaining a greater appreciation for community collaboration. PMID:21617412

  7. Evaluation of a Telerehabilitation System for Community-Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Schutte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of web-based portals, while increasing in popularity in the fields of medicine and research, are rarely reported on in community-based rehabilitation programs.  A program within the Pennsylvania Office of Vocational Rehabilitation’s Hiram G. Andrews Center, the Cognitive Skills Enhancement Program (CSEP, sought to enhance organization of program and participant information and communication between part- and full-time employees, supervisors and consultants. A telerehab system was developed consisting of (1 a web-based portal to support a variety of clinical activities and (2 the Versatile Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISyTER video-conferencing system to support the collaboration and delivery of rehabilitation services remotely.  This descriptive evaluation examines the usability of the telerehab system incorporating both the portal and VISyTER. Telerehab system users include CSEP staff members from three geographical locations and employed by two institutions. The IBM After-Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ, the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ, and two demographic surveys were administered to gather both objective and subjective information. Results showed generally high levels of usability.  Users commented that the telerehabilitation system improved communication, increased access to information, improved speed of completing tasks, and had an appealing interface. Areas where users would like to see improvements, including ease of accessing/editing documents and searching for information, are discussed.         

  8. Tailoring science outreach through E-matching using a community-based participatory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice B Rumala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to increase science exposure for pre-college (K-12 students and as part of the science education reform agenda, many biomedical research institutions have established university-community partnerships. Typically, these science outreach programs consist of pre-structured, generic exposure for students, with little community engagement. However, the use of a medium that is accessible to both teachers and scientists, electronic web-based matchmaking (E-matching provides an opportunity for tailored outreach utilizing a community-based participatory approach (CBPA, which involves all stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the science outreach based on the interests of teachers/students and scientists. E-matching is a timely and urgent endeavor that provides a rapid connection for science engagement between teachers/students and experts in an effort to fill the science outreach gap. National Lab Network (formerly National Lab Day, an ongoing initiative to increase science equity and literacy, provides a model for engaging the public in science via an E-matching and hands-on learning approach. We argue that science outreach should be a dynamic endeavor that changes according to the needs of a target school. We will describe a case study of a tailored science outreach activity in which a public school that serves mostly under-represented minority students from disadvantaged backgrounds were E-matched with a university, and subsequently became equal partners in the development of the science outreach plan. In addition, we will show how global science outreach endeavors may utilize a CBPA, like E-matching, to support a pipeline to science among under-represented minority students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. By merging the CBPA concept with a practical case example, we hope to inform science outreach practices via the lens of a tailored E-matching approach.

  9. CASE STUDY: Community Based Ecological Mangrove Rehabilitation (CBEMR) in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ben; Fadillah, Ratna; Nurdin, Yusran; Soulsby, Iona; Ahmad, Rio

    2014-01-01

    While successful examples of large-scale (5 000-10 000 ha) ecological wetland/mangrove rehabilitation projects exist worldwide, mangrove rehabilitation efforts in Indonesia, both large and small, have mainly failed. The majority of projects (both government programs and non-government initiatives) have oversimplified the technical processes of mangrove rehabilitation, favouring the direct planting of a restricted subset of mangrove species (from the family Rhizophoracea), commonly in the lowe...

  10. The Academic Robotics Community in the UK Web based data construction and analysis of a distributed community of practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Tomlinson

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores a scientific community of mainly academic researchers within the discipline of robotics. Data are constructed wholly from web-based resources such as web pages, electronic CVs and bibliographic search engines to identify teams of people working together, career patterns, and the research programmes of this group. Techniques from social network analysis are applied to the data to reveal the structures and relationships within the community. The paper is set within the conte...

  11. Participatory Design to Enhance ICT Learning and Community Attachment: A Case Study in Rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.

  12. The Case Method: Using Case Based Instruction To Increase Ethical Understanding In Engineering Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Brock; Yadav, Aman

    2007-01-01

    The case method: Using case-based instruction to increase ethical understanding in engineering courses Introduction The paper presents a discussion of how case-based instruction is performed and the perceived benefits of its application. We begin with a brief discussion of the historical background of case- based instruction and then discuss the use of case methodologies within various educational contexts. Connections are then made to its use in general ethics instruction, as well as spec...

  13. Exploring user-producer interaction in an online community : The case of Habbo Hotel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the user-producer interaction in the online community of Habbo Hotel. Based on desk research, interviews, an online survey among more than 3000 Habbo Hotel users in The Netherlands and online discussion groups with 45 Habbos, three specific issues that illustrate the

  14. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Muvunyi, Claude; Mens, Petra; Koenraadt, Sander; Mutesa, Leon; Vugt, Van Michele; Borne, Van Den Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (

  15. Satellite-based delivery of educational content to geographically isolated communities: a service based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Serif, Tacha; Ghinea, Gheorghita; Stergioulas, Lampros; Chen, Sherry Y.; Tiropanis, Thanassis; Tsekeridou, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Enabling learning for members of geographically isolated communities presents benefits in terms of promoting regional development and cost savings for governments and companies. However, notwithstanding recent advances in e-Learning, from both technological and pedagogical perspectives, there are very few, if any, recognised methodologies for user-led design of satellite-based e-learning infrastructures. In this paper, we present a methodology for designing a satellite and wireless based netw...

  16. Attitudes of academic-based and community-based physicians regarding EMR use during outpatient encounters.

    OpenAIRE

    Penrod, L. E.; Gadd, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Physician satisfaction with EMR implementations has been reported in a number of recent studies. Most of these have reported on implementation of an EMR in a uniform practice setting rather than comparing satisfaction with implementation between settings. Our objectives in this study were to: 1) compare and contrast the attitudes of academic-based and community-based primary care physicians toward EMR use 6 months after implementation, and 2) investigate some of the factors influencing their ...

  17. Community-Based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Corinne A.; Campeau, Mike; Katz, Laurence Y.; Enns, Murray W.; Elias, Brenda; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian…

  18. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  19. Reinventing Mpowerment for black men: long-term community implementation of an evidence-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin; Forney, Jason C; Hubbard, Peter; Camacho, Lizeth M

    2012-03-01

    Although research on the dissemination of evidence-based programs to community providers has rapidly grown, research describing implementation of evidence-based efforts remains a central need. Insight on implementation may aid in developing approaches to assisting organizations to use a variety of evidence-based practices effectively and to improve the design of programs that can and will be used faithfully. This mixed-method case study provides a descriptive account of the implementation of an evidence-based program designed principally for white gay and bisexual young men, the Mpowerment Project, in the 4th and 5th years after its initial adoption by an organization serving black gay and bisexual men. We identify factors that have shaped how the program has evolved and is currently operated. The case study results highlight how the dynamic interaction of practice-based experiences, skills, relationships, local context, and practitioner judgments about the relevance and credibility of evidence for specific actions propel the reinvention of evidence-based program procedures. Implications for research and practice are provided. PMID:21773862

  20. A similarity-based community detection method with multiple prototype representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kuang; Martin, Arnaud; Pan, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Communities are of great importance for understanding graph structures in social networks. Some existing community detection algorithms use a single prototype to represent each group. In real applications, this may not adequately model the different types of communities and hence limits the clustering performance on social networks. To address this problem, a Similarity-based Multi-Prototype (SMP) community detection approach is proposed in this paper. In SMP, vertices in each community carry various weights to describe their degree of representativeness. This mechanism enables each community to be represented by more than one node. The centrality of nodes is used to calculate prototype weights, while similarity is utilized to guide us to partitioning the graph. Experimental results on computer generated and real-world networks clearly show that SMP performs well for detecting communities. Moreover, the method could provide richer information for the inner structure of the detected communities with the help of prototype weights compared with the existing community detection models.