WorldWideScience

Sample records for base bulges thermodynamic

  1. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  2. Kinetics of bulge bases in small RNAs and the effect of pressure on it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Lehmann, Jean; Libchaber, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Due to their self-catalytic properties, small RNAs with bulge bases are hypothesized to be primordial molecules which could form elementary translation systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the binding propensity of small RNAs by calculating the free energy barrier corresponding to the looped out conformations of bulge bases, which presumably act as the binding sites for ligands in these small RNAs. We find that base flipping kinetics can proceed at atmospheric pressure but with a very small propensity. Furthermore, the free energy barrier associated with base flipping depends on the stacking with neighboring bases. Next, we studied the base flipping kinetics with pressure. We find that the free energy associated with base looping out increases monotonically as the pressure is increased. Furthermore, we calculate the mean first-passage time of conformational looping out of the bulge base using the diffusion of reaction coordinate associated with the base flipping on the underlying free energy surface. We find that the mean first-passage time associated with bulge looping out increases slowly upon increasing pressures P up to 2000 atm but changes dramatically for P>2000 atm. Finally, we discuss our results in the light of the role of hydration shell of water around RNA. Our results are relevant for the RNA world hypothesis. PMID:22916118

  3. Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The currently discussed theories of bulge formation are reviewed, including the primordial scenario, where bulges form rapidly and then accrete disks, the secular scenario, where bulges are formed by dynamical evolution of disks through bars and galaxy interactions, and some combinations of both, where formation of bulges and disks are more continuous and interleaved. The various scenarios make specific predictions about the relative masses, angular momenta, colours, metallicities of bulges relative to disks, and the bulge-to-disk ratio as a function of time. Dynamical processes relevant to the formation of bulges (bar instabilities, mergers) are described and tested against observed statistics. Current data suggest a dynamical feedback from gravitational instabilities in bulge and disk formation. It is very difficult to discriminate between the various scenarios from surveys at z=0 only, and observations at high redshift are presently the best hope for large progress.

  4. Polar-bulge galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnikov, V P; Mosenkov, A V; Sotnikova, N Ya; Bizyaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    Based on SDSS data, we have selected a sample of nine edge-on spiral galaxies with bulges whose major axes show a high inclination to the disk plane. Such objects are called polar-bulge galaxies. They are similar in their morphology to polar-ring galaxies, but the central objects in them have small size and low luminosity. We have performed a photometric analysis of the galaxies in the g and r bands and determined the main characteristics of their bulges and disks. We show that the disks of such galaxies are typical for the disks of spiral galaxies of late morphological types. The integrated characteristics of their bulges are similar to the parameters of normal bulges. The stellar disks of polar-bulge galaxies often show large-scale warps, which can be explained by their interaction with neighboring galaxies or external accretion from outside.

  5. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  6. Research on aluminum alloy sheet thermoplastic deformation behavior based upon warm bulging test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaoshen; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lang, Lihui; Alexandrov, Sergei

    2016-02-01

    The rate of fluid pressure variation is a crucial factor to indicate the forming speed and the pressure rate is applied to be one factor that can influence the deformation of material in warm sheet hydroforming. In this study, warm bulging test was conducted to obtain bulging pressure-height curves with different temperatures and pressure rates. Fitting the bulging pressure-equivalent strain curves obtained using bulging test with surface fitting method, the fitted equation of bulging pressure on equivalent strain and pressure rate was achieved, and the fitting result shows a good accordance with experimental and calculated values. Then, the relation between pressure rate and strain rate was obtained. The results of warm bulging test indicated that the deformation behavior of metal material is sensitive to pressure rate, which is of great significance for warm sheet hydroforming.

  7. Redshift Evolution in Black Hole-Bulge Relations: Testing CIV-based Black Hole Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E; Ludwig, Randi R

    2009-01-01

    We re-examine claims of redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both MgII 2796, 2803 and CIV 1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that CIII] 1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with MgII, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  8. Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Enrico

    1956-01-01

    Indisputably, this is a modern classic of science. Based on a course of lectures delivered by the author at Columbia University, the text is elementary in treatment and remarkable for its clarity and organization. Although it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the fundamental facts of thermometry and calorimetry, no advanced mathematics beyond calculus is assumed.Partial contents: thermodynamic systems, the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, absolute thermodynamic temperature, thermal engines), the entr

  9. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project

  10. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho and others

    2001-05-01

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project.

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics Based on Unitary Evolutions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu-Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that, the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S_{BH}$ cannot be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's "first law" cannot be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described in a unitary manner effectively, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics.

  12. Composition of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, A; William, Andrew Mc

    2003-01-01

    We present detailed abundance results for 9 Galactic bulge stars in Baade's Window, based on HIRES (R=45,000--60,000) spectra taken with the Keck I telescope. The alpha elements show non-uniform enhancements relative to the Solar neighborhood trends: Mg and Si are enhanced in all our bulge stars by $\\sim$0.5--0.3 dex, showing a slight decrease with increasing [Fe/H]. Oxygen is enhanced in most bulge stars, similar to the Galactic halo, but the [O/Fe] ratios suddenly decline beginning at [Fe/H]=$-$0.5 dex, with a slope consistent with no oxygen production in the bulge for [Fe/H]$\\geq

  13. The Chemkin Thermodynamic Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Robert J.; Rupley, Fran M.; Miller, James A.

    1990-03-01

    The Chemkin general-purpose chemical kinetics package uses a data base that contains polynomial fits to specific heats, standard state enthalpies, and standard state entropies. The fourteen coefficient fits are in the same form as used in the NASA Complex Chemical Equilibrium Program (Gordon and McBride, 1971). This report represents a compilation of the data that is currently in use at Sandia National Laboratories.

  14. Formation of Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, J; Silk, Joseph; Bouwens, Rychard J.

    1998-01-01

    Bulges, often identified with the spheroidal component of a galaxy, have a complex pedigree. Massive bulges are generally red and old, but lower mass bulges have broader dispersions in color that may be correlated with disk colors. This suggests different formation scenarios. I will review possible formation sequences for bulges, describe the various signatures that distinguish these scenarios, and discuss implications for the high redshift universe.

  15. Fracture prediction in hydraulic bulging of AISI 304 austenitic steel sheets based on a modified ductile fracture criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Song, H. W.; Zhang, S. H.; Cheng, M.

    2011-08-01

    The demand for weight reduction in modern vehicle construction has resulted in an increase in the application of hydroforming processes for the manufacture of automotive lightweight components. This trend led to the research of evaluation on formability of the sheet or tube hydroforming to be noted, particularly the prediction of fracture. In this study, a new proposed approach based on damage theory for fracture prediction considering the deformation history was introduced. And the modified ductile fracture criterion was applied to predict the failure for hydraulic bulging of AISI 304 austenitic steel sheets. The material parameters in terms of the function of strain rate in the failure criterion were determined from the equivalent fracture strains corresponding tensile tests under different stress conditions. Then, in the finite element simulation the effect of strain rates and their distribution as well during practical sheet metal forming process was considered. The hydraulic bulging tests were carried out to identify the fracture behavior predicted from FE analysis. A comparison between the prediction and experimental results showed that the proposed approach with a modified ductile fracture criteria can give better fracture predictions than traditional ways.

  16. Distances of the bulge globular clusters Terzan 5, Liller 1, UKS 1 and Terzan 4 based on HST NICMOS photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolani, S; Bica, E; Zoccali, M; Renzini, A

    2007-01-01

    A large number of pulsars and X-rays sources are detected in globular clusters. To understand the structure and content of these clusters, accurate distances are required. We derive the distances of Terzan 5, Liller 1 and UKS 1 using as a reference a recent distance determination of NGC 6528, based on HST/NICMOS and NTT/SOFI infrared photometry. The distance of the metal-poor cluster Terzan 4 was derived from a comparison with M92 in NICMOS bands. Distances of the metal-rich clusters are obtained by comparison of the Horizontal Branch (HB) level of the clusters, relative to the reddening line passing through the HB of NGC 6528. We use methods based on NICMOS bands and transformations to J and H magnitudes with different assumptions. Liller~1 and Terzan~4 are found to be at the central bulge distance, UKS~1 is beyond the Galactic center, while Terzan 5 is closer to the Sun than the other four clusters. The distance of Terzan 5 is of paramount importance, given the impact of its population of 21 pulsars, which ...

  17. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... causing bulging also presses on the optic nerve. Causes The most common cause is Graves disease, which ...

  18. Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The comprehension of the laws which govern any material system is greatly facilitated by considering the energy and entropy of the system in various states of which it is capable. As in the case of simply mechanics systems, the performance of mechanical work, the function which expresses the capability of the system for this kind of action also plays the leading part in the theory of equilibrium. The present book is written to explain the basic concepts, theories and equilibrium concerning thermodynamics of fluids and stationary systems, geometrical representation of thermodynamic properties

  19. Globular clusters in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Barbuy, B

    2015-01-01

    A view of the Galactic bulge by means of their globular clusters is necessary for a deep understanding of its formation and evolution. Connections between the globular cluster and field star properties in terms of kinematics, orbits, chemical abundances and ages should shed light on different stellar population components. Based on spatial distribution and metallicity, we define a probable best list of bulge clusters, containing 43 entries. Future work on newly discovered objects, mostly from the VVV survey, is suggested. These candidates might alleviate the issue of missing clusters on the far side of the bulge. We discuss the reddening law affecting the cluster distances towards the center of the Galaxy, and conclude that the most suitable total-to-selective absorption value appears to be R$_{\\rm V}$=3.2, in agreement with recent analyses. An update of elemental abundances for bulge clusters is provided.

  20. Globular Clusters in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.

    2016-06-01

    A view of the Galactic bulge by means of their globular clusters is fundamental for a deep understanding of its formation and evolution. Connections between the globular cluster and field star properties in terms of kinematics, orbits, chemical abundances, and ages should shed light on different stellar population components. Based on spatial distribution and metallicity, we define a probable best list of bulge clusters, containing 43 entries. Future work on newly discovered objects, mostly from the VVV survey, is suggested. These candidates might alleviate the issue of missing clusters on the far side of the bulge. We discuss the reddening law affecting the cluster distances towards the centre of the Galaxy, and conclude that the most suitable total-to-selective absorption value appears to be R V=3.2, in agreement with recent analyses. An update of elemental abundances for bulge clusters is provided.

  1. Modern Thermodynamics Based on the Extended Carnot Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jitao

    2012-01-01

    "Modern Thermodynamics- Based on the Extended Carnot Theorem" provides comprehensive definitions and mathematical expressions of both classical and modern thermodynamics. The goal is to develop the fundamental theory on an extended Carnot theorem without incorporating any extraneous assumptions. In particular, it offers a fundamental thermodynamic and calculational methodology for the synthesis of low-pressure diamonds. It also discusses many "abnormal phenomena", such as spiral reactions, cyclic reactions, chemical oscillations, low-pressure carat-size diamond growth, biological systems, and more. The book is intended for chemists and physicists working in thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, phase diagrams, biochemistry and complex systems, as well as graduate students in these fields. Jitao Wang is a professor emeritus at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

  2. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals; Entwicklung einer thermodynamischen Datenbasis fuer ausgewaehlte Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  3. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: With Thermodynamic-Based Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations using ferroelectric materials as a microgenerator. The previous researches show that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting is not effective, whereas thermodynamic-based cycles give higher energy. Also, at different temperatures some thermodynamic cycles exhibit different behaviours. In this paper pyroelectric energy harvesting using Lenoir and Ericsson thermodynamic cycles has been studied numerically and the two cycles were compared with each other. The material used is the PMN-25 PT single crystal that is a very interesting material in the framework of energy harvesting and sensor applications.

  4. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocko, Marián; Klimko, Marek

    2016-03-01

    This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines) to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  5. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocko Marián

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  6. Secular- and merger-built bulges in barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Corsini, E M; Aguerri, J A L

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We study the incidence, as well as the nature, of composite bulges in a sample of 10 face-on barred galaxies to constrain the formation and evolutionary processes of the central regions of disk galaxies. We analyze the morphological, photometric, and kinematic properties of each bulge. Then, by using a case-by-case analysis we identify composite bulges and classify every component into a classical or pseudobulge. In addition, bar-related boxy/peanut (B/P) structures were also identified and characterised. We find only three galaxies hosting a single-component bulge (two pseudobulges and one classical bulge). We find evidence of composite bulges coming in two main types based on their formation: secular-built and merger- and secular-built. We call secular-built to composite bulges made of entirely by structures associated with secular processes such as pseudo bulges, central disks, or B/P bulges. We find four composite bulges of this kind in our sample. On the other hand, merger- and secular-built b...

  7. Modern thermodynamics - New concepts based on the second law of thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jitao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a core part of science.Nearly all scientists should have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics.Thermodynamics is a science of development,and is a viewpoint of scientific development in natural sciences.Achievement of thermodynamics has influence not only on natural sciences,but also on social sciences and philosophy.Fundamental concepts and definitions are very important for any discipline of science,so what is classical thermodynamics and what is modern thermodynamics have become the key points of puzzledom in thermodynamics.In this paper,after clarification of fundamental concept in thermodynamics,a complete basic modern classification of thermodynamics is naturally obtained.It is suggested that extended Carnot theorem and dissipation decrease theorem,together with the laws of thermodynamics,are the most fundamental theorems in thermodynamics discipline.Nondissipative thermodynamics is a new field besides equilibrium thermodynamics belonging to the equal part of the second law of thermodynamics.

  8. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hocko Marián; Klimko Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for g...

  9. Combined thermodynamic study of nickel-base alloys. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achievements during this period are the following: (1) initiation of a high-temperature study of the Ni-Ta system using the galvanic cell technique, (2) emf study of high-temperature thermodynamics in the Ni-Mo system, (3) measured heat capacity data on ordered and disordered Ni4Mo, (4) heat capacities of Ni and disordered Ni3Fe, and (5) computer correlation of thermodynamic and phase diagram data in binary Ni-base alloys

  10. THEREDA. Thermodynamic reference data base. Phase II. Release of thermodynamic data. Summary and final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report on the thermodynamic reference data base THEREDA covers the following issues: project management, quality management (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and GRS), data base interfaces, documentation, uranium (HZDR), other nuclides (Karlsruhe Institute for technology, KIT), data for cement minerals and their reaction products (AF-Consult, GRS), phosphate (GRS), systems with CO2 and carbonate at variable temperatures and pressure (Bergakademie Freiberg, TUBAF).

  11. The formation of galaxy bulges: Spectrophotometric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugniel, Ph.; Maubon, G.; Simien, F.

    2001-01-01

    (B)-type bulges and deviate from the Mg2, vs. sigma0, relation of elliptical galaxies. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Table 3 is presented in electronic form only at the CDS. Tables 1 and 2 are also available form at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/366/68

  12. First law-based thermodynamic analysis on Kalina cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the first law of thermodynamics,and adopting the Peng-Robinson equation (P-R equation) as the basic equation for the properties of ammonia-water mixtures,a thermodynamic analysis on a single-stage distillation Kalina cycle is presented.A program to calculate the thermodynamic properties of ammoniawater mixtures,and that for calculating the performance of Kalina cycles,were developed,with which the heatwork conversion particulars of Kalina cycles were theoretically calculated.The influences on the cycle performance of key parameters,such as the pressure and temperature at the inlet of the turbine,the back pressure of the turbine,the concentration of the working solution,the concentration of the basic solution and the cycle multiplication ratio,were analyzed.

  13. Structural requirements for trans activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat-directed gene expression by tat: importance of base pairing, loop sequence, and bulges in the tat-responsive sequence.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, S.; Parkin, N T; Rosen, C; Itovitch, J; Sonenberg, N

    1990-01-01

    In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of action of the tat-responsive sequence, mutational analysis of the tat-responsive sequence was carried out. The most critical region comprised nucleotides +18 to +44 and included the 3-nucleotide bulge at positions +23 to +25, the loop sequence, and an intact stem. In addition, base pairing up to nucleotide +52 was required for the full magnitude of the trans-activation response. Single-nucleotide bulges at positions +5 to +17 were dispensable....

  14. Energy conservation technologies based on thermodynamic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaru [Shibaura Institute of Technology of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission to prevent global warming, the most promising way for electric generation in the Northeast Asia is to introduce cogeneration and {open_quotes}repowering{close_quotes} technologies based on high temperature gas turbines fueled by natural gas. Especially the old type coal burning boiler-steam turbine plants should be retrofit by introducing gas turbines to become highly efficient combined cycle. Same technologies should be applied to the old garbage incineration plants and/or even to the nuclear power plants. The exhaust heat or steam should become much increased and it should be utilized as the process heat for industries or heat supply as the distinct heating or cooling for residential area. This paper introduces a brief survey of these new technologies.

  15. The black hole mass-bulge mass correlation: bulges versus pseudo-bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the supermassive black holes mass (M_bh) and the host bulge mass in elliptical galaxies, classical bulges, and pseudo-bulges. We use two-dimensional image analysis software BUDDA to obtain the structural parameters of 57 galaxies with dynamical M_bh measurement, and determine the bulge K-band luminosities (L_bul,K), stellar masses (M_s), and dynamical masses (M_d). The updated M_bh-L_bul,K, M_bh-M_s, and M_bh-M_d correlations for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges give M_bh~0.006M_s or 0.003M_d. The most tight relationship is log(M_bh/M_sun)=a+b log(M_d/10^11 M_sun), with a=8.46+/-0.05, b=0.90+/-0.06, and intrinsic scatter 0.27 dex. The pseudo-bulges follow their own relations, they harbor an order of magnitude smaller black holes than those in the same massive classical bulges, i.e. M_bh~0.0003M_s or 0.0002M_d. Besides the M_bh-\\sigma (bulge stellar velocity dispersion) relation, these bulge type dependent M_bh-M_bul scaling relations provide information for...

  16. Quantum Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie Kosloff

    2013-01-01

    Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic laws from quantum mechanics. The viewpoint advocated is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics, giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law, I-law, II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistency between the two the...

  17. Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base 01/01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base has been updated to support performance assessments of the planned Swiss repositories for radioactive waste. The update from version 05/92 to 01/01 involved major revisions for most of the actinides and fission products. Altogether, more than 70% of the database contents have been revised. Data for U, Np, Pu, Am and Tc recommended by the NEA TDB project were considered in the update. Thermodynamic data for Th, Sn, Eu, Pd, Al, and solubility and metal complexation of sulphides and silicates were extensively reviewed. Data for Zr, Ni and Se were examined less rigorously as these elements are currently being reviewed in phase II of the NEA TDB project. Our experiences from this two year team effort can be summarised as follows. Detailed in-house reviews and critical appraisal of NEA recommendations greatly improved the chemical consistency and quality of the selected data. On the other hand, we could discern major gaps in the data, especially missing carbonate complexes. In some systems, e.g. Th(IV)-H2O and U(IV)-H2O, experimental data could not be described by a unique set of thermodynamic constants. There, a pragmatic approach based on solubility data was chosen for application to performance assessment. The electronic version of our database and information concerning its full documentation is available on our PSI web site (http://www.psi.ch/les). (orig.)

  18. The thermodynamics and kinetics of a nucleotide base pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Gong, Sha; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Wenbing

    2016-03-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of an RNA base pair were obtained through a long-time molecular dynamics simulation of the opening-closing switch process of the base pair near its melting temperature. The thermodynamic parameters were in good agreement with the nearest-neighbor model. The opening rates showed strong temperature dependence, however, the closing rates showed only weak temperature dependence. The transition path time was weakly temperature dependent and was insensitive to the energy barrier. The diffusion constant exhibited super-Arrhenius behavior. The free energy barrier of breaking a single base stack results from the enthalpy increase, ΔH, caused by the disruption of hydrogen bonding and base-stacking interactions. The free energy barrier of base pair closing comes from the unfavorable entropy loss, ΔS, caused by the restriction of torsional angles. These results suggest that a one-dimensional free energy surface is sufficient to accurately describe the dynamics of base pair opening and closing, and the dynamics are Brownian.

  19. Stellar populations of classical and pseudo-bulges for a sample of isolated spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yinghe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the stellar population synthesis results for a sample of 75 bulges in isolated spiral Sb-Sc galaxies, using the spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the STARLIGHT code. We find that both pseudo-bulges and classical bulges in our sample are predominantly composed of old stellar populations, with mean mass-weighted stellar age around 10 Gyr. While the stellar population of pseudo-bulges is, in general, younger than that of classical bulges, the difference is not significant, which indicates that it is hard to distinguish pseudo-bulges from classical bulges, at least for these isolated galaxies, only based on their stellar populations. Pseudo-bulges have star formation activities with relatively longer timescale than classical bulges, indicating that secular evolution is more important in this kind of systems. Our results also show that pseudo-bulges have a lower stellar velocity dispersion than their classical counterparts, which suggests that classical bulges are mo...

  20. Thermodynamic and structural basis for electrochemical response of Cu–Zr based metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunzhi, E-mail: mse201109@126.com; Qiu, Nannan; Kong, Lingliang; Yang, Xiaodan; Li, Huiping

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic and structural basis for electrochemical response were proposed. • La improves the corrosion resistance by inhibition of the selective dissolution. • Corrosion of the MG responses well with thermodynamic and structural parameters. - Abstract: Cu–Zr based metallic glasses were prepared by hyperquenching strategy to explore the thermodynamic and structural basis for electrochemical response. The thermodynamic parameters and the local atomic structure were obtained. Corrosion resistance in seawater was investigated via potentiodynamic polarization curve. The results indicate that increasing thermodynamic parameter values improves the corrosion resistance. The topological instability represented by the nearest neighbor atomic distance yields same tendency as the corrosion resistance with La addition.

  1. YOUNG STARS IN AN OLD BULGE: A NATURAL OUTCOME OF INTERNAL EVOLUTION IN THE MILKY WAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center of our disk galaxy, the Milky Way, is dominated by a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. Numerous studies of the bulge based on stellar photometry have concluded that the bulge stars are exclusively old. The perceived lack of young stars in the bulge strongly constrains its likely formation scenarios, providing evidence that the bulge is a unique population that formed early and separately from the disk. However, recent studies of individual bulge stars using the microlensing technique have reported that they span a range of ages, emphasizing that the bulge may not be a monolithic structure. In this Letter we demonstrate that the presence of young stars that are located predominantly nearer to the plane is expected for a bulge that has formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. Using an N-body+ smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a disk galaxy forming out of gas cooling inside a dark matter halo and forming stars, we find a qualitative agreement between our model and the observations of younger metal-rich stars in the bulge. We are also able to partially resolve the apparent contradiction in the literature between results that argue for a purely old bulge population and those that show a population comprised of a range in ages; the key is where to look

  2. Stability of black holes based on horizon thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of horizon thermodynamics we study the thermodynamic stability of black holes constructed in general relativity and Gauss–Bonnet gravity. In the framework of horizon thermodynamics there are only five thermodynamic variables E, P, V, T, S. It is not necessary to consider concrete matter fields, which may contribute to the pressure of black hole thermodynamic system. In non-vacuum cases, we can derive the equation of state, P=P(V,T. According to the requirements of stable equilibrium in conventional thermodynamics, we start from these thermodynamic variables to calculate the heat capacity at constant pressure and Gibbs free energy and analyze the local and global thermodynamic stability of black holes. It is shown that P>0 is the necessary condition for black holes in general relativity to be thermodynamically stable, however this condition cannot be satisfied by many black holes in general relativity. For black hole in Gauss–Bonnet gravity negative pressure can be feasible, but only local stable black hole exists in this case.

  3. Stability of black holes based on horizon thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of horizon thermodynamics we study the thermodynamic stability of black holes constructed in general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. In the framework of horizon thermodynamics there are only five thermodynamic variables $E,P,V,T,S$. It is not necessary to consider concrete matter fields, which may contribute to the pressure of black hole thermodynamic system. In non-vacuum cases, we can derive the equation of state, $P=P(V,T)$. According to the requirements of stable equilibrium in conventional thermodynamics, we start from these thermodynamic variables to calculate the heat capacity at constant pressure and Gibbs free energy and analyze the local and global thermodynamic stability of black holes. It is shown that $P>0$ is the necessary condition for black holes in general relativity to be thermodynamically stable, however this condition cannot be satisfied by many black holes in general relativity. For black hole in Gauss-Bonnet gravity negative pressure can be feasible, but only local stab...

  4. Thermodynamics of dilute aqueous solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The thermodynamic behaviour of aqueous imidazolium ILs has been investigated. → Volumetric and ultrasonic results indicated the hydrophobic hydration of ILs. → Viscometric studies revealed studied ionic liquids as water-structure makers. → Hydration number increased with increase in alkyl chain length of the cation. - Abstract: Experimental measurements of density ρ, speed of sound u, and viscosity η of aqueous solutions of various 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) solutions have been performed in dilute concentration regime at 298.15 K to get insight into hydration behaviour of ILs. The investigated ILs are based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, [Cnmim] having [BF4]-, [Cl]-, [C1OSO3]-, and [C8OSO3]- as anions where n = 4 or 8. Several thermodynamic parameters like apparent molar volume φV, isentropic compressibility βs, and viscosity B-coefficients have been derived from experimental data. Limiting value of apparent molar volume has been discussed in terms of intrinsic molar volume (Vint) molar electrostriction volume (Velec), molar disordered (Vdis), and cage volume (Vcage). Viscosity B-coefficients have been used to quantify the kosmotropic or chaotropic nature of ILs. Hydration number of ILs obtained using elctrostriction volume, isentropic compressibility, viscosity, and differential scanning calorimetry have been found to be comparative within the experimental error. The hydrophobic hydration has found to play an important role in hydration of ILs as compared to hydration due to hydrogen bonding and electrostriction. Limiting molar properties, hydration numbers, and B-coefficients have been discussed in terms of alkyl chain length of cation or nature of anion.

  5. Thermodynamic data bases for multivalent elements: An example for ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A careful consideration and understanding of fundamental chemistry, thermodynamics, and kinetics is absolutely essential when modeling predominance regions and solubility behavior of elements that exhibit a wide range of valence states. Examples of this are given using the ruthenium-water system at 298.15 K, for which a critically assessed thermochemical data base is available. Ruthenium exhibits the widest range of known aqueous solution valence states. Known solid anhydrous binary oxides of ruthenium are crystalline RuO2, RuO4, and possibly RuO3 (thin film), and known hydroxides/hydrated oxides (all amorphous) are Ru(OH)3 . H2O, RuO2 . 2H2O, RuO2 . H2O, and a poorly characterized Ru(V) hydrous oxide. Although the other oxides, hydroxides, and hydrous oxides are generally obtained as precipitates from aqueous solutions, they are thermodynamically unstable with regard to RuO2(cr) formation. Characterized aqueous species of ruthenium include RuO4 (which slowly oxidizes water and which dissociates as a weak acid), RuO4- and RuO42- (which probably contain lesser amounts of RuO3(OH)2- and RuO3(OH)22-, respectively, and other species), Ru(OH)22+, Ru4(OH)124+, Ru(OH)4, Ru3+, Ru(OH)2+, Ru(OH)2+, Ru2+, and some hydroxytetramers with formal ruthenium valences of 3.75 ≥ Z ≥ 2.0. Potential pH diagrams of the predominance regions change significantly with concentration due to polymerization/depolymerization reactions. Failure to consider the known chemistry of ruthenium can yield large differences in predicted solubilities

  6. Bulge Formation via Mergers in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Alyson M

    2015-01-01

    The latest generation of cosmological simulations are on the verge of being able to resolve the structure of bulges for the first time. Hence, we review the current state of bulge formation in cosmological simulations, and discuss open questions that can be addressed in the near future by simulators, with a particular focus on merger-driven bulge growth. Galaxy mergers have long been assumed to produce classical bulges in disk galaxies. Under this bulge-formation model, though, the high rates of mergers in Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation theory predict many more classical bulges than are observed. Furthermore, simulations of galaxy formation continue to generally produce too massive of bulges. Feedback offers a promising avenue for reducing merger-driven bulge growth by maintaining high gas fractions in galaxies and ejecting low-angular momentum gas driven to the centers of galaxies. After reviewing the results of relevant research that has been published to date, we use cosmological simulations to explore ...

  7. Chemistry of the Galactic Bulge: New Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Manuela; Hill, Vanessa; Barbuy, Beatriz; Lecureur, Aurelie; Minniti, Dante; Renzini, Alvio; Gonzalez, Oscar; Gómez, Ana; Ortolani, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    VLT-FLAMES observations provide by far the largest sample of high dispersion spectra of Bulge red giants available. Five years of work on these 900 spectra have yielded the abundances of different elements in the Milky Way Bulge, and new results on its formation. The results so far include the Bulge metallicity distribution, the Bulge metallicity gradient, the metallicity dependence on kinematics, the history of enrichment with alpha-elements, as well as the lithium abundance. The evidence collected on Milky Way Bulge chemical enrichment supports a rapid early formation scenario, and the metallicity gradient argues against formation via secular bar evolution.

  8. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaolu Guo; Zhijian Wu; Xiaojian Dong; Kejun Zhang; Shenwen Wang; Yuanxiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression programming (GEP), improved genetic programming (GP), has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS) operator to quantitativel...

  9. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys.

  10. Discovery in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In our efforts to map our galaxys structure, one region has remained very difficult to probe: the galactic center. A new survey, however, uses infrared light to peer through the gas and dust in the galactic plane, searching for variable stars in the bulge of the galaxy. This study has discovered a population of very young stars in a thin disk in the galactic center, providing clues to the star formation history of the Milky Way over the last 100 million years.Obscured CenterThe center of the Milky Way is dominated by a region known as the galactic bulge. Efforts to better understand this region in particular, its star formation history have been hindered by the stars, gas, and dust of the galactic disk, which prevent us from viewing the galactic bulge at low latitudes in visible light.The positions of the 35 classical Cepheids discovered in VVV data, projected onto an image of the galactic plane. Click for a better look! The survey area is bounded by the blue lines, and the galactic bar is marked with a red curve. The bottom panel shows the position of the Cepheids overlaid on the VVV bulge extinction map. [Dkny et al. 2015]Infrared light, however, can be used to probe deeper through the dust than visible-light searches. A new survey called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) uses the VISTA telescope in Chile to search, in infrared, for variable stars in the inner part of the galaxy. The VVV survey area spans the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high.Led by Istvn Dkny, a researcher at the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, a team has now used VVV data to specifically identify classical Cepheid variable stars in the bulge. Why? Cepheids are pulsating stars with a very useful relation between their periods and luminosities that allows them to be used as distance indicators. Moreover, classical Cepheids are indicators of young stellar populations which can

  11. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE GALACTIC BULGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zoccali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance as the only galactic spheroid fully resolved in stars, our knowledge of the Galacticbulge has been historically quite poor. This was mainly due to the stellar crowding, to the heavy interstellar absorption in the plane, and to the foreground disk contamination. However, in the last few years, with the use of near IR detectors, 8 meter class (or space based telescopes, and the advent of multi-object spectrographs, we have learnt how to minimize the above e ects. This paper reviews the basic properties (structural parameters, age, chemical content of the Galactic bulge, as determined in the last 4{5 years.

  12. Thermodynamical properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Jitendra; Mishra, R. K.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of Gibb's free energy difference (ΔG), entropy difference (ΔS) and enthalpy difference (ΔH) between the undercooled melt and the corresponding equilibrium solid phases of bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming melts has been proved to be very useful in the study of their thermodynamical behavior. The present study is made by calculating ΔG, ΔS and ΔH in the entire temperature range Tm (melting temperature) to Tg (glass transition temperature) for three Zr-based samples of BMGs: Zr57Cu15.4Ni12.6Al10Nb5, Zr41.2Ti13.8Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 and Zr58.5Cu15.6Ni12.8Al10.3Nb2.8. The study is made on the basis of Taylor's series expansion and a comparative study is also performed between the present result and the result obtained in the framework of expansions proposed by earlier workers, and also with the experimental results. An attempt has also been made to study the glass forming ability for BMGs.

  13. Young stars in an old bulge: a natural outcome of internal evolution in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Bensby, T; Feltzing, S; Roskar, R; Cole, D R; Johnson, J A; Freeman, K

    2014-01-01

    The center of our disk galaxy, the Milky Way, is dominated by a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. Numerous studies of the bulge based on stellar photometry have concluded that the bulge stars are exclusively old. The perceived lack of young stars in the bulge strongly constrains its likely formation scenarios, providing evidence that the bulge is a unique population that formed early and separately from the disk. However, recent studies of individual bulge stars using the microlensing technique have reported that they span a range of ages, emphasizing that the bulge may not be a monolithic structure. In this letter we demonstrate that the presence of young stars that are located predominantly near the plane is expected for a bulge that has formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. Using an N-body+SPH simulation of a disk galaxy forming out of gas cooling inside a dark matter halo and forming stars, we find a qualitative agreement between our model and the observations of young metal-rich stars in the bulge. W...

  14. Clumpy Disc and Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J; Tissera, P; Michel-Dansac, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical/Nbody controlled simulations of isolated gas rich galaxies that self-consistently include SN feedback and a detailed chemical evolution model, both tested in cosmological simulations. The initial conditions are motivated by the observed star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3. We find that the presence of a multiphase interstellar media in our models promotes the growth of disc instability favouring the formation of clumps which in general, are not easily disrupted on timescales compared to the migration time. We show that stellar clumps migrate towards the central region and contribute to form a classical-like bulge with a Sersic index, n > 2. Our physically-motivated Supernova feedback has a mild influence on clump survival and evolution, partially limiting the mass growth of clumps as the energy released per Supernova event is increased, with the consequent flattening of the bulge profile. This regulation does not prevent the building of a classical-like bulge even for the most ...

  15. German activities towards a thermodynamic reference data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leading research centres in the field of radioactive waste disposal in Germany have decided to combine their efforts in order to achieve a common goal, the development of a comprehensive and consistent thermodynamic reference database. All the thermodynamic data needed for the modelling of geochemical near- and far field processes in the geological media for high level waste repositories presently under discussion in Germany (salt, clay, granite) shall be collected and qualified in a single database. The partners participating in the project are a group of experts, who are generating, collecting and evaluating thermodynamic data of all relevant radionuclides and matrix elements according to uniform previously established and internationally accepted criteria. Special attention will be given to complete documentation and traceability of all data entries in the database. Existing data from international databases such as those of NEA, NAGRA, YMP will be integrated. Ion interaction coefficients (SIT, Pitzer) needed for modelling in a high saline environment will be included also. (authors)

  16. Is neoclassical microeconomics formally valid? An approach based on an analogy with equilibrium thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Tania; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-06-10

    The relation between Thermodynamics and Economics is a paramount issue in Ecological Economics. Two different levels can be distinguished when discussing it: formal and substantive. At the formal level, a mathematical framework is used to describe both thermodynamic and economic systems. At the substantive level, thermodynamic laws are applied to economic processes. In Ecological Economics, there is a widespread claim that neoclassical economics has the same mathematical formulation as classical mechanics and is therefore fundamentally flawed because: (1) utility does not obey a conservation law as energy does; (2) an equilibrium theory cannot be used to study irreversible processes. Here, we show that neoclassical economics is based on a wrong formulation of classical mechanics, being in fact formally analogous to equilibrium thermodynamics. The similarity between both formalisms, namely that they are both cases of constrained optimisation, is easily perceived when thermodynamics is looked upon using the Tisza-Callen axiomatisation. In this paper, we take the formal analogy between equilibrium thermodynamics and economic systems far enough to answer the formal criticisms, proving that the formalism of neoclassical economics has irreversibility embedded in it. However, the formal similarity between equilibrium thermodynamics and neoclassical microeconomics does not mean that economic models are in accordance with mass, energy and entropy balance equations. In fact, neoclassical theory suffers from flaws in the substantive integration with thermodynamic laws as has already been fully demonstrated by valuable work done by ecological economists in this field. (author)

  17. Myelographic differentiation of bulging disk from herniated disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many causes producing lower back pain herniated nucleus pulposus and bulging disk have occupied large percentages and uniformly showed defect on lateral aspect of contrast filled thecal sac. But it is essential to differentiate each conditions from the other because of their different treatment methods. Differentiation at metrizamide myelography between a diffusely bulging disk (unlikely to cause nerve root compression) and a herniated disk is based on the curvature, extent, and multiplicity of the extradural deformity of the anterolateral margin of the contrast filled sac and on the presence of fusiform widening of the most distal part of the affected nerve root. The deformities caused by a bulging disk are round, usually symmetrical (although occasionally more prominent on one side), do not extend above or below the disk space, and can show multiple level involvement; the nerve root is uniform in caliber and normal in size (although some of severe bulging show fusiform sidening of the most distal part of the affected nerve root). The deformities caused by a herniated disk is angular and extends cephadol and/or caudal to the level of the disk space; the affected nerve root is usually widened in its most distal visible part. A consecutive series of 50 patients with low back pain and no past history of back surgery who did metrizamide myelography underwent spine CT and/or laminectomy. Using the criteria listed above for differentiation of bulging from herniated disk on metrizamide myelography, the myelographic diagnosis was correct in 32 (22 patients) of 34 (24 patients) (95%) surgically and/or computed tomographically confirmed bulging disks and in all 26 (100%) surgically and/or computed tomographically confirmed herniated disks.

  18. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitutive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermodynamics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.

  19. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression programming (GEP, improved genetic programming (GP, has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS operator to quantitatively keep a balance between the selective pressure and the population diversity during the evolution process. Experiments are conducted on several benchmark datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. The results show that the performance of CTSGEP is better than the conventional GEP and some GEP variations.

  20. Mechanics, waves and thermodynamics an example-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Sudhir Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    The principles of classical physics, though superseded in specific fields by such theories as quantum mechanics and general relativity, are still of great importance in a broad range of applications. The book presents fundamental concepts of classical physics in a coherent and logical manner. It discusses important topics including the mechanics of a single particle, kinetic theory, oscillations and waves. Topics including the kinetic theory of gases, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are discussed, which are normally not present in the books on classical physics. The fundamental concepts of energy, momentum, mass and entropy are explained with examples. Discussion on concepts of thermodynamics is presented along with the simplified explanation on Caratheodory's axioms. It covers chapters on wave motion and statistical physics, useful for the graduate students. Each concept is supported with real-life applications on several concepts including impulse and collision, Bernoulli's equation, and friction.

  1. Stellar Populations of Late-Type Bulges at z=1 in the HUDF

    CERN Document Server

    Hathi, N P; Pasquali, A; Malhotra, S; Rhoads, J E; Pirzkal, N; Windhorst, R A; Xu, C

    2008-01-01

    We take advantage of the exceptional depth of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) images and the deep GRism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) grism spectroscopy to explore the stellar populations of 34 bulges belonging to late-type galaxies at z=0.8-1.3. We selected these galaxies based on the presence of a noticeable Balmer break (at 4000 A) in their GRAPES spectra, and by visual inspection of the HUDF images. The narrow extraction of these GRAPES spectra around the galaxy center enable us to study the spectrum of the bulges in these late-type galaxies. The 4000 A break in the bulges spectra allows us to estimate the bulges redshifts and stellar ages. We first used the HUDF images to measure bulges color and Sersic index, and then we analyze the bulges spectra by fitting stellar population models. Our results show that, (1) the average age of late-type bulges in our sample is ~1.3 Gyr and stellar masses are in the range of log(M)=6.5-10 solar, (2) late-type bulges are younger and less massive com...

  2. Disk and Bulge Morphology of WFPC2 galaxies The HST Medium Deep Survey database

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnatunga, K U; Ostrander, E J; Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ostrander, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative morphological and structural parameters are estimated for galaxies detected in HST observations of WFPC2 survey fields. A modeling approach based on maximum likelihood has been developed for two-dimensional decomposition of faint under-sampled galaxy images into components of disk and bulge morphology. Decomposition can be achieved for images down to F814W (I) hour. We discuss details of the fitting procedure, and present the observed distributions of magnitude, color, effective half-light radius, disk and bulge axis ratios, bulge/(disk+bulge) flux ratio, bulge/disk half-light radius ratio and surface brightness. We also discuss the various selection limits on the measured parameters. The Medium Deep Survey catalogs and images of random pure parallel fields and other similar archival primary WFPC2 fields have been made available via the Internet with a searchable browser interface to the database at http://archive.stsci.edu/mds/

  3. Properties of Disks and Bulges of Spiral and Lenticular Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Oohama, N; Fukugita, M; Yasuda, N; Nakamura, O

    2009-01-01

    A bulge-disk decomposition is made for 737 spiral and lenticular galaxies drawn from a SDSS galaxy sample for which morphological types are estimated. We carry out the bulge-disk decomposition using the growth curve fitting method. It is found that bulge properties, effective radius, effective surface brightness, and also absolute magnitude, change systematically with the morphological sequence; from early to late types, the size becomes somewhat larger, and surface brightness and luminosity fainter. In contrast disks are nearly universal, their properties remaining similar among disk galaxies irrespective of detailed morphologies from S0 to Sc. While these tendencies were often discussed in previous studies, the present study confirms them based on a large homogeneous magnitude-limited field galaxy sample with morphological types estimated. The systematic change of bulge-to-total luminosity ratio, $B/T$, along the morphological sequence is therefore not caused by disks but mostly by bulges. It is also shown ...

  4. Thermodynamic Performance Evaluation of Gas Turbine Based on Tri-generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis can be perfect tool for identifying the ways for improving the efficiency of fuel use, and determining the best configuration and equipment size for a Tri-generation plant. In this paper thermodynamic performance evaluation of gas turbine based on tri-generation system has been carried out. The operating parameter at inlet and outlet of each components involved in tri-generation system are determined. By using engineering equation solver (EES) parameters like enthalpy, ...

  5. Duality, thermodynamics, and the linear programming problem in constraint-based models of metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Patrick B.; Jones, Janette L.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that the dual to the linear programming problem that arises in constraint-based models of metabolism can be given a thermodynamic interpretation in which the shadow prices are chemical potential analogues, and the objective is to minimise free energy consumption given a free energy drain corresponding to growth. The interpretation is distinct from conventional non-equilibrium thermodynamics, although it does satisfy a minimum entropy production principle. It can be used to motivat...

  6. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and Statistical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    SDO/EVE provides rich information of the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly of solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could be potentially useful to the EUV astronomy to learn the eruptive activities on the distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greate...

  7. Thermodynamic modeling of the power plant based on the SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical model based on the thermodynamic modeling of gaseous mixtures is developed for SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane. Macroscopic porous-electrode theory, including non-linear kinetics and gas-phase diffusion, is used to calculate the reforming reaction and the concentration polarization. Provided the data concerning properties and costs of materials the model is fit for wide range of parametric analysis of thermodynamic cycles including SOFC

  8. Three thermodynamically-based parameterizations of the deceleration parameter

    CERN Document Server

    del Campo, Sergio; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We propose, and constrain with the latest observational data, three model-independent parameterizations of the cosmic deceleration parameter $q(z)$. They are well behaved and stay finite at all redshifts. We construct them by fixing the value of $q$ at high redshift, $q(z \\gg 1) = 1/2$ (as demanded by cosmic structure formation), and at the far future, $q(z = -1) = -1$, and smoothly interpolating $q(z)$ between them. The fixed point at $z = -1$ is not arbitrarily chosen; it readily follows from the second law of thermodynamics. This fairly reduces the ample latitude in parameterizing $q(z)$.

  9. 3-Dimensional dynamics of the galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soto Vicencio, Mario Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of a project which attempts to unveil the structure of the galactic bulge of our galaxy through the study of the kinematics of stars in low foreground extinction windows.Thus, in order to effectively constraint the phase-space distribution function of the galactic bulge, we have

  10. Roles of the Amino Group of Purine Bases in the Thermodynamic Stability of DNA Base Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energetic aspects of hydrogen-bonded base-pair interactions are important for the design of functional nucleotide analogs and for practical applications of oligonucleotides. The present study investigated the contribution of the 2-amino group of DNA purine bases to the thermodynamic stability of oligonucleotide duplexes under different salt and solvent conditions, using 2'-deoxyriboinosine (I and 2'-deoxyribo-2,6-diaminopurine (D as non-canonical nucleotides. The stability of DNA duplexes was changed by substitution of a single base pair in the following order: G•C > D•T ≈ I•C > A•T > G•T > I•T. The apparent stabilization energy due to the presence of the 2-amino group of G and D varied depending on the salt concentration, and decreased in the water-ethanol mixed solvent. The effects of salt concentration on the thermodynamics of DNA duplexes were found to be partially sequence-dependent, and the 2-amino group of the purine bases might have an influence on the binding of ions to DNA through the formation of a stable base-paired structure. Our results also showed that physiological salt conditions were energetically favorable for complementary base recognition, and conversely, low salt concentration media and ethanol-containing solvents were effective for low stringency oligonucleotide hybridization, in the context of conditions employed in this study.

  11. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  12. Bulges of disk galaxies at intermediate redshifts. I. Samples with and without bulges in the Groth Strip Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez-Palmero, L; Erwin, P; Prieto, M; Cristobal-Hornillos, D; Eliche-Moral, M C; Guzmán, R

    2008-01-01

    We aim to define a sample of intermediate-z disk galaxies harbouring central bulges, and a complementary sample of disk galaxies without measurable bulges. We intend to provide colour profiles for both samples, as well as measurements of nuclear, disk, and global colours, which may be used to constrain the relative ages of bulges and disks. We select a diameter-limited sample of galaxies in images from the HST/WFPC2 Groth Strip survey, which is divided into two subsamples of higher and lower inclination to assess the role of dust in the measures quantities. Mergers are visually identified and excluded. We take special care to control the pollution by ellipticals. The bulge sample is defined with a criterion based on nuclear surface brightness excess over the inward extrapolation of the exponential law fitted to the outer regions of the galaxies. We extract colour profiles on the semi-minor axis least affected by dust in the disk, and measure nuclear colours at 0.85 kpc from the centre over those profiles. Dis...

  13. NMR Analysis of RNA Bulged Structures: Tabu Search Application in NOE Signal Assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulges are the most frequently occurring RNA secondary structural elements of high functional importance. At present, they are known to participate in the process of RNA folding, RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. It has been shown that bulges can induce destabilization in RNA duplexes and the extent of the destabilization depends on many factors such as the size of the bulge, the nature of the bulge bases, and the flanking residues. However, relatively very little is known about these structural elements. Only several studies have been performed to address the preferred conformations of bulged residues in DNA and RNA duplexes. The knowledge of spatial structure of RNA bulges in solution requires application of NMR spectroscopy. A considerable part of NMR analytical process of RNA fragment is based on automatic methods. However, manual assistance is still essential in resonance assignment. Thus, there has been a great need to introduce automatic procedures also at this level. We propose a tabu search algorithm being a tool for an automatic resonance assignment. The assignment is determined by NOE pathways, which can be constructed in aromatic/anomeric region of 2D NOESY spectrum generated during NMR experiment. Computational tests demonstrate performance of the tabu search applied to the experimental spectra of RNA bulged duplexes. (author)

  14. Fluorine Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, K; Gibson, B K

    2008-01-01

    Fluorine (19F) abundances are derived in a sample of 6 bulge red giants in Baade's Window. These giants span a factor of 10 in metallicity and this is the first study to define the behavior of 19F with metallicity in the bulge. The bulge results show an increase in F/O with increasing oxygen. This trend overlaps what is found in the disk at comparable metallicities, with the most oxygen-rich bulge target extending the disk trend. The increase in F/O in the disk arises from 19F synthesis in both asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and metal-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars through stellar winds. The lack of an s-process enhancement in the most fluorine-rich bulge giant in this study, suggests that WR stars represented a larger contribution than AGB stars to 19F production in the bulge when compared to the disk. If this result for fluorine is combined with the previously published overall decline in the O/Mg abundance ratios in metal-rich bulge stars, it suggests that WR winds played a role in shaping chemical evolut...

  15. Thermodynamic calculations in the development of high-temperature Co–Re-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorr, Bronislava, E-mail: gorr@ifwt.mb.uni-siegen.de [University of Siegen, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Siegen (Germany); Christ, Hans-Jürgen [University of Siegen, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Siegen (Germany); Mukherji, Debashis; Rösler, Joachim [TU Braunschweig, Institut für Werkstoffe, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Phase diagram as a starting point for alloy development. • Design of pre-oxidation treatments by means of thermodynamic assessment. • Contribution of thermodynamic calculations to the general understanding of materials chemistry. -- Abstract: The experimental Co–Re-based alloys are being developed for high-temperature applications for service temperatures beyond 1100 °C. One of the main tasks of this research is to find the optimal chemical composition. Thermodynamic calculations are very helpful for composition selection and optimization. In this study, thermodynamic calculations were used to identify potential alloying elements and to determine suitable concentration ranges to improve properties, such as strength and oxidation resistance that are essential for high-temperature structural materials. The calculated ternary phase diagram of the Co–Re–Cr system was used to design the reference model alloy. Corrosion products formed under different atmospheric conditions were reliably predicted for a number of model Co–Re-based alloys. Pre-oxidation treatment, a common method used to improve the oxidation resistance of alloys in aggressive atmosphere, was successfully designed based on thermodynamic considerations.

  16. Superplasticity and Superplastic Bulging Behavior of ZrO2/Ni Nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Shui; LV Hongjun; ZHANG Kaifeng

    2011-01-01

    ZrO2/Ni nanocomposite was produced by pulse electrodeposition and its superplastic properties were investigated by the tensile and bulging tests. The as-deposited nickel matrix has a narrow grain size distribution with a mean grain size of 45 nm. A maximum elongation of 605% was observed at 723 K and a strain rate of 1.67 × 10-3s-1 by tensile test. Superplastic bulging tests were subsequently performed using dies with diameters of 1 mm and 5 mm respectively based on the optimal superplastic forming temperature. The effects of forming temperature and gas pressure on bulging process were experimentally investigated. The results indicated that ZrO2/Ni nanocomposite samples can be readily bulged at 723 K with H/d value (defined as dome apex height over the die diameter) larger than 0.5, indicating that the nanocomposite has good bulging ability. SEM and TEM were used to examine the microstructure of the as-deposited and bulged samples. The observations showed that significant grain coarsening occurs during superplastic bulging, and the microstructure is found to depend on the forming temperature.

  17. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; Zhu, Qiao

    2014-02-01

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.

  18. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole. (authors)

  19. A Thermodynamic-Based Model to Predict the Fraction of Martensite in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Fei; Hedström, Peter; Höglund, Lars; Borgenstam, Annika

    2016-06-01

    A thermodynamic-based model to predict the fraction of martensite in steels with undercooling has been developed. The model utilizes the thermodynamic driving force to describe the transformation curve and it is able to predict the fraction of athermal martensite at quenching to different temperatures for low alloy steels. The only model parameter is a linear function of the martensite start temperature (M s), and the model predicts that a steel with a higher M s has a lower difference between the martensite start and finish temperatures. When the present model is combined with a previously developed thermodynamic-based model for M s, the model predictions of the full martensite transformation curve with undercooling are in close agreement with literature data.

  20. Comparing the properties of the X-shaped bulges of NGC 4710 and the Milky Way with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Gadotti, D. A.; Debattista, V. P.; Rejkuba, M.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Coccato, L.; Minniti, D.; Ness, M.

    2016-06-01

    comprised of the oldest, most metal-poor stars, which is not part of the boxy-peanut bulge structure. Such a population is not observed in NGC 4710, but could be hidden in the integrated light we observed. Based on observations collected at the ESO La Silla-Paranal Observatory within MUSE science verification program 60.A-9307(A).

  1. The hydraulic bulge tester in fracture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the behavior of different metals under biaxial hydraulic bulging was studied in terms of fracture mechanics. Three different materials, namely: SIC aluminium, mild steel and copper were examined and their fracture behavior was assessed by introducing starter cracks in the test pieces in different ways before bulging. The pressure-volume relationships were obtained and the crack growth rates were measured during bulging at different elliptical die ratios (1,1.5,2 and 3). It was found that increasing the die ratio, with everything else remaining as before, resulted in a remarkable reduction to the volume and increase in the pressure and subsequently an increase in the crack growth rates of all materials. Double Edge Notched (DEN) specimen experiments were also conducted on the three materials to measure their fracture toughness and the results compared with those obtained from bulging experiments. (author)

  2. Galaxy Bulges and Elliptical Galaxies - Lecture Notes

    CERN Document Server

    Gadotti, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge on the central components of disk galaxies has grown substantially in the past few decades, particularly so in the last. This frantic activity and the complexity of the subject promote confusion in the community. In these notes, I discuss the concept of galactic bulge and its different flavors. I also address fundamental scaling relations and the bulge-elliptical galaxy connection, their central black holes and formation models. In particular, I aim at conveying three important notions: (i): box/peanuts are just the inner parts of bars; (ii): the physical reality of two different families of bulges is evident; and (iii): at the high mass end, at least, classical bulges are not just scaled down ellipticals surrounded by disks.

  3. Theoretical Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared images from the COBE satellite presented the first clear evidence that our Milky Way galaxy contains a boxy shaped bulge. Recent years have witnessed a gradual paradigm shift in the formation and evolution of the Galactic bulge. Bulges were commonly believed to form in the dynamical violence of galaxy mergers. However, it has become increasingly clear that the main body of the Milky Way bulge is not a classical bulge made by previous major mergers, instead it appears to be a bar seen somewhat end-on. The Milky Way bar can form naturally from a precursor disk and thicken vertically by the internal firehose/buckling instability, giving rise to the boxy appearance. This picture is supported by many lines of evidence, including the asymmetric parallelogram shape, the strong cylindrical rotation (i.e., nearly constant rotation regardless of the height above the disk plane), the existence of an intriguing X-shaped structure in the bulge, and perhaps the metallicity gradients. We review the major theor...

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI engine based system running on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI based system has been carried out. • A thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process. • The specific heat of the working fluid is temperature dependent. - Abstract: This paper attempts to carry out a thermodynamic analysis of a system composed of a turbocharged HCCI engine, a mixer, a regenerator and a catalytic converter within the meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process and the specific heat temperature dependency of the working fluid. The analysis aims in particular to examine the influence of the compressor pressure ratio, ambient temperature, equivalence ratio, engine speed and the compressor isentropic efficiency on the performance of the HCCI engine. Results show that thermal and exergetic efficiencies increase with increasing the compressor pressure ratio. However, the increase of the ambient temperature involves a decrease of the engine efficiencies. Furthermore, the variation of the equivalence ratio improves considerably both thermal and exergetic efficiencies. As expected, the increase of the engine speed enhances the engine performances. Finally, an exergy losses mapping of the system show that the maximum exergy losses occurs in the HCCI engine

  5. Development of Co-Cr-based longitudinal magnetic recording media:Thermodynamic consideration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Gao-wu; K. Oikawa

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent work on development of Co-Cr-based longitudinal magnetic recording media through the point of view of thermodynamics. It focuses on our experimental finding on the miscibility gap in the fcc α-Co phase region of the Co-Cr binary system, and on the predictions on the improvements of magnetic properties of many Co-Cr-Z ternary systems by thermodynamic computing on the basis of the newly-assessed Co-Cr binary thermodynamic parameters. Good agreement in the phase separation behavior of many Co-Cr-Z (Z=Pt, Ta, Ge)alloy systems between the calculation and the experiments has been achieved, as discussed in detail in the full paper.By the same token, many other elements, such as Ir, P, B, Mo, Zr, Nb, have been predicted to improve the magnetic grain isolation of the potential Co-Cr-Z multicomponent magnetic recording media in the future.

  6. Improving Students' Chemical Literacy Levels on Thermochemical and Thermodynamics Concepts through a Context-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Geban, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to delve into the effect of context-based approach (CBA) over traditional instruction (TI) on students' chemical literacy level related to thermochemical and thermodynamics concepts. Four eleventh-grade classes with 118 students in total taught by two teachers from a public high school in 2012 fall semester were enrolled…

  7. The Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning on Teaching the First Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Munir

    2011-01-01

    Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching approach working in cooperation with self-learning and involving research to solve real problems. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but that energy is conserved. Students had difficulty learning or misconceptions about this law. This study…

  8. PROPER MOTIONS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE: PLAUT'S WINDOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper motion study of a eld of 20' x20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b=(0 ;-8 , has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for -21; 000 stars reaching to V - 20:5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch di erence. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas yr-1. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of - 8700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited di erent proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected re ex solar motion. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between -2 and -3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (l; b = (3:39; 2:91 = (0:11; 0:09 mas yr-1, which is in good agreement with previous results. A mean distance of 6:37+0:87 -0:77 kpc has been estimated for the bulge sample, based on the observed K magnitude of the horizontal branch red clump. The metallicity [M=H] distribution was also obtained for a subsample of 60 bulge giants stars, based on calibrated photometric indices. The observed [M=H] shows a peak value at [M=H]-0:1 with an extended metal poor tail and around 30% of the stars with supersolar metallicity. No change in proper motion dispersion was observed as a function of [M=H]. We are currently in the process of obtaining CCD UBV RI photometry for the entire proper-motion sample of - 21; 000 stars.

  9. Accounting for selection effects in the BH-bulge relations: No evidence for cosmological evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The redshift evolution of the black hole - bulge relations is an essential observational constraint for models of black hole - galaxy coevolution. In addition to the observational challenges for these studies, conclusions are complicated by the influence of selection effects. We demonstrate that there is presently no statistical significant evidence for cosmological evolution in the black hole-bulge relations, once these selection effects are taken into account and corrected for. We present a fitting method, based on the bivariate distribution of black hole mass and galaxy property, that accounts for the selection function in the fitting and is therefore able to recover the intrinsic black hole - bulge relation unbiased. While prior knowledge is restricted to a minimum, we at least require knowledge of either the sample selection function and the mass dependence of the active fraction, or the spheroid distribution function and the intrinsic scatter in the black hole - bulge relation. We employed our fitting r...

  10. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard D.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or "bulging factors" that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in graphs of the bulging factor as a function of the applied load and as a function of geometric parameters that include the shell radius, the shell thickness and the crack length. The computed bulging factors are compared with solutions based on linear shallow shell theory, and with semi-empirical solutions that approximately account for the nonlinear deformation in the vicinity of the crack. The effect of biaxial loads on the computed bulging factors is also discussed.

  11. Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poizeau, Sophie

    To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were determined by emf measurements. It was found that Sb as positive electrode would provide the highest voltage for Ca-based liquid metal batteries (1 V). The price of such a battery would be competitive for the grid-scale energy storage market. The impact of Pb, a natural impurity of Sb, was predicted successfully and confirmed via electrochemical measurements. It was shown that the impact on the open circuit voltage would be minor. Indeed, the interaction between Ca and Sb was demonstrated to be much stronger than between Ca and Pb using thermodynamic modeling, which explains why the partial thermodynamic properties of Ca would not vary much with the addition of Pb to Sb. However, the usage of the positive electrode would be reduced, which would limit the interest of a Pb-Sb positive electrode. Throughout this work, the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) was used for the first time for alloys with thermodynamic properties showing strong negative deviation from ideality. This model showed that systems such as Ca-Sb have strong short-range order: Ca is most stable when its first nearest neighbors are Sb. This is consistent with what the more traditional thermodynamic model, the regular association model, would predict. The advantages of the MIVM are the absence of assumption regarding the composition of an associate, and the reduced number of fitting parameters (2 instead of 5). Based on the parameters derived from the thermodynamic modeling using the MIVM, a new potential of mixing for liquid alloys was defined to compare the strength of interaction in different Ca-based alloys. Comparing this trend with the strength of interaction in the solid state of these systems (assessed by the energy of formation of the intermetallics), the systems with

  12. Continuum thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This book is a unique presentation of thermodynamic methods of construction of continuous models. It is based on a uniform approach following from the entropy inequality and using Lagrange multipliers as auxiliary quantities in its evaluation. It covers a wide range of models - ideal gases, thermoviscoelastic fluids, thermoelastic and thermoviscoelastic solids, plastic polycrystals, miscible and immiscible mixtures, and many others. The structure of phenomenological thermodynamics is justified by a systematic derivation from the Liouville equation, through the BBGKY-hierarchy-derived Boltzmann

  13. Impact of the terminal bulges of HIV-1 cTAR DNA on its stability and the destabilizing activity of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Hervé; Azoulay, Joel; Bernacchi, Serena; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Ficheux, Damien; Roques, Bernard; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mély, Yves

    2003-04-18

    Reverse transcription of HIV-1 genomic RNA to double-stranded DNA by reverse transcriptase (RT) is a critical step in HIV-1 replication. This process relies on two viral proteins, the RT enzyme and nucleocapsid protein NCp7 that has well documented nucleic acid chaperone properties. At the beginning of the linear DNA synthesis, the newly made minus-strand strong-stop DNA ((-)ssDNA) is transferred to the 3'end of the genomic RNA by means of an hybridization reaction between transactivation response element (TAR) RNA and cTAR DNA sequences. Since both TAR sequences exhibit stable hairpin structures, NCp7 needs to destabilize the TAR structures in order to chaperone their hybridization. To further characterize the relationships between TAR stability and NC-mediated destabilization, the role of the A(49) and G(52) bulged residues in cTAR DNA stability was investigated. The stability of cTAR and mutants where one or the two terminal bulges were replaced by base-pairs as well as the NCp7-mediated destabilization of these cTAR sequences were examined. Thermodynamic data indicate that the two bulges cooperatively destabilize cTAR by reducing the stacking interactions between the bases. This causes a free energy change of about 6.4 kcal/mol and seems to be critical for NC activity. Time-resolved fluorescence data of doubly labelled cTAR derivatives suggest that NC-mediated melting of cTAR ends propagates up to the 10C.A(44) mismatch or T(40) bulge. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using two-photon excitation was also used to monitor cTAR ends fraying by NC. Results show that NC causes a very significant increase of cTAR ends fraying, probably limited to the terminal base-pair in the case of cTAR mutants. Since the TAR RNA and cTAR DNA bulges or mismatches appear well conserved among all HIV-1 strains, the present data support the notion of a co-evolutionary relationship between TAR and NC activity. PMID:12684000

  14. The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K Y

    2016-01-01

    We present HST images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies' central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing "classical" bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions: (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude ($10^6$ -- $10^8 M_\\odot$) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all $\\sim 10^{11} M_\\odot$ within a factor of three; (2) the BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected, when compared to an ex...

  15. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] ≤ –1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] ∼ –2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the α-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant α-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  16. SuperMassive Black Holes in Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Sarzi, M; Shields, J C; Rudnick, G; Ho, L C; McIntosh, D H; Filippenko, A V; Sargent, W L W; Sarzi, Marc; Rix, Hans-Walter; Shields, Joseph C.; Rudnick, Greg; Ho, Luis C.; Intosh, Daniel H. Mc; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2001-01-01

    We present spatially extended gas kinematics at parsec-scale resolution for the nuclear regions of four nearby disk galaxies, and model them as rotation of a gas disk in the joint potential of the stellar bulge and a putative central black hole. The targets were selected from a larger set of long-slit spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Survey of Nearby Nuclei with STIS (SUNNS). They represents the 4 galaxies (of 24) that display symmetric gas velocity curves consistent with a rotating disk. We derive the stellar mass distribution from the STIS acquisition images adopting the stellar mass-to-light ratio normalized so as to match ground-based velocity dispersion measurements over a large aperture. Subsequently, we constrain the mass of a putative black hole by matching the gas rotation curve, following two distinct approaches. In the most general case we explore all the possible disk orientations, alternatively we constrain the gas disk orientation from the dust-lane morphology at s...

  17. A review of marine anthropogenic CO2 definitions: introducing a thermodynamic approach based on observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of existing methods that define anthropogenic CO2 as deduced from total inorganic carbon is presented. A refined approach to define anthropogenic CO2 is introduced that has a stronger thermodynamic orientation than current methods, and is based on a back-calculation technique by Chen and Millero and Poisson and Chen. Anthropogenic CO2 results of the new technique are compared with results from the original technique as well as with results of the technique of Gruber et al. The new technique is furthermore applied to three time-separated data sets in the subpolar North Atlantic and shows consistent results with regard to available data quality and anthropogenic CO2 quantities. The difference between the new thermodynamic approach and the anthropogenic CO2 definition of Gruber et al., which is termed mechanistic, is discussed. Here likely changes in the CO2 solubility pump are a thermodynamic property of this definition, whereas it is a separate phenomenon in the mechanistic definition. The thermodynamic approach is not without caveats, but points to improvements by the synergistic use of model results and those from observations. Future improvements are considered for the initial saturation state of oxygen and CO2, at the instant the surface water loses contact with the atmosphere and for variations in the Redfield ratio

  18. The Demographics of galactic bulges in the SDSS database

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Keunho; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe ($0.005 < z < 0.05$). We performed decompositions in $g$ and $r$ bands by utilizing the {\\sc{galfit}} software. The bulge colors and bulge-to-total ratios are found to be sensitive to the details in the decomposition technique, and hence we hereby provide full details of our method. The $g-r$ colors of bulges derived are almost constantly red regardless of bulge size except for the bulges in the low bulge-to-total ratio galaxies ($B/T_{\\rm r} \\lesssim 0.3$). Bulges exhibit similar scaling relations to those followed by elliptical galaxies, but the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios clearly show a gradually larger departure in slope from the elliptical galaxy sequence. The scatters around the scaling relations are also larger for the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios. Both the depa...

  19. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Y. K.

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consi...

  20. Modelling the spreading rate of controlled communicable epidemics through an entropy-based thermodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, WenBin; Wu, ZiNiu; Wang, ChunFeng; Hu, RuiFeng

    2013-11-01

    A model based on a thermodynamic approach is proposed for predicting the dynamics of communicable epidemics assumed to be governed by controlling efforts of multiple scales so that an entropy is associated with the system. All the epidemic details are factored into a single and time-dependent coefficient, the functional form of this coefficient is found through four constraints, including notably the existence of an inflexion point and a maximum. The model is solved to give a log-normal distribution for the spread rate, for which a Shannon entropy can be defined. The only parameter, that characterizes the width of the distribution function, is uniquely determined through maximizing the rate of entropy production. This entropy-based thermodynamic (EBT) model predicts the number of hospitalized cases with a reasonable accuracy for SARS in the year 2003. This EBT model can be of use for potential epidemics such as avian influenza and H7N9 in China.

  1. THEREDA. Thermodynamic reference data base. Phase II. Release of thermodynamic data. Summary and final report; THEREDA. Thermodynamische Referenz-Datenbasis. Phase II. Freigabe thermodynamischer Daten. Zusammenfassung der Abschlussberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Marquardt, Christian; Montoya, Vanessa [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Bok, Frank; Richter, Anke [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Moog, Helge C.; Scharge, Tina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Voigt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Wilhelm, Stefan [AF Consult AG, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    The final report on the thermodynamic reference data base THEREDA covers the following issues: project management, quality management (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and GRS), data base interfaces, documentation, uranium (HZDR), other nuclides (Karlsruhe Institute for technology, KIT), data for cement minerals and their reaction products (AF-Consult, GRS), phosphate (GRS), systems with CO2 and carbonate at variable temperatures and pressure (Bergakademie Freiberg, TUBAF).

  2. Densities and Derived Thermodynamic Properties of Imidazolium-, Pyridinium-, Pyrrolidinium-, and Piperidinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Gardas, Ramesh L.; Costa, Henrique F.; Freire, Mara G.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Fonseca, Isabel M. A.; Ferreira, Abel G. M.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, experimental density measurements are reported along with the derived thermodynamic properties, such as the isothermal compressibility (κT), the isobaric expansivity (αp), and the thermal pressure coefficient (γv) for imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [C2mim][CF3SO3], 3-methyl-1-propylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C3mpy][NTf2], 1-methyl-1-prop...

  3. Boltzmann-Equation Based Derivation of Balance Laws in Irreversible Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Liu; Yang, Zaibao; Zhu, Yi; Yong, Wen-An

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach to construct macroscopic balance equations and constitutive equations describing various irreversible phenomena. It is based on the general principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and consists of four basic steps: picking suitable state variables, choosing a strictly concave entropy function, separating entropy fluxes and production rates properly, and determining a dissipation matrix. Our approach takes the advantage of both EIT and GENERIC form...

  4. Thermodynamic Prediction of Compositional Phases Confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy on Tantalum-Based Alloy Weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy as structural alloys for radioisotope based thermal to electrical power systems since the 1960s. Tantalum alloys are attractive for high temperature structural applications due to their high melting point, excellent formability, good thermal conductivity, good ductility (even at low temperatures), corrosion resistance, and weldability. Tantalum alloys have demonstrated sufficient high-temperature toughness to survive prolonged exposure to the radioisotope power-system working environment. Typically, the fabrication of power systems requires the welding of various components including the structural members made of tantalum alloys. Issues such as thermodynamics, lattice structure, weld pool dynamics, material purity and contamination, and welding atmosphere purity all potentially confound the understanding of the differences between the weldment properties of the different tantalum-based alloys. The objective of this paper is to outline the thermodynamically favorable material phases in tantalum alloys, with and without small amounts of hafnium, during and following solidification, based on the results derived from the FactSage(c) Integrated Thermodynamic Databank. In addition, Transition Electron Microscopy (TEM) data will show for the first time, the changes occurring in the HfC before and after welding, and the data will elucidate the role HfC plays in pinning grain boundaries

  5. Thermodynamics of information processing based on enzyme kinetics: An exactly solvable model of an information pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuansheng; Gong, Zongping; Quan, H. T.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the recent proposed models of the information engine [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 11641 (2012), 10.1073/pnas.1204263109] and the information refrigerator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030602 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.030602], we propose a minimal model of the information pump and the information eraser based on enzyme kinetics. This device can either pump molecules against the chemical potential gradient by consuming the information to be encoded in the bit stream or (partially) erase the information initially encoded in the bit stream by consuming the Gibbs free energy. The dynamics of this model is solved exactly, and the "phase diagram" of the operation regimes is determined. The efficiency and the power of the information machine is analyzed. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within our model is clarified. Our model offers a simple paradigm for the investigating of the thermodynamics of information processing involving the chemical potential in small systems.

  6. Thermodynamics of information processing based on enzyme kinetics: An exactly solvable model of an information pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuansheng; Gong, Zongping; Quan, H T

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the recent proposed models of the information engine [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 11641 (2012)] and the information refrigerator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030602 (2013)], we propose a minimal model of the information pump and the information eraser based on enzyme kinetics. This device can either pump molecules against the chemical potential gradient by consuming the information to be encoded in the bit stream or (partially) erase the information initially encoded in the bit stream by consuming the Gibbs free energy. The dynamics of this model is solved exactly, and the "phase diagram" of the operation regimes is determined. The efficiency and the power of the information machine is analyzed. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within our model is clarified. Our model offers a simple paradigm for the investigating of the thermodynamics of information processing involving the chemical potential in small systems. PMID:26172671

  7. Thermodynamic data base needs for modeling studies of the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, C.E.A.; Silva, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Bucher, J.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

    1996-07-12

    This document is the first in a series of documents outlining the thermodynamic data needs for performing geochemical modeling calculations in support of various waste package performance assessment activities for the Yucca Mountain Project. The documents are intended to identify and justify the critical thermodynamic data needs for the data base to be used with the models. The Thermodynamic Data Determinations task supplies data needed to resolve performance or design issues and the development of the data base will remain an iterative process as needs change or data improve. For example, data are needed to predict: (1) major ion groundwater chemistry and its evolution, (2) mineral stabilities and evolution, (3) engineered barrier near-field transport and retardation properties, (4) changes in geochemical conditions and processes, (5) solubilities, speciation and transport of waste radionuclides and (6) the dissolution of corrosion of construction and canister materials and the effect on groundwater chemistry and radionuclide solubilities and transport. The system is complex and interactive, and data need to be supplied in order to model the changes and their effect on other components of the system, e.g., temperature, pH and redox conditions (Eh). Through sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, the critical data and system parameters will be identified and the acceptable variations in them documented.

  8. Thermodynamic data base needs for modeling studies of the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the first in a series of documents outlining the thermodynamic data needs for performing geochemical modeling calculations in support of various waste package performance assessment activities for the Yucca Mountain Project. The documents are intended to identify and justify the critical thermodynamic data needs for the data base to be used with the models. The Thermodynamic Data Determinations task supplies data needed to resolve performance or design issues and the development of the data base will remain an iterative process as needs change or data improve. For example, data are needed to predict: (1) major ion groundwater chemistry and its evolution, (2) mineral stabilities and evolution, (3) engineered barrier near-field transport and retardation properties, (4) changes in geochemical conditions and processes, (5) solubilities, speciation and transport of waste radionuclides and (6) the dissolution of corrosion of construction and canister materials and the effect on groundwater chemistry and radionuclide solubilities and transport. The system is complex and interactive, and data need to be supplied in order to model the changes and their effect on other components of the system, e.g., temperature, pH and redox conditions (Eh). Through sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, the critical data and system parameters will be identified and the acceptable variations in them documented

  9. Bulge formation in disk galaxies with MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2014-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their various components can be stringent tests of dark matter models and of gravity theories. In the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model, spheroids are formed through mergers in a strongly hierarchical scenario, and also in the early universe through dynamical friction in clumpy galaxies. More secularly, pseudo-bulges are formed by the inner vertical resonance with bars. The high efficiency of bulge formation is in tension with observations in the local universe of a large amount of bulge-less spiral galaxies. In the present work, the formation of bulges in very gas-rich galaxies, as those in the early universe, is studied in the Milgrom's MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), through multi-grid simulations of the non-linear gravity, including the gas dissipation, star formation and feedback. Clumpy disks are rapidly formed, as in their Newtonian equivalent systems. However, the dynamical friction is not as efficient, in the absence of dark matter halos, and the clumps have no t...

  10. One-dimensional tensile constitutive equation cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional bulging mechanical problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉泉; 刘术梅

    2002-01-01

    Superplastic forming has been extensively applied to manufacture parts and components with complex shapes or high-precisions. However, superplastic formation is in multi-stress state. In a long time, uniaxial tensile constitutive equation has been directly generalized to deal with multi-stress state. Whether so doing is feasible or not needs to be proved in theory. This paper first summarizes the establishing processes of superplastic tensile and bulging constitutive equation with variable m, and, using the analytical expressions of equivalent stress ? and equivalent strain rateof free bulge based on the fundamentals of continuum medium plastic mechanics, derives the analytical expressions of optimum loading rules for superplastic free bulge. By comparing the quantitative results on typical superplastic alloy ZnAl22, it is shown that one-dimensional tensile constitutive equations cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional bulging quantitative mechanical problems; only superplastic bulging constitutive equation based on bulging stress state can be used to treat the quantitative mechanical problems of bulge.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS bulge, disk and total stellar mass estimates (Mendel+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. T.; Simard, L.; Palmer, M.; Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here. (4 data files).

  12. A CATALOG OF BULGE, DISK, AND TOTAL STELLAR MASS ESTIMATES FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ∼660,000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al., which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sérsic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ∼0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here

  13. Thermodynamic Performance Evaluation of Gas Turbine Based on Tri-generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Yadav

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic analysis can be perfect tool for identifying the ways for improving the efficiency of fuel use, and determining the best configuration and equipment size for a Tri-generation plant. In this paper thermodynamic performance evaluation of gas turbine based on tri-generation system has been carried out. The operating parameter at inlet and outlet of each components involved in tri-generation system are determined. By using engineering equation solver (EES parameters like enthalpy, entropy, exergy; etc are determined. The system performance parameters (first law, second law efficiency and exergy are estimated with the help of these parameters. Parametric study has been done to investigate the effects of overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and inlet air temperature on exergy destruction, first law efficiency, electrical to thermal energy ratio and second law efficiency of the components and overall system. The thermodynamic analysis shows the exergy destruction in combustion chamber and HRSG is significantly affected by the pressure ratio and TIT.

  14. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Zhiyuan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-str. 1, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Guo, Qi [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Schindler, Sabine, E-mail: abogdan@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-07-10

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9{sup +3.8}{sub -2.3}% and 1.9% {+-} 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of {approx}0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are Almost-Equal-To 5.1{sigma} and Almost-Equal-To 3.4{sigma} outliers from the M{sub .}-M{sub bulge} scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which {approx}> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  15. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  16. Bulge Growth and Quenching Since Z=2.5 in Candels/3D-HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Phillip; Wuyts, Stijn; Somerville, Rachel S.; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Genzel, Reinhard; Bell, Eric F.; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Primack, Joel R.; Rosario, David J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Tacconi, Linda J.; van Dokkum, Peter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all 5 CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift informationprovided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations fora mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 1010 M, spanning the redshift range 0.5 z 2.5.For the first time, we fit 2-dimensional models comprising a single Sersic fit and two-component (i.e.,bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar massmaps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulgeprominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remainsin place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increaseof the typical Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median BT reaching 40-50) among starforminggalaxies above 1011 M. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely tobe imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the starformingmain sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge andtotal mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy thanthe total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art semi-analytic model bySomerville et al. In the latter, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging andordisk instabilities, and AGN-feedback shuts off star formation. Further observations will be requiredto pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply they must be internal to thegalaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  17. Homogenizing a Nickel-Based Superalloy: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Simulation and Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Jablonski; Christopher J. Cowen

    2009-03-01

    If the chemical inhomogeneity profile is known a priori, kinetic modeling software such as diffusion-controlled transformations (DICTRA) can be used to model the homogenization kinetics of an alloy. In this study, the Scheil module within the Thermo-Calc software was used to predict the as-cast segregation present within the Ni-based superalloy Nimonic 105. The segregation profiles were read into DICTRA to refine the homogenization heat treatment of this alloy. The thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of the computationally predicted heat treatment and microstructure, and subsequent experimental verification on a real casting of Nimonic 105, are presented.

  18. A Thermodynamic Approach to Predict Formation Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid

    2016-05-01

    A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of formation enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results predicted by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of predicting formation enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.

  19. A Thermodynamic Approach to Predict Formation Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid

    2016-07-01

    A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of formation enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results predicted by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of predicting formation enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.

  20. Red galaxies with pseudo-bulges in the SDSS: closer to disk galaxies or to classical bulges?

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, B; Antón, S; Gomes, J M; Papaderos, P

    2015-01-01

    Pseudo-bulges are expected to markedly differ from classical, quasi-monolithically forming bulges in their star formation history (SFH) and chemical abundance patterns. To test this simple expectation, we carry out a comparative structural and spectral synthesis analysis of 106 red, massive galaxies issued from the SDSS, subdivided into bulgeless, pseudo-bulge and classical bulge galaxies according to their photometric characteristics, and further obeying a specific selection to minimize uncertainties in the analysis and ensure an unbiased derivation and comparison of SFHs. Our 2D photometry analysis suggests that disks underlying pseudo-bulges typically have larger exponential scale lengths than bulgeless galaxies, despite similar integral disk luminosities. Spectral synthesis models of the stellar emission within the 3" SDSS fiber aperture reveal a clear segregation of bulgeless and pseudo-bulge galaxies from classical bulges on the luminosity-weighted planes of age-metallicity and mass-metallicity, though ...

  1. The First Detection of Blue Straggler Stars in the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, William I; Anderson, Jay; Rich, R Michael; Smith, T Ed; Brown, Thomas M; Bond, Howard E; Livio, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Renzini, Alvio; Zoccali, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Blue Straggler Stars (BSS) in the bulge of the Milky Way galaxy. Proper motions from extensive space-based observations along a single sight-line allow us to separate a sufficiently clean and well-characterized bulge sample that we are able to detect a small population of bulge objects in the region of the color-magnitude diagram commonly occupied young objects and blue strgglers. However, variability measurements of these objects clearly establish that a fraction of them are blue stragglers. Out of the 42 objects found in this region of the color-magnitude diagram, we estimate that at least 18 are genuine BSS. We normalize the BSS population by our estimate of the number of horizontal branch stars in the bulge in order to compare the bulge to other stellar systems. The BSS fraction is clearly discrepant from that found in stellar clusters. The blue straggler population of dwarf spheroidals remains a subject of debate; some authors claim an anticorrelation between the normali...

  2. The hydraulic bulge tester in fracture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory and practice of hydrostatic bulge testing of thin diaphragms is reviewed. Circular, elliptical and rectangular orifices are considered in terms of pressure vs height of dome plots, strain-distributions etc. Differences in modes of failure (location of necks, existence or not of pressure peaks) between circular and rectangular diaphragms are highlighted both for metals and polymers. The use of the bulger to construct forming limit diagrams (FLD) and fracture forming limit diagrams (FFLD) is described. How bulging is used for both fracture initiating and propagation studies is indicated, particularly as it may relate to the prospect for results from a 'giant' bulger of 1 m diameter orifice to be used for investigating thick plate. (author)

  3. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are thermodynamics on the law of thermodynamics, classical thermodynamics and molecule thermodynamics, basics of molecule thermodynamics, molecule and assembly partition function, molecule partition function, classical molecule partition function, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in fixed system, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in running system, Maxwell-Boltzmann's law of distribution, chemical equilibrium like calculation of equilibrium constant and theory of absolute reaction rate.

  4. INDISIM-Paracoccus, an individual-based and thermodynamic model for a denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Granda, Pablo; Gras, Anna; Ginovart, Marta; Moulton, Vincent

    2016-08-21

    We have developed an individual-based model for denitrifying bacteria. The model, called INDISIM-Paracoccus, embeds a thermodynamic model for bacterial yield prediction inside the individual-based model INDISIM, and is designed to simulate the bacterial cell population behavior and the product dynamics within the culture. The INDISIM-Paracoccus model assumes a culture medium containing succinate as a carbon source, ammonium as a nitrogen source and various electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to simulate in continuous or batch culture the different nutrient-dependent cell growth kinetics of the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. The individuals in the model represent microbes and the individual-based model INDISIM gives the behavior-rules that they use for their nutrient uptake and reproduction cycle. Three previously described metabolic pathways for P. denitrificans were selected and translated into balanced chemical equations using a thermodynamic model. These stoichiometric reactions are an intracellular model for the individual behavior-rules for metabolic maintenance and biomass synthesis and result in the release of different nitrogen oxides to the medium. The model was implemented using the NetLogo platform and it provides an interactive tool to investigate the different steps of denitrification carried out by a denitrifying bacterium. The simulator can be obtained from the authors on request. PMID:27179457

  5. Methodology of Ni-base Superalloy Development for VHTR using Design of Experiments and Thermodynamic Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is concerning a methodology of Ni-base superalloy development for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor(VHTR) using design of experiments(DOE) and thermodynamic calculations. Total 32 sets of the Ni-base superalloys with various chemical compositions were formulated based on a fractional factorial design of DOE, and the thermodynamic stability of topologically close-packed(TCP) phases of those alloys was calculated by using the THERMO-CALC software. From the statistical evaluation of the effect of the chemical composition on the formation of TCP phase up to a temperature of 950 .deg. C, which should be suppressed for prolonged service life when it used as the structural components of VHTR, 16 sets were selected for further calculation of the mechanical properties. Considering the yield and ultimate tensile strengths of the selected alloys estimated by using the JMATPRO software, the optimized chemical composition of the alloys for VHTR application, especially intermediate heat exchanger, was proposed for a succeeding experimental study

  6. Explaining the Formation of Bulges with MOND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Françoise

    In the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, bulges easily form through galaxy mergers, either major or minor, or through clumpy discs in the early universe, where clumps are driven to the center by dynamical friction. Also pseudobulges, with a more discy morphology and kinematics, can form more slowly through secular evolution of a bar, where resonant stars are elevated out of the plane, in a peanut/box shape. As a result, in CDM cosmological simulations, it is very difficult to find a bulgeless galaxy, while they are observed very frequently in the local universe. A different picture emerges in alternative models of the missing mass problem. In MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics), galaxy mergers are much less frequent, since the absence of dark matter halos reduces the dynamical friction between two galaxies. Also, while clumpy galaxies lead to rapid classical bulge formation in CDM, the inefficient dynamical friction with MOND in the early-universe galaxies prevents the clumps to coalesce together in the center to form spheroids. This leads to less frequent and less massive classical bulges. Bars in MOND are more frequent and stronger, and have a more constant pattern speed, which modifies significantly the pseudobulge morphology. The fraction of pseudobulges is expected to be dominant in MOND.

  7. Explaining the formation of bulges with MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2015-01-01

    In the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, bulges easily form through galaxy mergers, either major or minor, or through clumpy disks in the early universe, where clumps are driven to the center by dynamical friction. Also pseudo-bulges, with a more disky morphology and kinematics, can form more slowly through secular evolution of a bar, where resonant stars are elevated out of the plane, in a peanut/box shape. As a result, in CDM cosmological simulations, it is very difficult to find a bulgeless galaxy, while they are observed very frequently in the local universe. A different picture emerges in alternative models of the missing mass problem. In MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics), galaxy mergers are much less frequent, since the absence of dark matter halos reduces the dynamical friction between two galaxies. Also, while clumpy galaxies lead to rapid classical bulge formation in CDM, the inefficient dynamical friction with MOND in the early-universe galaxies prevents the clumps to coalesce together in the center...

  8. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge?

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y K

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consistent with bulge membership. On the other hand, a similar velocity dispersion could be the result from an induced star formation event when the SDG crosses the galactic midplane. It is suggested that the carbon stars are tracers of such an event and that they therefore are located at distances related to the SDG. However, the majority of the carbon stars are not member of the SDG, nor are they similar to the C-stars which are member of the SDG. The radial velocities can be used to determine a possible membership to the SD...

  9. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A; Trevisan, M; Dutra, N

    2013-01-01

    Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut beween the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Gala...

  10. Stochastic thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  11. Thermodynamics of polymer nematics described with a worm-like chain model: particle-based simulations and SCF theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Cristina; Yiang, Ying; Kremer, Kurt; Chen, Jeff; Daoulas, Kostas

    Polymer liquid crystals, apart from traditional applications as high strength materials, are important for new technologies, e.g. Organic Electronics. Their studies often invoke mesoscale models, parameterized to reproduce thermodynamic properties of the real material. Such top-down strategies require advanced simulation techniques, predicting accurately the thermodynamics of mesoscale models as a function of characteristic features and parameters. Here a recently developed model describing nematic polymers as worm-like chains interacting with soft directional potentials is considered. We present a special thermodynamic integration scheme delivering free energies in particle-based Monte Carlo simulations of this model, avoiding thermodynamic singularities. Conformational and structural properties, as well as Helmholtz free energies are reported as a function of interaction strength. They are compared with state-of-art SCF calculations invoking a continuum analog of the same model, demonstrating the role of liquid-packing and fluctuations.

  12. Analysis of materials properties of niobium tube from the results of a virtual bulge test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Sumption, Michael; Lim, H.; Collings, E. W.

    2012-06-01

    Hydroforming has been selected as a technique for the seamless fabrication of multicell superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities. For the successful application of this technique to cavity fabrication, it is essential to understand deformation behavior of tubes under hydroforming conditions. Input to the finite-element modeling (FEM) which generally precedes the actual hydroforming process requires the constitutive properties of the tube material. This information may be obtained from the results of hydraulic bulge testing. The present paper provides an example of this activity. In order to verify the steps to be taken in analyzing future bulge-test data a circular argument recovers the original constitutive properties from the results of an FEM-based "virtual bulge test".

  13. Discovery of Five New R. Coronae Borealis Stars in the MACHO Galactic Bulge Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewshi, A; Clayton, G C; Welch, D; Gordon, K D; Minniti, D; Cook, K

    2005-06-16

    We have identified five new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galactic bulge using the MACHO Project photometry database, raising the total number of known Galactic RCB stars to about 40. We have obtained spectra to confirm the identifications. The fact that four out of the five newly identified RCB stars are ''cool'' (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) rather than ''warm'' (T{sub eff} > 6000 K) suggests that the preponderance of warm RCB stars among the existing sample is a selection bias. These cool RCB stars are redder and fainter than their warm counterparts and may have been missed in surveys done with blue plates. Based on the number of new RCB stars discovered in the MACHO bulge fields, there may be {approx}250 RCB stars in the reddened ''exclusion'' zone toward the bulge.

  14. Orientation-specific cis complementation by bulge- and loop-mutated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR RNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Braddock, M; Powell, R; Sutton, J.; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1994-01-01

    Tat activates human immunodeficiency type 1 gene expression by binding to TAR RNA. TAR comprises a partially base paired stem and hexanucleotide loop with a tripyrimidine bulge in the upper stem. In vitro, Tat binds to the bulge and upper stem, with no requirement for the loop. However, in vivo, loop sequences are critical for activation, implying that a loop binding cellular factor may be involved in the activation pathway. Given that activation appears to be a two-component system comprisin...

  15. Second-Law based thermodynamic analysis of a novel heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.L.; Lei, Y.G.; Tao, W.Q.; Zhang, J.F.; Chu, P.; Li, R. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)

    2009-01-15

    In the present investigation, second-law based thermodynamics analysis was applied to a new heat exchanger with helical baffles. The helical baffles are designed as quadrant ellipses and each baffle occupies one quadrant of the cross-section of the shell side. Experimental tests were carried out with cold water in the tube side with a constant flow rate, and hot oil on the shell side with flow rate range from 4-24 m{sup 3}/h. The temperatures and pressures for the inlet and outlet of both sides were measured. The heat transfer, pressure drop, entropy generation, and exergy loss of the new heat exchanger were investigated and compared with the results for a conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger with segmental baffles. The computed results indicated that both the entropy generation number and exergy losses of the new heat exchanger design are lower than those of the heat exchanger with segmental baffles, which means that the novel heat exchanger has a higher efficiency than the heat exchanger with segmental baffles, from the second-law based thermodynamics viewpoint. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. IV. Two bulge populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bensby, T; Meléndez, J; Gould, A; Feltzing, S; Asplund, M; Johnson, J A; Lucatello, S; Yee, J C; Ramírez, I; Cohen, J G; Thompson, I; Gal-Yam, A; Sumi, T; Bond, I A

    2011-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] Based on high-resolution (R~42000 to 48000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N~50 to 150) spectra obtained with UVES/VLT, we present detailed elemental abundances (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Y, and Ba) and stellar ages for 26 microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars in the Galactic bulge. The analysis is based on equivalent width measurements and standard 1-D LTE MARCS model stellar atmospheres. We also present NLTE Li abundances based on line synthesis of the 7Li line at 670.8 nm. We show that the bulge metallicity distribution (MDF) is double-peaked; one peak at [Fe/H]= -0.6 and one at [Fe/H]=+0.3, and with a dearth of stars around solar metallicity. This is in contrast to the MDF derived from red giants in Baade's window, which peaks at this exact value. A simple significance test shows that it is extremely unlikely to have such a gap in the microlensed dwarf star MDF if the dwarf stars are drawn from the giant star MDF. To resolve this issue we discuss several possibilities, but we can n...

  17. An optimization method for gas refrigeration cycle based on the combination of both thermodynamics and entransy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An optimization method for practical thermodynamic cycle is developed. • The entransy-based heat transfer analysis and thermodynamic analysis are combined. • Theoretical relation between system requirements and design parameters is derived. • The optimization problem can be converted into conditional extremum problem. • The proposed method provides several useful optimization criteria. - Abstract: A thermodynamic cycle usually consists of heat transfer processes in heat exchangers and heat-work conversion processes in compressors, expanders and/or turbines. This paper presents a new optimization method for effective improvement of thermodynamic cycle performance with the combination of entransy theory and thermodynamics. The heat transfer processes in a gas refrigeration cycle are analyzed by entransy theory and the heat-work conversion processes are analyzed by thermodynamics. The combination of these two analysis yields a mathematical relation directly connecting system requirements, e.g. cooling capacity rate and power consumption rate, with design parameters, e.g. heat transfer area of each heat exchanger and heat capacity rate of each working fluid, without introducing any intermediate variable. Based on this relation together with the conditional extremum method, we theoretically derive an optimization equation group. Simultaneously solving this equation group offers the optimal structural and operating parameters for every single gas refrigeration cycle and furthermore provides several useful optimization criteria for all the cycles. Finally, a practical gas refrigeration cycle is taken as an example to show the application and validity of the newly proposed optimization method

  18. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on teaching the first law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Münir

    2011-11-01

    Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching approach working in cooperation with self-learning and involving research to solve real problems. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but that energy is conserved. Students had difficulty learning or misconceptions about this law. This study is related to the teaching of the first law of thermodynamics within a PBL environment. Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of PBL on candidate science teachers' understanding of the first law of thermodynamics and their science process skills. This study also examined their opinions about PBL. Sample: The sample consists of 48 third-grade university students from the Department of Science Education in one of the public universities in Turkey. Design and methods: A one-group pretest-posttest experimental design was used. Data collection tools included the Achievement Test, Science Process Skill Test, Constructivist Learning Environment Survey and an interview with open-ended questions. Paired samples t-test was conducted to examine differences in pre/post tests. Results: The PBL approach has a positive effect on the students' learning abilities and science process skills. The students thought that the PBL environment supports effective and permanent learning, and self-learning planning skills. On the other hand, some students think that the limited time and unfamiliarity of the approach impede learning. Conclusions: The PBL is an active learning approach supporting students in the process of learning. But there are still many practical disadvantages that could reduce the effectiveness of the PBL. To prevent the alienation of the students, simple PBL activities should be applied from the primary school level. In order to overcome time limitations, education researchers should examine short-term and effective PBL activities.

  19. Developing and assessing research-based tools for teaching quantum mechanics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin R.

    Research-based tools to educate college students in physics courses from introductory level to graduate level are essential for helping students with a diverse set of goals and backgrounds learn physics. This thesis explores issues related to student common difficulties with some topics in undergraduate quantum mechanics and thermodynamics courses. Student difficulties in learning quantum mechanics and thermodynamics are investigated by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students outside the class to unpack the cognitive mechanisms of the difficulties. The quantum mechanics research also focuses on using the research on student difficulties for the development and evaluation of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) to help students learn about the time-dependence of expectation values using the context of Larmor precession of spin and evaluating the role of asking students to self-diagnose their mistakes on midterm examination on their performance on subsequent problem solving. The QuILT on Larmor precession of spin has both paper-pencil activities and a simulation component to help students learn these foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the QuILT, which strives to help students build a robust knowledge structure of time-dependence of expectation values in quantum mechanics using a guided approach, is successful in helping students learn these topics in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. The technique to help upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses effectively engage in the process of learning from their mistakes is also found to be effective. In particular, research shows that the self-diagnosis activity in upper-level quantum mechanics significantly helps students who are struggling and this activity can reduce the gap between the high and low achieving students on subsequent problem solving. Finally, a survey

  20. Thermodynamic stability of Mg-based ternary long-period stacking ordered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mg alloys containing long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures exhibit remarkably high tensile yield strength and ductility. They have been found in a variety of ternary Mg systems of the general form Mg–XL–XS, where XL and XS are elements larger and smaller than Mg, respectively. In this work, we examine the thermodynamic stability of these LPSO precipitates with density functional theory, using a newly proposed structure model based on the inclusion of a Mg interstitial atom. We predict the stabilities for 14H and 18R LPSO structures for many Mg–XL–XL ternary systems: 85 systems consisting of XL = rare earths (RE) Sc, Y, La–Lu and XS = Zn, Al, Cu, Co, Ni. We predict thermodynamically stable LPSO phases in all systems where LPSO structures are observed. In addition, we predict several stable LPSO structures in new, as-yet-unobserved Mg–RE–XS systems. Many non-RE XL elements are also explored on the basis of size mismatch between Mg and XL, including Tl, Sb, Pb, Na, Te, Bi, Pa, Ca, Th, K, Sr—an additional 55 ternary systems. XL = Ca, Sr and Th are predicted to be most promising in terms of forming stable LPSO phases, particularly with XS = Zn. Lastly, several previously observed trends amongst known XL elements are examined. We find that favorable mixing energy between Mg and XL on the face-centered cubic lattice and the size mismatch together serve as excellent criteria determining XL LPSO formation

  1. An integrated optimization for organic Rankine cycle based on entransy theory and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic Rankine cycle has been one of the essential heat-work conversion technologies nowadays. Lots of effectual optimization methods are focused on the promotion of the system efficiency, which are mainly relied on engineering experience and numerical simulations rather than theoretical analysis. A theoretical integrated optimization method was established based on the entransy theory and thermodynamics, with the ratio of the net power output to the ratio of the total thermal conductance to the thermal conductance in the condenser as the objective function. The system parameters besides the optimal pinch point temperature difference were obtained. The results show that the mass flow rate of the working fluid is inversely proportional to the evaporating temperature. An optimal evaporating temperature maximizes the net power output, and the maximal net power output corresponds to the maximal entransy loss and the change points of the heat source outlet temperature and the change rates for the entropy generation and the entransy dissipation. Moreover, the net power output and the total thermal conductance are inversely proportional to the pinch point temperature difference, contradicting with each other. Under the specified condition, the optimal operating parameters are ascertained, with the optimal pinch point temperature difference of 5 K. - Highlights: • We establish an integrated optimization model for organic Rankine cycle. • The model combines the entransy theory with thermodynamics. • The maximal net power output corresponds to the maximal entransy loss. • The pinch point temperature difference is optimized to be 5 K

  2. Thermodynamic stability criteria for a quantum memory based on stabilizer and subsystem codes

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Stefano; Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss and review several thermodynamic criteria that have been introduced to characterize the thermal stability of a self-correcting quantum memory. We first examine the use of symmetry-breaking fields in analyzing the properties of self-correcting quantum memories in the thermodynamic limit: we show that the thermal expectation values of all logical operators vanish for any stabilizer and any subsystem code in any spatial dimension. This result sheds doubt on the usefulness of this concept, called `thermal fragility' in [Z. Nussinov and G. Ortiz, Phys. Rev. B 77, 064302 (2008).], as a stability criterion. On the positive side, we generalize the results in [R. Alicki et al., arXiv:0811.0033.] to obtain a general upper bound on the relaxation rate of a quantum memory at nonzero temperature, assuming that the quantum memory interacts via a Markovian master equation with a thermal bath. This upper bound is applicable to quantum memories based on either stabilizer or subsystem codes.

  3. Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COPc ), exergetic efficiency (ξ) and efficiency ratio (τ)-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle

  4. Ni-based Superalloy Development for VHTR - Methodology Using Design of Experiments and Thermodynamic Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, to develop novel structural materials for the IHX of a VHTR, a more systematic methodology using the design of experiments (DOE) and thermodynamic calculations was proposed. For 32 sets of designs of Ni-Cr-Co-Mo alloys with minor elements of W and Ta, the mass fraction of TCP phases and mechanical properties were calculated, and finally the chemical composition was optimized for further experimental studies by applying the proposed . The highly efficient generation of electricity and the production of massive hydrogen are possible using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) among generation IV nuclear power plants. The structural material for an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) among numerous components should be endurable at high temperature of up to 950 .deg. C during long-term operation. Impurities inevitably introduced in helium as a coolant facilitate the material degradation by corrosion at high temperature. This work is concerning a methodology of Ni-Cr-Co-Mo based superalloy developed for VHTR using the design of experiments (DOE) and thermodynamic calculationsmethodology

  5. An approach to rational ligand-design based on a thermodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui, Mihoko; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2010-11-01

    Thermodynamic analysis is an effective tool in screening of lead-compounds for development of potential drug candidates. In most cases, a ligand achieve high affinity and specificity to a target protein by means of both favorable enthalpy and entropy terms, which can be reflected in binding profiles of Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). A favorable enthalpy change suggests the contribution of noncovalent contacts such as hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction between a ligand and its target protein. In general, optimization of binding enthalpy is more difficult than that of entropies in ligand-design; therefore, it is desirable to choose firstly a lead-compound based on its binding enthalpic gain. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of thermodynamic approach to ligand screening using anti-ciguatoxin antibody 10C9 as a model of a target protein which possesses a large hydrophobic pocket. As a result of this screening, we have identified three compounds that could bind to the antigen-binding pocket of 10C9 with a few kcal/mol of favorable binding enthalpy. Comparison of their structure with the proper antigen ciguatoxin CTX3C revealed that 10C9 rigorously identifies their cyclic structure and a characteristic hydroxyl group. ITC measurement might be useful and powerful for a rational ligand screening and the optimization of the ligand; the enthalpic gain is an effective index for ligand-design studies. PMID:21171955

  6. Land use impact evaluation in life cycle assessment based on ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of products with a major part of their life cycle in biological production systems (i.e. forestry and agriculture) are often incomplete because the assessment of the land use impact is not operational. Most method proposals include the quality of the land in a descriptive way using rank scores for an arbitrarily selected set of indicators. This paper first offers a theoretical framework for the selection of suitable indicators for land use impact assessment, based on ecosystem thermodynamics. According to recent theories on the thermodynamics of open systems, a goal function of ecosystems is to maximize the dissipation of exogenic exergy fluxes by maximizing the internal exergy storage under form of biomass, biodiversity and complex trophical networks. Human impact may decrease this ecosystem exergy level by simplification, i.e. decreasing biomass and destroying internal complexity. Within this theoretical framework, we then studied possibilities for assessing the land use impact in a more direct way by measuring the ecosystems' capacity to dissipate solar exergy. Measuring ecosystem thermal characteristics by using remote sensing techniques was considered a promising tool. Once operational, it could offer a quick and cheap alternative to quantify land use impacts in any terrestrial ecosystem of any size. Recommendations are given for further exploration of this method and for its integration into an ISO compatible LCA framework

  7. OGLE Atlas of Classical Novae I. Galactic Bulge Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mroz, P; Poleski, R; Soszynski, I; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Wyrzykowski, L; Ulaczyk, K; Kozlowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J

    2015-01-01

    Classical novae eruptions are possible sources of lithium formation and gamma-rays emission. The remnant systems of novae eruptions can also become Type Ia supernovae. The contribution of novae to these phenomena depends on nova rates that are not well established for the Galaxy. Here, we directly measure the Galactic bulge nova rate of $13.9 \\pm 2.6$ yr$^{-1}$. This measurement is much more accurate than any previous measurement of this kind thanks to multiple years of bulge monitoring by the OGLE survey. Our sample consists of 39 novae eruptions, $\\sim$1/3 of which are OGLE-based discoveries. The long-term monitoring allows us to not only measure the nova rate but also to study in detail the light curves of 39 eruptions and over 80 post-nova candidates. We measured orbital periods for 9 post-novae and 9 novae, in 14 cases we procured the first estimates. The OGLE survey is very sensitive to the frequently erupting recurrent novae. We did not found any object similar to M31 2008-12a, which erupts once a year...

  8. Proper Motions in the Galactic Bulge: Plaut's Window

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Katherine; Mendez, Rene A; Rich, R Michael; Girard, Terrence M; Korchagin, Vladimir I; van Altena, William; Majewski, Steven R; Bergh, Sidney van den

    2007-01-01

    A proper motion study of a field of 20' x 20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b)=(0 deg,-8 deg), has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for ~21,000 stars reaching to V~20.5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch difference. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas/yr and field dependent systematics are below 0.2 mas/yr. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of ~8,700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited different proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected reflex solar motion as a function of magnitude. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between ~2 and ~3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (sigma_l,sigma_b)=(3.39, 2.91)+/-(0.11,0.09) mas/yr, which is in good...

  9. Characterization of the winter midwestern particulate nitrate bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Marc L; Poirot, Richard L; Schichtel, Bret A; Maim, William C

    2009-09-01

    A previously unobserved multi-state region of elevated particulate nitrate concentration was detected as a result of the expansion of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network of remote-area particulate matter (PM) speciation monitoring sites into the midwestern United States that began in 2002. Mean winter ammonium nitrate concentrations exceed 4 microg/m3 in a region centered in Iowa, which makes it responsible for as much as half of the particle light extinction. Before these observations, particulate nitrate in the United States was only observed to be a dominant component of the fine PM (PM2.5) in parts of California and some urban areas. Comparisons of the spatial patterns of particulate nitrate with spatial patterns of ammonia and nitrogen oxide emissions suggest that the nitrate bulge is the result of the high emissions of ammonia associated with animal agriculture in the Midwest. Nitrate episodes at several locations in the eastern United States are shown to be associated with transport pathways over the Midwest, suggesting long-range transport of either ammonia or ammonium nitrate. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling conducted by others on data from the Midwest shows the relative importance of atmospheric ammonia and nitric acid in the production of PM2.5. This is a particular concern as the sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States are reduced, which increases the amount of ammonia available for ammonium nitrate production. PMID:19785273

  10. The Demographics of galactic bulges in the SDSS database

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Keunho; Oh, Sree; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe ($0.005 < z < 0.05$). We performed decompositions in $g$ and $r$ bands by utilizing the {\\sc{galfit}} software. The bulge colors and bulge-to-total ratios are found to be sensitive to the details in the decomposition technique, and hence we hereby provide full details of our method. The $g-r$ colors of b...

  11. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  12. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9+3.8–2.3% and 1.9% ± 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ∼0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are ≈5.1σ and ≈3.4σ outliers from the M.-Mbulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which ∼> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  13. Thermodynamic modeling and multi-objective evolutionary-based optimization of a new multigeneration energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a multi-generation system is reported. • New multi-generation systems are proposed for more environmentally benign applications. • Multi-objective optimization technique is applied based on a code developed in the Matlab software. • A sensitivity analysis to determine the effect of design parameters on objective functions is conducted. - Abstract: A comprehensive thermodynamic modeling and multi-objective optimization is reported of a multigeneration energy system, based on a micro gas turbine, a dual pressure heat recovery steam generator, an absorption chiller, an ejector refrigeration cycle, a domestic water heater and a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, that produces multiple commodities: power, heating, cooling, hot water and hydrogen. Energy and exergy analyses and an environmental impact assessment are included. A multi-objective optimization method based on a fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is applied to determine the best design parameters for the system. The two objective functions utilized in the optimization study are the total cost rate of the system, which is the cost associated with fuel, component purchasing and environmental impact, and the system exergy efficiency. The total cost rate of the system is minimized while the cycle exergy efficiency is maximized using an evolutionary algorithm. To provide insight, the Pareto frontier is shown for a multi-objective optimization. In addition, a closed form equation for the relationship between exergy efficiency and total cost rate is derived. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the effects of several design parameters on the system total exergy destruction rate, CO2 emission and exergy efficiency

  14. Thermodynamics of the formation of Ag(I)-mediated azole base pairs in DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Kristina; Léon, J Christian; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Müller, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was applied to determine the thermodynamic parameters for the specific binding of Ag(I) ions to a series of DNA duplexes comprising Im:Im or Tr:Tr mispairs to form metal-mediated Im-Ag(I)-Im or Tr-Ag(I)-Tr base pairs (Im=imidazole nucleoside; Tr=1.2,4-triazole nucleoside). A total of seven different duplexes are discussed, incorporating one to three artificial base pairs in neighboring or non-neighboring positions. The association constant related to the formation of Tr-Ag(I)-Tr base pairs is estimated to be <10(3)M(-1). In contrast, Im-Ag(I)-Im base pairs are much more stable. The intrinsic association constant for their formation is in the order of 10(6)M(-1) and is therefore larger than that for the formation of T-Hg(II)-T and C-Ag(I)-C base pairs consisting of natural nucleobases. Two neighboring Im-Ag(I)-Im base pairs form cooperatively, whereas two remotely located Im-Ag(I)-Im base pairs form non-cooperatively. In general, the specific binding of Ag(I) to Im:Im-containing duplexes is enthalpically driven, with a significant additional entropic contribution in most cases. PMID:27032292

  15. Modelling the spreading rate of controlled communicable epidemics through an entropy-based thermodynamic model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W B; Cao, Z M; Hu, R F

    2013-01-01

    A model based on a thermodynamic approach is proposed for predicting the dynamics of communicable epidemics in a city, when the epidemic is governed by controlling efforts of multiple scales so that an entropy is associated with the system. All the epidemic details are factored into a single parameter that is determined by maximizing the rate of entropy production. Despite the simplicity of the final model, it predicts the number of hospitalized cases with a reasonable accuracy, using the data of SARS of the year 2003, once the inflexion point characterizing the effect of multiple controlling efforts is known. This model is supposed to be of potential usefulness since epidemics such as avian influenza like H7H9 in China this year have the risk to become communicable among human beings.

  16. Thermodynamic Feasibility of Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production Supported by Iron Based Chemical Looping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Słowiński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing oil prices as well as stronger environmental regulations regarding greenhouse emissions made the greatest economic powers search a new, price competitive, and environment friendly energy carrier, such as hydrogen. The world research activities in these terms focus on the development of integrated hydrogen and power generating technologies, particularly technologies of hydrogen production from various carbonaceous resources, like methane, coal, biomass, or waste, often combined with carbon dioxide capture. In the paper the thermodynamic analysis of the enhancement of hydrogen production in iron based chemical looping process is presented. In this method, iron oxide is first reduced to iron with a reducing agent, such as carbon oxide, hydrogen, or mixture of both gases (synthesis gas, and then, in the inverse reaction with steam, it is regenerated to iron oxide, and pure stream of hydrogen is produced.

  17. Thermodynamics of several lewis-acid-base stabilized transition metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John K.; Brewer, Leo; Gingerich, Karl A.

    1984-11-01

    High-temperature (1425 to 2750 K) thermodynamic activities of one or both components of twenty-five binary alloys of a group IVB-VIB element (Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, or W) with a platinum group element (Ru, Os, Ir, Pd, Pt, or Au) have been determined by equilibrating the alloy with the appropriate carbide and graphite, equilibrating with the nitride and nitrogen gas, or measuring the partial vapor pressure(s) thermogravimetrically or mass spectrometrically. The extraordinary stability of this class of transition metal alloy is attributed to a generalized Lewis-acid-base interaction involving valence d electrons, and the results of these investigations are interpreted within the context of this effect. Among the conclusions made are that a non-spherically-symmetrical crystal field significantly reduces the bonding effectiveness of certain valence d orbitals; the effect of the extent of derealization of these orbitals is also considered.

  18. Thermodynamics of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids Containing PF6 Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Yermalayeu, Andrei V; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Butler, Simon; Schubert, Thomas; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2016-08-18

    Imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with PF6(-) anions are considered as low-cost solvents for separation processes, but they exhibit restricted thermal stabilities. Reliable measurements of vaporization thermodynamics by conventional methods have failed. In this work, we applied a quartz-crystal microbalance method to determine for the first time the absolute vapor pressures for the [Cnmim][PF6] family, with n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, in the temperature range 403-461 K. An absence of decomposition of ILs in experimental conditions was determined by the attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy. The consistency of the experimental results within the homologous series was established through enthalpy and entropy analyses of the liquid and gas phases as well as by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:27462931

  19. Bulges of disk galaxies at intermediate redshifts. I. Samples with and without bulges in the Groth Strip Survey

    OpenAIRE

    L. Domínguez Palmero; M. Balcells; Erwin, P; Prieto, M.; Cristóbal Hornillos, D.; Eliche Moral, María del Carmen; Guzmán, R.

    2008-01-01

    Context. Analysis of bulges to redshifts of up to z∽1 have provided ambiguous results as to whether bulges as a class are old structures akin to elliptical galaxies or younger products of the evolution of their host disks. Aims. We aim to define a sample of intermediate-z disk galaxies harbouring central bulges, and a complementary sample of disk galaxies without measurable bulges. We intend to provide colour profiles for both samples, as well as measurements of nuclear, disk, and global colo...

  20. A novel construction of thermodynamically compatible models and its correspondence with Boltzmann-equation-based moment-closure hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liu; Yang, Zaibao; Zhu, Yi; Yong, Wen-An

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we propose a novel approach to construct macroscopic balance equations and constitutive equations describing various irreversible phenomena. It is based on the general principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and consists of four basic steps: picking suitable state variables, choosing a strictly concave entropy function, properly separating entropy fluxes and production rates, and determining a dissipation matrix. Our approach takes advantage of both extended irreversible thermodynamics and GENERIC formalisms and shows a direct correspondence with Levermore's moment-closure hierarchies for the Boltzmann equation. As a direct application, a new ten-moment model beyond the classical hierarchies is constructed and is shown to recover the Euler equations in the equilibrium state. These interesting results may put various macroscopic modeling approaches, starting from the general principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, on a solid microscopic foundation based on the Boltzmann equation.

  1. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, KwangHo; Ricotti, Massimo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H.

    2016-02-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature {T}∞ ={10}4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to {r}{{B,eff}}/{r}{{B}}, where rB,eff is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and rB is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ˜1% of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass Mbulge is greater than the critical value of ˜106 M⊙ and is proportional to {r}{{B,eff}}/{r}{{B}}≃ {M}{{bulge}}/{M}{{BH}}, where {M}{{BH}} is the BH mass. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass, the growth rate of BHs with masses {M}{{BH}}={10}2, 104, and 106 M⊙ exhibits distinct dependencies on the bulge-to-BH mass ratio. Our results imply that light seed BHs (≲102 M⊙), which might be the remnants of the Pop III stars, cannot grow through accretion coevally with the early assembly of the bulge of the host galaxies until the bulge reaches the critical mass. However, massive BH seeds (≳105 M⊙), which may form via direct collapse, are more likely to be embedded in a supercritical bulge, and thus can grow efficiently coupling to the host galaxies and driving the early evolution of the MBH-σ relationship.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar-based multi-generation system with hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic analysis of a renewable-based multi-generation energy production system which produces a number of outputs, such as power, heating, cooling, hot water, hydrogen and oxygen is conducted. This solar-based multi-generation system consists of four main sub-systems: Rankine cycle, organic Rankine cycle, absorption cooling and heating, and hydrogen production and utilization. Exergy destruction ratios and rates, power or heat transfer rates, energy and exergy efficiencies of the system components are carried out. Some parametric studies are performed in order to examine the effects of varying operating conditions (e.g., reference temperature, direct solar radiation and receiver temperature) on the exergy efficiencies of the sub-systems as well as the whole system. The solar-based multi-generation system which has an exergy efficiency of 57.35%, is obtained to be higher than using these sub-systems separately. The evaluation of the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction for the sub-systems and the overall system show that the parabolic dish collectors have the highest exergy destruction rate among constituent parts of the solar-based multi-generation system, due to high temperature difference between the working fluid and collector receivers. -- Highlights: ► Development of a new multi-generation system for solar-based hydrogen production. ► Investigation of exergy efficiencies and destructions in each process of the system. ► Evaluation of varying operating conditions on the exergy destruction and efficiency

  3. Formulation based on artificial neural network of thermodynamic properties of ozone friendly refrigerant/absorbent couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to determine the properties of liquid and two phase boiling and condensing of two alternative refrigerant/absorbent couples (methanol/LiBr and methanol/LiCl). These couples do not cause ozone depletion and use in the absorption thermal systems (ATSs). ANNs are able to learn the key information patterns within multidimensional information domain. ANNs operate such as a 'black box' model, requiring no detailed information about the system. On the other hand, they learn the relationship between the input and the output. In order to train the neural network, limited experimental measurements were used as training data and test data. In this study, in input layer, there are temperatures in the range of 298-498 K, pressures (0.1-40 MPa) and concentrations of 2%, 7%, 12% of the couples; specific volume is in output layer. The back-propagation learning algorithm with three different variants, namely scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), and logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network so that the best approach can find. The most suitable algorithm and neuron number in the hidden layer are found as SCG with 8 neurons. For this number level, after the training, it is found that maximum error is less than 3%, average error is about 1% and R2 value are 99.999%. As seen from the results obtained the thermodynamic equations for each pair by using the weights of network have been obviously predicted within acceptable errors. This paper shows that values predicted with ANN can be used to define the thermodynamic properties instead of approximate and complex analytic equations

  4. Thermodynamically based solvent design for enzymatic saccharide acylation with hydroxycinnamic acids in non-conventional media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M; Riisager, Anders; Meyer, Anne S

    2012-02-15

    Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis has been widely studied with lipases (EC 3.1.1.3), but feruloyl esterases (FAEs; EC 3.1.1.73) may provide advantages such as higher substrate affinity and regioselectivity in the synthesis of hydroxycinnamate saccharide esters. These compounds are interesting because of their amphiphilicity and antioxidative potential. Synthetic reactions using mono- or disaccharides as one of the substrates may moreover direct new routes for biomass upgrading in the biorefinery. The paper reviews the available data for enzymatic hydroxycinnamate saccharide ester synthesis in organic solvent systems as well as other enzymatic hydroxycinnamate acylations in ionic liquid systems. The choice of solvent system is highly decisive for enzyme stability, selectivity, and reaction yields in these synthesis reactions. To increase the understanding of the reaction environment and to facilitate solvent screening as a crucial part of the reaction design, the review explores the use of activity coefficient models for describing these systems and - more importantly - the use of group contribution model UNIFAC and quantum chemistry based COSMO-RS for thermodynamic predictions and preliminary solvent screening. Surfactant-free microemulsions of a hydrocarbon, a polar alcohol, and water are interesting solvent systems because they accommodate different substrate and product solubilities and maintain enzyme stability. Ionic liquids may provide advantages as solvents in terms of increased substrate and product solubility, higher reactivity and selectivity, as well as tunable physicochemical properties, but their design should be carefully considered in relation to enzyme stability. The treatise shows that thermodynamic modeling tools for solvent design provide a new toolbox to design enzyme-catalyzed synthetic reactions from biomass sources. PMID:22154740

  5. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of DNA Tile-Based Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuoxing

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has emerged as an attractive building material for creating complex architectures at the nanometer scale that simultaneously affords versatility and modularity. Particularly, the programmability of DNA enables the assembly of basic building units into increasingly complex, arbitrary shapes or patterns. With the expanding complexity and functionality of DNA toolboxes, a quantitative understanding of DNA self-assembly in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, will provide researchers with more subtle design guidelines that facilitate more precise spatial and temporal control. This dissertation focuses on studying the physicochemical properties of DNA tile-based self-assembly process by recapitulating representative scenarios and intermediate states with unique assembly pathways. First, DNA double-helical tiles with increasing flexibility were designed to investigate the dimerization kinetics. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles result from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. Next, the thermodynamics and kinetics of single tile attachment to preformed "multitile" arrays were investigated to test the fundamental assumptions of tile assembly models. The results offer experimental evidences that double crossover tile attachment is determined by the electrostatic environment and the steric hindrance at the binding site. Finally, the assembly of double crossover tiles within a rhombic DNA origami frame was employed as the model system to investigate the competition between unseeded, facet and seeded nucleation. The results revealed that preference of nucleation types can be tuned by controlling the rate-limiting nucleation step. The works presented in this dissertation will be helpful for refining the DNA tile assembly model for future designs and simulations. Moreover, The works presented here could also be

  6. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of ω-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John; Schürmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir...

  7. A minimal dissipation type-based classification in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kazakov, V.; Kolinko, N. A.

    2003-10-01

    We formulate the problem of finding classes of kinetic dependencies in irreversible thermodynamic and microeconomic systems for which minimal dissipation processes belong to the same type. We show that this problem is an inverse optimal control problem and solve it. The commonality of this problem in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics is emphasized.

  8. A Minimal Dissipation Type-Based Classification in Irreversible Thermodynamics and Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Tsirlin; Valdimir Kazakov; N. A. Kolinko

    2003-01-01

    We formulate the problem of finding classes of kinetic dependencies in irreversible thermodynamic and microeconomic systems for which minimal dissipation processes belong to the same type. We show that this problem is an inverse optimal control problem and solve it. The commonality of this problem in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics is emphasized.

  9. Entropy Oriented Trading: A Trading Strategy Based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a finance trading strategy named Entropy Oriented Trading and apply thermodynamics on the strategy. The state variables are chosen so that the strategy satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. Using the law, the author proves that the rate of investment (ROI) of the strategy is equal to or more than the rate of price change.

  10. Bars rejuvenating bulges? Evidence from stellar population analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Paula

    2011-01-01

    We obtained stellar ages and metallicities via spectrum fitting for a sample of 575 bulges with spectra available from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The structural properties of the galaxies have been studied in detail in Gadotti (2009b) and the sample contains 251 bulges in galaxies with bars. Using the whole sample, where galaxy stellar mass distributions for barred and unbarred galaxies are similar, we find that bulges in barred and unbarred galaxies occupy similar loci in the age vs. metallicity plane. However, the distribution of bulge ages in barred galaxies shows an excess of populations younger than ~ 4 Gyr, when compared to bulges in unbarred galaxies. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics confirm that the age distributions are different with a significance of 99.94%. If we select sub-samples for which the bulge stellar mass distributions are similar for barred and unbarred galaxies, this excess vanishes for galaxies with bulge mass log M < 10.1 M_Sun while for more massive galaxies we find a bimodal bulg...

  11. Stellar Ages through the Corners of the Boxy Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, E; Renzini, A; Brown, T M; Gonzalez, O; Minniti, D; Debattista, Victor P; Mayer, L

    2013-01-01

    In some scenarios for the formation of the Milky Way bulge the stellar population at the edges of the boxy bulge may be younger than those on the minor axis, or close to the Galactic center. So far the only bulge region where deep color-magnitude diagrams have been obtained is indeed along the minor axis. To overcome this limitation, we aim at age-dating the bulge stellar populations far away from the bulge minor axis. Color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions have been obtained from deep near-IR VLT/HAWK-I images taken at the two Southern corners of the boxy bulge, i.e., near the opposite edges of the Galactic bar. The foreground disk contamination has been statistically removed using a pure disk field observed with the same instrument and located approximately at similar Galactic latitudes of the two bulge fields, and 30deg in longitude away from the Galactic center. For each bulge field, mean reddening and distance are determined using the position of red clump stars, and the metallicity distributi...

  12. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H

    2015-01-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature T=10^4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to r_{B,eff}/r_B, where r_{B,eff} is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and r_B is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ~1 percent of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass M_bulge is greater than the critical value of 10^6 M_sun and is proportional to M_bulge. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass M_{BH}, the growth rate of BHs with masses of 10^2, 10^4, and 10^6 M_sun exhibits distinct dependencies o...

  13. Colors of intermediate z bulges in the goya Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Domínguez-Palmero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronology of bulge and disk formation is a major unsolved issue in galaxy forma- tion, which impacts on our global understand- ing of the Hubble sequence. We present col- ors of the nuclear regions of intermediate- redshift disk galaxies, with the aim of obtain- ing empirical information of ages of bulges at 0:1 < z < 1:3.

  14. Solvation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with a subject that has been studied since the beginning of physical chemistry. Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that some fundamen­ tal and well-established concepts underlying the traditional approach to this subject are not satisfactory and need revision. The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical (macroscopic) ther­ modynamics alone. However, solvation is inherently a molecular pro­ cess, dependent upon local rather than macroscopic properties of the system. Therefore, the starting point should be based on statistical mechanical methods. For many years it has been believed that certain thermodynamic quantities, such as the standard free energy (or enthalpy or entropy) of solution, may be used as measures of the corresponding functions of solvation of a given solute in a given solvent. I first challenged this notion in a paper published in 1978 b...

  15. Computer Based Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia-Water Mixture for the Analysis of Power and Refrigeration Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausik Sadhukhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic analysis and optimization of combined power and refrigeration cycle as well as the improved vapour absorption refrigeration system necessitate the development of computer based thermodynamic properties of ammonia-water mixture. In this work, a computer code has been developed for the thermodynamic properties of ammonia water mixture for different pressures, temperatures and ammonia mass fraction concentration. This has been achieved by using some exact thermodynamic relations and some co-relations available in the literature. The computed results have been compared with the published experimental data and the agreement is found to be of good accuracy. The errors in the computed results for different thermodynamic properties are slightly more at comparatively high pressure and temperature. The maximum error is found to be with saturated liquid mixture entropy and its value is also less then 3.8% even at a high pressure of 34.47 bar.

  16. The bulge luminosity for low-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yanfei; Ho, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We study the scaling between bulge magnitude and central black hole (BH) mass in galaxies with virial BH masses 10^7 solar mass. Specfically, bulges span a much wider range of bulge luminosity, and on average the luminosity is larger, at fixed black hole mass. The trend holds both for the active galaxies from Bentz et al. and the inactive sample of Gultekin et al. and cannot be explained by differences in stellar populations, as it persists when we use dynamical bulge masses. Put another way, the ratio between bulge and BH mass is much larger than $\\sim 1000$ for our sample. This is consistent with recent suggestions that black hole mass does not scale with the pseudobulge luminosity. The low-mass scaling relations appear to flatten, consistent with predictions from Volonteri & Natarajan for massive seed BHs.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Bulge Forming of Laser Welding Dimple Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisi ZHONG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain states of the model of laser welded dimple jacket is analyzed using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in order to determine the relation between bulging height and pressure and to achieve the controllability of pressure distension of the jacket. It is shown that in the same conditions, the bulging height increases with the increasing of the bulging pressure and the space of honeycomb. And it will decrease when the thickness of jacket plate changing larger. A table showing the relation between bulging height and pressure is obtained. An experiment using a test panel is conducted to certify the reliability of finite element analysis. It turns out that the data of finite element analysis is coincident with experimental data, which support finite element method based ANSYS/LS-DYNA can be an efficient way to research the laser welded dimple jacket. The relation table is useful as guidance for the fabrication process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9704

  18. Light, Alpha, and Fe-Peak Element Abundances in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l,b)=(+5.25,-3.02) and (0,-12). The (+5.25,-3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high resolution (R~20,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N>70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the ESO archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. The present work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H]>-0.5. In particular, the bulge [alpha/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick...

  19. Natures of a clump-origin bulge: a pseudobulge-like but old metal-rich bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into two types: classical bulges or pseudobulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudobulges are suggested to form by secular evolution due to spiral arms and a barred structure funneling gas into the galactic centre. Noguchi (1998, 1999) suggested another bulge formation scenario, `clump-origin bulge'. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation since the premature disc is expected to be highly gas-rich, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. This bulge formation scenario expected happen only at the high-redshift is different from the galactic merger and the secular evolution. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. We perform a high-resolution N-body/smoothed partic...

  20. Variable stars in the MACHO bulge database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, P. J.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H., Drake, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B. A.; Pratt, M. R.; Rodgers, A. W.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sutherland, W.; Tomaney, A.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.

    1998-10-01

    The MACHO Project has been monitoring large fields in the direction of the Galactic bulge, the LMC and SMC for over 6 years. The nightly observations of this microlensing survey provide very large databases for astronomers. The MACHO database contains {approximately}5 Terabytes of data as of mid-1998. For comparison, the HST Archive contains about {approximately}2 Tb, and the Sloan. Digital Sky Survey will reach {approximately}1.0 Tb. Our database can be used to attack a variety of astrophysical problems, and has produced results relevant to microlensing, galactic structure, and stellar evolution. Of particular importance are the large numbers of variable stars (tens of thousands) found as byproducts of the microlensing search. In years to come, the microlensing databases will play a dominant role in variable star science. Important science can still be done with limited resources, even in places with no access to large telescopes (all you need is computer).

  1. Comparison of Ion Transfer Thermodynamics at Microfluidic and Droplet-Based Three Phase Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ion transfer processes at microfluidic three phase electrodes were studied. • The voltammetric peak potentials depend on ion hydrophobicity and concentration. • The model developed for droplet based systems can be used also in microfluidics. • The volumetric flow rate does not affect the recorded peak potentials. • Gibbs energies of ion transfer from water to N-octyl-2-pyrrolidone were determined. - Abstract: We have investigated whether the thermodynamic model developed for ion transfer processes across the liquid|liquid interface at a droplet-based three phase electrode (TPE) can be applied to a microfluidic system. We have compared effect of ion transfer potential and ion concentration on the voltammetric peak potential recorded at droplet and microfluidic TPEs. The results were analyzed in terms of the Nernst-like equation derived for droplet TPE. As a model reaction, electrooxidation of decamethylferrocene coupled to anion transfer from aqueous electrolyte solution to N-octyl-2-pyrrolidone (NOP) has been chosen. We have found that both ion effect and concentration effect are the same in the two systems and agree with the Nernst equation. This allows microfluidic TPEs to be used in electroanalysis. Additionally, Gibbs energies of transfer for different inorganic anions have been determined for the studied NOP water biphasic system

  2. Mechanism of ONB based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics of natural circulation in narrow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the experiment of onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) in natural circulation and the nonequilibrium thermodynamics dissipative theory, the mechanism of ONB in narrow rectangle channels of natural circulation is proposed. It points out that the onset of nucleate boiling is influenced by the degree of superheat and the special conditions of narrow channels. Under the conditions of both density difference in natural circulation and narrow rectangle channels, the prediction model of ONB in natural circulation of narrow channels based on fluctuating is established. The experimental results show that the present model can be used to predict the heat flux of ONB in narrow rectangle channels. Features of ONB in natural circulation narrow rectangle channels are as follows: heating power is the incentive of the happen of ONB; the higher the heating power is, the higher the degree of superheat is, and the earlier the ONB will appear. With the pressurizing, the appearance of ONB will be delayed. The higher the degree of supercooling is, the later the ONB appears. The ONB will happen easier when there are noncondensable gases and roughness in the channels. (authors)

  3. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,–3.02) and (0,–12). The (+5.25,–3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ≳ 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ≳ –0.5. In particular, the bulge [α/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M ☉ are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field stars

  4. Thermodynamic and economic evaluations of a geothermal district heating system using advanced exergy-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Evaluation of a GDHS using advanced exergy-based methods. • Comparison of the results of the conventional and advanced exergy-based methods. • The modified exergetic efficiency and exergoeconomic factor are found as 45% and 13%. • Improvement and total cost-savings potentials are found to be 3% and 14%. • All the pumps have the highest improvement potential and total cost-savings potential. - Abstract: In this paper, a geothermal district heating system (GDHS) is comparatively evaluated in terms of thermodynamic and economic aspects using advanced exergy-based methods to identify the potential for improvement, the interactions among system components, and the direction and potential for energy savings. The actual operational data are taken from the Sarayköy GDHS, Turkey. In the advanced exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses, the exergy destruction and the total operating cost within each component of the system are split into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts. The advantages of these analyses over conventional ones are demonstrated. The results indicate that the advanced exergy-based method is a more meaningful and effective tool than the conventional one for system performance evaluation. The exergetic efficiency and the exergoeconomic factor of the overall system for the Sarayköy GDHS were determined to be 43.72% and 5.25% according to the conventional tools and 45.06% and 12.98% according to the advanced tools. The improvement potential and the total cost-savings potential of the overall system were also determined to be 2.98% and 14.05%, respectively. All of the pumps have the highest improvement potential and total cost-savings potential because the pumps were selected to have high power during installation at the Sarayköy GDHS

  5. The formation of the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine if the bulge formed via mergers as predicted by Cold Dark Matter (CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy shape, or both processes. We are observing about 28,000 bulge stars in fields that span longitudes of − 31 to + 26° and latitudes of − 5° to − 10°, targeting mostly red clump giants and we are measuring stellar velocities and chemical abundances. We have almost concluded our observations and have analysed data of 23,000 stars. We find a cylindrical rotation profile for the bulge which blends smoothly out into the disk and from the [Fe/H] results we find the bulge to be comprised of separate components, with an underlying slowly rotating metal poor subsample which we believe to be the inner halo stars and metal weak thick disk. We find only a small [Fe/H] gradient with latitude in the bulge, of − 0.07dex/kpc. This weak gradient does not necessarily support a merger origin for our bulge and the composite nature of the bulge is consistent with formation out of the thin disk as per instability formation models.

  6. Thermodynamics and economics: Towards exergy-based indicators of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Ferrari; Stéphane Genoud; Jean-Baptiste Lesourd

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to define indicators of sustainable development which take into account the economic constraints imposed by the laws of thermodynamics. Firstly, a survey of some essential work about the relationships between economics and thermodynamics is proposed. Secondly, the exergy concept is introduced as a tool which describes irreversibility in production processes. Finally, an indicator of sustainable development which aims at taking into account energy savings at t...

  7. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  8. Entanglement Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Allahbakhshi, Davood; Naseh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Entanglement entropy is a statistical entropy measuring information loss due to coarse-graining corresponding to a spatial division of a system. In this paper we construct a thermodynamics (entanglement thermodynamics) which includes the entanglement entropy as the entropy variable, for a massless scalar field in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m spacetimes to understand the statistical origin of black-hole thermodynamics. It is shown that the entanglement thermodynamics in ...

  9. Theory of chemical kinetics and charge transfer based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Martin Z

    2013-05-21

    Advances in the fields of catalysis and electrochemical energy conversion often involve nanoparticles, which can have kinetics surprisingly different from the bulk material. Classical theories of chemical kinetics assume independent reactions in dilute solutions, whose rates are determined by mean concentrations. In condensed matter, strong interactions alter chemical activities and create variations that can dramatically affect the reaction rate. The extreme case is that of a reaction coupled to a phase transformation, whose kinetics must depend not only on the order parameter but also on its gradients at phase boundaries. Reaction-driven phase transformations are common in electrochemistry, when charge transfer is accompanied by ion intercalation or deposition in a solid phase. Examples abound in Li-ion, metal-air, and lead-acid batteries, as well as metal electrodeposition-dissolution. Despite complex thermodynamics, however, the standard kinetic model is the Butler-Volmer equation, based on a dilute solution approximation. The Marcus theory of charge transfer likewise considers isolated reactants and neglects elastic stress, configurational entropy, and other nonidealities in condensed phases. The limitations of existing theories recently became apparent for the Li-ion battery material LixFePO4 (LFP). It has a strong tendency to separate into Li-rich and Li-poor solid phases, which scientists believe limits its performance. Chemists first modeled phase separation in LFP as an isotropic "shrinking core" within each particle, but experiments later revealed striped phase boundaries on the active crystal facet. This raised the question: What is the reaction rate at a surface undergoing a phase transformation? Meanwhile, dramatic rate enhancement was attained with LFP nanoparticles, and classical battery models could not predict the roles of phase separation and surface modification. In this Account, I present a general theory of chemical kinetics, developed over

  10. Towards an evolutionary theory of the origin of life based on kinetics and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy; Sutherland, John D

    2013-11-01

    A sudden transition in a system from an inanimate state to the living state-defined on the basis of present day living organisms-would constitute a highly unlikely event hardly predictable from physical laws. From this uncontroversial idea, a self-consistent representation of the origin of life process is built up, which is based on the possibility of a series of intermediate stages. This approach requires a particular kind of stability for these stages-dynamic kinetic stability (DKS)-which is not usually observed in regular chemistry, and which is reflected in the persistence of entities capable of self-reproduction. The necessary connection of this kinetic behaviour with far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions is emphasized and this leads to an evolutionary view for the origin of life in which multiplying entities must be associated with the dissipation of free energy. Any kind of entity involved in this process has to pay the energetic cost of irreversibility, but, by doing so, the contingent emergence of new functions is made feasible. The consequences of these views on the studies of processes by which life can emerge are inferred. PMID:24196781

  11. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of fuel cell based Combined Cycle Cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Adedoyin

    Power plants operating in combined cycle cogeneration configuration are becoming increasingly popular because of high energy conversion efficiency and reduced pollutant and green-house gas emissions. On the other hand, fuel cell technology continues to be of global interest because it can operate with very low to 0% green-house gas emission depending on the fuel. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of co-firing of natural gas with synthetic gas generated from coal gasification on the thermodynamic performance of an air blown coal gasification Combined Cycle Cogeneration unit with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement. The effects of the operating temperature of the SOFC and the pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine on the net work output and efficiency of the power cycles on the cogeneration unit are simulated. Simulations are also conducted on the thermal and cogeneration efficiencies of the individual power cycle as well as the overall plants respectively. The optimal pressure ratio, temperature of operation of the SOFC and, gas turbine inlet temperature was determined using a sequential quadratic program solver base on the Quasi-Newton algorithm.

  12. Origin of the scaling rule for fundamental living organisms based on thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Noboru

    2003-06-01

    The regular relationships between metabolic energy and body mass M of unicellular organisms, poikilotherms and homeotherms were well known as general equations. The metabolic energy rate and the life span are proportional to M(0.75) and to M(0.25), respectively. As a result, the product of the metabolic energy rate and the life time, namely, life metabolic energy, is proportional to the mass of the living organism. The origin of the scaling rules for environmental organizing systems is as follows: (1) the scaling rules for internal energy, activation energy and free energy as a function of temperature and mass of a mole of molecules. (2) The majority of species of the living organisms have the same molecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in nearly same the ratio. (3) The internal energy of reactants in living organisms is equilibrium with the internal energy of water. Then, the integrated metabolic energy over the synthesizing time depends on internal energy of water and is proportional to mass M, despite the synthesizing time of the system depending on reaction rate. The proportional constant is obtained based on the thermodynamics for fundamental living organisms such as unicellular organisms and plants. Information on the environmental organizing system is also discussed. PMID:12753932

  13. Chemical thermodynamic considerations in sintering of LaCrO3-based perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the thermodynamic properties of LaCrO3 and related compounds estimated and utilized to correlate sinterability with phase relations in the La-M-Cr-O (M = Mg, Ca, Sr) systems. Chemical equilibria calculations reveal that calculated vapor pressures of gaseous chromium oxides (especially CrO3) can be well correlated with our previous experimental results on sinterability. The poor sinterability can be ascribed to the formation of a thin layer of Cr2O3(s) which is formed from incongruently vaporized CrO3(g) at the interparticle neck during the initial stage of sintering in air. Improvement of sinterability of Cr2O3-based oxides can be achieved by removing this Cr2O3 layer or by decreasing CrO3(g) vapor pressure to prevent the formation of Cr2O3 layer. These suggest that (La1-xCax)CrO3 perovskites are the most suitable materials for high sinterability, since these materials have the low CrO3 vapor pressure without precipitation of La2O3

  14. Conceptual design of light integrated gasification fuel cell based on thermodynamic process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Light integrated gasification fuel cell (L-IGFC) power plant is proposed. • Dry gas desulfurization (DGD) is a key to increase the efficiency of the L-IGFC. • Atmospheric L-IGFC gives electrical efficiency over 46%LHV. • Pressurized operation of solid oxide fuel cell offers electrical efficiency of L-IGFC over 50%LHV. - Abstract: Integration of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in coal gasification power plant technology would be one of the most promising technology in the coal utilization for power generation. The clean syngas from gas cleanup unit serves as fuel for SOFC in integrated gasification fuel cell power plant. The heat generated by SOFC can be utilized by heat recovery steam generator to drive steam turbine for electricity production. In this study, proposed plants consisting of coal gasifier and SOFC on the top of a steam turbine (ST), called light integrated gasification fuel cell (L-IGFC), are investigated thermodynamically by using Aspen Plus software to evaluate their performance. The analyses are based on the SOFC module considering ohmic, activation and concentration losses at a certain current density of the cell operating at the intermediate temperature. The influences of gas cleanup unit models were also investigated. The results indicated that the proposed atmospheric L-IGFC plant could achieve electrical efficiency in the range of 39–46.35% in lower heating value

  15. Experimental implementation and validation of thermodynamic cycles of adsorption-based desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A number of potential AD cycles are successfully implemented experimentally. ► The estimated performance from the proposed model agreed well with experimental data. ► We also reported the tested isotherms of the silica gel used in the experiment. -- Abstract: Climate change is leading to an increasing interest in desalination. The large ‘carbon footprint’ of traditional desalination technologies has spurned interest in several potential alternative technologies. This contribution here is concerned with one of these alternatives: adsorption-based desalination (AD), which uses waste heat or solar energy to generate potable water and, depending on the cycle details, cooling as well. We have previously proposed a number of possible theoretical thermodynamic cycles of AD and analysis thereof (Wu et al., Applied Energy 90: 316–22, 2011). In this paper, the practical implementation of these cycles is outlined and their validity experimentally shown. This work means these models can now be used with confidence to better understanding the performance of AD systems.

  16. Comparison of laser-based and monochromator-based thermodynamic temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we describe comparisons between a laser-based and a monochromator-based radiance responsivity calibration of a radiation thermometer. The spectral selection of the radiation thermometer is performed using a spectrally broad photopic-response filter which was selected to minimize effects of convolution differences due to the spectral width of the laser-and the monochromator-based sources. The photopic-response filter is physically thick, which should also reduce possible interference fringes which can be problematic in the laser-based calibrations. We compare the radiance responsivities obtained using the two approaches and also compare the blackbody temperatures determined using the detector/monochromator based and the gold-point based calibration methods

  17. Thermodynamics-based models for the magneto-mechanical response of magnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMaster, Douglas H.

    toward this i-direction. The energy required to rotate these magnetization vectors is called the anisotropy energy. Because MSMAs have unusually high anisotropy energy requirements [4, 5], it can become more energetically favorable to reorient variants into ξi and align the magnetic easy axis with the applied magnetic field, rather than to rotate the magnetization vector in the i-direction, toward the hard axis. In this manner, an MSMA can experience the same response to magnetic field as it does to a compressive stress: variant reorientation. As variants reorient, the MSMA will compress in one direction and elongate in another direction, enabling their use as actuators. Additionally, magnetization vectors change direction as they align with the short length of the reorienting variant. As the internal magnetization changes, the MSMA can produce changes in the external magnetic field, which can induce a current within a surrounding coil. Utilizing this can lead to the design of either power harvesters or sensors. This work builds upon that of others, notably that of Kiefer and Lagoudas [6-9], to present several thermodynamic-based continuum models to predict the response of an MSMA to magneto-mechanical loading. The first model is 2D, and allows for any magneto-mechanical loading in two directions. The 2D model includes evolution rules for domain fractions, magnetization vector rotation, and variant reorientation. The next two models are 3D, and include evolution rules for domain wall motion and variant re- orientation. The first 3D model neglects magnetization vector rotation to present a simpler model that is less computationally intensive, while the second 3D model in- cludes all known mechanisms present in the microstructure to give a more generalized and complete model. These models are all more general than any other continuum, thermodynamics-based model in the literature. No other 2D continuum, thermodynamics-based model allows for general 2D magneto

  18. Mapping a stellar disk into a boxy bulge: The outside-in part of the Milky Way bulge formation

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, P; Gomez, A; van Damme, L; Combes, F; Halle, A; Semelin, B; Lehnert, M D; Katz, D

    2014-01-01

    By means of idealized, dissipationless N-body simulations which follow the formation and subsequent buckling of a stellar bar, we study the characteristics of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges and compare them with the properties of the stellar populations in the Milky Way bulge. The main results of our modeling, valid for the general family of boxy/peanut shaped bulges, are the following: (i) because of the redistribution of stars in the disk initiated at the epoch of bar formation, it is the whole stellar disk, from the innermost regions to the outer Lindblad resonance of the stellar bar, that is mapped into a boxy bulge; (ii) the contribution of stars to the local bulge density depends on their birth radius: stars born in the innermost disk tend to dominate the innermost regions of the boxy bulge, while stars originating closer to the OLR dominate the outer regions of the boxy/peanut structure; (iii) stellar birth radii are imprinted in the bulge kinematics, the larger the birth radii of stars ending up in the bul...

  19. Atomistic-level non-equilibrium model for chemically reactive systems based on steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines an atomistic-level framework for modeling the non-equilibrium behavior of chemically reactive systems. The framework called steepest- entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEA-QT) is based on the paradigm of intrinsic quantum thermodynamic (IQT), which is a theory that unifies quantum mechanics and thermodynamics into a single discipline with wide applications to the study of non-equilibrium phenomena at the atomistic level. SEA-QT is a novel approach for describing the state of chemically reactive systems as well as the kinetic and dynamic features of the reaction process without any assumptions of near-equilibrium states or weak-interactions with a reservoir or bath. Entropy generation is the basis of the dissipation which takes place internal to the system and is, thus, the driving force of the chemical reaction(s). The SEA-QT non-equilibrium model is able to provide detailed information during the reaction process, providing a picture of the changes occurring in key thermodynamic properties (e.g., the instantaneous species concentrations, entropy and entropy generation, reaction coordinate, chemical affinities, reaction rate, etc). As an illustration, the SEA-QT framework is applied to an atomistic-level chemically reactive system governed by the reaction mechanism F + H2 ↔ FH + H

  20. The Impact of the Uncertainty in Single-Epoch Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates on the Observed Evolution of the Black Hole - Bulge Scaling Relations

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yue; Kelly, Brandon C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations of the black hole (BH) - bulge scaling relations usually report positive redshift evolution, with higher redshift galaxies harboring more massive BHs than expected from the local relations. All of these studies focus on broad line quasars with BH mass estimated from virial estimators based on single-epoch spectra. Since the sample selection is largely based on quasar luminosity, the cosmic scatter in the BH-bulge relation introduces a statistical bias leading to on average...

  1. Synthesis, thermodynamic properties and BSA interaction of a new Valen Shiff base derived from o-vanillin and trimethoprim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the synthetic Shiff base and BSA at four different temperatures has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Highlights: • A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. • The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. • The interaction between the Shiff base and BSA has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Abstract: A new Valen Shiff base (C22H24N4O5) was synthesized using equivalent moles of o-vanillin and trimethoprim. At 298.15 K, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the new compound was estimated to be ΔfHmΘ [C22H24N4O5(s), 298.15 K] = −(696.92 ± 1.67) kJ mol−1 by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the Shiff base and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Shiff base is a result of the formation of a Shiff base-BSA complex. Quenching constants were determined using the Sterns–Volmer equation to provide a measurement of the binding site between Shiff base and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS of the system at different temperatures were calculated. What is more, the distance r between donor (Trp. 213) and acceptor (Shiff base) was obtained. Finally, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data has suggested the association between Shiff base and BSA changed the molecular conformation of BSA

  2. Synthesis, thermodynamic properties and BSA interaction of a new Valen Shiff base derived from o-vanillin and trimethoprim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xu; Jiang, Jian-Hong; Xiao, Sheng-Xiong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Gu, Hui-Wen, E-mail: gruyclewee@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan Province (China); Li, Chuan-Hua; Ye, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; He, Du-Gui; Yao, Fei-Hong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Li, Qiang-Guo, E-mail: liqiangguo@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China)

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the synthetic Shiff base and BSA at four different temperatures has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Highlights: • A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. • The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. • The interaction between the Shiff base and BSA has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Abstract: A new Valen Shiff base (C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}) was synthesized using equivalent moles of o-vanillin and trimethoprim. At 298.15 K, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the new compound was estimated to be Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup Θ} [C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}(s), 298.15 K] = −(696.92 ± 1.67) kJ mol{sup −1} by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the Shiff base and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Shiff base is a result of the formation of a Shiff base-BSA complex. Quenching constants were determined using the Sterns–Volmer equation to provide a measurement of the binding site between Shiff base and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS of the system at different temperatures were calculated. What is more, the distance r between donor (Trp. 213) and acceptor (Shiff base) was obtained. Finally, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data has suggested the association between Shiff base and BSA changed the molecular conformation of BSA.

  3. Galactic bulge M giants. II. Content and structure of the bulge between b = -3 deg and -12 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHKL colors and CO and H2O indices for a sample of 250 M giants derived from surveys along the minor axis of the Galaxy at latitudes between -3 deg and -12 deg are presented and studied. The bolometric magnitudes for the stars are calculated. The effects of latitude on the colors, magnitudes, and indices are examined. The bolometric luminosity function for each bulge field is provided and the influence of latitude on luminosity is analyzed. Long-period variables in the bulge, the search for IRAS sources in the surveyed fields, and the IR surface brightness of the bulge are discussed. 74 refs

  4. Application of fundamental aquatic chemistry to the safety case and the role of thermodynamic reference data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Fellhauer, David; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2015-07-01

    All national and international programs developing a Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety Case have recognized the essential requirement of assessing aqueous (radionuclide) chemistry and establishing reliable thermodynamic databases. Long-term disposal of nuclear waste in deep underground repositories is the safest option to separate highly hazardous radionuclides from the environment. In order to predict the long-term performance of a repository for different evolution scenarios, the potentially relevant specific (geo)chemical systems are analyzed. This requires a detailed understanding of solubility, speciation and thermodynamics for all relevant components including radionuclides, and the availability of reliable thermodynamic data and databases as fundamental input for integral geochemical model calculations and hence PA. Radionuclide solubility and speciation strongly depend on chemical conditions (pH, E{sub h}, matrix electrolyte system and ionic strength) with additional factors like the presence of complexing ligands or temperature further impacting solution chemistry. As the fundamental chemical key processes are known and convincingly described by general laws of nature (→ solution thermodynamics), the long-term behavior of a repository system can be analyzed over geological timescales using geochemical tools. A key application of fundamental aquatic chemistry in the Safety Case is the determination of solubility limits (radionuclide source terms). Based upon fundamental chemical information (on solid phases, complexation reactions, activity coefficients, etc.), the maximum amount of radionuclides potentially dissolved in a given volume of solution and transported away from the repository, are quantified. A detailed understanding of radionuclide chemistry is also crucial for neighboring fields. For example, advanced mechanistic understanding and modeling of sorption processes at the solid liquid interphase, waste dissolution processes, secondary phase and

  5. Application of fundamental aquatic chemistry to the safety case and the role of thermodynamic reference data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All national and international programs developing a Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety Case have recognized the essential requirement of assessing aqueous (radionuclide) chemistry and establishing reliable thermodynamic databases. Long-term disposal of nuclear waste in deep underground repositories is the safest option to separate highly hazardous radionuclides from the environment. In order to predict the long-term performance of a repository for different evolution scenarios, the potentially relevant specific (geo)chemical systems are analyzed. This requires a detailed understanding of solubility, speciation and thermodynamics for all relevant components including radionuclides, and the availability of reliable thermodynamic data and databases as fundamental input for integral geochemical model calculations and hence PA. Radionuclide solubility and speciation strongly depend on chemical conditions (pH, Eh, matrix electrolyte system and ionic strength) with additional factors like the presence of complexing ligands or temperature further impacting solution chemistry. As the fundamental chemical key processes are known and convincingly described by general laws of nature (→ solution thermodynamics), the long-term behavior of a repository system can be analyzed over geological timescales using geochemical tools. A key application of fundamental aquatic chemistry in the Safety Case is the determination of solubility limits (radionuclide source terms). Based upon fundamental chemical information (on solid phases, complexation reactions, activity coefficients, etc.), the maximum amount of radionuclides potentially dissolved in a given volume of solution and transported away from the repository, are quantified. A detailed understanding of radionuclide chemistry is also crucial for neighboring fields. For example, advanced mechanistic understanding and modeling of sorption processes at the solid liquid interphase, waste dissolution processes, secondary phase and solid

  6. Application of thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models of concrete in the seismic analysis of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LENG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the seismic analysis of concrete dams with consideration of material nonlinearity. Based on a consistent rate-dependent model and two thermodynamics-based models, two thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models were developed with consideration of the influence of the strain rate. They can describe the dynamic behavior of concrete and be applied to nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete dams taking into account the rate sensitivity of concrete. With the two models, a nonlinear analysis of the seismic response of the Koyna Gravity Dam and the Dagangshan Arch Dam was conducted. The results were compared with those of a linear elastic model and two rate-independent thermodynamics-based constitutive models, and the influences of constitutive models and strain rate on the seismic response of concrete dams were discussed. It can be concluded from the analysis that, during seismic response, the tensile stress is the control stress in the design and seismic safety evaluation of concrete dams. In different models, the plastic strain and plastic strain rate of concrete dams show a similar distribution. When the influence of the strain rate is considered, the maximum plastic strain and plastic strain rate decrease.

  7. Application of thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models of concrete in the seismic analysis of concrete dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leng Fei; Lin Gao

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the seismic analysis of concrete dams with consideration of material nonlinearity. Based on a consistent rate-dependent model and two thermodynamics-based models, two thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models were developed with consideration of the influence of the strain rate. They can describe the dynamic behavior of concrete and be applied to nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete dams taking into account the rate sensitivity of concrete. With the two models, a nonlinear analysis of the seismic response of the Koyna Gravity Dam and the Dagangshan Arch Dam was conducted. The results were compared with those of a linear elastic model and two rate-independent thermodynamics-based constitutive models, and the influences of constitutive models and strain rate on the seismic response of concrete dams were discussed. It can be concluded from the analysis that, during seismic response, the tensile stress is the control stress in the design and seismic safety evaluation of concrete dams. In different models, the plastic strain and plastic strain rate of concrete dams show a similar distribution. When the influence of the strain rate is considered, the maximum plastic strain and plastic strain rate decrease.

  8. Orientation-specific cis complementation by bulge- and loop-mutated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, M; Powell, R; Sutton, J; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1994-12-01

    Tat activates human immunodeficiency type 1 gene expression by binding to TAR RNA. TAR comprises a partially base paired stem and hexanucleotide loop with a tripyrimidine bulge in the upper stem. In vitro, Tat binds to the bulge and upper stem, with no requirement for the loop. However, in vivo, loop sequences are critical for activation, implying that a loop binding cellular factor may be involved in the activation pathway. Given that activation appears to be a two-component system comprising a Tat-bulge interaction and a cellular factor-loop interaction, we considered that it might be possible to spatially separate the two components and retain activation. We have constructed a series of double TAR elements comprising various combinations of mutated TAR structures. Defective TARs with nucleotide substitutions in either the bulge or the loop complemented each other to give wild-type activation. However, the complementation was orientation specific, requiring the intact Tat binding site to reside on the 5'-proximal TAR. These data suggest that provided the wild-type orientation of the bulge and loop elements is retained, there is no requirement for them to coexist on the same TAR structure. PMID:7966633

  9. Accuracy Based Generation of Thermodynamic Properties for Light Water in RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff B. Davis

    2010-09-01

    RELAP5-3D interpolates to obtain thermodynamic properties for use in its internal calculations. The accuracy of the interpolation was determined for the original steam tables currently used by the code. This accuracy evaluation showed that the original steam tables are generally detailed enough to allow reasonably accurate interpolations in most areas needed for typical analyses of nuclear reactors cooled by light water. However, there were some regions in which the original steam tables were judged to not provide acceptable accurate results. Revised steam tables were created that used a finer thermodynamic mesh between 4 and 21 MPa and 530 and 640 K. The revised steam tables solved most of the problems observed with the original steam tables. The accuracies of the original and revised steam tables were compared throughout the thermodynamic grid.

  10. Non linear finite element simulation of complex bulge forming processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Donald, Bryan J

    2000-01-01

    Bulge forming is a manufacturing process that is becoming increasingly important as a technology that can be used to produce seamless, lightweight and near-net-shape industrial components. The process is being increasingly applied in the automotive and aerospace industries where the demands for increased structural strength and decreased vehicle weight make it a very attractive manufacturing method. This work is concerned with increasing knowledge of the deformation mechanisms during bulg...

  11. MACHO RR lyrae in the inner halo and bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, A.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B. A.; Pratt, M. R.; Quinn, P. J.; Rodgers, A. W.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sutherland, W.; Tomaney, A.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.

    1998-10-01

    The RR Lyrse in the bulge have been proposed to be the oldest populations in the Milky Way, tracers of how the galaxy formed. We study here the distribution of ?{approximately}1600 bulge RR Lyrae stars found by the MACHO Project. The RR Lyrae with 0.4 ? R ? 3 kpc show a density law that is well fit by the extension of the metal-poor stellar halo present in the outer regions of the Milky Way.

  12. Influence of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Factors on the Glass-Forming Ability of Zirconium-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, S.; Schroers, J.; Johnson, W. L.; Rhim, W. K.

    2005-01-01

    The time-temperature-transformation curves for three zirconium-based bulk amorphous alloys are measured to identify the primary factors influencing their glass-forming ability. The melt viscosity is found to have the most pronounced influence on the glass-forming ability compared to other thermodynamic factors. Surprisingly, it is found that the better glass former has a lower crystal-melt interfacial tension. This contradictory finding is explained by the icosahedral short-range order of the...

  13. Is the Galactic bulge devoid of planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Penny, Matthew T; Clanton, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 31 microlensing exoplanet hosts, we investigate whether or not the distances to these systems conform to the Galactic distribution of planets expected from a model. We derive the expected distribution of distances from a simulated microlensing survey, correcting (roughly) for the dominant selection effects that affect the detection sensitivity to planets as a function of their distance, and compare with the observed distribution using Anderson-Darling (AD) hypothesis testing. We find that the AD test rejects the hypothesis that the observed sample is drawn from our model distribution of distances with p-value $5.0\\times10^{-4}$. Interestingly, we find that an AD test can not reject ($p=0.18$) the hypothesis that the observed sample is drawn from a model distribution where only disk stars host planets (i.e., a model where there are no bulge planets), though AD tests of the relative proper motion distributions indicate tension with this extreme hypothesis. Allowing the relative abundance of pl...

  14. Polarization in microlensing towards the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ingrosso, G; De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Nucita, A A; Strafella, F; Zakharov, A F

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing, when finite size source effects are relevant, provides an unique tool for the study of source star stellar atmospheres through an enhancement of a characteristic polarization signal. This is due to the differential magnification induced during the crossing of the source star. In this paper we consider a specific set of reported highly magnified, both single and binary exoplanetary systems, microlensing events towards the Galactic bulge and evaluate the expected polarization signal. To this purpose, we consider several polarization models which apply to different types of source stars: hot, late type main sequence and cool giants. As a result we compute the polarization signal P,which goes up to P=0.04% for late type stars and up to a few percent for cool giants, depending on the underlying physical polarization processes and atmosphere model parameters. Given a I band magnitude at maximum magnification of about 12, and a typical duration of the polarization signal up to 1 day, we c...

  15. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data. PMID:27222917

  16. Chemical similarities between Galactic bulge and local thick disk red giant stars

    OpenAIRE

    Melendez, J.; Asplund, M.; Alves-Brito, A.; Cunha, K.; B. Barbuy; Bessell, M. S.; Chiappini, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Ramirez, I.; Smith, V.V.; Yong, D.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the Milky Way bulge and its relationship with the other Galactic populations is still poorly understood. The bulge has been suggested to be either a merger-driven classical bulge or the product of a dynamical instability of the inner disk. To probe the star formation history, the initial mass function and stellar nucleosynthesis of the bulge, we performed an elemental abundance analysis of bulge red giant stars. We also completed an identical study of local thin disk, thick d...

  17. Hiding its age: the case for a younger bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, M; Snaith, O; Calamida, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the age of the bulge has led to two contradictory results. On the one side, the color-magnitude diagrams in different bulge fields seem to indicate a uniformly old ($>$10 Gyr) population. On the other side, individual ages derived from dwarfs observed through microlensing events seem to indicate a large spread, from $\\sim$ 2 to $\\sim$ 13 Gyr. Because the bulge is now recognised as being mainly a boxy peanut-shaped bar, it is suggested that disk stars are one of its main constituents, and therefore also stars with ages significantly younger than 10 Gyr. Other arguments as well point to the fact that the bulge cannot be exclusively old, and in particular cannot be a burst population, as it is usually expected if the bulge was the fossil remnant of a merger phase in the early Galaxy. In the present study, we show that given the range of metallicities observed in the bulge, a uniformly old population would be reflected into a significant spread in color at the turn-off which is not observed. ...

  18. Thermodynamics of relation-based systems with applications in econophysics, sociophysics, and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2012-10-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze relation-based systems evolving in time by using the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics. The behavior of such systems can be tracked from the scattering matrix which is actually a network of directed vectors (or pathways) connecting subsequent values, which characterize an event, such as the index values in stock markets. A system behaves in a rigid (elastic) way to an external effect and resists permanent deformation, or it behaves in a viscous (or soft) way and deforms in an irreversible way. It was shown in the past that a formula derived using the slope of paths gives a measure about the extent of viscoelastic behavior of relation-based systems Gündüz (2009) [5] Gündüz and Gündüz (2010) [6]. In this research the ‘work’ associated with ‘elastic’ component, and ‘heat’ associated with ‘viscous’ component were discussed and elaborated. In a simple two subsequent pathway system in a scattering diagram the first vector represents ‘the cause’ and the second ‘the effect’. By using work and heat energy relations that involve force and also storage and loss modulus terms, respectively, one can calculate the energy involved in relation-based systems. The modulus values can be found from the parallel and vertical components of the second vector with respect to the first vector. Once work-like and heat-like terms were determined the internal energy is also easily found from their summation. The parallel and vertical components can also be used to calculate the magnitude of torque and torque energy in the system. Three cases, (i) the behavior of the NASDAQ-100 index, (ii) a social revolt, and (iii) the structure of a melody were analyzed for their ‘work-like’, ‘heat-like’, and ‘torque-like’ energies in the course of their evolution. NASDAQ-100 exhibits highly dissipative behavior, and its work terms are very small but heat terms are of large magnitude. Its internal energy highly fluctuates

  19. Pulsating variable stars in the MACHO bulge database: the semiregular variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, D.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    We review the pulsating stars contained in the top 24 fields of the MACHO bulge database, with special emphasis on the red semireg-ular stars. Based on period, amplitude and color cuts, we have selected a sample of 2000 semireguku variables with 15 < P < 100 days. Their period-luminosity relation is studied, as well ss their spatial distribution. We find that they follow the bar, unlike the RR Lyrae in these fields.

  20. Reinforcing the link between the double red clump and the X-shaped bulge of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Zoccali, M.; Debattista, V. P.; Alonso-García, J.; Valenti, E.; Minniti, D.

    2015-11-01

    The finding of a double red clump in the luminosity function of the Milky Way bulge has been interpreted as evidence for an X-shaped structure. Recently, an alternative explanation has been suggested, where the double red clump is an effect of multiple stellar populations in a classical spheroid. In this Letter we provide an observational assessment of this scenario and show that it is not consistent with the behaviour of the red clump across different lines of sight, particularly at high distances from the Galactic plane. Instead, we confirm that the shape of the red clump magnitude distribution closely follows the distance distribution expected for an X-shaped bulge at critical Galactic latitudes. We also emphasize some key observational properties of the bulge red clump that should not be neglected in the search for alternative scenarios. Based on observations taken within the ESO VISTA Public Survey VVV, Programme ID 179.B-2002.

  1. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired BTZ black hole based on Lorentzian smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Bo

    2012-11-01

    A noncommutative BTZ black hole is constructed in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In this black-hole model, the noncommutative smearing is obtained by replacing the point-like source term with a Lorentzian distribution. We mainly investigate the thermodynamical properties of this black hole, including Hawking temperature, entropy, heat capacity and free energy.

  2. Theoretical models for fluid thermodynamics based on the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Summary The theoretical modeling of fluid thermodynamics is one of the most challenging fields in physical chemistry. In fact the fluid behavior, except at very low density conditions, is still extremely difficult to be modeled from a statistical mechanical point of view, as for any realistic model

  3. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic study on interfacial reaction and diamond graphitization of Cu-Fe-based diamond composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-Sheng; Zhang Jie; Dong Hong-Feng; Chu Ke; Wang Shun-Cai; Liu Yi; Li Ya-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Cu-Fe based diamond composites used for saw-blade segments are directly fabricated by vacuum and pressureassisted sintering.The carbide forming elements Cr and Ti are added to improve interfacial bonding between diamond and the Cu-Fe matrix.The interfacial reactions between diamond/graphite and Cr or Ti,and diamond graphitization are investigated by thermodynamics/kinetics analyses and experimental methods.The results show that interfacial reactions and graphitization of diamond can automatically proceed thermodynamically.The Cr3C2,Cr7C3,Cr23C6,and TiC are formed at the interfaces of composites by reactions between diamond and Cr or Ti; diamond graphitization does not occur because of the kinetic difficulty at 1093 K under the pressure of 13 MPa.

  5. Numerical Predictions of Damage and Failure in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminates Using a Thermodynamically-Based Work Potential Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, referred to as enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Consistent characteristic lengths are introduced into the formulation to govern the evolution of the failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs are derived. The theory is implemented into a commercial finite element code. The model is verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared against the experimental results.

  6. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  7. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge: A population potpourri⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern edge of the Galactic bulge, at (l, b) ~ (0°,-11°). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H] = -2.52 dex, and another target is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe] = 1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars towards the bulge. Four of the carbon-normal stars exhibit abundance patterns reminiscent of halo star across a metallicity range spanning -2.0 to -2.6 dex, i.e., enhanced α-elements and solar Fe-peak and neutron-capture elements, and the remaining one is a regular metal-rich bulge giant. The position, distance, and radial velocity of one of the metal-poor HB stars coincides with simulations of the old trailing arm of the disrupted Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. While their highly uncertain proper motions prohibit a clear kinematic separation, the stars' chemical abundances and distances suggest that these metal-poor candidates, albeit located towards the bulge, are not of the bulge, but rather inner halo stars on orbits that make them pass through the central regions. Thus, we caution similar claims of detections of metal-poor stars as true habitants of the bulge. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas

  8. The Black Hole–Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läsker, Ronald; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies’ central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing “classical” bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions. (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude (106–{10}8 {M}ȯ ) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all ˜ {10}11 {M}ȯ within a factor of three. (2) The BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected when compared to an extrapolation of the BH-bulge relation based on early-type galaxies. (3) The observed large intrinsic scatter of BH masses in the megamaser host galaxies raises the question of whether scaling relations exist in spiral galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 12185.

  9. Molecular thermodynamic modeling of ionic liquids using the perturbation-based linear Yukawa isotherm regularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi Mahboub, Mahdi; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, we present the results of an extensive study on a novel approach to the molecular modeling of pure ionic liquids (ILs) that incorporates the perturbed thermodynamic linear Yukawa isotherm regularity (LYIR), which is derived based on an effective nearest neighboring pair attractive interaction of the Yukawa potential. The LYIR was used to model the densities of ILs up to high pressures (35 MPa) and in the temperature range 293.15 to 393.15 K. To use the LYIR for ILs, a simple molecular model was proposed to describe their molecular structure, in which they were considered as a liquid consisting of the ion pairs moving together in the fluid, and each ion pair was assumed to be a one-center spherical united atom. The ILs under consideration contained one of the IL cations [C2mim](+), [C4mim](+), [C7mim](+), [C8mim](+), [C3mpy](+), [C3mpip](+), [C3mpyr](+) or [C4mpyr](+), and one of the IL anions [BF4](-), [C(CN)3](-), [CF3SO4](-) or [NTf2](-). The reliability and physical significance of the parameters as well as the proposed molecular model were tested by calculating the densities of pure imidazolium-, pyridinium-, piperidinium- and pyrrolidimium-based ILs. The results showed that the LYIR can be used to predict and reproduce the density of ILs in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the LYIR enabled us to determine the physical quantities, such as an effective Yukawa screening length, λ eff, the product of the effective energy well depth and the effective coordination number, (ε eff/k)z eff, the contribution of the non-reference thermal pressure and also the influence of the anionic and cationic structure on the λ eff parameter. The standard deviation of the IL densities predicted in this work is lower than those calculated by the one other important equation of state reported in the literature. PMID:27157142

  10. Molecular thermodynamic modeling of ionic liquids using the perturbation-based linear Yukawa isotherm regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi Mahboub, Mahdi; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an extensive study on a novel approach to the molecular modeling of pure ionic liquids (ILs) that incorporates the perturbed thermodynamic linear Yukawa isotherm regularity (LYIR), which is derived based on an effective nearest neighboring pair attractive interaction of the Yukawa potential. The LYIR was used to model the densities of ILs up to high pressures (35 MPa) and in the temperature range 293.15 to 393.15 K. To use the LYIR for ILs, a simple molecular model was proposed to describe their molecular structure, in which they were considered as a liquid consisting of the ion pairs moving together in the fluid, and each ion pair was assumed to be a one-center spherical united atom. The ILs under consideration contained one of the IL cations [C2mim]+, [C4mim]+, [C7mim]+, [C8mim]+, [C3mpy]+, [C3mpip]+, [C3mpyr]+ or [C4mpyr]+, and one of the IL anions [BF4]‑, [C(CN)3]‑, [CF3SO4]‑ or [NTf2]‑. The reliability and physical significance of the parameters as well as the proposed molecular model were tested by calculating the densities of pure imidazolium-, pyridinium-, piperidinium- and pyrrolidimium-based ILs. The results showed that the LYIR can be used to predict and reproduce the density of ILs in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the LYIR enabled us to determine the physical quantities, such as an effective Yukawa screening length, λ eff, the product of the effective energy well depth and the effective coordination number, (ε eff/k)z eff, the contribution of the non-reference thermal pressure and also the influence of the anionic and cationic structure on the λ eff parameter. The standard deviation of the IL densities predicted in this work is lower than those calculated by the one other important equation of state reported in the literature.

  11. Analysis of photometric uncertainties in the OGLE-IV Galactic Bulge microlensing survey data

    CERN Document Server

    Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Szymański, M K; Mróz, P; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Poleski, R; Pietrukowicz, P; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M; Soszyński, I

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical assessment of both, observed and reported, photometric uncertainties in the OGLE-IV Galactic bulge microlensing survey data. This dataset is widely used for the detection of variable stars, transient objects, discovery of microlensing events, and characterization of the exo-planetary systems. Large collections of RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids discovered by the OGLE project toward the Galactic bulge provide light curves based on this dataset. We describe the method of analysis, and provide the procedure, which can be used to update preliminary photometric uncertainties, provided with the light curves, to the ones reflecting the actual observed scatter at a given magnitude and for a given CCD detector of the OGLE-IV camera.This is of key importance for data modeling, in particular, for the correct estimation of the goodness of fit.

  12. Iron Reduction and Radionuclide Immobilization: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Hydrologic controls & Reaction-Based Modeling - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William D. Burgos

    2004-06-18

    Our research focused on (1) microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) individually, and concomitantly in natural sediments, (2) Fe(III) oxide surface chemistry, specifically with respect to reactions with Fe(II)and U(VI), (3) the influence of humic substances on Fe(III) and U(VI) bioreduction, and on U(VI) complexation, and (4) the development of reaction-based reactive transport biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results. We have continued our investigations on microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Modeling our earlier experimental results required assumption of a hydrated surface for hematite, more reactive than predicted based on theoretical solubility (Burgos et al.2002). Subsequent studies with Shewanella putrefaciens and Geobacter sulfurreducens confirmed the rates of Fe(III) bioreduction depend on oxide surface area rather than oxide thermodynamic properties (Roden,2003a,b;2004; Burgos et al,2003). We examined the potential for bioreduction of U(VI) by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of synthetic Fe(III) oxides and natural Fe(III) oxide-containing solids (Jeon et al,2004a,b) in which more than 95% of added U(VI) was sorbed to mineral surfaces. The results showed a significant portion of solid-associated U(VI) was resistant to both enzymatic and abiotic (Fe(II)-driven) reduction, but the rate and extent of bioreduction of U(VI) was increased due to the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). We conducted long-term semicontinuous culture and column experiments on coupled Fe(III) oxide/U(VI) reduction. These experiments were conducted with natural subsurface sediment from the Oyster site in Virginia, whose Fe content and microbial reducibility are comparable to ORNL FRC sediments (Jeon et al, 2004b). The results conclusively demonstrated the potential for sustained removal of U(VI) from solution via DMRB activity in excess of the U(VI) sorption capacity of the natural mineral assemblages. Jang (2004) demonstrated

  13. The Large-Scale Extinction Map of the Galactic Bulge from the MACHO Project Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Popowski, P; Becker, A; Popowski, Piotr; Cook, Kem; Becker, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We present a (V-R)-based reddening map of about 43 square degrees of the Galactic bulge/bar. The map is constructed using template image photometry from the MACHO microlensing survey, contains 9717 resolution elements, and is based on (V-R)-color averages of the entire color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) in 4 by 4 arc-minute tiles. The conversion from the observed color to the reddening follows from an assumption that CMDs of all bulge fields would look similar in the absence of extinction. Consequently, the difference in observed color between various fields originates from varying contribution of the disk extinction summed along different lines of sight. We check that our (V-R) colors correlate very well with visual extinction derived by Stanek in Baade's Window. We show that a dusty disk obeying a cosec|b| extinction law, E(V-R) = 0.0274 cosec|b|, provides a good approximation to the extinction toward the MACHO bulge/bar fields. The large-scale (V-R)-color and visual extinction map presented here will be made ...

  14. A Search for Novae in the Bulge of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, T. A.; Jacoby, G. H.; Corbett, D. L.; Denham, M.; RBSE Nova Search Team

    1999-12-01

    We present the initial results of a program currently underway to search for nova in local group galaxies with the KPNO 0.9-meter telescope. The long-term goal is to accurately determine if the nova rate varies for galaxies of different Hubble type. Ciardullo et al. claim that nova rates are very similar when normalized to the total galaxy K-band luminosity. However, Della Valle et al. claim the rates are different by up to a factor of four, with early-type galaxies being deficient in novae. Here we present novae found from eighteen epochs of observations of the bulge of M31. The observations span from September 1995 to July 1999. The results presented here are part of an NSF-funded research-based science education program (RBSE) operated by NOAO, wherein middle- and high-school science students learn astronomy and inquiry-based learning skills by participating in actual research. The novae presented here were discovered by students participating in the RBSE program.

  15. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling of molybdenum and vanadium-containing carbide hardened iron-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Improvement of a carbide selective extraction method. ► Determination of experimental data on the Fe–C–Cr–Mo–V system for carbides above 900 °C: crystallographic structures and compositions of precipitates, matrix composition. ► High molybdenum solubility in FCC carbides. ► Improvement of thermodynamic databases from experimental results. ► Validation of the optimized database with different compositions steels. -- Abstract: A technique for the microstructural study of steels, based on the use of matrix dissolution to collect the very low number density precipitates formed in martensitic steels, has been considerably improved. This technique was applied to two different grades of alloy, characterized by high nickel and cobalt contents and varying chromium, molybdenum and vanadium contents. The technique was implemented at temperatures ranging between 900 °C and 1000 °C, in order to accurately determine experimental data including the crystallographic structure and chemical composition of the carbides, the carbide solvus temperatures, and variations in the chemical composition of the matrix. These experimental investigations reveal that the solubility of molybdenum in FCC carbides can be very high. These results have been compared with the behavior predicted by computational thermodynamics, and used to evaluate and improve the thermodynamic Matcalc steel database. This upgraded database has been validated on three other steels with different chemical compositions, characterized by the same Fe–Cr–Mo–V–C system

  16. Large-scale screening of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage from first-principles calculations based on equilibrium reaction thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chul; Kulkarni, Anant D; Johnson, J Karl; Sholl, David S

    2011-04-21

    Systematic thermodynamics calculations based on density functional theory-calculated energies for crystalline solids have been a useful complement to experimental studies of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides. We report the most comprehensive set of thermodynamics calculations for mixtures of light metal hydrides to date by performing grand canonical linear programming screening on a database of 359 compounds, including 147 compounds not previously examined by us. This database is used to categorize the reaction thermodynamics of all mixtures containing any four non-H elements among Al, B, C, Ca, K, Li, Mg, N, Na, Sc, Si, Ti, and V. Reactions are categorized according to the amount of H(2) that is released and the reaction's enthalpy. This approach identifies 74 distinct single step reactions having that a storage capacity >6 wt.% and zero temperature heats of reaction 15 ≤ΔU(0)≤ 75 kJ mol(-1) H(2). Many of these reactions, however, are likely to be problematic experimentally because of the role of refractory compounds, B(12)H(12)-containing compounds, or carbon. The single most promising reaction identified in this way involves LiNH(2)/LiH/KBH(4), storing 7.48 wt.% H(2) and having ΔU(0) = 43.6 kJ mol(-1) H(2). We also examined the complete range of reaction mixtures to identify multi-step reactions with useful properties; this yielded 23 multi-step reactions of potential interest. PMID:21409194

  17. Investigation into the factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing are especially researched in this paper. According to the different inverse bulging process, two modes can be singled: the initial inverse bulging (IIB and the local inverse bulging (LIB. IIB includes two parameters: inverse bulging height ratio (HIb/t and inverse bulging pressure ratio (PIb/t. LIB is influenced by IIB and has a direct relationship with liquid chamber pressure in the forming process. The optimal inverse bulging parameters of hemispherical bottom cylindrical part and flat bottom cylindrical part are obtained by numerical simulation. Process parameters including the clearance between the punch and the blank holder and the blank holder entrance radius that have a large influence on inverse bulging effect are optimized, so as to make inverse bulging effect behave better in hydroforming process. Finally, the accuracy of the numerical simulation results was verified by experiments.

  18. Simulation of precipitate evolution in Fe–25 Co– 15 Mo with Si addition based on computational thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The nucleus composition of metastable bcc-precipitates is modeled. • Enthalpies of bcc are calculated using special quasirandom structures. • Thermodynamic model parameters of intermetallic μ-phase are optimized. • The precipitate evolution in Fe–Co–Mo alloy during aging is simulated. • Elastic strain is considered in the precipitation simulation. -- Abstract: Multi-component nucleation theory is applied to decipher the precipitate evolution of solution-treated and quenched Fe–25Co–15Mo (mass%) with Si addition during continuous heating and isothermal aging. For computer simulation of the nucleation and growth kinetics of precipitates, we optimize thermodynamic model parameters of the Fe–Co–Mo system with experimental data and enthalpies of formation of ternary ferrite phase determined by density functional theory analysis. Si-solubility in the precipitation-hardening μ-phase is considered in the thermodynamic modeling. The body-centered cubic (bcc) ferrite phase reveals a metastable miscibility gap between Fe- and Mo-rich phase below 1033 K. Based on thermodynamic modeling of the Fe–Co–Mo system, it is shown that the alloy Fe–25Co–15Mo is located outside the spinodal region, which is in contrast to some previous work on this system. Thermo-kinetic simulations, which are validated on experimental data from atom probe tomography, propose that during aging, the first microstructures form by means of nucleation and growth of metastable bcc-precipitates before the formation of rhombohedral μ-phase. For the thermokinetic analysis, we evaluate and utilize theoretically predicted nucleus compositions of bcc-precipitates from the minimum nucleation barrier concept

  19. General thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Olander, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The book’s methodology is unified, concise, and multidisciplinary, allowing students to understand how the principles of thermodynamics apply to all technical fields that touch upon this most fundamental of scientific theories. It also offers a rigorous approach to the quantitative aspects of thermodynamics, accompanied by clear explanations to help students transition smoothly from the physical concepts to their mathematical representations

  20. Thermodynamic simulation as an assistant tool in the development of iron based hardfacing materials

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson Otoni Correa; Nelson Guedes de Alcântara; Dorival Gonçalvez Tecco; Ramachandan Vasant Kumar

    2007-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was used to investigate the solidification of a hardfacing material in Fe-Cr-C-Nb system designated CNO, and developed for cladding components subjected to severe abrasive wear by welding. Microstructural characterization of the alloy showed that the theoretical simulations carried out to predict the amount and volume fraction of the phases using the module Scheil of MT-DATA Software gave very realistic results in the case of the rapid solidification of the hardfacing al...

  1. Theoretical models for fluid thermodynamics based on the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amadei, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Summary The theoretical modeling of fluid thermodynamics is one of the most challenging fields in physical chemistry. In fact the fluid behavior, except at very low density conditions, is still extremely difficult to be modeled from a statistical mechanical point of view, as for any realistic model Hamiltonian the configurational part of the partition function cannot be evaluated, i.e., the corresponding high dimensional integral is far too complex to be solved. Hence once a molecular Hamilto...

  2. Kinetic and thermodynamic bases to resolve issues regarding conditioning of uranium metal fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous uranium - bearing fuels are corroding in fuel storage pools in several countries. At facilities where reprocessing is no longer available, dry storage is being evaluated to preclude aqueous corrosion that is ongoing. It is essential that thermodynamic and kinetic factors are accounted for in transitions of corroding uranium-bearing fuels to dry storage. This paper addresses a process that has been proposed to move Hanford N-Reactor fuel from wet storage to dry storage

  3. Embodiment Analysis for Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Chinese Economy Based on Global Thermodynamic Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Lijie Wang; Xiangyang Xu; Suping Peng; Bo Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the Global Thermodynamic Potential (GTP) indicator to perform a unified assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and to systematically reveal the emission embodiment in the production, consumption, and international trade of the Chinese economy in 2007 as the most recent year available with input-output table and updated inventory data. The results show that the estimated total direct GHG emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 amount to 10,657.5 Mt CO 2 -eq by the ...

  4. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2014-12-01

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron-vanadium, and iron-chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. Proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  5. Evaluation of a Thermodynamically Based Soil Microbial Decomposition Model Based on a 13c Tracer Study in Arctic Tundra Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Tang, J.; Riley, W. J.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Machmuller, M. B.; Lynch, L.

    2014-12-01

    The incorporation of explicit representation of biological complexity in soil carbon decomposition models may improve our ability to accurately predict terrestrial carbon-climate feedbacks. A new generation of microbe-explicit soil decomposition models (MEMs) are being developed that represent soil biological complexity, but only a few take into account detailed biotic and abiotic components and competitive interactions in the complex soil system. In view of this, we have developed a thermodynamically based MEM with a detailed component network (polymeric organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, microbes, extracellular enzymes, and mineral surfaces), in which competitive interactions and microbial metabolism are modeled using Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation kinetics and Dynamic Energy Budget theory, respectively. The model behavior has been tested and is qualitatively consistent with many empirical studies, but further evaluation of the model with field or lab experimental data in specific ecosystems is needed. Stable carbon isotope (13C) tracer experiments provide a means to directly evaluate soil carbon dynamics simulated by MEMs. In this study, we further develop the model to explicitly account for different carbon isotopes, including 13C and 14C. Isotopic fractionations in soil decomposition processes, including soil organic matter transformations and microbial metabolism, are considered. The 13C signals of different soil components derived from a 13C tracer experiment in Arctic tundra soils are used to test the model behavior and identify needed parametric and structural improvements. Our modeling and data comparison identify several key mechanisms that need to be included in MEMs. Finally, we present an analysis of the relative benefits and costs of additional complexity in MEMs compared to traditional pool-based modeling structures.

  6. Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can...

  7. Chemical abundances in a high-velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Xu, S.; Kunder, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2016-05-01

    Low-mass variable high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic center. Wide-area surveys such as APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities higher than 350 km s-1. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass RR Lyrae star that is located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~-400 km s-1. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derived abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allowed us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances combined suggest that the star was accelerated from the outskirts of the inner (or even outer) halo during many-body interactions. Other possible origins include the bulge itself, or the star might have been stripped from a stellar cluster or the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy when it merged with the Milky Way. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Mapping the Three-Dimensional "X-Shaped Structure" in Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the X-shaped structure in the Milky Way bulge can naturally arise from the bar instability and buckling instability. To understand the influence of the buckling amplitude on the morphology of the X-shape, we analyze three self-consistent numerical simulations of barred galaxies with different buckling amplitudes (strong, intermediate and weak). We derive the three-dimensional density with an adaptive kernel smoothing technique. The face-on iso-density surfaces are all elliptical, while in the edge-on view, the morphology of buckled bars transitions with increasing radius, from a central boxy core to a peanut bulge and then to an extended thin bar. Based on these iso-density surfaces at different density levels, we find no clear evidence for a well-defined structure shaped like a letter X. The X-shaped structure is more peanut-like, whose visual perception is probably enhanced by the pinched inner concave iso-density contours. The peanut bulge can reproduce qualitatively t...

  9. Chemical abundances in a high velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Camilla Juul; Koch, Andreas; Xu, Siyi; Kunder, Andrea; Ludwig, Hans-Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass, variable, high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic centre. Wide-area surveys like APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities larger than 350 km/s. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass, RR Lyrae star, located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~ -400 km/s. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derive abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allow us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, combining its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances suggests that the star was accelerated from the out...

  10. Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The Distance Scale Galactic Bulge - LMC - SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the mean luminosity of three samples of field RRab Lyr stars observed in the course of the OGLE microlensing experiment: 73 stars from the Galactic bulge and 110 and 128 stars from selected fields in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The fields are the same as in the recent distance determination to the Magellanic Clouds with the red clump stars method by Udalski et al (1998). We determine the relative distance scale d_{GB}:d_{LMC}:d_{SMC} equal to: (0.194+/-0.010):1.00:(1.30+/-0.08). We calibrate our RR Lyr distance scale with the recent calibration of Gould and Popowski (1998) based on statistical parallaxes. We obtain the following distance moduli to the Galactic bulge, LMC and SMC: m-M=14.53+/-0.15, m-M=18.09+/-0.16 and m-M=18.66+/-0.16 mag. We use the RR Lyr mean V-band luminosity at the Galactic bulge metallicity as the reference brightness and analyze the mean, I-band luminosity of the red clump stars in objects with different ages and metallicities. We add to our analysis the metal poor Carina...

  11. The WFC3 Galactic Bulge Treasury Program: A First Look at Resolved Stellar Population Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas M; Zoccali, Manuela; Renzini, Alvio; Ferguson, Henry C; Anderson, Jay; Smith, Ed; Bond, Howard E; Minniti, Dante; Valenti, Jeff A; Casertano, Stefano; Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; VandenBerg, Don A; Valenti, Elena

    2008-01-01

    [Abridged] When WFC3 is installed on HST, the community will have powerful new tools for investigating resolved stellar populations. The WFC3 Galactic Bulge Treasury program will obtain deep imaging on 4 low-extinction fields. These non-proprietary data will enable a variety of science investigations not possible with previous data sets. To aid in planning for the use of these data and for future proposals, we provide an introduction to the program, its photometric system, and the associated calibration effort. The observing strategy is based upon a new 5-band photometric system spanning the UV, optical, and near-infrared. With these broad bands, one can construct reddening-free indices of Teff and [Fe/H]. Besides the 4 bulge fields, the program will target 6 fields in well-studied star clusters, spanning a wide range of [Fe/H]. The cluster data serve to calibrate the indices, provide population templates, and correct the transformation of isochrones into the WFC3 photometric system. The bulge data will shed ...

  12. Milky Way mass galaxies with X-shaped bulges are not rare in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Laurikainen, E; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, A; Herrera-Endoqui, M

    2014-01-01

    Boxy/Peanut/X-shaped (B/P/X) bulges are studied using the 3.6 micron images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), and the Ks-band images from the Near-IR S0 galaxy Survey (NIRS0S). They are compared with the properties of barlenses, defined as lens-like structures embedded in bars. Based on observations and recent simulation models we show evidence that barlenses are the more face-on counterparts of B/P/X-shaped bulges. Using unsharp masks 18 new X-shaped structures were identified, covering a large range of galaxy inclinations. The similar masses and red B-3.6 micron colors of the host galaxies, and the fact that the combined axial ratio distribution of the host galaxy disks is flat, supports the interpretation that barlenses and X-shapes are physically the same phenomenon. Our detailed 2D multi-component decompositions for 30 galaxies, fitting the barlens/X-shape with a separate component indicate very small or non-existent classical bulges. Taking into account that the structures ...

  13. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  14. Identification of 5 Interacting Binaries in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britt, C T; Hynes, R I; Jonker, P G; Maccarone, T J; Greiss, S; Steeghs, D; Groot, P; Knigge, C; Dieball, A; Nelemans, G; Mikles, V J; Gossen, L

    2013-01-01

    We present optical lightcurves, spectroscopy, and classification of five X-ray sources in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey [CXOGBS J174009.1-284725 (CX5), CXOGBS J173935.7-272935 (CX18), CXOGBS J173946.9-271809 (CX28), CXOGBS J173729.1-292804 (CX37), CXOGBS J174607.6-261547 (CX561)]. These objects were selected based on bright optical counterparts which were quickly found to have emission lines in their optical spectra. This paper presents an illustration of GBS optical follow-up, targeting emission line objects. Of these five objects, four exhibit photometric variability in the Sloan r' band. CX5 shows a tentative period of 2.1 hours and is clearly an Intermediate Polar (IP). CX28 and CX37 both exhibit flickering with no clear period. Both are suggested to also be IPs. CX18 was observed to undergo 2 dwarf nova outbursts. Finally, CX561 shows no detectable variability, although its characteristics would be consistent with either a quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binary or Cataclysmic Variable.

  15. Advanced thermodynamics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Jog, Milind A

    2011-01-01

    Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels IntroductionImportance, Significance and LimitationsReview of ThermodynamicsMathematical BackgroundOverview of Microscopic/NanothermodynamicsSummaryAppendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems First Law of ThermodynamicsZeroth LawFirst Law for a Closed SystemQuasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) ProcessesEnthalpy and First LawAdiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific HeatsFirst Law for an Open SystemApplications of First Law for an Open SystemIntegral and Differential Form

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

  17. The 3D structure of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Zoccali, M

    2016-01-01

    We review the observational evidences concerning the three-dimensional structure of the Galactic bulge. Although the inner few kpc of our Galaxy are normally referred to as {\\it the bulge}, all the observations demonstrate that this region is dominated by a bar, i.e., the bulge is a bar. The bar has a boxy/peanut (X\\--shaped) structure in its outer regions, while it seems to become less and less elongated in its innermost region. A thinner and longer structure departing from the main bar has also been found, although the observational evidences that support the scenario of two separate structures has been recently challenged. Metal poor stars ([Fe/H]$\\lesssim -0.5$ dex) trace a different structure, and also have different kinematics.

  18. The lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chun-Hua; Lv Guo-Liang; Wang Zhao-Jun; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge, we have made a detailed study of thermal pulseasymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars by using a population synthesis code. The effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood (close to the present observations) is insufficient to explain the rareness of carbon stars in the bulge. We suggest that the large mass loss rate may serve as a controlling factor in the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars.

  19. Counterparts to the Nuclear Bulge X-ray source population

    CERN Document Server

    Gosling, Andrew J; Blundell, Katherine M; Lucas, Phil

    2008-01-01

    We present an initial matching of the source positions of the Chandra Nuclear Bulge X-ray sources to the new UKIDSS-GPS near-infrared survey of the Nuclear Bulge. This task is made difficult by the extremely crowded nature of the region, despite this, we find candidate counterparts to ~50% of the X-ray sources. We show that detection in the J-band for a candidate counterpart to an X-ray source preferentially selects those candidate counterparts in the foreground whereas candidate counterparts with only detections in the H and K-bands are more likely to be Nuclear Bulge sources. We discuss the planned follow-up for these candidate counterparts.

  20. Near-Infrared Bulge-Disk Correlations of Lenticular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Kembhavi, Ajit K; Mayya, Y D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the luminosity and environmental dependence of structural parameters of lenticular galaxies in the near-infrared K band. Using a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extract bulge and disk structural parameters for a sample of 36 lenticular galaxies observed by us in the K band. By combining data from the literature for field and cluster lenticulars with our data, we study correlations between parameters that characterise the bulge and the disk as a function of luminosity and environment. We find that scaling relations such as the Kormendy relation, photometric plane and other correlations involving bulge and disk parameters show a luminosity dependence. This dependence can be explained in terms of galaxy formation models in which faint lenticulars (M_T > -24.5) formed via secular formation processes that likely formed the pseudobulges of late-type disk galaxies, while brighter lenticulars (M_T < -24.5) formed through a different formation mechanism most likely involving maj...

  1. Thermodynamic, electrochemical and quantum chemical investigation of some Schiff bases as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution by four Schiff bases was investigated using weight loss and electrochemical measurements and quantum chemical calculations. All compounds showed >90% inhibition efficiency at their optimum concentrations. The activation energy (Ea) of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. The adsorption of the inhibitors on the mild steel surface follows Langmuir isotherm model. Polarization studies indicated that all studied inhibitors are mixed type. The computed quantum chemical properties viz., electron affinity (EA) and molecular band gap (ΔEMBG) show good correlation with experimental inhibition efficiencies.

  2. Thermal conductivity of tubular nanowire composites based on a thermodynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Georgy; Machrafi, Hatim

    2015-07-01

    A formula for the effective heat conductivity of a nanocomposite with cylindrical nanowire inclusions is derived. Both transversal and longitudinal heating along the wires are investigated. Several effects are examined: the volume fraction and sizes of the nanowires, the type of scattering at the particle-matrix interface and temperature. As illustration, silicon nanowires inclusions in a germanium matrix is considered; the results are shown to be in good agreement with other models and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. Our main contribution consists of using extended irreversible thermodynamics to cope with the nano dimensions of the wires.

  3. Chelation of Schiff bases with rare earth metal ions - thermodynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelating tendencies of 5-chloro-orthohydroxy acetophenone-p-chloro phenyl anil and 5-chloro-orthohydroxy acetophenone-p-bromo phenyl anil towards the f-block metal ions have been investigated potentiometrically at various temperatures in 60:40 ethanol-water medium and 0.1M (NaClO4) ionic strength. Formation of 1:1 and 1:2 chelates was detected. Thermodynamic parameters for metal-ligand stability constants have been obtained by the temperature coefficie nt method. (author). 7 refs

  4. Emitted High Energy Light Particle Data Base Development Using a Thermodynamic Coalescence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, M. P.; Townsend, L. W.

    2013-03-01

    In many applications, double-differential (energy and angle) secondary light particle production cross sections must be known for ion energies from tens of MeV/nucleon to tens of GeV/nucleon. Incorporating high energy light particle spectral and angular distribution cross section databases in the transport codes enable them to transport nearly any radiation field, in three dimensions, that humans and instruments might be exposed to in space, near accelerators or during charged particle radiotherapy. In this work a thermodynamics coalescence model is used to estimate the coalescence and emitting source radii for both symmetric and asymmetric heavy ion collision systems.

  5. Thermodynamic modelling of Li–Sn liquid alloy based on Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The experimental KEMS data fit well with the Redlich–Kister sub-regular solution model applied to Li–Sn melt. • The Redlich–Kister binary interaction L-parameters of the Li–Sn melt were provided in this work. • The experimental KEMS data fit well with the ideally associated mixture model, too. • The quantitative associate composition of the Li–Sn melt was given. • The thermodynamic properties of the associate-forming reactions were also provided. - Abstract: The mixing thermodynamic properties of liquid Li–Sn system, determined previously by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS), were successfully fitted to both Redlich–Kister (RK) sub-regular mixture and ideally associated mixture (IAMT) models. The RK binary interaction L parameters, as a function of temperature in the CALPHAD-type functional form, were obtained as follows: L(0)=-(108580±0.00171)+(16.4±1.6·10-5)·T+(1.96496·10-9±2.03133·10-6) ·T·ln(T) L(1)=-(96600±4700)+(3.3±43.0)·T+(4.4±5.6)·T·ln(T) L(2)=-(64670±190)-(44.4±1.7)·T+(8.44±0.22)·T·ln(T) L(3)=-(20900±1500)-(29±14)·T+(4.3±1.8)·T·ln(T) The former literature data provided only qualitative information on possible liquid associates but no quantitative associate composition was given as a function of the sample composition and temperature. The experimental KEMS data in the composition range XLi = 0 to ∼0.7 fit well with the Li(l) + Sn(l) + LiSn(l) + LiSn2(l) + Li2Sn(l) associate model. At XLi > 0.7 no associate variations – including further associate variants such as Li4Sn(l) etc. – could be fitted to the KEMS data. Nevertheless, in this work the Li(l) + Sn(l) + LiSn(l) + LiSn2(l) + Li2Sn(l) + Li4Sn(l) + Li9Sn(l) associate model was successfully fitted to the thermodynamic data of a selected literature study over the complete composition range. The thermodynamic data of the associate-forming reactions were also given in this paper

  6. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rahimi; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside of the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyrs so that these stars have high [alpha/Fe] as well as having a high total energy reflecting their accretion t...

  7. Spin-up of massive classical bulges during secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kanak; Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2016-04-01

    Context. Classical bulges in spiral galaxies are known to rotate, but the origin of this observed rotational motion is not well understood. It has been shown recently that a low-mass classical bulge (ClB) in a barred galaxy can acquire rotation by absorbing a significant fraction of the angular momentum emitted by the bar. Aims: Our aim here is to investigate whether bars can also spin up more massive ClBs during the secular evolution of the bar, and to study the kinematics and dynamics of these ClBs. Methods: We use a set of self-consistent N-body simulations to study the interaction of ClBs with a bar that forms self-consistently in the disk. We use orbital spectral analysis to investigate the angular momentum gain by the classical bulge stars. Results: We show that the ClBs gain on average 2-6% of the disk's initial angular momentum within the bar region. Most of this angular momentum gain occurs via low-order resonances, particularly 5:2 resonant orbits. A density wake forms in the ClB which corotates and aligns with the bar at the end of the evolution. The spin-up process creates a characteristic linear rotation profile and mild tangential anisotropy in the ClB. The induced rotation is small in the centre, but is significant beyond ~2 bulge half mass radii, where it leads to mass-weighted V/σ ~ 0.2, and reaches a local Vmax/σin ~ 0.5 at around the scale of the bar. The resulting V/σ is tightly correlated with the ratio of the bulge size to the bar size. In all models, a box/peanut bulge forms suggesting that composite bulges may be common. Conclusions: Bar-bulge resonant interaction in barred galaxies can provide some spin-up of massive ClBs, but the process appears to be less efficient than for low-mass ClBs. Further angular momentum transfer due to nuclear bars or gas inflow would be required to explain the observed rotation if it is not primordial.

  8. The lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhua, Zhu; Guoliang, Lv; Zhaojun, Wang; Jun, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge, we have made a detailed study of thermal pulse - asymptotic giant branch stars by using a population synthesis code. The effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood (close to the present observations) is ins...

  9. Ongoing massive star formation in the bulge of M51

    OpenAIRE

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Panagia, N.; Scuderi, S.; Romaniello, M.; Spaans, M.; de Wit, W.J.M.; Krishner, R.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the HST-WFPC2 observations of the inner kpc of the interacting galaxy M51 in six bands from 2550 to 8140 Angstrom. The images show an oval shaped area ("bulge") of 11x16 arcsec or 450x650 pc around the nucleus, dominated by a smooth population of old stars with overimposed dust lanes. We found 30 bright point-like sources in the bulge of M51; many of these are bright in the UV. They are located in elongated "strings" which follow the general pattern of the dust lanes. The spectral ...

  10. Thermodynamic prediction of thixoformability in alloys based on the Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si-Cu-Mg systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Atkinson, H.V. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Jones, H. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    Most commercial semi-solid processing (of which thixoforming is one type) utilises the conventional casting alloys A356 and A357. There is, however, a demand to widen the range of alloys, including those with higher performance which tend to show poor characteristics for thixoforming. Thermodynamic calculation packages, such as MTDATA, provide a tool for predicting thixoformability. Here, the effects of compositional variations, in particular the effect of added copper on the thixoformability of alloy A356 and the effect of added silicon on the thixoformability of alloy 2014, have been investigated using MTDATA thermodynamic and phase equilibrium software combined with the MTAL database. Criteria for thixoformability are identified and a range of alloy compositions based on Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si-Cu-Mg evaluated in relation to these criteria. Compositions which satisfy these criteria include: 308 (Al-5.5Si-4.5Cu); 319 (Al-6Si-3.5Cu); 238 (Al-10Cu-4Si-0.3Mg); 355 (Al-5Si-1.3Cu-0.5Mg); 2014 based alloys Al-4.4Cu-0.5Mg-(4-6)Si; and a range of alloys (7.5 Si + Cu 9 and 1.5 Si/Cu 2.33) and alloys (9 < Si + Cu 10 and Si/Cu = 1.5) based on the Al-Si-Cu-Mg system.

  11. A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application based on Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium assumption for the elemental analysis of alexandrite gemstone and copper-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Self-calibrated analytical techniques based on the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) have been employed for the analysis of gemstones and copper-based alloys by LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), with a special focus on LTE conditions in laser induced plasmas. Highlights: ► Discussion of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in laser-induced plasmas. ► LIBS enables elemental analysis with self-calibrated LTE-based methods. ► Be detection in alexandrite gemstone is made possible by LIBS. - Abstract: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.

  12. A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application based on Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium assumption for the elemental analysis of alexandrite gemstone and copper-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Giacomo, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dell' Aglio, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gaudiuso, R., E-mail: rosalba.gaudiuso@ba.imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Santagata, A. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Potenza, Via S. Loja, Zona Ind., 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Senesi, G.S. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Rossi, M.; Ghiara, M.R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Capitelli, F. [Institute of Crystallography - CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); De Pascale, O. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-04-04

    Graphical abstract: Self-calibrated analytical techniques based on the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) have been employed for the analysis of gemstones and copper-based alloys by LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), with a special focus on LTE conditions in laser induced plasmas. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in laser-induced plasmas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS enables elemental analysis with self-calibrated LTE-based methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Be detection in alexandrite gemstone is made possible by LIBS. - Abstract: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.

  13. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  14. Thermodynamical analysis of a quantum heat engine based on harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insinga, Andrea; Andresen, Bjarne; Salamon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Many models of heat engines have been studied with the tools of finite-time thermodynamics and an ensemble of independent quantum systems as the working fluid. Because of their convenient analytical properties, harmonic oscillators are the most frequently used example of a quantum system. We analyze different thermodynamical aspects with the final aim of the optimization of the performance of the engine in terms of the mechanical power provided during a finite-time Otto cycle. The heat exchange mechanism between the working fluid and the thermal reservoirs is provided by the Lindblad formalism. We describe an analytical method to find the limit cycle and give conditions for a stable limit cycle to exist. We explore the power production landscape as the duration of the four branches of the cycle are varied for short times, intermediate times, and special frictionless times. For short times we find a periodic structure with atolls of purely dissipative operation surrounding islands of divergent behavior where, rather than tending to a limit cycle, the working fluid accumulates more and more energy. For frictionless times the periodic structure is gone and we come very close to the global optimal operation. The global optimum is found and interestingly comes with a particular value of the cycle time.

  15. Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics-Based ICME Framework for High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróyave, Raymundo; Talapatra, Anjana; Johnson, Luke; Singh, Navdeep; Ma, Ji; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, considerable interest in the development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs) for solid-state actuation has increased dramatically as key applications in the aerospace and automotive industry demand actuation temperatures well above those of conventional SMAs. Most of the research to date has focused on establishing the (forward) connections between chemistry, processing, (micro)structure, properties, and performance. Much less work has been dedicated to the development of frameworks capable of addressing the inverse problem of establishing necessary chemistry and processing schedules to achieve specific performance goals. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) has emerged as a powerful framework to address this problem, although it has yet to be applied to the development of HTSMAs. In this paper, the contributions of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to ICME of HTSMAs are described. Some representative examples of the use of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to understand the phase stability and microstructural evolution in HTSMAs are discussed. Some very recent efforts at combining both to assist in the design of HTSMAs and limitations to the full implementation of ICME frameworks for HTSMA development are presented.

  16. Thermodynamical analysis of a quantum heat engine based on harmonic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insinga, Andrea; Andresen, Bjarne; Salamon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Many models of heat engines have been studied with the tools of finite-time thermodynamics and an ensemble of independent quantum systems as the working fluid. Because of their convenient analytical properties, harmonic oscillators are the most frequently used example of a quantum system. We analyze different thermodynamical aspects with the final aim of the optimization of the performance of the engine in terms of the mechanical power provided during a finite-time Otto cycle. The heat exchange mechanism between the working fluid and the thermal reservoirs is provided by the Lindblad formalism. We describe an analytical method to find the limit cycle and give conditions for a stable limit cycle to exist. We explore the power production landscape as the duration of the four branches of the cycle are varied for short times, intermediate times, and special frictionless times. For short times we find a periodic structure with atolls of purely dissipative operation surrounding islands of divergent behavior where, rather than tending to a limit cycle, the working fluid accumulates more and more energy. For frictionless times the periodic structure is gone and we come very close to the global optimal operation. The global optimum is found and interestingly comes with a particular value of the cycle time. PMID:27575089

  17. Reconciling the Galactic Bulge Turnoff Age Discrepancy with Enhanced Helium Enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Nataf, David M

    2011-01-01

    We show that the factor $\\sim$2 discrepancy between spectroscopic and photometric age determinations of the Galactic bulge main-sequence turnoff can be naturally explained by positing an elevated helium enrichment for the bulge relative to that assumed by standard isochrones. We obtain an upper bound on the helium enrichment parameter of the bulge $({\\Delta}Y/{\\Delta}Z)_{\\rm{Bulge}} \\lesssim 5.0$ given the requirement that the spectroscopic and photometric ages be consistent and the limiting condition of instantaneous star formation. The corresponding mean age for the bulge is $t_{\\rm{Bulge}} \\approx 10$ Gyr. We discuss phenomenological evidence that the bulge may have had a chemical evolution that is distinct from the solar neighborhood in this manner, and we make several testable predictions. Should this emerging picture of the bulge as helium-enhanced hold, it will require the development of new isochrones, new model atmospheres, and modified analysis and cosmological interpretation of the integrated light...

  18. Thermodynamic performance analysis and algorithm model of multi-pressure heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) based on heat exchangers layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A general model of multi-pressure HRSG based on heat exchangers layout is built. • The minimum temperature difference is introduced to replace pinch point analysis. • Effects of layout on dual pressure HRSG thermodynamic performances are analyzed. - Abstract: Changes of heat exchangers layout in heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) will modify the amount of waste heat recovered from flue gas; this brings forward a desire for the optimization of the design of HRSG. In this paper the model of multi-pressure HRSG is built, and an instance of a dual pressure HRSG under three different layouts of Taihu Boiler Co., Ltd. is discussed, with specified values of inlet temperature, mass flow rate, composition of flue gas and water/steam parameters as temperature, pressure etc., steam mass flow rate and heat efficiency of different heat exchangers layout of HRSG are analyzed. This analysis is based on the laws of thermodynamics and incorporated into the energy balance equations for the heat exchangers. In the conclusion, the results of the steam mass flow rate, heat efficiency obtained for three heat exchangers layout of HRSGs are compared. The results show that the optimization of heat exchangers layout of HRSGs has a great significance for waste heat recovery and energy conservation

  19. Modelling uranium solubilities in aqueous solutions: Validation of a thermodynamic data base for the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental solubilities of U4+ and UO22+ that are reported in the literature have been collected. Data on oxides, hydroxides and carbonates have been selected for this work. They include results both at 25 degrees C and at higher temperatures. The literature data have been compared with calculated uranium solubilities obtained with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs and an uranium thermodynamic data base selected for the Swedish nuclear waste management program. This verification/validiation exercise has shown that more experimental data is needed to determine the chemical composition of anionic uranyl hydroxo complexes as well as their equilibrium constants of formation. There is also a need for more solubility data on well characterised alkaline or alkaline-earth uranates. For the uranyl carbonate system, the calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental literature values, which span over a wide range of pH, (CO32-)T, CO2(g)-pressure, and T. The experimental solubility of UO2(s) agrees also well with the EQ3/6 calculations for pH greater than 6. However, in more acidic solutions the experimental solubilities are higher than the calculated values. This is due to the formation of polynuclear hydroxo complexes of uranium, which are not well characterised, and are not included in the thermodynamic data base used in this study. (authors)

  20. Constructor Theory of Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Marletto, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics, powerful for countless purposes, are not exact: both their phenomenological and their statistical-mechanical versions are valid only at 'macroscopic scales', which are never defined. Here I propose a new, exact and scale-independent formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, using the principles and tools of the recently proposed constructor theory. Specifically, I improve upon the axiomatic formulations of thermodynamics (Carath\\'eodory, 1909; Lieb and Yngvason, 1999) by proposing an exact and more general formulation of 'adiabatic accessibility'. This work provides an exact distinction between work and heat; it reveals an unexpected connection between information theory and the first law of thermodynamics (not just the second); it resolves the clash between the irreversibility of the 'cycle'-based second law and time-reversal symmetric dynamical laws. It also achieves the long-sought unification of the axiomatic version of the second law with Kelvin's.

  1. What planetary nebulae tell us about helium and the CNO elements in Galactic bulge stars

    OpenAIRE

    Buell, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) models of bulge stars are calculated using a synthetic model. The goal is to infer typical progenitor masses and compositions by reproducing the typical chemical composition and central star masses of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic bulge. The AGB tip luminosity and the observation that the observed lack of bright carbon stars in the bulge are matched by the models. Five sets of galactic bulge PNe were analyzed to find typical abundan...

  2. Thermodynamic simulation as an assistant tool in the development of iron based hardfacing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Otoni Correa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model was used to investigate the solidification of a hardfacing material in Fe-Cr-C-Nb system designated CNO, and developed for cladding components subjected to severe abrasive wear by welding. Microstructural characterization of the alloy showed that the theoretical simulations carried out to predict the amount and volume fraction of the phases using the module Scheil of MT-DATA Software gave very realistic results in the case of the rapid solidification of the hardfacing alloy CNO. The results obtained in this study indicate that the utilization of this tool may provide a good understanding of alloys solidification. As a consequence, it is possible to enable the refinement of alloy composition during the early stages of hardfacing materials development, leading to a decreasing of overall cost and time of manufacturing of hardfacing electrodes.

  3. Thermodynamics-based design of microbial cell factories for anaerobic product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; van Maris, A J A; Wahl, S Aljoscha; Heijnen, J J

    2015-09-01

    The field of metabolic engineering has delivered new microbial cell factories and processes for the production of different compounds including biofuels, (di)carboxylic acids, alcohols, and amino acids. Most of these processes are aerobic, with few exceptions (e.g., alcoholic fermentation), and attention is focused on assembling a high-flux product pathway with a production limit usually set by the oxygen transfer rate. By contrast, anaerobic product synthesis offers significant benefits compared to aerobic systems: higher yields, less heat generation, reduced biomass production, and lower mechanical energy input, which can significantly reduce production costs. Using simple thermodynamic calculations, we demonstrate that many products can theoretically be produced under anaerobic conditions using several conventional and non-conventional substrates. PMID:26232033

  4. A set of molecular models based on quantum mechanical ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data

    CERN Document Server

    Eckl, Bernhard; Hasse, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A parameterization strategy for molecular models on the basis of force fields is proposed, which allows a rapid development of models for small molecules by using results from quantum mechanical (QM) ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data. The geometry of the molecular models is specified according to the atom positions determined by QM energy minimization. The electrostatic interactions are modeled by reducing the electron density distribution to point dipoles and point quadrupoles located in the center of mass of the molecules. Dispersive and repulsive interactions are described by Lennard-Jones sites, for which the parameters are iteratively optimized to experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, i.e. vapor pressure, saturated liquid density, and enthalpy of vaporization of the considered substance. The proposed modeling strategy was applied to a sample set of ten molecules from different substance classes. New molecular models are presented for iso-butane, cyclohexane, formaldehyde, dimethyl...

  5. Research on the dissipation field of a nonlinear continuum based on the operational irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissipation field of a nonlinear continuum is studied by a new operational theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the evolution equations of the dissipation field can be obtained under the condition of knowing the phenomenological nonlinear constitutive relation of the continuum. In this theory, the dissipation equation of the basic state, which is corresponding to the minimum dissipation principle, is utilized to solve the distribution of dissipation field regarding the equilibrium problem of quasi-statics, and the dissipation equations of higher order are directly related to the dynamics of dissipation fields. The paper also presents a method showing the dissipation force operator by using Helmholtz's free energy function. This paper will also show important phenomena of the localized deformation, such as the plastic instability of necking and shear band, which are predicted in the form of an analytical formula

  6. Analysis of two phase mass transfer kinetics by logarithmic driving force based on chemical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interphase transfer kinetics of neodymium and nitric acid was studied using a single drop column with recycling organic phase via an external mixing vessel in H2O-HNO3/NaNO3-Nd(NO3)3-tri-n-butylphosphate system. Experimental data have been analyzed by two new concepts for driving forces for transport: synthesized linear and logarithmic forms. The former is defined as geometrical-mean driving force, and the latter is the logarithm of the product of reciprocals of concentration ratios x/xe and y/ye against equilibrium states in each phase, i.e. ln{xe·ye)/(x·y)}. By applying thermodynamic logarithmic form of driving force along reaction coordinate, the net transfer fluxes of neodymium and nitric acid have been represented by chemical affinity under high ionic strengths over a wide range of solvent loading as flux=flux degf(1-exp(-A/RT)). (author)

  7. The X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way revealed by WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge has a boxy/peanut morphology and an X-shaped structure. This X-shape has been revealed by the `split in the red clump' from star counts along the line of sight toward the bulge, measured from photometric surveys. This boxy, X-shaped bulge morphology is not unique to the Milky Way and such bulges are observed in other barred spiral galaxies. N-body simulations show that boxy and X-shaped bulges are formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. It has also been proposed that the Milky Way bulge is not X-shaped, but rather, the apparent split in the red clump stars is a consequence of different stellar populations, in an old classical spheroidal bulge. We present a WISE image of the Milky Way bulge, produced by downsampling the publicly available "unWISE" coadds. The WISE image of the Milky Way bulge shows that the X-shaped nature of the Milky Way bulge is self-evident and irrefutable. The X-shape morphology of the bulge in itself and the fraction of bulge stars that comprise orbits withi...

  8. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Watson-Crick Base Pairing Driven DNA Origami Dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, John; Tuntivate, Chanon; Schulman, Rebecca

    2016-03-16

    We investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA origami dimerization using flat rectangle origami components and different architectures of Watson-Crick complementary single-stranded DNA ("sticky end") linking strategies. We systematically vary the number of linkers, the length of the sticky ends on the linker, and linker architecture and measure the corresponding yields as well as forward and reverse reaction rate constants through fluorescence quenching assays. Yields were further verified using atomic force microscopy. We calculate values of H° and ΔS° for various interface designs and find nonlinear van't Hoff behavior, best described by two linear equations, suggesting distinct regimes of dimerization between those with and those without well-formed interfaces. We find that self-assembly reactions can be tuned by manipulating the interface architecture without suffering a loss in yield, even when yield is high, ∼75-80%. We show that the second-order forward reaction rate constant (k(on)) depends on both linker architecture and number of linkers used, with typical values on the order of 10(5)-10(6) (M·s)(-1), values that are similar to those of bimolecular association of small, complementary DNA strands. The k(on) values are generally non-Arrhenius, tending to increase with decreasing temperature. Finally, we use kinetic and thermodynamic information about the optimal linking architecture to extend the system to an infinite, two-component repeating lattice system and show that we can form micron-sized lattices, with well-formed structures up to 8 μm(2). PMID:26925853

  9. A combined thermodynamic cycle based on methanol dissociation for IC (internal combustion) engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load

  10. The disc origin of the Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, P

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge, that is the prominent out-of-plane over-density present in the inner few kiloparsecs of the Galaxy, is a complex structure, as the morphology, kinematics, chemistry and ages of its stars indicate. To understand the nature of its main components -- those at [Fe/H] >~ -1 dex -- it is necessary to make an inventory of the stellar populations of the Galactic disc(s), and of their borders : the chemistry of the disc at the solar vicinity, well known from detailed studies of stars over many years, is not representative of the whole disc. This finding, together with the recent revisions of the mass and sizes of the thin and thick discs, constitutes a major step in understanding the bulge complexity. N-body models of a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge formed from a thin disc through the intermediary of a bar have been successful in interpreting a number of global properties of the Galactic bulge, but they fail in reproducing the detailed chemo-kinematic relations satisfied by its components and their morp...

  11. The Metallicity Distribution of the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic bulge of the Milky Way is made up of stars with a broad range of metallicity, -3.0 < [Fe/H] < 1 dex. The mean of the Metallicity Distribution Function (MDF) decreases as a function of height z from the plane and, more weakly, with galactic radius. The most metal rich stars in the inner Galaxy are concentrated to the plane and the more metal poor stars are found predominantly further from the plane, with an overall vertical gradient in the mean of the MDF of about -0.45 dex/kpc. This vertical gradient is believed to reflect the changing contribution with height of different populations in the inner-most region of the Galaxy. The more metal rich stars of the bulge are part of the boxy/peanut structure and comprise stars in orbits which trace out the underlying X-shape. There is still a lack of consensus on the origin of the metal poor stars ([Fe/H] < -0.5) in the region of the bulge. Some studies attribute the more metal poor stars of the bulge to the thick disk and stellar halo that are p...

  12. The Metallicity Distribution of the Milky Way Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, M.; Freeman, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic bulge of the Milky Way is made up of stars with a broad range of metallicity, -3.0 function decreases as a function of height z from the plane and, more weakly, with galactic radius R GC. The most metal-rich stars in the inner Galaxy are concentrated to the plane and the more metal-poor stars are found predominantly further from the plane, with an overall vertical gradient in the mean of the metallicity distribution function of about - 0.45 dex kpc-1. This vertical gradient is believed to reflect the changing contribution with height of different populations in the innermost region of the Galaxy. The more metal-rich stars of the bulge are part of the boxy/peanut structure and comprise stars in orbits which trace out the underlying X-shape. There is still a lack of consensus on the origin of the metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] function of the bulge, and identifying if there is a unique bulge population which has formed separately from the disk and halo, has important consequences for identifying the relevant processes in the formation and evolution of the Milky Way.

  13. MAPPING THE X-SHAPED MILKY WAY BULGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the distribution of the red clump (RC) stars throughout the Galactic bulge using Two Micron All Sky Survey data. We mapped the position of the RC in 1 deg2 fields within the area |l| ≤ 8.05 and 3.05 ≤ |b| ≤ 8.05, for a total of 170 deg2. The single RC seen in the central area splits into two components at high Galactic longitudes in both hemispheres, produced by two structures at different distances along the same line of sight. The X-shape is clearly visible in the Z-X plane for longitudes close to the l = 00 axis. Crude measurements of the space densities of RC stars in the bright and faint RC populations are consistent with the adopted RC distances, providing further supporting evidence that the X-structure is real, and that there is approximate front-back symmetry in our bulge fields. We conclude that the Milky Way bulge has an X-shaped structure within |l| ∼0, seen almost edge-on with respect to the line of sight. Additional deep near-infrared photometry extending into the innermost bulge regions combined with spectroscopic data is needed in order to discriminate among the different possibilities that can cause the observed X-shaped structure.

  14. Type-Ia Supernova-driven Galactic Bulge Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shikui; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Joung, M Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Stellar feedback in galactic bulges plays an essential role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. To quantify this role and facilitate comparisons with X-ray observations, we conduct 3D hydrodynamical simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code, FLASH, to investigate the physical properties of hot gas inside a galactic bulge, similar to that of our Galaxy or M31. We assume that the dynamical and thermal properties of the hot gas are dominated by mechanical energy input from SNe, primarily Type Ia, and mass injection from evolved stars as well as iron enrichment from SNe. We study the bulge-wide outflow as well as the SN heating on scales down to ~4 pc. An embedding scheme that is devised to plant individual SNR seeds, allows to examine, for the first time, the effect of sporadic SNe on the density, temperature, and iron ejecta distribution of the hot gas as well as the resultant X-ray morphology and spectrum. We find that the SNe produce a bulge wind with highly filamentary density structures and patch...

  15. Chemical model for cement-based materials: Thermodynamic data assessment for phases other than C-S-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of waste confinement, concrete may be used both as a confinement and as a building material. Concerning radwaste, the heat released during radioactive decay will modify the equilibrium constants of the minerals forming the concrete. The present work aims to elucidate the temperature dependency of the thermodynamic functions related to minerals from the concrete or associated with some of its degradation products. A large set of experimental data has been collected, for the chemical systems SO3-Al2O3-CaO-CO2-Cl-H2O and SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-H2O, including iron and magnesium bearing phases. Most of the data collected concern experiments in aqueous media but results from calorimetric studies were also included, when available. Based on selected thermodynamic properties for each phase, predominance diagrams were drawn for the chemical elements listed above. Phase relations reported into predominance diagram appear rather consistent with most of the literature results. The case of katoite has been especially discussed, because it shows inconsistencies with respect to a hydrogarnet-grossular solid solution and with respect to phase relations reported into already published works. Finally, we underline the chemical compatibility of Portland cement pastes with carbonate aggregates, compared to silicates, for long-term storage applications.

  16. Integrated design of Nb-based superalloys: Ab initio calculations, computational thermodynamics and kinetics, and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)]. E-mail: g-ghosh@northwestern.edu; Olson, G.B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    An optimal integration of modern computational tools and efficient experimentation is presented for the accelerated design of Nb-based superalloys. Integrated within a systems engineering framework, we have used ab initio methods along with alloy theory tools to predict phase stability of solid solutions and intermetallics to accelerate assessment of thermodynamic and kinetic databases enabling comprehensive predictive design of multicomponent multiphase microstructures as dynamic systems. Such an approach is also applicable for the accelerated design and development of other high performance materials. Based on established principles underlying Ni-based superalloys, the central microstructural concept is a precipitation strengthened system in which coherent cubic aluminide phase(s) provide both creep strengthening and a source of Al for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation enabled by a Nb-based alloy matrix with required ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, atomic transport kinetics and oxygen solubility behaviors. Ultrasoft and PAW pseudopotentials, as implemented in VASP, are used to calculate total energy, density of states and bonding charge densities of aluminides with B2 and L2{sub 1} structures relevant to this research. Characterization of prototype alloys by transmission and analytical electron microscopy demonstrates the precipitation of B2 or L2{sub 1} aluminide in a (Nb) matrix. Employing Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software systems, thermodynamic and kinetic databases are developed for substitutional alloying elements and interstitial oxygen to enhance the diffusivity ratio of Al to O for promotion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation. However, the oxidation study of a Nb-Hf-Al alloy, with enhanced solubility of Al in (Nb) than in binary Nb-Al alloys, at 1300 deg. C shows the presence of a mixed oxide layer of NbAlO{sub 4} and HfO{sub 2} exhibiting parabolic growth.

  17. Integrated design of Nb-based superalloys: Ab initio calculations, computational thermodynamics and kinetics, and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimal integration of modern computational tools and efficient experimentation is presented for the accelerated design of Nb-based superalloys. Integrated within a systems engineering framework, we have used ab initio methods along with alloy theory tools to predict phase stability of solid solutions and intermetallics to accelerate assessment of thermodynamic and kinetic databases enabling comprehensive predictive design of multicomponent multiphase microstructures as dynamic systems. Such an approach is also applicable for the accelerated design and development of other high performance materials. Based on established principles underlying Ni-based superalloys, the central microstructural concept is a precipitation strengthened system in which coherent cubic aluminide phase(s) provide both creep strengthening and a source of Al for Al2O3 passivation enabled by a Nb-based alloy matrix with required ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, atomic transport kinetics and oxygen solubility behaviors. Ultrasoft and PAW pseudopotentials, as implemented in VASP, are used to calculate total energy, density of states and bonding charge densities of aluminides with B2 and L21 structures relevant to this research. Characterization of prototype alloys by transmission and analytical electron microscopy demonstrates the precipitation of B2 or L21 aluminide in a (Nb) matrix. Employing Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software systems, thermodynamic and kinetic databases are developed for substitutional alloying elements and interstitial oxygen to enhance the diffusivity ratio of Al to O for promotion of Al2O3 passivation. However, the oxidation study of a Nb-Hf-Al alloy, with enhanced solubility of Al in (Nb) than in binary Nb-Al alloys, at 1300 deg. C shows the presence of a mixed oxide layer of NbAlO4 and HfO2 exhibiting parabolic growth

  18. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of volatile compounds in biopolymer based dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavati, Vahid; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mehdinia, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Partitioning and release of ethyl acetate and diacetyl from two matrices with a different composition was studied by applying static head space gas chromatography. Two matrices with a different composition have been developed: one containing carbohydrates (Tragacanth gum) and in the second one, called complex matrix, a lipid (oleic acid) was added. The roles of carbohydrate (Tragacanth gum) and lipid (oleic acid) on the retention of all the aroma compounds were pointed out. Changes in the composition of matrices exhibited a considerable effect on the thermodynamic component as expressed by the air/liquid partition coefficient (Ka/l) values at equilibrium (20 °C). The kinetic study of the release from these matrices had shown a decrease of the initial rate of release (Ri) by reference with water. The rheological properties of all matrices were investigated and the flow behaviour of all matrices was successfully modelled with power law and Ellis models and power law model was found as the better model to describe the flow behaviour of dispersions. PMID:24274543

  19. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl2) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔSf,ΔHM, ΔCP, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined

  20. Scaling Law for the Magnetic Field of the Planets Based on a Thermodynamic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, F X

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the generation of magnetic fields in the planets is proposed, considering crossed effects between gravitational and electric forces. The magnetic field of the Earth is estimated and found to be in agreement with the actual field. The ratio between the field of several planets and that of the Earth is calculated in the model and compared with the same ratio for the measured fields. These comparisons are found to be qualitatively consistent. Once the value of the magnetic field is calculated, the model is used to obtain the tilt of the magnetic dipole with respect to the rotation axis. This model can explain why Uranus and Neptune magnetic fields have higher quadrupole moment than the other magnetic fields of the Solar System and why Saturn, that has a highly axysymmetric field, has lower quadrupolar component. The model also explains the double peak of the magnetic field observed by Voyager 2 while recording the field of Neptune. The Earth paleomagnetic data are analysed and found to ...

  1. Solubilities and thermodynamic properties of CO2 in choline-chloride based deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubilities of carbon dioxide in three deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been reported. • The experimental data were reduced to Henry’s law constants. • The Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes were calculated. • Relationship between solubility and structure of DESs was developed. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in three kinds of deep eutectic solvents, (choline chloride + phenol), (choline chloride + diethylene glycol) and (choline chloride + triethylene glycol), were determined at temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 323.15 K under pressures up to 600.0 kPa using isochoric saturation method. The mole ratios of choline chloride to phenol were selected as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, the others as 1:3 and 1:4. Henry’s constants and thermodynamic properties such as standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes of CO2 solvation were calculated from the correlation of solubility data. Results revealed that the solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pressure and decreased with increasing temperature. The enthalpies of solution were negative at all conditions

  2. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altıntas, Yemliha [Abdullah Gül University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Aksöz, Sezen [Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, 50300, Nevşehir (Turkey); Keşlioğlu, Kâzım, E-mail: kesli@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Maraşlı, Necmettin [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34210, Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl{sub 2}) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔS{sub f},ΔH{sub M}, ΔC{sub P}, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined.

  3. Analysis of two phase mass transfer by logarithmic driving force based on chemical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Purex solvent extraction process in the reprocessing of spent fuel, the concentration of separated composition such as U changes continuously from very high condition to trace level. Also in most cases, water phase and organic phase continuously come in contact by counter flow operation. In this research, by the method of circulating organic phase between single liquid drop column and mixing tank, the extraction behavior of Nd and nitric acid in H2O-NaNO3/HNO3-Nd(NO3)3-100% TBP system was traced continuously, and the results of measurement and analysis are reported. The experimental equipment and the experimental condition are shown. As the driving force for two-phase mass transfer, that having chemical thermodynamic basis was introduced. It is considered that this driving force is effective for the kinetic analysis of mass transfer phenomena. Hereafter, it is necessary to confirm the more strict treatment using activity and the applicability to two-phase mass transfer phenomena. (K.I.)

  4. Quantum Chemical Insight into the Interactions and Thermodynamics Present in Choline Chloride Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Durgesh V; Deakyne, Carol A; Baker, Gary A

    2016-07-14

    We report quantum chemical calculations performed on three popular deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in order to elucidate the molecular interactions, charge transfer interactions, and thermodynamics associated with these systems. The DESs studied comprise 1:2 choline chloride/urea (reline), 1:2 choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ethaline), and 1:1 choline chloride/malonic acid (maloline). The excellent correlation between calculated and experimental vibrational spectra allowed for identification of dominant interactions in the DES systems. The DESs were found to be stabilized by both conventional hydrogen bonds and C-H···O/C-H···π interactions between the components. The hydrogen-bonding network established in the DES is clearly distinct from that which exists within the neat hydrogen-bond donor dimer. Charge decomposition analysis indicates significant charge transfer from choline and chloride to the hydrogen-bond donor with a higher contribution from the cation, and a density of states analysis confirms the direction of the charge transfer. Consequently, the sum of the bond orders of the choline-Cl(-) interactions in the DESs correlates directly with the melting temperatures of the DESs, a correlation that offers insight into the effect of the tuning of the choline-Cl(-) interactions by the hydrogen-bond donors on the physical properties of the DESs. Finally, the differences in the vibrational entropy changes upon DES formation are consistent with the trend in the overall entropy changes upon DES formation. PMID:27268431

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a met

  6. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  7. A new closed-form analytical thermal model for simulating Stirling engines based on polytropic-finite speed thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A closed-form thermal model was presented for Stirling engines. • The new model was used to simulate the GPU-3 Stirling engine. • Results were compared with experimental data as well as other models. • The new model was more accurate and simple in calculation than other models. • Effects of the engines’ parameters on operation of engine were evaluated. - Abstract: Thermal models for the simulation of Stirling engines need to have greater accuracy along with simple and low-cost calculation. In this regard, a new closed-form thermal model was presented for the thermal simulation of Stirling engines. The new model called PFST (polytropic-finite speed thermodynamics) was developed based on the combination of polytropic analysis of expansion/compression processes and the concept of finite speed thermodynamics (FST). Therefore, compression/expansion works of compression/expansion processes and transferred heat into the heater of Stirling engines were determined based on polytropic analysis, instead of isothermal processes of the ideal Stirling cycle. The calculated work of polytropic processes was corrected to include the effects of internal irreversibilities including pressure throttling in heat exchangers, mechanical friction, and finite motion of the pistons. Output power and thermal efficiency of Stirling engines were calculated as functions of various engine parameters. The developed PFST model was implemented on a prototype Stirling engine, called GPU-3 engine, and the obtained results were compared with those of other closed-form and numerical models as well as experimental data. It was found that the new closed-form model, in addition to its simple and low-cost calculation, had the same order of accuracy as recently developed numerical models

  8. Structure-based statistical thermodynamic analysis of T4 lysozyme mutants: structural mapping of cooperative interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilser, V J; Townsend, B D; Freire, E

    1997-02-28

    The recent development of a structural parameterization of the energetics of protein folding has permitted the incorporation of the functions that describe the enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity changes, i.e. the individual components of the Gibbs energy, into a statistical thermodynamic formalism that describes the distribution of conformational states under equilibrium conditions. The goal of this approach is to construct with the computer a large ensemble of conformational states, and then to derive the most probable population distribution, i.e. the distribution of states that best accounts for a wide array of experimental observables. This analysis has been applied to four different mutants of T4 lysozyme (S44A, S44G, V131A, V131G). It is shown that the structural parameterization predicts well the stability of the protein and the effects of the mutations. The entire set of folding constants per residue has been calculated for the four mutants. In all cases, the effect of the mutations propagates beyond the mutation site itself through sequence and three-dimensional space. This phenomenon occurs despite the fact that the mutations are at solvent-exposed locations and do not directly affect other interactions in the protein. These results suggest that single amino acid mutations at solvent-exposed locations, or other locations that cause a minimal perturbation, can be used to identify the extent of cooperative interactions. The magnitude and extent of these effects and the accuracy of the algorithm can be tested by means of NMR-detected hydrogen exchange. PMID:9127939

  9. Application of the ruthenium and technetium thermodynamic data bases used in the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a critical review of the available thermodynamic data, computerized data bases for technetium and ruthenium were created for use with the EQ3/6 geochemical computer codes. The technetium data base contains thermodynamic data for 8 aqueous species and 15 solids; 26 aqueous species and 9 solids were included in the ruthenium data base. The EQ3NR code was used to calculate solubility limits for ruthenium (8 x 10-16 M) in ground water from Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository site near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The code confirmed the essentially unlimited solubility of technetium in oxidizing conditions, such as those that are believed to exist in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and the Cambric Nuclear event site at the NTS. Ruthenium migration observed from the Cambric site was evaluated. The solubility limit for ruthenium (as the aqueous species RuO4-) when constrained by RuO2 is approximately equal to the concentration of ruthenium found in the cavity ground water (i.e., 2.1 x 10-11 vs 4.5 x 10-11 M). Differences in ruthenium solubility limits between Yucca Mountain and Cambric are primarily due to differences in ground-water pH. Technetium solubility (3 x 10-8 M) for moderately reducing conditions (Eh = -0.1 V) using the metastable oxide, TcO2.2H2O, as the solubility constraint is within the range of experimental values recently published in a study of technetium sorption on basalt. Previously published technetium solubilities of 10-12 to 10-16 M were apparently based on a technetium data base that did not include aqueous species other than TcO4-. When TcO(OH)20 is included in the data base, the calculated values are much closer to the experimental results. Eh-pH diagrams were also generated for a variety of conditions using the SOLUPLOT code

  10. Application of the ruthenium and technetium thermodynamic data bases used in the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.

    1985-04-01

    Based on a critical review of the available thermodynamic data, computerized data bases for technetium and ruthenium were created for use with the EQ3/6 geochemical computer codes. The technetium data base contains thermodynamic data for 8 aqueous species and 15 solids; 26 aqueous species and 9 solids were included in the ruthenium data base. The EQ3NR code was used to calculate solubility limits for ruthenium (8 x 10{sup -16} M) in ground water from Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository site near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The code confirmed the essentially unlimited solubility of technetium in oxidizing conditions, such as those that are believed to exist in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and the Cambric Nuclear event site at the NTS. Ruthenium migration observed from the Cambric site was evaluated. The solubility limit for ruthenium (as the aqueous species RuO{sub 4}{sup -}) when constrained by RuO{sub 2} is approximately equal to the concentration of ruthenium found in the cavity ground water (i.e., 2.1 x 10{sup -11} vs 4.5 x 10{sup -11} M). Differences in ruthenium solubility limits between Yucca Mountain and Cambric are primarily due to differences in ground-water pH. Technetium solubility (3 x 10{sup -8} M) for moderately reducing conditions (Eh = -0.1 V) using the metastable oxide, TcO{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, as the solubility constraint is within the range of experimental values recently published in a study of technetium sorption on basalt. Previously published technetium solubilities of 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -16} M were apparently based on a technetium data base that did not include aqueous species other than TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. When TcO(OH){sub 2}{sup 0} is included in the data base, the calculated values are much closer to the experimental results. Eh-pH diagrams were also generated for a variety of conditions using the SOLUPLOT code.

  11. A CATALOG OF BULGE+DISK DECOMPOSITIONS AND UPDATED PHOTOMETRY FOR 1.12 MILLION GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform two-dimensional, point-spread-function-convolved, bulge+disk decompositions in the g and r bandpasses on a sample of 1,123,718 galaxies from the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven. Four different decomposition procedures are investigated which make improvements to sky background determinations and object deblending over the standard SDSS procedures that lead to more robust structural parameters and integrated galaxy magnitudes and colors, especially in crowded environments. We use a set of science-based quality assurance metrics, namely, the disk luminosity-size relation, the galaxy color-magnitude diagram, and the galaxy central (fiber) colors to show the robustness of our structural parameters. The best procedure utilizes simultaneous, two-bandpass decompositions. Bulge and disk photometric errors remain below 0.1 mag down to bulge and disk magnitudes of g ≅ 19 and r ≅ 18.5. We also use and compare three different galaxy fitting models: a pure Sersic model, an nb = 4 bulge + disk model, and a Sersic (free nb) bulge + disk model. The most appropriate model for a given galaxy is determined by the F-test probability. All three catalogs of measured structural parameters, rest-frame magnitudes, and colors are publicly released here. These catalogs should provide an extensive comparison set for a wide range of observational and theoretical studies of galaxies.

  12. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  13. The effect of massive disks on bulge isophotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, D. G.; Schechter, P. L.; Richstone, D. O.

    1981-04-01

    Massive disks produce flattened equipotentials. Unless the stars in a galaxy bulge are preferentially hotter in the z direction than in the plane, the isophotes will be at least as flat as the equipotentials. The comparison of two galaxy models having flat rotation curves with the available surface photometry for five external galaxies does not restrict the mass fraction which might reside in the disk. However, star counts in our own Galaxy indicate that unless the disk terminates close to the solar circle, no more than half the mass within that circle lies in the disk. The remaining half must lie either in the bulge or, more probably, in a third dark, round, dynamically distinct component.

  14. High precision microlensing maps of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Kerins, E; Marshall, D J

    2008-01-01

    We present detailed maps of the microlensing optical depth and event density over an area of 195 sq. deg towards the Galactic bulge. The maps are computed from synthetic stellar catalogues generated from the Besancon Galaxy Model, which comprises four stellar populations and a three-dimensional extinction map calibrated against the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey. The optical depth maps have a resolution of 15 arcminutes, corresponding to the angular resolution of the extinction map. We compute optical depth and event density maps for all resolved sources above I=19, for unresolved (difference image) sources magnified above this limit, and for bright standard candle sources in the bulge. We show that the resulting optical depth contours are dominated by extinction effects, exhibiting fine structure in stark contrast to previous theoretical optical depth maps. Optical depth comparisons between Galactic models and optical microlensing survey measurements cannot safely ignore extinction or assume it to be smooth. We s...

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated energy system based on compressed air energy storage (CAES) system and Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An integrated energy system based on CAES and Kalina cycle is proposed. • The design and modeling of the CAES–KCS6 system are laid out. • The energy analysis and exergy analysis of the proposed system are carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine their effect on system performance. - Abstract: High penetration of renewable power sources into power system leads to significant challenge in balancing of power generation and consumption due to the highly erratic nature of renewable energies. Integrating the energy storage system (ESS) with power system can weaken these negative effects effectively. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) system as one of the grid-scale ESS technologies has grown rapidly in the past few years. However, the temperature of exhaust from low pressure turbine during discharge process is still high enough to utilize. An integrated energy system consisting of a CAES system and a Kalina cycle system 6 (KCS6) is proposed to recover this waste heat. The thermodynamic analyses including energy analysis and exergy analysis are evaluated by using steady-state mathematical model and thermodynamic laws. The second law efficiency of the proposed CAES–KCS6 system can be improved nearly 4% compared to that of the single conventional CAES system. Meanwhile, the parametric analysis is also carried out to evaluate the effects of some key parameters on system performance, such as the turbine inlet temperature (TIT), inlet pressure of low pressure turbine and the air storage cavern temperature. Results show that all of these parameters have positive effect on system exergy efficiency

  16. Thermodynamic modeling of ionic liquid systems: development and detailed overview of novel methodology based on the PC-SAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2012-04-26

    We present the results of an extensive study on a novel approach of modeling ionic liquids (ILs) and their mixtures with molecular compounds, incorporating perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). PC-SAFT was used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of different homologous series of ILs based on the bis(trifluormethylsulfonyl)imide anion ([NTf2]). First, pure fluid parameters were obtained for each IL by means of fitting the model predictions to experimental liquid densities over a broad range of temperature and pressure. The reliability and physical significance of the parameters as well as the employed molecular scheme were tested by calculation of density, vapor pressure, and other properties of pure ILs (e.g., critical properties, normal boiling point). Additionally, the surface tension of pure ILs was calculated by coupling the PC-SAFT equation of state with density gradient theory (DGT). All correlated/predicted results were compared with literature experimental or simulation data. Afterward, we attempted to model various thermodynamic properties of some binary systems composed of IL and organic solvent or water. The properties under study were the binary vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibria and the excess enthalpies of mixing. To calculate cross-interaction energies we used the standard combining rules of Lorentz-Berthelot, Kleiner-Sadowski, and Wolbach-Sandler. It was shown that incorporation of temperature-dependent binary corrections was required to obtain much more accurate results than in the case of conventional predictions. Binary corrections were adjusted to infinite dilution activity coefficients of a particular solute in a given IL determined experimentally or predicted by means of the modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) group contribution method. We concluded that the latter method allows accurate and reliable calculations of bulk-phase properties in a totally predictive manner. PMID:22469027

  17. Semiclathrate-based CO2 capture from flue gas mixtures: An experimental approach with thermodynamic and Raman spectroscopic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Semiclathrates were used for post-combustion CO2 capture. • The highest gas uptake was observed for the TBAC (3.3 mol%) semiclathrate. • CO2 was enriched to approximately 60% in the semiclathrate phase. • Gas enclathration in the semiclathrate lattices was confirmed with Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: Semiclathrate-based CO2 capture from flue gas in the presence of various quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) such as tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB), tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC), and tetra-n-butyl ammonium fluoride (TBAF) was investigated with a primary focus on the thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic aspects. The thermodynamic stability of the CO2 (20%) + N2 (80%) + QAS semiclathrates was examined with an isochoric method using a high pressure reactor as well as with dissociation enthalpy measurement using a high pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter (HP μ-DSC). The TBAF semiclathrate with CO2 (20%) + N2 (80%) showed the most significant equilibrium pressure reduction at a specified temperature. However, the TBAC semiclathrate had the highest gas uptake and steepest CO2 concentration change in the vapor phase, which indicates the largest gas storage capacity for CO2 capture. CO2 was observed to be preferentially captured and enriched to approximately 60% in the semiclathrate phase. The CO2 selectivity was independent of the type of QASs used. The Raman spectroscopic results revealed that both CO2 and N2 are enclathrated in the small cages of the QAS semiclathrates and that the enclathration of guest gas molecules does not change the structure of the semiclathrates

  18. Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options

  19. Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H.; Shikany, S.D.

    1996-03-01

    In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.

  20. Determination of flow stress by the hydraulic bulge test

    OpenAIRE

    J. Slota; Spišák, E.

    2008-01-01

    In sheet metal forming operations the mechanical properties of the sheet metal (stress-strain curve, flow stress) greatly influence metal flow and product quality. Accurate determination of the stress-strain relationship is important in process simulation by finite element method. In this paper the sheet thickness gradation in different points of the hemisphere formed in the bulge test is analysed, both theoretically and experimentally. A precise determination of sheet thickness at the pole i...

  1. Embodiment Analysis for Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Chinese Economy Based on Global Thermodynamic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the Global Thermodynamic Potential (GTP indicator to perform a unified assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and to systematically reveal the emission embodiment in the production, consumption, and international trade of the Chinese economy in 2007 as the most recent year available with input-output table and updated inventory data. The results show that the estimated total direct GHG emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 amount to 10,657.5 Mt CO2-eq by the GTPs with 40.6% from CH4 emissions in magnitude of the same importance as CO2 emissions. The five sectors of Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, are responsible for 83.3% of the total GHG emissions with different emission structures. The demands of coal and coal-electricity determine the structure of emission embodiment to an essential extent. The Construction sector holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and domestic consumption. The GHG emission embodied in gross capital formation is more than those in other components of final demand characterized by extensive investment and limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with a remarkable share of direct emission induced by international trade, such as textile products, industrial raw materials, and primary machinery and equipment products exports. The fractions of CH4 in the component of embodied GHG emissions in the final demand are much greater than those fractions calculated by the Global Warming Potentials, which highlight the importance of CH4 emissions for the case of China and indicate the essential effect of CH4 emissions on global climate change. To understand the full context to achieve GHG emission mitigation, this study provides a new insight to address China’s GHG emissions status and

  2. Thermodynamic modeling based optimization for thermal systems in heat recovery steam generator during cold start-up operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic model of a thermal system in a dual pressure heat recovery steam generator during cold start-up operation is presented. The model consists of unknown parameters identified by two parameter identification techniques. The first algorithm is an online adaptive parameter identification algorithm which is based on gradient algorithm with integral cost function and forgetting factor. Second algorithm is a designed parameter identification algorithm based on the genetic algorithm method. Results are compared with a broad set of actual data taken from one of the Iranian power plants during cold start-up. Simulation results represent the effectiveness and reliability of the developed model and each of two parameter identification techniques. A comprehensive study is carried out in order to compare two applied techniques. The first technique leads to time-varying parameters and the second reaches the constant parameters with a piecewise model. In order to achieve a simulated model for heat recovery steam generator cold start-up, the costs of the modeling and identification process, and the concepts of the optimization lead to the designed algorithm based on genetic algorithm. - Highlights: • A comprehensive model for thermal systems in HRSGs, cold start-up is presented. •Two parameter identification algorithms are applied to the model. •A designed parameter identification algorithm based on GA is presented. •The aspects of the model and proposed parameter identification algorithm are studied. •Application of experimental data in order to modeling and validation experiments

  3. The bulge-disc decomposition of AGN host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, V. A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Mortlock, A.; Kocevski, D. D.; McGrath, E. J.; Rosario, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results from a study of the morphologies of moderate luminosity X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies in comparison to a carefully mass-matched control sample at 0.5 hosts are by a potential nuclear contribution from the AGN itself. We find that the AGN hosts are indistinguishable from the general galaxy population except that beyond z ≃ 1.5 they have significantly higher bulge fractions. Even including nuclear sources in our modelling, the probability of this result arising by chance is ˜1 × 10-5, alleviating concerns that previous, purely single Sérsic, analyses of AGN hosts could have been spuriously biased towards higher bulge fractions. This data set also allows us to further probe the physical nature of these point-source components; we find no strong correlation between the point-source component and AGN activity. Our analysis of the bulge and disc fractions of these AGN hosts in comparison to a mass-matched control sample reveals a similar morphological evolutionary track for both the active and non-active populations, providing further evidence in favour of a model where AGN activity is triggered by secular processes.

  4. The Structure of the Milky Way's Bar Outside the Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Wegg, Christopher; Portail, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    While it is incontrovertible that the inner Galaxy contains a bar, its structure near the Galactic plane has remained uncertain, where extinction from intervening dust is greatest. We investigate here the Galactic bar outside the bulge, the long bar, using red clump giant (RCG) stars from UKIDSS, 2MASS, VVV, and GLIMPSE. We match and combine these surveys to investigate a wide area in latitude and longitude, |b|<9deg and |l|<40deg. We find: (1) The bar extends to l~25deg at |b|~5deg from the Galactic plane, and to l~30deg at lower latitudes. (2) The long bar has an angle to the line-of-sight in the range (28-33)deg, consistent with studies of the bulge at |l|<10deg. (3) The scale-height of RCG stars smoothly transitions from the bulge to the thinner long bar. (4) There is evidence for two scale heights in the long bar. We find a ~180pc thin bar component reminiscent of the old thin disk near the sun, and a ~45pc super-thin bar component which exists predominantly towards the bar end. (5) Constructing...

  5. Study of extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Esteban, F M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Extremely reddened AGB stars lose mass at high rates of >10^-5 Msun/yr. This is the very last stage of AGB evolution, in which stars in the mass range 2.0--4.0 Msun (for solar metallicity) should have been converted to C stars already. The extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge are however predominantly O-rich, implying that they might be either low-mass stars or stars at the upper end of the AGB mass range. Aims. To determine the mass range of the most reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge. Methods. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we constructed spectral energy distributions of a sample of 37 evolved stars in the Galactic bulge with extremely red IRAS colours. We fitted DUSTY models to the observational data to infer the bolometric fluxes. Applying individual corrections for interstellar extinction and adopting a common distance, we determined luminosities and mass-loss rates, and inferred the progenitor mass range from comparisons with AGB evolutionary models. Results. The observed ...

  6. ISO Mid-Infrared spectroscopy of Galactic Bulge AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blommaert, J A D L; Okumura, K; Ganesh, S; Omont, A; Cami, J; Glass, I S; Habing, H J; Schultheis, M; Simon, G; Van Loon, J T; Blommaert, Joris A.D.L.; Groenewegen, Martin A.T.; Okumura, Koryo; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Omont, Alain; Cami, Jan; Glass, Ian S.; Habing, Harm J.; Schultheis, Mathias; Simon, Guy; Loon, Jacco Th. van

    2006-01-01

    To study the nature of Bulge AGB stars and in particular their circumstellar dust, we have analysed mid-infrared spectra obtained with the ISOCAM CVF spectrometer in three Bulge fields. The ISOCAM 5-16.5 micron CVF spectra were obtained as part of the ISOGAL infrared survey of the inner Galaxy. A classification of the shape of the 10 micron dust feature was made for each case. The spectra of the individual sources were modelled using a radiative transfer model. Different combinations of amorphous silicates and aluminium-oxide dust were used in the modelling. Spectra were obtained for 29 sources of which 26 are likely to be Bulge AGB stars. Our modelling shows that the stars suffer mass loss rates in the range of 10^{-8} - 5 x 10^{-7} Msun / yr, which is at the low end of the mass-loss rates experienced on the Thermally Pulsing AGB. The luminosities range from 1,700 to 7,700 Lsun as expected for a population of AGB stars with Minit of 1.5 - 2Msun. In agreement with the condensation sequence scenario, we find t...

  7. Alpha-Bulges in G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob van der Kant

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agonist binding is related to a series of motions in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that result in the separation of transmembrane helices III and VI at their cytosolic ends and subsequent G protein binding. A large number of smaller motions also seem to be associated with activation. Most helices in GPCRs are highly irregular and often contain kinks, with extensive literature already available about the role of prolines in kink formation and the precise function of these kinks. GPCR transmembrane helices also contain many α-bulges. In this article we aim to draw attention to the role of these α-bulges in ligand and G-protein binding, as well as their role in several aspects of the mobility associated with GPCR activation. This mobility includes regularization and translation of helix III in the extracellular direction, a rotation of the entire helix VI, an inward movement of the helices near the extracellular side, and a concerted motion of the cytosolic ends of the helices that makes their orientation appear more circular and that opens up space for the G protein to bind. In several cases, α-bulges either appear or disappear as part of the activation process.

  8. GAMA: Stellar Mass Assembly in Galaxy Bulges and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Driver, Simon P.; Lange, Rebecca; Robotham, Aaron; Kelvin, Lee; GAMA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey has to date obtained spectra, redshifts, and 21-band multi-facility photometry for over 200,000 galaxies in five survey regions that total nearly 300 square degrees on sky. We consider here a low-redshift (zteam. In order to quantify the separate bulge and disk properties of these galaxies, we apply a large-scale automated procedure for fitting images with 2D, multi-component structure models, including evaluation of fit convergence using a grid of input parameter values for each galaxy. From this analysis, we calculate the total bulge and disk contributions to the local galaxy stellar mass budget and derive mass-size relations for both pure spheroid/disk systems and the separate bulge/disk components of multi-component galaxies. We further examine the fraction of total stellar mass assembled in spheroid and disk structures as a function of galaxy environment, where environment is quantified on multiple scales from membership in large-scale filaments to groups/clusters and down to local pairings. We then discuss the effect of environmental conditions on the mechanisms of stellar mass assembly, including the implied balance between merger accumulation and in situ mass growth in different environment regimes.

  9. Temperature dependence of strain energy and thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based single-walled nanotubes: Zone-folding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsev, Vitaly V; Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2016-06-15

    A zone-folding approach is applied to estimate the thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based nanotubes. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculations. It is shown that the zone-folding approximation allows an accurate estimation of nanotube thermodynamic properties and gives a gain in computation time compared to their direct calculations. Both approaches show that temperature effects do not change the relative stability of V2 O5 free layers and nanotubes derived from the α- and γ-phase. The internal energy thermal contributions into the strain energy of nanotubes are small and can be ignored. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990664

  10. Thermodynamic properties of the block copolymer based on hyperbranched perfluorinated poly(phenylenegermane) and atactic polystyrene in the range from T → 0 to 518 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, temperature dependence of heat capacity of the block copolymer based on hyperbranched perfluorinated poly(phenylenegermane) and atactic polystyrene has been measured first in the range from 6 to 350 K and between 320 and 534 K, respectively, by precision adiabatic vacuum and dynamic calorimetry. In the above temperature ranges, the devitrification of constituent blocks was detected and its thermodynamic characteristics have been determined and analyzed. The experimental data were used to calculate standard thermodynamic functions, namely the heat capacity Cpo(T), enthalpy Ho(T) - Ho(0), entropy So(T) - So(0) and Gibbs function Go(T) - Ho(0), for the range from T → 0 to 518 K. The standard thermodynamic properties of the said substance were compared with corresponding data for the initial homopolymers as well as for the block copolymer on basis of hyperbranched perfluorinated poly(phenylenegermane) and atactic poly(methylmeth)acrylate studied earlier

  11. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  12. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Zoccali, M.; Vásquez, S.; Ripepi, V.; Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. Aims: We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. Methods: High resolution spectra (R ~ 48 000) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from ~130 Fe i and Fe ii transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. Results: An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.98 ± 0.08 dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of vhel = -96.6 ± 1.3 km s-1 were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of [O/Fe] = 0.29 ± 0.18 dex, [Mg/Fe] = 0.23 ± 0.10 dex, [Si/Fe] = 0.36 ± 0.05 dex, and [Ca/Fe] = 0.30 ± 0.07 dex. Similar overabundance is found for the iron-peak Ti with [Ti/Fe] = 0.24 ± 0.09 dex. Odd-Z elements Na and Al present abundances of [Na/Fe] = 0.00 ± 0.21 dex and [Al/Fe] = 0.31 ± 0.21 dex, respectively. Finally, the s-element Ba is also enhanced by [Ba/Fe] = 0.22 ± 0.21 dex. Conclusions: The enhancement levels of NGC 6723 are comparable to those of other metal-intermediate bulge globular clusters. In turn, these enhancement levels are compatible with the abundance profiles displayed by bulge field stars at that metallicity. This hints at a possible similar chemical evolution with globular clusters and the metal-poor of the bulge going through an early prompt chemical enrichment.

  13. Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Tubes by Means of Tube Bulge Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints are generally evaluated by means of conventional tensile test. This testing method might provide insufficient information because maximum strain obtained in tensile test before necking is small; moreover, the application of tensile test is limited when the joint path is not linear or even when the welds are executed on curved surfaces. Therefore, in some cases, it would be preferable to obtain the joints properties from other testing methods. Tube bulge test can be a valid solution for testing circumferential or longitudinal welds executed on tubular workpieces. The present work investigates the mechanical properties and the formability of friction stir welded tubes by means of tube bulge tests. The experimental campaign was performed on tubular specimens having a thickness of 3 mm and an external diameter of 40 mm, obtained starting from two semi-tubes longitudinally friction stir welded. The first step, regarding the fabrication of tubes, was performed combining a conventional forming process and friction stir welding. Sheets in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy AA6060 T6 were adopted for this purpose. Plates having a dimension of 225x60 mm were bent (with a bending axis parallel to the main dimension) in order to obtain semi-tubes. A particular care was devoted to the fabrication of forming devices (punch and die) in order to minimize the springback effects. Semi-tubes were then friction stir welded by means of a CNC machine tool. Some preliminary tests were carried out by varying the welding parameters, namely feed rate and rotational speed. A very simple tool having flat shoulder and cylindrical pin was used. The second step of the research was based on testing the welded tubes by means of tube bulge test. A specific equipment having axial actuators with a conical shape was adopted for this study. Some analyses were carried out on the tubes bulged up to a certain pressure level. In particular, the burst pressure and the

  14. Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Tubes by Means of Tube Bulge Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, G.; Longo, M.; Giardini, C.

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints are generally evaluated by means of conventional tensile test. This testing method might provide insufficient information because maximum strain obtained in tensile test before necking is small; moreover, the application of tensile test is limited when the joint path is not linear or even when the welds are executed on curved surfaces. Therefore, in some cases, it would be preferable to obtain the joints properties from other testing methods. Tube bulge test can be a valid solution for testing circumferential or longitudinal welds executed on tubular workpieces. The present work investigates the mechanical properties and the formability of friction stir welded tubes by means of tube bulge tests. The experimental campaign was performed on tubular specimens having a thickness of 3 mm and an external diameter of 40 mm, obtained starting from two semi-tubes longitudinally friction stir welded. The first step, regarding the fabrication of tubes, was performed combining a conventional forming process and friction stir welding. Sheets in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy AA6060 T6 were adopted for this purpose. Plates having a dimension of 225×60 mm were bent (with a bending axis parallel to the main dimension) in order to obtain semi-tubes. A particular care was devoted to the fabrication of forming devices (punch and die) in order to minimize the springback effects. Semi-tubes were then friction stir welded by means of a CNC machine tool. Some preliminary tests were carried out by varying the welding parameters, namely feed rate and rotational speed. A very simple tool having flat shoulder and cylindrical pin was used. The second step of the research was based on testing the welded tubes by means of tube bulge test. A specific equipment having axial actuators with a conical shape was adopted for this study. Some analyses were carried out on the tubes bulged up to a certain pressure level. In particular, the burst pressure and the

  15. Discrete Thermodynamics of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper offers a discrete thermodynamic model of lasers. Laser is an open system; its equilibrium is based on a balance of two thermodynamic forces, one related to the incoming pumping power and another to the emitted light. The basic expression for such equilibrium is a logistic map, graphical solutions to which are pitchfork bifurcation diagrams. As pumping force increases, the relative populations on the ground and lasing branches tend to zero and unity correspondingly. An interesting feature of this model is the line spectrum of the up and down transitions between the branches beyond bifurcation point. Even in a simple case of 2-level laser with only 2 possible transition types (up and down), the spectra look like sets of the line packets, starting well before the population inversion. This effect is an independent confirmation of the Einstein's prohibition on practical realization of 2-level laser. Multilevel lasers may be approached by employing the idea of thermodynamic activity for the emitting atom...

  16. Conceptual design of a thermo-electrical energy storage system based on heat integration of thermodynamic cycles – Part A: Methodology and base case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in large scale electricity storage (ES) with discharging time longer than 1 h and nominal power greater than 1 MW, is increasing worldwide as the increasing share of renewable energy, typically solar and wind energy, imposes severe load management issues. Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to pump hydro and compressed air energy storage. TEES is based on the conversion of electricity into thermal energy during charge by means of a heat pump and on the conversion of thermal energy into electricity during discharge by means of a thermal engine. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO2 cycles, is discussed in two papers. In this first paper a methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on the analysis of the thermal integration between charging and discharging cycles through Pinch Analysis tools is introduced. According to such methodology, the heat exchanger network and temperatures and volumes of storage tanks are not defined a priori but are determined after the cycle parameters are optimized. For this purpose a heuristic procedure based on the interpretation of the composite curves obtained by optimizing the thermal integration between the cycles was developed. Such heuristic rules were implemented in a code that allows finding automatically the complete system design for given values of the intensive parameters of the charging and discharging cycles only. A base case system configuration is introduced and the results of its thermodynamic optimization are discussed here. A maximum roundtrip efficiency of 60% was obtained for the base case configuration assuming turbomachinery and heat exchanger performances in line with indications from manufacturers. -- Highlights: ► Energy storage based on water, ice, and transcritical CO2 cycles is

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  18. Thermodynamic Considerations of Contamination by Alloying Elements of Remelted End-of-Life Nickel- and Cobalt-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and nickel are high-value commodity metals and are mostly used in the form of highly alloyed materials. The alloying elements used may cause contamination problems during recycling. To ensure maximum resource efficiency, an understanding of the removability of these alloying elements and the controllability of some of the primary alloying elements is essential with respect to the recycling of end-of-life (EoL) nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys by remelting. In this study, the distribution behaviors of approximately 30 elements that are usually present in EoL nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys in the solvent metal (nickel, cobalt, or nickel-cobalt alloy), oxide slag, and gas phases during the remelting were quantitatively evaluated using a thermodynamic approach. The results showed that most of the alloying elements can be removed either in the slag phase or into the gas phase. However, the removal of copper, tin, arsenic, and antimony by remelting is difficult, and they remain as tramp elements during the recycling. On the other hand, the distribution tendencies of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten can be controlled by changing the remelting conditions. To increase the resource efficiency of recycling, preventing contamination by the tramp elements and identifying the alloying compositions of EoL superalloys are significantly essential, which will require the development of efficient prior alloy-sorting systems and advanced separation technologies.

  19. A Radiation-Hydrodynamical Model for Supermassive Black Hole-to-Bulge Mass Relation and Quasar Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Umemura, M

    2001-01-01

    As a potential mechanism to build up supermassive black holes (BHs) in a spheroidal system, we consider the radiation drag effect by bulge stars, which extracts angular momentum from interstellar gas and thus allows the gas to accrete onto the galactic center. With incorporating radiation hydrodynamical equation with simple stellar evolution, it is shown that the BH-to-bulge mass ratio, $f_{BH}$, is basically determined by a fundamental constant, that is, the energy conversion efficiency for nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium, $\\epsilon=0.007$. More specifically, $f_{BH}$ is predicted to be $0.3\\epsilon -0.5\\epsilon$. Based on the present model for BH growth, a scenario for quasar formation is addressed in relation to ultraluminous infrared galaxies.

  20. Modeling the Effects of Strand Surface Bulging and Mechanical Softreduction on the Macrosegregation Formation in Steel Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitner, Josef; Wu, Menghuai; Kharicha, Abdellah; Ludwig, Andreas; Kaufmann, Bernhard; Reiter, Jürgen; Schaden, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Positive centerline macrosegregation is an undesired casting defect that frequently occurs in the continuous casting process of steel strands. Mechanical softreduction (MSR) is a generally applied technology to avoid this casting defect in steel production. In the current paper, the mechanism of MSR is numerically examined. Therefore, two 25-m long horizontal continuous casting strand geometries of industrial scale are modeled. Both of these strand geometries have periodically bulged surfaces, but only one of them considers the cross-section reduction due to a certain MSR configuration. The macrosegregation formation inside of these strands with and without MSR is studied for a binary Fe-C-alloy based on an Eulerian multiphase model. Comparing the macrosegregation patterns obtained for different casting speed definitions allows investigating the fundamental influence of feeding, bulging and MSR mechanisms on the formation of centerline macrosegregation.

  1. An Observational Guide to Identifying Pseudobulges and Classical Bulges in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David B

    2015-01-01

    In this review our aim is to summarize the observed properties of pseudobulges and classical bulges. We utilize an empirical approach to studying the properties of bulges in disk galaxies, and restrict our analysis to statistical proper- ties. A clear bimodality is observed in a number of properties including morphology, structural properties, star formation, gas content & stellar population, and kinematics. As well as summarizing known methods to identify pseudobulges and classical bulges we also show new results, including absorption line indices that can be used to identify different bulge types. We conclude by summarizing those properties that isolate pseudobulges from classical bulges. Our intention is to describe a practical, easy to use, list of criteria for identifying bulge types.

  2. Effect of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key parameters for BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece manufactured by vacuum hot bulge forming. A two-dimensional nonlinear thermo-mechanical coupled FE model was established. Numerical simulation of vacuum hot bulge forming process of titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece was carried out using FE analysis software MSC Marc. The effects of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece were analyzed by numerical simulation.The simulated results show that the Y-direction displacement and the equivalent plastic strain of the workpiece increase with increasing bulge temperature. The residual stress decreases with increasing bulge temperature. The optimal temperature range of BT20 titanium alloy during vacuum hot bulge forming is 750-850 ℃. The corresponding experiments were carried out. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental results.

  3. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim, Eric; Lee, Dongwoo; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W. Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J.; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Metallic glasses attract considerable interest due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting their formation from known alloy parameters remains the major hindrance to the discovery of new systems. Here, we propose a descriptor based on the heuristics that structural and energetic `confusion' obstructs crystalline growth, and demonstrate its validity by experiments on two well-known glass-forming alloy systems. We then develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab initio in the AFLOW framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be much more common than currently thought, with more than 17% of binary alloy systems potential glass formers. Our approach pinpoints favourable compositions and demonstrates that smart descriptors, based solely on alloy properties available in online repositories, offer the sought-after key for accelerated discovery of metallic glasses.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of lanthanum in gallium-indium eutectic based alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Shchetinskiy, A. V.; Dedyukhin, A. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Maisheva, A. I.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    Activity and activity coefficients of lanthanum were determined for the first time in gallium-indium eutectic based alloys in a wide temperature range employing electromotive force method. Activity of β-La and super cooled liquid lanthanum in Ga-In eutectic based alloys between 573 and 1073 K linearly depends on the reciprocal temperature: lgaβ-La(Ga-In)=5.660-15, 352T±0.093 lgaLa(Ga-In)=6.074-15,839T±0.093 Activity coefficients of β-La and super cooled liquid lanthanum in this system at 617-...

  5. An X-ray Spectroscopic Study of the Hot Interstellar Medium Toward the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hagihara, Toshishige; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Takei, Yoh; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Yao, Yangsen; Wang, Q Daniel; McCammon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic study of the hot gas toward the Galactic bulge along the 4U 1820-303 sight line by a combination analysis of emission and absorption spectra. In addition to the absorption lines of OVII Kalpha, OVII Kbeta, OVIII Kalpha and NeIX Kalpha by Chandra LTGS as shown by previous works, Suzaku detected clearly the emission lines of OVII, OVIII, NeIX and NeX from the vicinity. We used simplified plasma models with constant temperature and density. Evaluation of the background and foreground emission was performed carefully, including stellar X-ray contribution based on the recent X-ray observational results and stellar distribution simulator. If we assume that one plasma component exists in front of 4U1820-303 and the other one at the back, the obtained temperatures are T= 1.7 +/- 0.2 MK for the front-side plasma and T=3.9(+0.4-0.3) MK for the backside. This scheme is consistent with a hot and thick ISM disk as suggested by the extragalactic source observations and an X-ray bulge aro...

  6. Bulge-disc decompositions and structural bimodality of Ursa Major cluster spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Courteau, Stéphane; Tully, R. Brent

    2009-02-01

    We present bulge and disc (B/D) decompositions of existing K' surface brightness profiles for 65 Ursa Major (UMa) cluster spiral galaxies. This improves upon the disc-only fits of Tully et al. The 1996 disc fits were used by Tully & Verheijen for their discovery of the bimodality of structural parameters in the UMa cluster galaxies. It is shown that our new one-dimensional B/D decompositions yield disc structural parameters that differ only slightly from the basic fits of Tully et al. and evidence for structural bimodality of UMa galaxies is maintained. Our B/D software for the decomposition of one-dimensional surface brightness profiles of galaxies uses a non-linear minimization scheme to recover the best-fitting Sérsic bulge and the exponential disc while accounting for the possible presence of a compact nucleus and spiral arms and for the effects of seeing and disc truncations. In agreement with Tully & Verheijen, we find that the distribution of near-infrared disc central surface brightnesses is bimodal with an F-test confidence of 80 per cent. There is also strong evidence for a local minimum in the luminosity function at . A connection between the brightness bimodality and a dynamical bimodality, based on new HI linewidths, is identified. The B/D parameters are presented in Table 1.

  7. High-resolution mapping of dust via extinction in the M31 bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Li, Zhiyuan; Wang, Q. D.; Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Saha, Abhijit; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Groves, Brent A.

    2016-06-01

    We map the dust distribution in the central 180 arcsec (˜680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 Å) to near-infrared (1.5 μm). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. We fit a pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distributions to construct a high-dynamic-range extinction map with unparalleled angular resolution (˜0.5 arcsec, i.e. ˜2 pc) and sensitivity (the extinction uncertainty, δAV ˜ 0.05). In particular, the data allow to directly fit the fractions of starlight obscured by individual dusty clumps, and hence their radial distances in the bulge. Most of these clumps seem to be located in a thin plane, which is tilted with respect to the M31 disc and appears face-on. We convert the extinction map into a dust mass surface density map and compare it with that derived from the dust emission as observed by Herschel. The dust masses in these two maps are consistent with each other, except in the low-extinction regions, where the mass inferred from the extinction tends to be underestimated. Further, we use simulations to show that our method can be used to measure the masses of dusty clumps in Virgo cluster early-type galaxies to an accuracy within a factor of ˜2.

  8. On the kinematic separation of field and cluster stars across the bulge globular NGC 6528

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma-Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dall' Ora, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Calamida, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Gilmozzi, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, N. [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, 3 Nagano 97-0101 (Japan); Walker, A., E-mail: eplagioia@roma2.infn.it [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present deep and precise multi-band photometry of the Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6528. The current data set includes optical and near-infrared images collected with ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The images cover a time interval of almost 10 yr, and we have been able to carry out a proper-motion separation between cluster and field stars. We performed a detailed comparison in the m {sub F814W}, m {sub F606W} – m {sub F814W} color-magnitude diagram with two empirical calibrators observed in the same bands. We found that NGC 6528 is coeval with and more metal-rich than 47 Tuc. Moreover, it appears older and more metal-poor than the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. The current evidence is supported by several diagnostics (red horizontal branch, red giant branch bump, shape of the sub-giant branch, slope of the main sequence) that are minimally affected by uncertainties in reddening and distance. We fit the optical observations with theoretical isochrones based on a scaled-solar chemical mixture and found an age of 11 ± 1 Gyr and an iron abundance slightly above solar ([Fe/H] = +0.20). The iron abundance and the old cluster age further support the recent spectroscopic findings suggesting a rapid chemical enrichment of the Galactic bulge.

  9. High-Resolution Mapping of Dust via Extinction in the M31 Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Q D; Lauer, Tod R; Olsen, Knut A G; Saha, Abhijit; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Groves, Brent A

    2016-01-01

    We map the dust distribution in the central 180" (~680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST/WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 A) to near-infrared (1.5 micron). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. We fit a pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distributions to construct a high-dynamic-range extinction map with unparalleled angular resolution (~0.5" , i.e., ~2 pc) and sensitivity (the extinction uncertainty, \\delta A_V~0.05). In particular, the data allow to directly fit the fractions of starlight obscured by individual dusty clumps, and hence their radial distances in the bulge. Most of these clumps seem to be located in a thin plane, which is tilted with respect to the M31 disk and appears face-on. We convert the extinction map into a dust mass surface density map and compare it with that derived from the dust emission as observed by Herschel . The dust masses in these two maps are co...

  10. Variations of the selective extinction across the galactic bulge implications for the galactic bar

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, P R

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new method to investigate the coefficient of the selective extinction, based on two band photometry. This method uses red clump stars as a means to construct the reddening curve. We apply this method to the OGLE color-magnitude diagrams to investigate the variations of the selective extinction towards various parts of the Galactic bulge. We find that A_{_V}/E_{_{V-I}} coefficient is within the errors the same for l=\\pm 5\\deg OGLE fields. Therefore, the difference of \\sim 0.37\\;mag in the extinction adjusted apparent magnitude of the red clump stars in these fields (Stanek et al.~1994, 1995) cannot be assigned to a large-scale gradient of the selective extinction coefficient. This strengthens the implication of this difference as indicator of the presence of the bar in our Galaxy. However using present data we cannot entirely exclude the possibility of \\sim 0.2\\;mag/mag variations of the selective extinction coefficient on the large scales across the bulge.

  11. Deformation Characterization of Friction-Stir-Welded Tubes by Hydraulic Bulge Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Q.; Hu, Z. L.; Pan, X.; Zuo, X. Q.

    2014-10-01

    In this article, the large-diameter thin-walled aluminum alloy tubes were produced using a hybrid process combining friction-stir welding (FSW) and spinning. For this novel process, rolled aluminum alloy sheets with a thickness about 2-3 times the wall thickness of target tube, were FSW to form cylinders, and then the cylinders were subjected to spinning to get thin-walled aluminum alloy tubes. Both experimental and simulation study were conducted to investigate the deformation characterization of the FSW tube during hydraulic bulge testing, and the stress and strain states and thickness distribution of the FSW tube were investigated. It was found that the common defects of FSW tube can be significantly improved by specific welding devices. The ductility of the tube is considerably improved with nearly two times higher bulge ratio than as-spun tube after annealing treatment at 300°C. But the annealed tube still shows a high nonuniform wall thickness distribution due to the inhomogeneous deformation characteristics. With increasing deformation of the tube, the gap between the hoop and axial stress for the weld and base metal (BM) decreases. However, the hoop and axial stress of the weld are always greater than those of the BM at the same pressure.

  12. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  13. Solution phase thermodynamics of strong electrolytes based on ionic concentrations, hydration numbers and volumes of dissolved entities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyrovská, Raji

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2013), s. 1895-1901. ISSN 1040-0400 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Solution thermodynamics * Aqueous electrolytes * Partial electrolytic dissociation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2013

  14. Thermodynamic re-assessment of the Fe-AI-C system based on the Fe-rich experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LI; Shui-gen HUANG; Li WANG; Yan-lin HE; Jef VLEUGELS; Omer VAN DER BIEST

    2009-01-01

    The influence of C and A1 content on phase transformation temperatures, i.e., the A1 and A3 of Fe-rich alloys is investigated by dilatometric analysis. With the new set of experimental data, an updated thermodynamic description of the Fe-A1-C system is presented, by using the thermodynamic data of the Fe-C, Fe-Al and Al-C systems, as well as the parameters for the Fe-Al-C ternary system optimized in this study. The good compatibility of the thermodynamic parameters with experimental data is demonstrated by several calculated vertical sections. A well reproduced vertical section of the Fe-Mn-Si-Al-C system is also presented according to the thermodynamic description of the lower order systems.

  15. The growth of disks and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation. I: fast evolution vs secular processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, C.; Mutch, S. J.; Croton, D. J.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-04-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy disks and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code SAGE. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disk instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model mostly reproduces the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar disks, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disk fraction. Bulge type also affects the star formation rate and colour at a given luminosity. The model predicts a population of merger-driven red ellipticals that dominate both the low-mass and high-mass ends of the galaxy population, and span all dynamical ages; merger-driven bulges in disk galaxies are dynamically old and do not interfere with subsequent evolution of the star-forming component. Instability-driven bulges dominate the population at intermediate galaxy masses, especially thriving in massive disks. The model green valley is exclusively populated by instability-driven bulge hosts. Through the present implementation the mass accretion history is perceivable in the galaxy structure, morphology and colours.

  16. The growth of discs and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation - I. Fast evolution versus secular processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, C.; Mutch, S. J.; Croton, D. J.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy discs and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code, Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disc instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model mostly reproduces the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar discs, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disc fraction. Bulge type also affects the star formation rate and colour at a given luminosity. The model predicts a population of merger-driven red ellipticals that dominate both the low-mass and high-mass ends of the galaxy population, and span all dynamical ages; merger-driven bulges in disc galaxies are dynamically old and do not interfere with subsequent evolution of the star-forming component. Instability-driven bulges dominate the population at intermediate galaxy masses, especially thriving in massive discs. The model green valley is exclusively populated by instability-driven bulge hosts. Through the present implementation, the mass accretion history is perceivable in the galaxy structure, morphology and colours.

  17. Radio Detection Prospects for a Bulge Population of Millisecond Pulsars as Suggested by Fermi-LAT Observations of the Inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Weniger, C.

    2016-08-01

    The dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis has found support in an analysis of gamma-rays detected using the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed an excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center. The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution strongly peaked toward the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsations from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previous pulsar surveys failed to identify this population, we demonstrate that upcoming large-area surveys of this region should lead to the detection of dozens of bulge MSPs. Additionally, we show that deep targeted searches of unassociated Fermi sources should be able to detect the first few MSPs in the bulge. The prospects for these deep searches are enhanced by a tentative gamma-ray/radio correlation that we infer from high-latitude gamma-ray MSPs. Such detections would constitute the first clear discoveries of field MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with far-reaching implications for gamma-ray observations, the formation history of the central Milky Way, and strategy optimization for future deep radio pulsar surveys.

  18. Thermodynamics of a post combustion hydrate-based carbon dioxide capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrates selectivity towards carbon dioxide is offering a promising route for carbon dioxide removal from flue gases. Hydrate-based CO2 capture process could substitute amine facilities widely implemented in gas treatment plants but suffering from oxidative degradation problems and high energy demand. In the framework of this thesis, we focus on phase equilibria that are involved in such process. Experimental dissociation conditions for clathrate hydrates of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, in the presence of some promoting molecules (Tetrahydrofuran, Tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and Tetrabutyl ammonium Fluoride ) are reported in the experimental section of this work. The data generated in this work along with literature data are compared to the model predictions. The developed model is based on the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) for fluid phases combined to the van der Waals and Platteeuw's theory for the hydrate phase. (author)

  19. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Solar-based Chemical Reactor System for Hydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, Yunus Emre; Murat ÖZTÜRK

    2015-01-01

    The biggest advantage of the renewable energy based systems is that these energy systems are environmentally friendly, since they emit very few pollutants. The solar parabolic trough collector systems generate thermal energy by using solar radiation. These renewable energy systems are the most deployed type of the solar concentrating collectors. Especially, they are very suitable for middle-temperature solar power system applications. Storing of the solar energy is not a suitable way due to t...

  1. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Investigation of a Chemical Reaction-Based Miniature Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Flueckiger, Scott M.; Volle, Fabien; Garimella, S V; Mongia, Rajiv K.

    2012-01-01

    Representative reversible endothermic chemical reactions (paraldehyde depolymerization and 2-proponal dehydrogenation) are theoretically assessed for their use in a chemical heat pump design for compact thermal management applications. Equilibrium and dynamic simulations are undertaken to explore the operation of the heat pump which upgrades waste heat from near room temperature by approximately 20 in a minimized system volume. A model is developed based on system mass and energy balances cou...

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated geothermal based quadruple effect absorption system for multigenerational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Development of new geothermal based power generating and QEAS for multi-generation. ► Development of new ammonia–water based quadruple effect absorption system. ► Use of energy and exergy analyses to show how performance of system varies. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel integrated geothermal based binary multi-stage power generating and quadruple effect absorption system (QEAS) for cooling, heating, power and hot water production. Parametric studies are undertaken and the effects of some operating conditions such as geothermal temperature, geothermal mass flow rate, concentration of ammonia–water vapor, temperature of inlet stream to the very high temperature generator (VHTG), and pressure of the first turbine on the outputs of the system are investigated. It is found that increasing geothermal source temperature and concentration of ammonia in vapor leaving VHTG results in improved performance of the overall system. Moreover, it is found that the best results are obtained for the temperature of 383 K of the strong solution inlet to the VHTG (state 14). In addition, an increase in the operating pressure of the first-stage turbine from 3000 kPa to 3600 kPa increases the power generation from 76.4 kW to 87 kW, respectively.

  3. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baldiotti, M C; Molina, C

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed ontop of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac's theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases.

  4. Thermochromism, stability and thermodynamics of cobalt(II) complexes in newly synthesized nitrate based ionic liquid and its photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banić, Nemanja; Vraneš, Milan; Abramović, Biljana; Csanádi, János; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2014-11-01

    In this work a 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ionic liquid, [HO(CH2)2mim]NO3, has been synthesized in order to serve as a new thermochromic material upon addition of cobalt(II) ions. Spectrophotometric measurements of a series of cobalt(II) nitrate and cobalt(II) chloride solutions in [HO(CH2)2mim]NO3 at 298.15, 308.15, 318.15, 328.15, and 338.15 K, were performed. Based on the recorded spectra, the overall stability constants and thermodynamic parameters for the cobalt(II) associations with chloride and nitrate ions were calculated. The thermodynamic calculations suggest that thermochromism is not observed in the ionic medium due to a small entropy change during the replacement of nitrate with chloride ions in the co-ordination sphere of cobalt(II). The absence of the molecular solvent was also the reason for the lack of thermochromism. Thus, cobalt(II) solutions in [HO(CH2)2mim]NO3 and water mixtures were studied as a new and green medium that can be used for the auto-regulation of the light intensity and shade protection. The investigated system with water upon addition of cobalt(II) was found to be a far more efficient and responsive thermochromic medium for all of the studied systems up until now. The structure of [HO(CH2)2mim]NO3 was confirmed by both (1)H NMR and IR spectroscopy. Also, the efficiency of different advanced oxidation processes (UV-induced photolysis, UV/H2O2 photolysis, heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 Degussa P25 and TiO2 with 7.24%, w/w Fe catalysts) for [HO(CH2)2mim]NO3 degradation were investigated. The reaction intermediates formed during the photo-oxidation process were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS and (1)H NMR techniques. PMID:25192002

  5. The growth of disks and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation. I: fast evolution vs secular processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Croton, Darren J; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy disks and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code SAGE. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disk instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model can successfully reproduce the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar disks, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disk fraction. Bulge type also affe...

  6. Computational Implementation of a Thermodynamically Based Work Potential Model For Progressive Microdamage and Transverse Cracking in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    A continuum-level, dual internal state variable, thermodynamically based, work potential model, Schapery Theory, is used capture the effects of two matrix damage mechanisms in a fiber-reinforced laminated composite: microdamage and transverse cracking. Matrix microdamage accrues primarily in the form of shear microcracks between the fibers of the composite. Whereas, larger transverse matrix cracks typically span the thickness of a lamina and run parallel to the fibers. Schapery Theory uses the energy potential required to advance structural changes, associated with the damage mechanisms, to govern damage growth through a set of internal state variables. These state variables are used to quantify the stiffness degradation resulting from damage growth. The transverse and shear stiffness of the lamina are related to the internal state variables through a set of measurable damage functions. Additionally, the damage variables for a given strain state can be calculated from a set of evolution equations. These evolution equations and damage functions are implemented into the finite element method and used to govern the constitutive response of the material points in the model. Additionally, an axial failure criterion is included in the model. The response of a center-notched, buffer strip-stiffened panel subjected to uniaxial tension is investigated and results are compared to experiment.

  7. Acid Blue 25 adsorption on base treated Shorea dasyphylla sawdust: Kinetic,isotherm, thermodynamic and spectroscopic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megat Ahmad Kamal Megat Hanafiah; Wan Saime Wan Ngah; Shahira Hilwani Zolkafly; Lee Ching Teong; Zafri Azran Abdul Majid

    2012-01-01

    The potential of base treated Shorea dasyphylla (BTSD) sawdust for Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) adsorption was investigated in a batch adsorption process.Various physiochemical parameters such as pH,stirring rate,dosage,concentration,contact time and temperature were studied.The adsorbent was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer,scanning electron microscope and Brunauer,Emmett and Teller analysis.The optimum conditions for AB 25 adsorption were pH 2,stirring rate 500 r/min,adsorbent dosage 0.10 g and contact time 60 min.The pseudo second-order model showed the best conformity to the kinetic,data.The equilibrium adsorption of AB 25 was described by Freundlich and Langmuir,with the latter found to agree well with the isotherm model.The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of BTSD was 24.39 mg/g at 300 K,estimated from the Langmuir model.Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy,enthalpy and entropy were determined.It was found that AB 25 adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic.

  8. Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, N.A., E-mail: natalie.kruse@ncl.ac.uk [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Younger, P.L. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Accurate modeling of changing geochemistry in mine water can be an important tool in post-mining site management. The Pollutant Sources and Sinks in Underground Mines (POSSUM) model and Pollutant Loadings Above Average Pyrite Influenced Geochemistry POSSUM (PLAYING POSSUM) model were developed using object-oriented programming techniques to simulate changing geochemistry in abandoned underground mines over time. The conceptual model was created to avoid significant simplifying assumptions that decrease the accuracy and defensibility of model solutions. POSSUM and PLAYING POSSUM solve for changes in flow rate and depth of flow using a finite difference hydrodynamics model then, subsequently, solve for geochemical changes at distinct points along the flow path. Geochemical changes are modeled based on a suite of 28 kinetically controlled mineral weathering reactions. Additional geochemical transformations due to reversible sorption, dissolution and precipitation of acid generating salts and mineral precipitation are also simulated using simplified expressions. Contaminant transport is simulated using a novel application of the Random-Walk method. By simulating hydrogeochemical changes with a physically and thermodynamically controlled model, the 'state of the art' in post-mining management can be advanced.

  9. Numerical analysis of free-burning argon arcs based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium model at various electrical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-burning arcs where the work piece acts as an anode were numerically analyzed using a computational domain including the arc itself and its anode region based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium model. Because the major arc parameters such as temperature, axial velocity, electric potential difference and pressure-rise from ambient atmospheric pressure are much dependent on the working current, our investigation was concerned with developing a capability to model free-burning argon arcs and considering the energy flux going into the anode at various values of the electrical current (I = 50, 100 and 200 A) by computational fluid dynamics analysis. Predicted temperatures along the z-axis between the electrodes were in fair agreement with existing experimental results. Particularly, reasonable relationships between the maximum velocity or temperature and the applied current were predicted, which matched well with other theoretical results. In addition, some discrepancies with other predictions were shown in the results about electric potential and pressure-rise. It should be related to the omission of the space-charge effect near the electrodes for a simplified unified model and the application of a turbulence model for the steep temperature gradient at the arc edges. - Highlights: • Free-burning argon arcs were investigated at various working currents numerically. • The relationships between the current, the velocity and the temperature were found. • Some discrepancies were shown in the results of pressure and electric potential. • Those should be supplemented by the non-equilibrium situation near electrodes

  10. Thermodynamic and Structure Guided Design of Statin Based Inhibitors of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarver, Ronald W.; Bills, Elizabeth; Bolton, Gary; Bratton, Larry D.; Caspers, Nicole L.; Dunbar, James B.; Harris, Melissa S.; Hutchings, Richard H.; Kennedy, Robert M.; Larsen, Scott D.; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Bainbridge, Graeme (Pfizer)

    2008-10-02

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors, are effective at lowering mortality levels associated with cardiovascular disease; however, 2--7% of patients may experience statin-induced myalgia that limits compliance with a treatment regimen. High resolution crystal structures, thermodynamic binding parameters, and biochemical data were used to design statin inhibitors with improved HMGR affinity and therapeutic index relative to statin-induced myalgia. These studies facilitated the identification of imidazole 1 as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 7.9 nM) inhibitor with excellent hepatoselectivity (>1000-fold) and good in vivo efficacy. The binding of 1 to HMGR was found to be enthalpically driven with a {Delta}H of -17.7 kcal/M. Additionally, a second novel series of bicyclic pyrrole-based inhibitors was identified that induced order in a protein flap of HMGR. Similar ordering was detected in a substrate complex, but has not been reported in previous statin inhibitor complexes with HMGR.

  11. Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate modeling of changing geochemistry in mine water can be an important tool in post-mining site management. The Pollutant Sources and Sinks in Underground Mines (POSSUM) model and Pollutant Loadings Above Average Pyrite Influenced Geochemistry POSSUM (PLAYING POSSUM) model were developed using object-oriented programming techniques to simulate changing geochemistry in abandoned underground mines over time. The conceptual model was created to avoid significant simplifying assumptions that decrease the accuracy and defensibility of model solutions. POSSUM and PLAYING POSSUM solve for changes in flow rate and depth of flow using a finite difference hydrodynamics model then, subsequently, solve for geochemical changes at distinct points along the flow path. Geochemical changes are modeled based on a suite of 28 kinetically controlled mineral weathering reactions. Additional geochemical transformations due to reversible sorption, dissolution and precipitation of acid generating salts and mineral precipitation are also simulated using simplified expressions. Contaminant transport is simulated using a novel application of the Random-Walk method. By simulating hydrogeochemical changes with a physically and thermodynamically controlled model, the 'state of the art' in post-mining management can be advanced.

  12. The structure of the Milky Way's bar outside the bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin; Portail, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    While it is incontrovertible that the inner Galaxy contains a bar, its structure near the Galactic plane has remained uncertain, where extinction from intervening dust is greatest. We investigate here the Galactic bar outside the bulge, the long bar, using red clump giant (RCG) stars from United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Vista Variables in the Via Lactea and Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire. We match and combine these surveys to investigate a wide area in latitude and longitude, |b| ≤ 9° and |l| ≤ 40°. We find (i) the bar extends to l ˜ 25° at |b| ˜ 5° from the Galactic plane, and to l ˜ 30° at lower latitudes; (ii) the long bar has an angle to the line-of-sight in the range (28°-33°), consistent with studies of the bulge at |l| thin bar component reminiscent of the old thin disc near the Sun, and a ˜45 pc superthin bar components which exist predominantly towards the bar end; (v) constructing parametric models for the red clump magnitude distributions, we find a bar half-length of 5.0 ± 0.2 kpc for the two-component bar, and 4.6 ± 0.3 kpc for the thin bar component alone. We conclude that the Milky Way contains a central box/peanut bulge which is the vertical extension of a longer, flatter bar, similar as seen in both external galaxies and N-body models.

  13. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheis, M. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de Côte d' Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Zasowski, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allende Prieto, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anders, F.; Chiappini, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Beaton, R. L.; García Pérez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Beers, T. C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ge, J. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hearty, F.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, J. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Muna, D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shetrone, M., E-mail: mathias.schultheis@oca.eu, E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmospheric parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of a new praseodymium Schiff-base complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan-Hua, E-mail: lichuanhua0526@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Song, Xiang-Zhi, E-mail: xzsong@csu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Jiang, Jian-Hong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Gu, Hui-Wen [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Tao, Li-Ming; Yang, Ping; Li, Xu; Xiao, Sheng-Xiong; Yao, Fei-Hong; Liu, Wen-Qi; Xie, Jin-Qi; Peng, Meng-Na; Pan, Lan; Wu, Xi-Bin; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Song; Xu, Man-Fen [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Li, Qiang-Guo, E-mail: liqiangguo@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A new mononuclear Schiff base praseodymium complex was synthesized. • Based on Hess's law, thermochemical cycles of two reactions were designed. • The dissolution enthalpies were measured by a solution–reaction calorimeter. • The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the complex was calculated. - Abstract: The title complex [Pr(H{sub 2}vanen)(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·NO{sub 3}] was synthesized reacting of Valen Schiff-base ligand [H{sub 2}vanen = N,N′-ethylene-bis(3-methoxysalicylideneimine)] and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O in ethanol at 60 °C. The complex was crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/c. The coordination polyhedron of Pr(III) ion was consisted of two bidentate nitrate ions, two molecules of water and one ligand which coordinated through oxygen atoms of the two phenolic and methoxy groups. After designing two reasonable thermochemical cycles according to Hess's law, the calorimetric experiments were conducted using isoperibol solution–reaction calorimeter at a constant temperature of 298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpy changes of two reactions were determined to be Δ{sub r}H{sub m}{sup θ}(1a)=−(51.94±1.26) kJ mol{sup −1} and Δ{sub r}H{sub m}{sup θ}(1b)=−(8.62±1.34) kJ mol{sup −1}. Then the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the ligand and the title complex were calculated to be Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup θ} [H{sub 2}vanen(s), 298.15 K] = −(517.75 ± 2.36) kJ mol{sup −1} and Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup θ} [Pr(H{sub 2}vanen)(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·NO{sub 3} (s), 298.15 K] = −(2454.8 ± 2.7) kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. The rationality of two thermochemical cycles was verified by UV spectra and refractive indexes.

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of a new praseodymium Schiff-base complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new mononuclear Schiff base praseodymium complex was synthesized. • Based on Hess's law, thermochemical cycles of two reactions were designed. • The dissolution enthalpies were measured by a solution–reaction calorimeter. • The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the complex was calculated. - Abstract: The title complex [Pr(H2vanen)(NO3)2(H2O)2·NO3] was synthesized reacting of Valen Schiff-base ligand [H2vanen = N,N′-ethylene-bis(3-methoxysalicylideneimine)] and Pr(NO3)3·6H2O in ethanol at 60 °C. The complex was crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/c. The coordination polyhedron of Pr(III) ion was consisted of two bidentate nitrate ions, two molecules of water and one ligand which coordinated through oxygen atoms of the two phenolic and methoxy groups. After designing two reasonable thermochemical cycles according to Hess's law, the calorimetric experiments were conducted using isoperibol solution–reaction calorimeter at a constant temperature of 298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpy changes of two reactions were determined to be ΔrHmθ(1a)=−(51.94±1.26) kJ mol−1 and ΔrHmθ(1b)=−(8.62±1.34) kJ mol−1. Then the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the ligand and the title complex were calculated to be ΔfHmθ [H2vanen(s), 298.15 K] = −(517.75 ± 2.36) kJ mol−1 and ΔfHmθ [Pr(H2vanen)(NO3)2(H2O)2·NO3 (s), 298.15 K] = −(2454.8 ± 2.7) kJ mol−1, respectively. The rationality of two thermochemical cycles was verified by UV spectra and refractive indexes

  16. Effect of processing parameters on bulge-forming Polycarbonate parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhen-xiu; WU Jing; LIU Zhi; LI Xiao-dong; Z. R. Wang

    2007-01-01

    According to the data of the experiment made in mechauical tensile of Polycarbonate in high temperature, experiments were done to polycarbonate sheet by hot gas pressure bulge-forming. It was found that selecting and combination of the processing parameters were vital to the quality. In the experiments and numerical simulation with the software of DYNAFORM, the processing parameters have been studied. The results showed that the method of discontinuous pressure and pressure preservation advantage the forming; when temperature and pressure meet the forming conditions, the longer time of pressure preservation promotes sufficient forming.

  17. Signatures of bulge triaxiality from kinematics in Baade's window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Spergel, David N.; Rich, R. Michael

    1994-01-01

    We study a sample of 62 Baade's Window, (l,b) = (1, -4)deg, K giants that have published proper motions, radial velocity, and metallicity. Using R(sub 0) = 8 kpc, we construct the velocity ellipsoids, namely the 3x3 velocity dispersion tensors, for the metal rich stars ((Fe/H) greater than or equal to 0) and metal poor stars ((Fe/H) less than or equal to -0.2). After diagonalizing the tensor, we find a vertex deviation characteristic of a nonaxisymmetric system. Eigenvalues for the two velocity ellipsoids (sigma(sub 1), sigma(sub 2), sigma(sub 3)) are (126, 89, 65) +/- 13 km/s for the metal rich sample and (154, 77, 83) +/- 25 km/s for the metal poor sample with their long axes pointing to two nearly perpendicular directions (l(sub v), b(sub v)) = (-65 +/- 9 deg, +14 +/- 9 deg) and (l(sub v), b(sub v)) = (25 +/- 14 deg, -11 +/- 14 deg), respectively. The vertex deviations of the velocity ellipsoids cannot be consistently explained by any oblate model. We are able to reject the hypothesis that the metal poor and metal rich populations are drawn from the same distribution at better than the 97% confidence level. We populate orbits in a realistic bar potential with a Gaussian velocity distribution, allowing us to simulate and interpret observations. We conclude that the data are consistent with a triaxial bulge pointing towards (l,b) with l less than 0 deg and b = 0 deg as suggested by earlier work on gas dynamics and the observed light distribution. We also predict that low latitude (absolute value of b less than or equal to 4 deg) bulge fields should show the vertex deviation more strongly and would therefore be the best locations for future proper motion studies. In the classification scheme of Athanassoula et al. (1983) the metal rich stars appear to occupy the B-family orbits which rotate in the prograde sense in the rest frame and have boxy shapes that are aligned with and supporting the bar. The metal poor stars in the sample lag behind the metal rich bulge and

  18. Thermodynamic study of the surface of liquid mixtures containing pyridinium-based ionic liquids and alkanols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Surface tensions of a pyridinium ionic liquid with an alkanol have been determined. • From experimental data surface tension deviations have been obtained and correlated. • Relative adsorptions of alkanol at the (air + liquid) interface were also calculated. • The relative adsorptions were found positive in all the mixtures. - Abstract: Surface tension for seven binary mixtures containing a pyridinium-based ionic liquid (1-propylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, or 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium) and a short chain alkanol (methanol or ethanol) were determined at the temperatures: (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K. From these data, the surface tension deviations were calculated. These deviations were correlated using a Redlich–Kister polynomial expansion. Moreover, relative adsorptions of alkanol at the (air + liquid) interface were calculated from the Gibbs isotherm

  19. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    CERN Document Server

    Perim, Eric; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting bulk metallic glass formers from known parameters remains a challenge and the search for new systems is still performed by trial and error. It has been speculated that some sort of "confusion" during crystallization of the crystalline phases competing with glass formation could play a key role. Here, we propose a heuristic descriptor quantifying confusion and demonstrate its validity by detailed experiments on two well-known glass forming alloy systems. With the insight provided by these results, we develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the spectral decomposition of geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab-initio in the AFLOW high throughput framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be a much more common phenomenon than currently estimated, with more than ...

  20. Radio detection prospects for a bulge population of millisecond pulsars as suggested by Fermi LAT observations of the inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Calore, Francesca; Donato, Fiorenza; Hessels, Jason W T; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Analogously to globular clusters, the dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis found support in the analysis of gamma rays from the inner Galaxy seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed a possible excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center (Fermi GeV excess). The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution that strongly peaks towards the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsation from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and the gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previ...

  1. Thermodynamic optimization of solid oxide fuel cell based combined cycle cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odukoya, A.; Reddy, B.V. [University of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Carretero, J.A. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although coal has the highest greenhouse gas emission of all fossil fuels it is the most abundant of all the fuels. Optimization of new and existing power plant designs will help increase the operational efficiency of power generation. In particular, there is a need to optimize the design and operating parameters of power plants using integrated gasification combined cycle cogeneration technology. This study investigated the optimal operating condition of a co-fired combined cycle cogeneration power plant with solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) combination fuelled with coal and natural gas. It examined the macroscopic detail of the plant while optimizing the operating parameters of individual components such as the gasifier, the consumption of methane and carbon monoxide in the fuel cell and the consumption of fuel in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine. The optimization of the entire plant was used to determine the best mode of operating the plant for a set of conditions within suggested limits. The study also found efficient ways to perform iterative processes to find exit conditions from the gasifier, fuel cell, gas turbine combustion chamber and exit condition from the gas turbine. The maximum fuel cell net work output, combined cycle net work output, combined cycle thermal efficiency and cogeneration efficiency were determined. The optimal pressure ratio, temperature of operation of the SOFC and, gas turbine inlet temperature were determined using a sequential quadratic program solver based on the Quasi-Newton algorithm. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Study of thermodynamic and transport properties of phosphonium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Physical and transport properties of three hydrophilic phoshonium ILs were determined. ► Experimental density, viscosity, refractive index and speed of sound were correlated. ► Predictive equations were successfully employed to predict density of the three ILs. -- Abstract: In this work, the experimental values of density, speed of sound, refractive index and dynamic viscosity have been obtained from T = (293.15 to 343.15) K for the three phosphonium-based ionic liquids: tributyl methyl phoshponium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4), tributyl ethyl phosphonium diethylphosphate (P4442 (C2)2PO4) and tributyl octyl phosphonium chloride (P4448 Cl). The isentropic compressibility has been calculated by means of the Laplace equation from the experimental speed of sound results for the three ionic liquids at different temperatures. Density, speed of sound, refractive index and isentropic compressibility have been correlated by polynomial equations. The Lorentz–Lorenz, Dale–Gladstone, Eykman, Oster, Arago–Biot, Newton and modified Eykman equations were the empirical models used to correlate satisfactorily the relationship between the densities and refractive indices of the ionic liquids selected. The temperature dependence of the experimental dynamic viscosities for the ionic liquids selected can be described by an Arrhenius-like law and by VFT equations. The Riedel, Narsimham, Bradford–Thodos, Yen–Woods, Rackett, Spencer–Danner, Gunn–Yamada, Hankinson–Thomson (COSTALD model), VSY, VSD, MH and LGM equations were employed to predict the densities of the pure ionic liquids

  3. Modeling the structure and thermodynamics of ferrocenium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Carlos E S; Mochida, Tomoyuki; Canongia Lopes, José N

    2015-04-21

    A new force-field for the description of ferrocenium-based ionic liquids is reported. The proposed model was validated by confronting Molecular Dynamics simulations results with available experimental data-enthalpy of fusion, crystalline structure and liquid density-for a series of 1-alkyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-octamethylferrocenium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, [CnFc][NTf2] (3 ≤ n ≤ 10). The model is able to reproduce the densities and enthalpies of fusion with deviations smaller than 2.6% and 4.8 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The MD simulation trajectories were also used to compute relevant structural information for the different [CnFc][NTf2] ionic liquids. The results show that, unlike other ILs, the alkyl side chains present in the cations are able to interact directly with the ferrocenium core of other ions. Even the ferrocenium charged cores (with relatively mild charge densities) are able to form small contact aggregates. This causes the partial rupture of the polar network and precludes the formation of extended nano-segregated polar-nonpolar domains normally observed in other ionic liquids. PMID:25797914

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined chemical looping-based trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A conceptual zero emission trigeneration plant is developed. • Energy and exergy based performance analysis is performed. • The optimum system performances are specified with parametric and case studies. • The plant energy and exergy efficiencies are 56.9% and 45.05%, respectively. - Abstract: Energy and exergy analyses of a newly developed three-reactor chemical looping hydrogen generation process are performed for trigeneration of power, hydrogen, and heating. The present integrated system consists of an (a) air separation unit (ASU), (b) gasification sub-system, (c) chemical looping hydrogen generation unit in connection with SOFC assisted gas turbine (CLHG-SOFC/GT), (d) an extended heat recovery steam generation unit (HRSG) to supply heat for Steam cycle, organic Rankine cycle and space heating, (e) a two stage steam Rankine cycle (SRC) for power generation with reheat and regeneration, and (f) an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to produce power. The gasified coal is separated and purified in quench chamber and syngas cleaner; CO2 and H2 are generated from fuel and steam reactors of chemical looping unit, and both are then compressed after separated from water and ready for transportation. A specified amount of H2 produced from steam reactor is also used to produce electricity with SOFC/GT. A comprehensive parametric study is performed, and the effects of multi-generation and system integration, environmental conditions, and system parameter variations on overall efficiencies are investigated. Overall electrical, hydrogen, energy and exergy efficiencies are comparatively determined for different cases. Overall energy and exergy efficiencies of proposed system are found to be 56.9% and 45.05%, respectively, with a total exergy destruction rate of 15,421 kW. The highest exergy destruction occurs in the gasifier and CLHG due to high temperature chemical processes

  5. Density functional theory study of the thermodynamic and elastic properties of Ni-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermophysical properties of Ni-based single-crystal superalloys were investigated using first-principles calculations combined with the quasiharmonic approximation. The effect of alloying elements X (X = Re, Ru, Ta, W, Mo, Cr, and Co) on the thermophysical properties of the γ-Ni and γ′-Ni3Al phases was investigated. The calculations showed that alloying can effectively adjust the lattice misfit between the two phases, and Cr can suppress lattice misfit and may improve the creep resistance of alloys. At 0 K, doping with refractory elements leads to tetragonal shear softening of the γ-Ni phase. For γ-Ni, Re, Ru, Cr, and Co slightly increase c44, while Mo, W, and Ta decrease c44. Importantly, high-temperature relative hardening was found to occur close to the service temperature of the superalloy, at which Ru and Cr increase c′ and Mo and W increase c44 of γ-Ni. For the γ′-Ni3Al phase, all of the alloying elements except Co considerably increase c′ and c44. Re and W at the Al site were found to most effectively harden the γ′-Ni3Al phase. The thermophysical and elastic properties were fully understood by analysis of the electronic structures and phonon spectra. It was found that the electronic density of states (DOS) can account for elastic hardening due to alloying. The phonon spectra along with electronic DOS analysis showed that alloying not only strengthens the first nearest neighbor Ni–X bond through additional d–d hybridization, but it is also important for stiffening the second nearest neighbor Al–X bonding through p-band filling. (paper)

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-pressure economizer based waste heat recovery system for a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An LPE (low-pressure economizer) based waste heat recovery system for a CFPP (coal-fired power plant) is investigated thermodynamically. With the installation of LPE in the flue before the FGD (flue gas desulfurizer), the heat contained in the exhaust flue gas can be recovered effectively and the water consumption can be reduced in the FGD resulted from the temperature dropped flue gas. The impacts on the related apparatuses after installing LPE in a CFPP are analyzed and the internal relationships among correlated parameters are presented. The efficiencies of LPE installed in a CFPP evaluated by the first law, the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are also compared and analyzed. A detailed case study based on a 350 MW CFPP unit is presented and the variations of the thermal performance after the installation of LPE are investigated. The results show that the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are increased which can be indicators to evaluate the performance of the LPE system while the first law efficiency is decreased after installing LPE. Results also show that the saving of SCE (standard coal equivalent) is 3.85 g/(kW·h) for this CFPP unit under full load after installing LPE. - Highlights: • An evaluation method of the LPE (low-pressure economizer) system is established. • Impacts on the original thermal system by installing LPE are investigated. • A theoretical guideline is provided to improve the thermal system efficiency by LPE. • A detailed case is presented to demonstrate the energy saving of the LPE system

  7. Natural thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-02-01

    The principle of increasing entropy is derived from statistical physics of open systems assuming that quanta of actions, as undividable basic build blocks, embody everything. According to this tenet, all systems evolve from one state to another either by acquiring quanta from their surroundings or by discarding quanta to the surroundings in order to attain energetic balance in least time. These natural processes result in ubiquitous scale-free patterns: skewed distributions that accumulate in a sigmoid manner and hence span log-log scales mostly as straight lines. Moreover, the equation for least-time motions reveals that evolution is by nature a non-deterministic process. Although the obtained insight in thermodynamics from the notion of quanta in motion yields nothing new, it accentuates that contemporary comprehension is impaired when modeling evolution as a computable process by imposing conservation of energy and thereby ignoring that quantum of actions are the carriers of energy from the system to its surroundings.

  8. Lightweight Mg-based composites with thermodynamically stable interfaces by in-situ combustion synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ilguk

    Lightweight Mg-based composites have been produced by in-situ combustion synthesis of the Al-Ti-C reaction system. The characteristics of the in-situ composites were investigated in terms of phase evolution and interfacial stability using various analysis techniques. The structural analysis results showed that full conversion of the Al-Ti-C reactants into spherical TiC reinforcements with sizes around 1mum was achieved by the combustion reaction. In-situ formed TiC had less oxygen and higher Al contents at the interface than ex-situ formed TiC; these clean interfaces with an Al layer on the reinforcements were shown to yield interfacial stability. For these reasons, the in-situ composites exhibited higher theoretical densities and also good mechanical properties compared with ex-situ produced composites. The interfacial characteristics of molten Mg with the Al-Ti-C reactants and the commercial TiC+Al substrates were evaluated using an infiltration technique under an argon atmosphere. Infiltration length increased with time at temperature, yielding activation energies (Ea) for each system. The value of Ea for the Al-Ti-C system (307.31kJ/mol) is lower than that for the other system (350.84kJ/mol); the high Ea value indicates that the infiltration is not a simple viscosity-controlled phenomenon but involves a chemical reaction. Formation of the Al3Ti phase was observed from the crystal structural analysis of the infiltrated area; thus, existence of reaction promoting the wetting of Mg. The phase evolution, reaction mechanism and kinetics of the Al-Ti-C reaction were studied using DSC and HT-XRD. It was confirmed that, along with the melting of Al, there was formation of Al3Ti by reaction between Al and Ti. A detailed structural analysis indicates that, the reaction mechanism involves melting of Al followed by formation and growth of Al 3Ti, which then contacts the graphite powder and initiates the combustion reaction. The effect of important process parameters, such

  9. A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application based on Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium assumption for the elemental analysis of alexandrite gemstone and copper-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, A.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Gaudiuso, R.; Santagata, A.; Senesi, G. S.; Rossi, M.; Ghiara, M. R.; Capitelli, F.; De Pascale, O.

    2012-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.

  10. Influences of acid-base property of membrane on interfacial interactions related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leihong; Qu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Meijia; Lin, Hongjun; Zhou, Xiaoling; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Mei, Rongwu; Hong, Huachang

    2016-08-01

    Failure of membrane hydrophobicity in predicting membrane fouling requires a more reliable indicator. In this study, influences of membrane acid base (AB) property on interfacial interactions in two different interaction scenarios in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were studied according to thermodynamic approaches. It was found that both the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and foulant samples in the MBR had relatively high electron donor (γ(-)) component and low electron acceptor (γ(+)) component. For both of interaction scenarios, AB interaction was the major component of the total interaction. The results showed that, the total interaction monotonically decreased with membrane γ(-), while was marginally affected by membrane γ(+), suggesting that γ(-) could act as a reliable indicator for membrane fouling prediction. This study suggested that membrane modification for fouling mitigation should orient to improving membrane surface γ(-) component rather than hydrophilicity. PMID:27155263

  11. The metallicity distribution of bulge clump giants in Baade's Window

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, V; Gomez, A; Zoccali, M; Schultheis, M; Babusiaux, C; Royer, F; Barbuy, B; Arenou, F; Minniti, D; Ortolani, S

    2011-01-01

    We seek to constrain the formation of the Galactic bulge by means of analysing the detailed chemical composition of a large sample of red clump stars in Baade's window. We measure [Fe/H] in a sample of 219 bulge red clump stars from R=20000 resolution spectra obtained with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, using an automatic procedure, differentially to the metal-rich local reference star muLeo. For a subsample of 162 stars, we also derive [Mg/H] from spectral synthesis around the MgI triplet at 6319A. The Fe and Mg metallicity distributions are both asymmetric, with median values of +0.16 and +0.21 respectively. The iron distribution is clearly bimodal, as revealed both by a deconvolution (from observational errors) and a Gaussian decomposition. The decomposition of the observed Fe and Mg metallicity distributions into Gaussian components yields two populations of equal sizes (50% each): a metal-poor component centred around [Fe/H]=-0.30 and [Mg/H]=-0.06 with a large dispersion and a narrow metal-rich component cen...

  12. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disk galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrised up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the midplane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically-symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second bucklin...

  13. Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge using Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, S F; Kálnay, A J; Saha, P; Zhao, H S; Beaulieu, Sylvie F.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kalnajs, Agris J.; Saha, Prasenjit; Zhao, HongSheng

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for a bar at the center of the Milky Way triggered a renewed enthusiasm for dynamical modelling of the Galactic bar-bulge. Our goal is to compare the kinematics of a sample of tracers, planetary nebulae, widely distributed over the bulge with the corresponding kinematics for a range of models of the inner Galaxy. Three of these models are N-body barred systems arising from the instabilities of a stellar disk (Sellwood, Fux and Kalnajs), and one is a Schwarzschild system constructed to represent the 3D distribution of the COBE/DIRBE near-IR light and then evolved as an N-body system for a few dynamical times (Zhao). For the comparison of our data with the models, we use a new technique developed by Saha (1998). The procedure finds the parameters of each model, i.e. the solar galactocentric distance R_o in model units, the orientation angle phi, the velocity scale (in km/s per model unit), and the solar tangential velocity which best fit the data.

  14. Stellar Populations of Bulges in 14 Cluster Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Pizzella, A; Méndez-Abreu, J; Corsini, E M; Coccato, L; Saglia, R P; Sarzi, M; Bertola, F

    2008-01-01

    Photometry and long-slit spectroscopy are presented for 14 S0 and spiral galaxies of the Fornax, Eridanus and Pegasus cluster, and NGC 7582 group. The structural parameters of the galaxies are derived from the R-band images by performing a two-dimensional photometric decomposition of the surface-brightness distribution. This is assumed to be the sum of the contribution of a bulge and disc component characterized by elliptical and concentric isophotes with constant (but possibly different) ellipticity and position angles. The rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are measured from the spectra obtained along the major axis of galaxies. The radial profiles of the Hb, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented too. Correlations between the central values of Mgd, , Hb, and sigma are found. The age, metallicity and alpha/Fe enhancement of the stellar population in the center and at the radius where bulge and disc give the same contribution to the total surface brightness are obtained using stellar po...

  15. Two Pseudobulges in the "Boxy Bulge" Galaxy NGC 5746

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy formation and growth under the {\\Lambda}CDM paradigm is expected to proceed in a hierarchical, bottom-up fashion by which small galaxies grow into large galaxies; this mechanism leaves behind large "classical bulges" kinematically distinct from "pseudobulges" grown by internal, secular processes. We use archival data (Spitzer 3.6 \\mum wavelength, Hubble Space Telescope H-band, Two Micron All Sky Survey Ks-band, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri-band) to measure composite minor- and major-axis surface brightness profiles of the almost-edgeon spiral galaxy NGC 5746. These light profiles span a large range of radii and surface brightnesses to reveal an inner, high surface brightness stellar component that is distinct from the well-known boxy bulge. It is well fitted by S\\'ersic functions with indices n = 0.99 \\pm 0.08 and 1.17 \\pm 0.24 along the minor and major axes, respectively. Since n < 2, we conclude that this innermost component is a secularly-evolved pseudobulge that is distinct from the boxy pse...

  16. The metal content of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6528

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, M.; Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Ortolani, S.; Renzini, A.; Bica, E.; Momany, Y.; Pasquini, L.; Minniti, D.; Rich, R. M.

    2004-08-01

    High resolution spectra of five stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6528 were obtained at the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph. Out of the five stars, two of them showed evidence of binarity. The target stars belong to the horizontal and red giant branch stages, at 4000 elemental ratios for this template bulge cluster, as a basis for the fundamental calibration of metal-rich populations. The present analysis provides a metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.1±0.2 and the α-elements O, Mg and Si, show [α/Fe] ≈ +0.1, whereas Ca and Ti are around the solar value or below, resulting in an overall metallicity Z ≈ Z⊙. Observations collected both at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal and La Silla, Chile (ESO programme 65.L-0340) and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA Inc. under contract to NASA. Tables \\ref{targets}, \\ref{logobs}, \\ref{tablines} and Fig. \\ref{chart} are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  17. The Calcium Triplet metallicity calibration for galactic bulge stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vasquez, S; Hill, V; Gonzalez, O A; Saviane, I; Rejkuba, M; Battaglia, G

    2015-01-01

    We present a new calibration of the Calcium II Triplet equivalent widths versus [Fe/H], constructed upon K giant stars in the Galactic bulge. This calibration will be used to derive iron abundances for the targets of the GIBS survey, and in general it is especially suited for solar and supersolar metallicity giants, typical of external massive galaxies. About 150 bulge K giants were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT, both at resolution R~20,000 and at R~6,000. In the first case, the spectra allowed us to perform direct determination of Fe abundances from several unblended Fe lines, deriving what we call here high resolution [Fe/H] measurements. The low resolution spectra allowed us to measure equivalent widths of the two strongest lines of the near infrared Calcium II triplet at 8542 and 8662 A. By comparing the two measurements we derived a relation between Calcium equivalent widths and [Fe/H] that is linear over the metallicity range probed here, -1<[Fe/H]<+0.7. By adding a small second or...

  18. A density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) based approach to understand the effect of symmetry of fullerenes on the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of carbon NanoBuds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Amrit; Roy, Ram Kinkar

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we have rationalized the effect of variation in the symmetry of relatively smaller fullerene (C32) on the mode of its interaction with semi-conducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the process of formation of stable hybrid carbon NanoBuds. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, along with the charge transfer values associated with the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs, have been evaluated using an un-conventional and computationally cost-effective method based on density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). In addition to this, conventional DFT based studies are also performed to substantiate the growth of NanoBud structures formed by the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs. The findings of the present study suggest that the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of hybrid carbon NanoBuds are significantly influenced by both the symmetry of C32 fullerene and its site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT.

  19. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zambrano; Alberto Hernando; Aurelio Fernandez-Bariviera; Ricardo Hernando; Angelo Plastino

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving a...

  20. Breast tissue bulge and lesion visibility during stereotactic biopsy – A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: During mammography guided stereotactic breast biopsy a bulge of tissue can form in the paddle needle biopsy aperture. This bulge has been estimated to have a height of up to 30% of the breast itself. During clinical biopsy we have noticed that lesions can appear to be less visible when tissue bulges are evident. This can make biopsy more difficult in some cases. Objectives: This experiment investigates how lesion visibility varies with breast bulge magnitude. Method: Using a phantom to represent breast and breast bulge, lesion visibility was assessed using a two alternative forced choice methodology. To mimic clinical conditions, imaging was performed on a full field digital mammography system with the biopsy paddle attached using an automatic exposure device. Organ dose (breast) was estimated. Results: As breast bulge increases lesion visibility decreases; organ dose increases as breast bulge magnitude increases. Conclusion: Consideration should be given to the impact of breast bulge magnitude and lesion visibility when performing image guided biopsy. Advances in knowledge: The authors found no similar studies and the results of this study demonstrate a potential clinical risk

  1. Bulge formation and necking in a polymer tube under dynamic expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Britta; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2008-01-01

    imposed loading are prescribed: (i) a pressure that increases linearly with time and (ii) a change in enclosed volume that increases linearly with time. For both loading conditions, an axisymmetric bulge develops on the tube followed by necking in the bulge. The necks propagate in both the circumferential...

  2. β-Bulges: extensive structural analyses of β-sheets irregularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveur, Pierrick; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Rebehmed, Joseph; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2013-10-01

    β-Sheets are quite frequent in protein structures and are stabilized by regular main-chain hydrogen bond patterns. Irregularities in β-sheets, named β-bulges, are distorted regions between two consecutive hydrogen bonds. They disrupt the classical alternation of side chain direction and can alter the directionality of β-strands. They are implicated in protein-protein interactions and are introduced to avoid β-strand aggregation. Five different types of β-bulges are defined. Previous studies on β-bulges were performed on a limited number of protein structures or one specific family. These studies evoked a potential conservation during evolution. In this work, we analyze the β-bulge distribution and conservation in terms of local backbone conformations and amino acid composition. Our dataset consists of 66 times more β-bulges than the last systematic study (Chan et al. Protein Science 1993, 2:1574-1590). Novel amino acid preferences are underlined and local structure conformations are highlighted by the use of a structural alphabet. We observed that β-bulges are preferably localized at the N- and C-termini of β-strands, but contrary to the earlier studies, no significant conservation of β-bulges was observed among structural homologues. Displacement of β-bulges along the sequence was also investigated by Molecular Dynamics simulations. PMID:23904395

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, M; Sagis, L M C

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects. PMID:25494727

  5. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani

    2013-01-01

    promising direction for a general and useful for engineering purposes modeling of complex thermodynamics is via the use of association theories e.g. those based on chemical theory (like APACT), or on the lattice theory (like NRHB) or those based on perturbation theory (like SAFT and CPA). The purpose of......Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...

  6. The chemical evolution of the Galactic Bulge seen through micro-lensing events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucatello S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Galactic bulges are central to understanding galaxy formation and evolution. Here we report on recent studies using micro-lensing events to obtain spectra of high resolution and moderately high signal-to-noise ratios of dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge. Normally this is not feasible for the faint turn-off stars in the Galactic bulge, but micro-lensing offers this possibility. Elemental abundance trends in the Galactic bulge as traced by dwarf stars are very similar to those seen for dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood. We discuss the implications of the ages and metallicity distribution function derived for the micro-lensed dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge.

  7. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disk Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2015-01-01

    This is the summary chapter of a review book on galaxy bulges. Bulge properties and formation histories are more varied than those of ellipticals. I emphasize two advances: 1 - "Classical bulges" are observationally indistinguishable from ellipticals, and like them, are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. "Disky pseudobulges" are diskier and more actively star-forming (except in S0s) than are ellipticals. Theys are products of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy disks: bars and other nonaxisymmetries move disk gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds relatively flat, rapidly rotating components. This secular evolution is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. 2 - Disks of high-redshift galaxies are unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge - an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. I review successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges+ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with...

  8. Why the Milky Way's bulge is not only a bar formed from a cold thin disk

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, P; Haywood, M; Combes, F; Lehnert, M D; Ness, M; Snaith, O N; Katz, D; Semelin, B

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing a N-body simulation of a bulge formed simply via a bar instability mechanism operating on a kinematically cold stellar disk, and by comparing the results of this analysis with the structural and kinematic properties of the main stellar populations of the Milky Way bulge, we conclude that the bulge of our Galaxy is not a pure stellar bar formed from a pre-existing thin stellar disk, as some studies have recently suggested. On the basis of several arguments emphasized in this paper, we propose that the bulge population which, in the Milky Way, is observed not to be part of the peanut structure corresponds to the old galactic thick disk, thus implying that the Milky Way is a pure thin+thick disk galaxy, with only a possible limited contribution of a classical bulge.

  9. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 2. Thermodynamic properties of alkanes, alcohols, polyols, and ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyekjær, Jane Dannow; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) models for prediction of various thermodynamic properties of simple organic compounds have been developed. A number of new descriptors are proposed and used alongside with descriptors available within the Codessa program. An important feature in...

  10. Self-assembly thermodynamics of pH-responsive amino-acid-based polymers with a nonionic surfactant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogomolova, Anna; Keller, S.; Klingler, J.; Sedlak, M.; Rak, D.; Šturcová, Adriana; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Filippov, Sergey K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 38 (2014), s. 11307-11318. ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14292 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200501201 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer * surfactant * thermodynamic s Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.457, year: 2014

  11. Thermodynamic characteristics of the acid-base equilibria of taurine in aqueous solutions, according to calorimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridchin, S. N.; Shekhanov, R. F.; Pyreu, D. F.

    2015-02-01

    Enthalpies of the neutralization and protonation of taurine (HL) are measured by direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 (KNO3). The standard thermodynamic characteristics of HL protolytic equilibria are calculated.

  12. A TWO-PHASE SCENARIO FOR BULGE ASSEMBLY IN ΛCDM COSMOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze and compare the bulges of a sample of L * spiral galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological context, using two different codes, P-DEVA and GASOLINE. The codes regulate star formation in very different ways, with P-DEVA simulations inputting low star formation efficiency under the assumption that feedback occurs on subgrid scales, while the GASOLINE simulations have feedback that drives large-scale outflows. In all cases, the marked knee shape in mass aggregation tracks, corresponding to the transition from an early phase of rapid mass assembly to a later slower one, separates the properties of two populations within the simulated bulges. The bulges analyzed show an important early starburst resulting from the collapse-like fast phase of mass assembly, followed by a second phase with lower star formation, driven by a variety of processes such as disk instabilities and/or mergers. Classifying bulge stellar particles identified at z = 0 into old and young according to these two phases, we found bulge stellar sub-populations with distinct kinematics, shapes, stellar ages, and metal contents. The young components are more oblate, generally smaller, more rotationally supported, with higher metallicity and less alpha-element enhanced than the old ones. These results are consistent with the current observational status of bulges, and provide an explanation for some apparently paradoxical observations, such as bulge rejuvenation and metal-content gradients observed. Our results suggest that bulges of L * galaxies will generically have two bulge populations that can be likened to classical and pseudo-bulges, with differences being in the relative proportions of the two, which may vary due to galaxy mass and specific mass accretion and merger histories.

  13. A TWO-PHASE SCENARIO FOR BULGE ASSEMBLY IN {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreja, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.; Brook, C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Serrano, F. J.; Domenech-Moral, M.; Serna, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain); Molla, M. [Departamento de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Stinson, G., E-mail: aura.obreja@uam.es [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-20

    We analyze and compare the bulges of a sample of L {sub *} spiral galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological context, using two different codes, P-DEVA and GASOLINE. The codes regulate star formation in very different ways, with P-DEVA simulations inputting low star formation efficiency under the assumption that feedback occurs on subgrid scales, while the GASOLINE simulations have feedback that drives large-scale outflows. In all cases, the marked knee shape in mass aggregation tracks, corresponding to the transition from an early phase of rapid mass assembly to a later slower one, separates the properties of two populations within the simulated bulges. The bulges analyzed show an important early starburst resulting from the collapse-like fast phase of mass assembly, followed by a second phase with lower star formation, driven by a variety of processes such as disk instabilities and/or mergers. Classifying bulge stellar particles identified at z = 0 into old and young according to these two phases, we found bulge stellar sub-populations with distinct kinematics, shapes, stellar ages, and metal contents. The young components are more oblate, generally smaller, more rotationally supported, with higher metallicity and less alpha-element enhanced than the old ones. These results are consistent with the current observational status of bulges, and provide an explanation for some apparently paradoxical observations, such as bulge rejuvenation and metal-content gradients observed. Our results suggest that bulges of L {sub *} galaxies will generically have two bulge populations that can be likened to classical and pseudo-bulges, with differences being in the relative proportions of the two, which may vary due to galaxy mass and specific mass accretion and merger histories.

  14. Understanding AGB evolution in Galactic bulge stars from high-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttenthaler, S.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Wood, P. R.; Lebzelter, T.; Aringer, B.; Schultheis, M.; Ryde, N.

    2015-08-01

    An analysis of high-resolution near-infrared spectra of a sample of 45 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars towards the Galactic bulge is presented. The sample consists of two subsamples, a larger one in the inner and intermediate bulge, and a smaller one in the outer bulge. The data are analysed with the help of hydrostatic model atmospheres and spectral synthesis. We derive the radial velocity of all stars, and the atmospheric chemical mix ([Fe/H], C/O, 12C/13C, Al, Si, Ti, and Y) where possible. Our ability to model the spectra is mainly limited by the (in)completeness of atomic and molecular line lists, at least for temperatures down to Teff ≈ 3100 K. We find that the subsample in the inner and intermediate bulge is quite homogeneous, with a slightly subsolar mean metallicity and only few stars with supersolar metallicity, in agreement with previous studies of non-variable M-type giants in the bulge. All sample stars are oxygen-rich, C/O isotopic ratios suggest that third dredge-up (3DUP) is absent among the sample stars, except for two stars in the outer bulge that are known to contain technetium. These stars are also more metal-poor than the stars in the intermediate or inner bulge. Current stellar masses are determined from linear pulsation models. The masses, metallicities and 3DUP behaviour are compared to AGB evolutionary models. We conclude that these models are partly in conflict with our observations. Furthermore, we conclude that the stars in the inner and intermediate bulge belong to a more metal-rich population that follows bar-like kinematics, whereas the stars in the outer bulge belong to the metal-poor, spheroidal bulge population.

  15. Application of zone-folding approach to the first-principles estimation of thermodynamic properties of carbon and ZrS2 -based nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Andrei V; Porsev, Vitaly V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2016-03-15

    A zone-folding (ZF) approach is applied for the estimation of the phonon contributions to thermodynamic properties of carbon-and ZrS2 -based nanotubes (NTs) of hexagonal morphology with different chiralities. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculation of the thermodynamic properties of NTs using PBE0 hybrid exchange-correlation functional. The phonon contribution to the stability of NTs proved to be negligible for the internal energy and small for the Helmholtz free energy. It is found that the ZF approach allows us an accurate estimation of phonon contributions to internal energy, but slightly overestimates the phonon contributions to entropy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26519863

  16. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces for Adsorption of R507A, R134a, and n -Butane on Pitch-Based Carbonaceous Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2010-10-01

    The thermodynamic property surfaces of R507A, R134a, and n-butane on pitch-based carbonaceous porous material (Maxsorb III) are developed from rigorous classical thermodynamics and experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data. These property fields enable us to compute the entropy, enthalpy, internal energy, and heat of adsorption as a function of pressure, temperature, and the amount of adsorbate. The entropy and enthalpy maps are necessary for the analysis of adsorption cooling cycle and gas storage. We have shown here that it is possible to plot an adsorption cooling cycle on the temperature-entropy (T-s) and enthalpy-uptake (h-x) maps. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC 2010.

  17. The Star-Forming Histories of the Nucleus, Bulge, and Inner Disk of NGC 5102: Clues to the Evolution of a Nearby Lenticular Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J

    2014-01-01

    Long slit spectra recorded with GMOS on Gemini South are used to examine the star-forming history of the lenticular galaxy NGC 5102. Structural and supplemental photometric information are obtained from archival Spitzer [3.6] images. Comparisons with model spectra point to luminosity-weighted metallicities that are consistent with the colors of resolved red giant branch stars in the disk. The nucleus has a luminosity-weighted age at visible wavelengths of ~1 Gyr, and the integrated light is dominated by stars that formed over a time period of only a few hundred Myr. For comparison, the luminosity-weighted ages of the bulge and disk are ~2 Gyr and ~10 Gyr, respectively. The g'-[3.6] colors of the nucleus and bulge are consistent with the spectroscopically-based ages. In contrast to the nucleus, models that assume star-forming activity spanning many Gyr provide a better match to the spectra of the bulge and disk than simple stellar population models. Isophotes in the bulge have a disky shape, hinting that the b...

  18. Optimum design of dual pressure heat recovery steam generator using non-dimensional parameters based on thermodynamic and thermoeconomic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses are investigated to achieve the optimum operating parameters of a dual pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), coupled with a heavy duty gas turbine. In this regard, the thermodynamic objective function including the exergy waste and the exergy destruction, is defined in such a way to find the optimum pinch point, and consequently to minimize the objective function by using non-dimensional operating parameters. The results indicated that, the optimum pinch point from thermodynamic viewpoint is 2.5 °C and 2.1 °C for HRSGs with live steam at 75 bar and 90 bar respectively. Since thermodynamic analysis is not able to consider economic factors, another objective function including annualized installation cost and annual cost of irreversibilities is proposed. To find the irreversibility cost, electricity price and also fuel price are considered independently. The optimum pinch point from thermoeconomic viewpoint on basis of electricity price is 20.6 °C (75 bar) and 19.2 °C (90 bar), whereas according to the fuel price it is 25.4 °C and 23.7 °C. Finally, an extensive sensitivity analysis is performed to compare optimum pinch point for different electricity and fuel prices. -- Highlights: ► Presenting thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimization of a heat recovery steam generator. ► Defining an objective function consists of exergy waste and exergy destruction. ► Defining an objective function including capital cost and cost of irreversibilities. ► Obtaining the optimized operating parameters of a dual pressure heat recovery boiler. ► Computing the optimum pinch point using non-dimensional operating parameters

  19. Conceptual design of a thermo-electrical energy storage system based on heat integration of thermodynamic cycles – Part B: Alternative system configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to more consolidated but site-dependent electricity storage technologies such as pump-hydro or compressed air energy storage. During charge electricity is converted into thermal energy by means of a heat pump and during discharge a thermal engine converts thermal energy into electricity. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and on transcritical CO2 cycles is discussed in two papers (part A and part B). A methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on Pinch Analysis tools was introduced in part A together with the results of a thermodynamic optimization of a base case. The overall synthesis problem was solved by implementing in the optimization a heuristic procedure for the synthesis of the heat exchanger network and the storage tanks thus letting the optimal complete system structure and its design parameters to be found for given values of cycle parameters. In part A, basic topologies for the CO2 heat pump (HP) and thermal engine (TE) were considered, and no alternative cycle configurations were investigated through the optimization. A larger synthesis problem involving the change of cycle topologies is addressed in this second paper. Different system configurations were generated by modifying the base case configuration through an organized procedure and were optimized separately following the objective of maximum roundtrip efficiency only, as done for the base case in part A. The optimization results of the new configurations are discussed and compared with the base case scenario. A complete picture of the impact of design choices on the maximum system performances is obtained. -- Highlights: ► A thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO2 cycles is investigated.

  20. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  1. Iron Reduction and Radionuclide Immobilization: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Hydrologic controls and Reaction-Based Modeling - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research focused on (1) microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) individually, and concomitantly in natural sediments, (2) Fe(III) oxide surface chemistry, specifically with respect to reactions with Fe(II)and U(VI), (3) the influence of humic substances on Fe(III) and U(VI) bioreduction, and on U(VI) complexation, and (4) the development of reaction-based reactive transport biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results. We have continued our investigations on microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Modeling our earlier experimental results required assumption of a hydrated surface for hematite, more reactive than predicted based on theoretical solubility (Burgos et al.2002). Subsequent studies with Shewanella putrefaciens and Geobacter sulfurreducens confirmed the rates of Fe(III) bioreduction depend on oxide surface area rather than oxide thermodynamic properties (Roden,2003a,b;2004; Burgos et al,2003). We examined the potential for bioreduction of U(VI) by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of synthetic Fe(III) oxides and natural Fe(III) oxide-containing solids (Jeon et al,2004a,b) in which more than 95% of added U(VI) was sorbed to mineral surfaces. The results showed a significant portion of solid-associated U(VI) was resistant to both enzymatic and abiotic (Fe(II)-driven) reduction, but the rate and extent of bioreduction of U(VI) was increased due to the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). We conducted long-term semicontinuous culture and column experiments on coupled Fe(III) oxide/U(VI) reduction. These experiments were conducted with natural subsurface sediment from the Oyster site in Virginia, whose Fe content and microbial reducibility are comparable to ORNL FRC sediments (Jeon et al, 2004b). The results conclusively demonstrated the potential for sustained removal of U(VI) from solution via DMRB activity in excess of the U(VI) sorption capacity of the natural mineral assemblages. Jang (2004) demonstrated

  2. Gamma rays from the galactic bulge and large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intriguing feature of extra dimensions is the possible production of Kaluza-Klein gravitons by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, in the course of core collapse of massive stars, with gravitons then being trapped around the newly born neutron stars and decaying into two gamma rays, making neutron stars gamma-ray sources. We strengthen the limits on the radius of compactification of extra dimensions for a small number n of them, or alternatively the fundamental scale of quantum gravity, considering the gamma-ray emission of the whole population of neutron stars sitting in the Galactic bulge, instead of the closest member of this category. For n=1 the constraint on the compactification radius is R<400 μm

  3. Lensing of unresolved stars towards the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Alard, C

    1996-01-01

    Previous calculations of the rates and optical depths due to microlensing only considered resolved stars. However, if a faint unresolved star lens is close enough to a resolved star, the event will be seen by the microlensing experiments and attributed to the bighter star. The blending biases the duration, making the contribution of the unresolved stars very significant for short events. This contribution is confused with lensing by brown dwarfs. The exact rates of these blended events are extremly sensitive to the limiting magnitude achieved in the microlensing search. Appropriate calculations of the optical depth and rates are provided here, and illustrated in the case of the DUO and OGLE experiments. The additional contribution of unresolved stars is very significant and probably explains the high optical depth and rates observed towards the Galactic Bulge. The blended unresolved event can be identified using either the color shift or the light curve shape. However, neither of these two methods is apropria...

  4. Variability of Optical Counterparts in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britt, Christopher T; Johnson, C B; Baldwin, A; Jonker, P G; Nelemans, G; Torres, M A P; Maccarone, T; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Heinke, C; Bassa, C G; Collazzi, A; Villar, A; Gabb, M; Gossen, L

    2014-01-01

    We present optical lightcurves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey. Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from $\\sim2$ hr to 8 days over the $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the lightcurve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. $87\\%$ of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. $24\\%$ of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and di...

  5. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  6. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Francesca; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disc galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrized up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the mid-plane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second buckling and find that this phenomenon spurs an additional set of even deeper minima in the fourth moment. Finally, we show how the results evolve when inclining the disc away from perfectly edge-on and face-on. The behaviour of stars born during the course of the simulations is discussed and confronted to that of the pre-existing disc. The general aim of our study is providing a handle to identify boxy/peanut structures and their properties in latest generation Integral Field Unit observations of nearby disc galaxies.

  7. Simulating Metabolism with Statistical Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, William R.

    2014-08-04

    Kinetic probabilities of state are usually based on empirical measurements, while thermodynamic state probabilities are based on the assumption that chemical species are distributed to according to a multinomial Boltzmann distribution. While the use of kinetic simulations is desirable, obtaining all the mass action rate constants necessary to carry out kinetic simulations is an overwhelming challenge. Here, the kinetic probability of a state is compared in depth to the thermodynamic probability of a state for sets of coupled reactions. The entropic and energetic contributions to thermodynamic stable states are described and compared to entropic and energetic contributions of kinetic steady states. It is shown that many kinetic steady states are possible for a system of coupled reactions depending on the relative values of the mass action rate constants, but only one of these corresponds to a thermodynamically stable state. Furthermore, the thermodynamic stable state corresponds to a minimum free energy state. The use of thermodynamic simulations of state to model metabolic processes is attractive, since metabolite levels and energy requirements of pathways can be evaluated using only standard free energies of formation as parameters in the probability distribution. In chemical physics, the assumption of a Boltzmann distribution is the basis of transition state theory for modeling transitory species. Application to stable species, such as those found in metabolic processes, is a less severe assumption that would enable the use of simulations of state.

  8. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of modified cellulose fiber-based materials and related interactions with water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedane, Alemayehu H., E-mail: Alemayehu.Bedane@unb.ca; Xiao, Huining, E-mail: hxiao@unb.ca; Eić, Mladen, E-mail: meic@unb.ca; Farmahini-Farahani, Madjid, E-mail: Madjid.Farahani@unb.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Coating on paper increases the specific surface area but decreases the pore diameter. • Pore size reduction and decrease of hydrophilic property caused reduction in WVTRs. • The low monolayer moisture content of the sample is generally related to the low WVTR. • The net isosteric heats of adsorption decreased with increased sample moisture content. • FT-IR results reveal the formation of water clusters at higher relative humidities. - Abstract: In this study, the surface characteristics, water vapor interactions, and state of water adsorbed on unmodified and coated paper samples were investigated in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental principles related to thermodynamics of this process, as well as to provide essential insight that could be used for further improvement of the papers’ barrier properties. Based on the BET measurement, the coated paper samples showed higher specific surface areas than unmodified paper; however, their mean pore diameters are smaller. The BJH method was used for pore size distribution analysis. Hydrophobic properties of the paper samples were determined from experimental isotherms, e.g., monolayer moisture content, and these results have been related to the water vapor transfer rates (WVTRs) showing a complex nature of these relations. The highest peak corresponding to the modified samples with smaller pore sizes was found to be in the range of 1–30 nm, while it was in the 30–100 nm pore size range for unmodified paper. The net isosteric heats of sorption for different unmodified and modified paper samples were determined from water vapor adsorption isotherms measured at 15, 25, and 35 °C. The net isosteric heats of sorption decreased with an increase of moisture content after reaching the maximum values at 12.53, 15.25, 14.71, 23.2, and 22.77 kJ/mol for unmodified, zein grafted, calendered coated, PLA, and PHBV coated papers, respectively. The state of adsorbed water and water

  9. Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn

  10. 基于热力学定律的绿色经济发展探究%To Explore the Green Economy Based on the Thermodynamics Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庭珠

    2011-01-01

    Green economy, whose nature is ecological economy, is a new economic development model which can promote harmonious development between the soeio - economy and the environment. As complying with environmental rules, it has the primary meaning to study the thermodynamics laws of the thermal phenomenon about the energy conversion and state changes law for the green economy. The revelations of the thermodynamics laws to green economy are explored in this paper, while the thermodynamic analyses on green economy are made. The green economic development measures are put forward based on the thermodynamics laws by building low -entropy model: following the natural law, developing green science and technology and setting low- entropy idea.%绿色经济是人类寻求的一种能够促进社会经济与环境和谐发展的新型经济发展模式,其本质是生态经济.绿色经济遵从生态规律,研究热现象中物态转变和能量转换规律的热力学定律对于绿色经济具有重要的意义.文章探究了热力学定律对绿色经济发展的启示,并对绿色经济进行了热力学分析,提出通过构建低熵发展模式、遵循自然生态规律、发展绿色科技、树立低熵观念等途径发展绿色经济.

  11. The discovery of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Based on the idea that a scientific journal is also an "agora" (Greek: market place) for the exchange of ideas and scientific concepts, the history of thermodynamics between 1800 and 1910 as documented in the Philosophical Magazine Archives is uncovered. Famous scientists such as Joule, Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Clausius, Maxwell or Boltzmann shared this forum. Not always in the most friendly manner. It is interesting to find out, how difficult it was to describe in a scientific (mathematical) language a phenomenon like "heat", to see, how long it took to arrive at one of the fundamental principles in physics: entropy. Scientific progress started from the simple rule of Boyle and Mariotte dating from the late eighteenth century and arrived in the twentieth century with the concept of probabilities. Thermodynamics was the driving intellectual force behind the industrial revolution, behind the enormous social changes caused by this revolution. The history of thermodynamics is a fascinating story, which also gives insights into the mechanism that seem to govern science.

  12. An optics-based variable-temperature assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Zhu, X. D., E-mail: xdzhu@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Huang, Shengshu; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Chen, Xi [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A biological state is equilibrium of multiple concurrent biomolecular reactions. The relative importance of these reactions depends on physiological temperature typically between 10 °C and 50 °C. Experimentally the temperature dependence of binding reaction constants reveals thermodynamics and thus details of these biomolecular processes. We developed a variable-temperature opto-fluidic system for real-time measurement of multiple (400–10 000) biomolecular binding reactions on solid supports from 10 °C to 60 °C within ±0.1 °C. We illustrate the performance of this system with investigation of binding reactions of plant lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) with 24 synthetic glycans (i.e., carbohydrates). We found that the lectin-glycan reactions in general can be enthalpy-driven, entropy-driven, or both, and water molecules play critical roles in the thermodynamics of these reactions.

  13. Thermodynamics of HCl and HF Interferences in Hot Producer Gas Desulfurization by Zinc, Cerium and Lanthanum Oxide Based Sorbents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Havlica, Jaromír; Leitner, J.; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Chen, P.-Ch.

    - : -, 2015 - (ScienceKNOW Conferences C.B.), s. 202 ISBN 978-84-944311-1-1. [International Conference on Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. Paris-Saint Denis (FR), 20.07.2015-22.07.2015] Grant ostatní: NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gas cleaning * thermodynamics * Ce2O3, La2O3 sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, M; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 bulge giants (red giant branch and red clump) with metallicities ranging from -1.3 dex to 0.5 dex. Methods. We obtained high-resolution spectra of our giant stars using the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. We inspected four bulge fields along the minor axis. Results. We measure the chemical evolution of heavy elements, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. Conclusions. The [Ba, La, Ce, Nd/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] ratios decrease with increasing metallicity, in which aspect they differ from disc stars. In our metal-poor bulge stars, La and Ba are enhanced relative to their thick disc counterpart, while in our metal-rich bulge stars La and Ba are underabundant relative to their disc counterpart. Therefore, this contrast between bulge and discs trends indicates that bulge and (solar neighbourhood) thick disc stars could behave differently. An increase in [La, Nd/Eu] with increasing m...

  15. The EMBLA Survey - Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Louise M.; Asplund, Martin; Keller, Stefan C.; Casey, Andrew R.; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S.; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.; Owen, Christopher I.; Da Costa, Gary S.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8 <[Fe/H]<- 1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that found in halo stars of the same metallicity. Two notable differences are the absence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor bulge stars, and the alpha-element abundances exhibit a large intrinsic scatter and include stars which are underabundant in these typically enhanced elements.

  16. Bulge and Clump Evolution in Hubble Ultra Deep Field Clump Clusters, Chains and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Fernandez, Maria Ximena; Lemonias, Jenna Jo

    2008-01-01

    Clump clusters and chain galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field are examined for bulges in the NICMOS images. Approximately 50% of the clump clusters and 30% of the chains have relatively red and massive clumps that could be young bulges. Magnitudes and colors are determined for these bulge-like objects and for the bulges in spiral galaxies, and for all of the prominent star-formation clumps in these three galaxy types. The colors are fitted to population evolution models to determine the bulge and clump masses, ages, star-formation rate decay times, and extinctions. The results indicate that bulge-like objects in clump cluster and chain galaxies have similar ages and 2 to 5 times larger masses compared to the star-formation clumps, while the bulges in spirals have ~6 times larger ages and 20 to 30 times larger masses than the clumps. All systems appear to have an underlying red disk population. The masses of star-forming clumps are typically in a range from 10^7 to 10^8 Msun; their ages have a wide range ar...

  17. The Molecular Gas Density in Galaxy Centers and How It Connects to Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David B; Drory, Niv; Combes, Francoise; Blitz, Leo; Wong, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present gas density, star formation rate, stellar masses, and bulge disk decompositions for a sample of 60 galaxies. Our sample is the combined sample of BIMA SONG, CARMA STING, and PdBI NUGA surveys. We study the effect of using CO-to-H_2 conversion factors that depend on the CO surface brightness, and also that of correcting star formation rates for diffuse emission from old stellar populations. We estimate that star formation rates in bulges are typically lower by 20% when correcting for diffuse emission. We find that over half of the galaxies in our sample have molecular gas surface density >100 M_sun pc^-2. We find a trend between gas density of bulges and bulge Sersic index; bulges with lower Sersic index have higher gas density. Those bulges with low Sersic index (pseudobulges) have gas fractions that are similar to that of disks. We also find that there is a strong correlation between bulges with the highest gas surface density and the galaxy being barred. However, we also find that c...

  18. Demographics of galactic bulges in the local universe through optical windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keunho; Oh, Sree; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    We present our results of two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,659 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine properties of bulges residing in the local universe (0.005 0.2) show almost constant (g-r) colors regardless of their size. We also investigated the scaling relations (Kormendy and Faber-Jackson relations), which ellipticals are generally known to follow, for all of our sample bulges. Specifically, we have found that low B/T (0.1population on the tilt with Hβ absorption line strengths and found that a significant tilt (at least more than ~ 30 % of the tilt) mainly arises from the effect of young stellar population in bulges. This implies that bulges are basically virialized systems irrespective of their size and thus the scatters about the scaling relations are a result of the presence of young stellar population preferentially in low B/T bulges. Drawn from our results, bulges seem very similar to ellipticals, although they are thought to be formed through the different formation mechanisms.

  19. Structural and thermodynamic signatures that define pseudotriloop RNA hairpins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. van der Werf (Ramon); S.S. Wijmenga (Sybren); H.A. Heus (Hans); R.C.L. Olsthoorn (René)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPseudotriloop (PTL) structures in RNAs have been recognized as essential elements in RNA folding and recognition of proteins. PTL structures are derived from hexaloops by formation of a cross-loop base pair leaving a triloop and 3′ bulged out residue. Despite their common presence and fu

  20. Stellar populations of bulges in galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2015-03-01

    The radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and α/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar α/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and α/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other phenomena, like mergers or acquisition events, need to be invoked. Such a picture is also supported by the lack of a correlation between the central value and gradient of the metallicity in bulges with very low metallicity. The stellar populations of the bulges hosted by low surface-brightness discs share many properties with those of high surface-brightness galaxies. Therefore, they are likely to have common formation scenarios and evolution histories. A strong interplay between bulges and discs is ruled out by the fact that in spite of being hosted by discs with extremely different properties, the bulges of low and high surface-brightness discs are remarkably similar.

  1. Using 3D Spectroscopy to Probe the Orbital Structure of Composite Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, Peter; Thomas, Jens; Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Rusli, Stephanie; Nowak, Nina; Beckman, John E; Beltrán, Juan Carlos Vega

    2014-01-01

    Detailed imaging and spectroscopic analysis of the centers of nearby S0 and spiral galaxies shows the existence of "composite bulges", where both classical bulges and disky pseudobulges coexist in the same galaxy. As part of a search for supermassive black holes in nearby galaxy nuclei, we obtained VLT-SINFONI observations in adaptive-optics mode of several of these galaxies. Schwarzschild dynamical modeling enables us to disentangle the stellar orbital structure of the different central components, and to distinguish the differing contributions of kinematically hot (classical bulge) and kinematically cool (pseudobulge) components in the same galaxy.

  2. Why the Milky Way's bulge is not only a bar formed from a cold thin disk

    OpenAIRE

    Di Matteo, P; Gomez, A.; Haywood, M.; Combes, F; Lehnert, M. D.; Ness, M.; Snaith, O. N.; Katz, D.; Semelin, B.

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing a N-body simulation of a bulge formed simply via a bar instability mechanism operating on a kinematically cold stellar disk, and by comparing the results of this analysis with the structural and kinematic properties of the main stellar populations of the Milky Way bulge, we conclude that the bulge of our Galaxy is not a pure stellar bar formed from a pre-existing thin stellar disk, as some studies have recently suggested. On the basis of several arguments emphasized in this paper...

  3. Retrieving Bulge and Disk Parameters and Asymptotic Magnitudes from the Growth Curves of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Okamura, S; Shimasaku, K; Yagi, M; Weinberg, D H; Okamura, Sadanori; Yasuda, Naoki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Masafumi; Weinberg, David H.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the growth curves of galaxies can be used to determine their bulge and disk parameters and bulge-to-total luminosity ratios, in addition to their conventional asymptotic magnitudes, provided that the point spread function is accurately known and signal-to-noise ratio is modest (S/N$\\gtrsim30$). The growth curve is a fundamental quantity that most future large galaxy imaging surveys will measure. Bulge and disk parameters retrieved from the growth curve will enable us to perform statistical studies of luminosity structure for a large number of galaxies.

  4. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  5. Information Thermodynamics: Maxwell's Demon in Nonequilibrium Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sagawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    We review theory of information thermodynamics which incorporates effects of measurement and feedback into nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a small system, and discuss how the second law of thermodynamics should be extended for such situations. We address the issue of the maximum work that can be extracted from the system in the presence of a feedback controller (Maxwell's demon) and provide a few illustrative examples. We also review a recent experiment that realized a Maxwell's demon based ...

  6. Thermodynamics of an accelerated expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China); Gong, Yungui; Abdalla, Elcio

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the laws of thermodynamics in an accelerating universe driven by dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state. In the case we consider that the physically relevant part of the Universe is that envelopped by the dynamical apparent horizon, we have shown that both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are satisfied. On the other hand, if the boundary of the Universe is considered to be the cosmological event horizon the thermodynamical description based on the def...

  7. DBCreate: A SUPCRT92-based program for producing EQ3/6, TOUGHREACT, and GWB thermodynamic databases at user-defined T and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Saar, Martin O.

    2013-02-01

    SUPCRT92 is a widely used software package for calculating the standard thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions. However, it is labor-intensive and error-prone to use it directly to produce databases for geochemical modeling programs such as EQ3/6, the Geochemist's Workbench, and TOUGHREACT. DBCreate is a SUPCRT92-based software program written in FORTRAN90/95 and was developed in order to produce the required databases for these programs in a rapid and convenient way. This paper describes the overall structure of the program and provides detailed usage instructions.

  8. Theoretical Modeling of Thermodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Pure Components of Ti and Zr Based Alloys Using the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals Method

    OpenAIRE

    Abrikosov, Igor; Nikonov, A. Yu; Ponomareva, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. I.; Barannikova, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) method belongs to the third and latest generation of first-principles methods of calculating the electronic structure of materials in the so-called approximation of muffin-tin (MT) orbitals within the framework of the density functional theory. A study has been performed of its applicability for modeling the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of the pure components of Ti and Zr based alloys. The total energies of Ti, Zr, Nb, V, Mo, and Al are calculat...

  9. Spectrophotometry of Planetary Nebulae in the Bulge of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Martin M.; Becker, Thomas; Kelz, Andreas; Schmoll, Jürgen

    2004-03-01

    We introduce crowded-field integral field (3D) spectrophotometry as a useful technique for the study of resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies. The spectroscopy of individual extragalactic stars, which is now feasible with efficient instruments and large telescopes, is confronted with the observational challenge of accurately subtracting the bright, spatially and wavelength-dependent nonuniform background of the underlying galaxy. As a methodological test, we present a pilot study with selected extragalactic planetary nebulae (XPNe) in the bulge of M31, demonstrating how 3D spectroscopy is able to improve the limited accuracy of background subtraction that one would normally obtain with classical slit spectroscopy. It is shown that because of the absence of slit effects, 3D spectroscopy is a most suitable technique for spectrophometry. We present spectra and line intensities for five XPNe in M31, obtained with the MPFS instrument at the Russian 6 m Bolshoi Teleskop Azimutal'nij, INTEGRAL at the William Herschel Telescope , and PMAS at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. The results for two of our targets, for which data are available in the literature, are compared with previously published emission-line intensities. The three remaining PNe have been observed spectroscopically for the first time. One object is shown to be a previously misidentified supernova remnant. Our monochromatic Hα maps are compared with direct Fabry-Pérot and narrowband filter images of the bulge of M31, verifying the presence of filamentary emission of the interstellar medium in the vicinity of our objects. We present an example of a flux-calibrated and continuum-subtracted filament spectrum and demonstrate how the interstellar medium component introduces systematic errors in the measurement of faint diagnostic PN emission lines when conventional observing techniques are employed. It is shown how these errors can be eliminated with 3D spectroscopy, using the full two

  10. A fluorescence approach to the unfolding thermodynamics of horseradish peroxidase based on heme degradation by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Lamei; Huang, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a classical heme-containing protein which has been applied in many fields. The prosthetic group heme in HRP, especially in unfolded state, can react with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce a fluorescent product with the maximum emission wavelength at 450 nm. Utilizing this emission band as a fluorescence probe, the unfolding process of HRP in urea can be assessed quantitatively, and the calculated thermodynamic parameters are consistent with those determined by circular dichroism (CD) at 222 nm and steady-state tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence methods.

  11. Thermodynamic Interferences of HCl and HF in Producer Gas Desulfurization by Ce, La, Mn and Zn Based Solid Sorbents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Jeremiáš, Michal; Huang, Ch.-Y.

    Prague: Orgit, 2014, s. 79. ISBN 978-80-02-02555-9. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering /21./ - CHISA 2014 and Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction /17./ - PRES 2014. Prague (CZ), 23.08.2014-27.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-09692J Grant ostatní: NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : producer gas * desulfurization * thermodynamics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. Heat and fluid flow in accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1. Accident scenario based on thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident scenario of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 is analyzed from the data open to the public. Two thermodynamic modes are introduced i.e. a phase equilibrium process model in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and an adiabatic model in the pressure containment vessel (PVC). Almost the measured data and observed evidences are explained by the scenario that the isolation condenser was working and a crack at RPV opened at the initial stage of the accident, which is different from TEPCO and the government reports. (author)

  13. Abundance Ratios in the Galactic Bulge and Super Metal-Rich Type II Nucle osynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fulbright, J P; McWilliam, A; Fulbright, Jon P.; William, Andrew Mc

    2004-01-01

    We present abundance results from our Keck/HIRES observations of giants in the Galactic Bulge. We confirm that the metallicity distribution of giants in the low-reddening bulge field Baade's Window can be well-fit by a closed-box enrichment model. We also confirm previous observations that find enhanced [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe] and [Ca/Fe] for all bulge giants, including those at super-solar metallicities. However, we find that the [O/Fe] ratios of metal-rich bulge dwarfs decrease with increasing metallicity, contrary to what is expected if the enhancements of the other $\\alpha$-elements is due to Type II supernovae enrichment. We suggest that the decrease in oxygen production may be due to mass loss in the pre-supernova evolution of metal-rich progenitors.

  14. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of a Spheroidal Metal-poor Bulge Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Storm, J.; Nataf, D. M.; De Propris, R.; Walker, A. R.; Bono, G.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, Juntai; Li, Z.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RRLs predate these structures and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a “classical” bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]∼ -1 dex) halo–bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  15. APOGEE Kinematics I: Overview of the Kinematics of the Galactic Bulge as Mapped by APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Johnson, J A; Athanassoula, E; Majewski, S R; Perez, A E Garcia; Bird, J; Nidever, D; Schneider, Donald P; Sobeck, J; Frinchaboy, P; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar kinematics across the Galactic bulge and into the disk at positive longitudes from the SDSS-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way. APOGEE includes extensive coverage of the stellar populations of the bulge along the mid-plane and near-plane regions. From these data, we have produced kinematic maps of 10,000 stars across longitudes 0 deg -0.5 have dispersion and rotation profiles that are similar to that of N-body models of boxy/peanut bulges. There is a smooth kinematic transition from the thin bar and boxy bulge (l,|b|) -1.0, and the chemodynamics across (l,b) suggests the stars in the inner Galaxy with [Fe/H] > -1.0 have an origin in the disk.

  16. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of A Spheroidal Metal-Poor Bulge Component

    CERN Document Server

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J; Nataf, D M; De Propris, R; Walker, A R; Bono, G; Johnson, C I; Shen, J; Li, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RR Lyrae stars predate these structures, and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a "classical" bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ -1 dex) halo-bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  17. Understanding thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, H C van

    1983-01-01

    Clearly written treament elucidates fundamental concepts and demonstrates their plausibility and usefulness. Language is informal, examples are vivid and lively, and the perspectivie is fresh. Based on lectures delivered to engineering students, this work will also be valued by scientists, engineers, technicians, businessmen, anyone facing energy challenges of the future.

  18. Elemental abundances in AGB stars and the formation of the Galactic bulge

    OpenAIRE

    Wood P.R.; Ryde N.; Lebzelter T.; Blommaert J.A.D.L.; Uttenthaler S.; Schultheis M.; Aringer B.

    2012-01-01

    We obtained high-resolution near-IR spectra of 45 AGB stars located in the Galactic bulge. The aim of the project is to determine key elemental abundances in these stars to help constrain the formation history of the bulge. A further aim is to link the photospheric abundances to the dust species found in the winds of the stars. Here we present a progress report of the analysis of the spectra.

  19. Flank bulge following supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A report of 2 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Andrea G.; Pace, Kenneth T.; Honey, R. John D’A.

    2013-01-01

    Damage to intercostal nerves during surgical procedures has been associated with a postoperative flank bulge, due to denervation of the anterolateral abdominal wall musculature. This complication has not been reported following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We are aware of 3 cases, but have details on 2 cases of postoperative flank bulge following supracostal PCNL which are reported here. We also suggest how this complication could potentially be minimized. PMID:24032069

  20. Inverse Approach to Evaluate the Tubular Material Parameters Using the Bulging Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yulong Ge; Xiaoxing Li; Lihui Lang

    2015-01-01

    Tubular material parameters are required for both part manufactory process planning and finite element simulations. The bulging test is one of the most credible ways to detect the property parameters for tubular material. The inverse approach provides more effective access to the accurate material evaluation than with direct identifications. In this paper, a newly designed set of bulging test tools is introduced. An inverse procedure is adopted to determine the tubular material properties in ...

  1. Mechanical Analysis of Dead Load Crown and Structure Parameter of Hydraulic Elastic Bulging Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang-cai; LI Wei-min; LIU Zhu-bai

    2003-01-01

    The dead load crown of hydraulic elastic bulging roll was discussed using the theory of elastically supported beam, and the dead load experiment was carried out. The theoretical calculation is consistent with the experimental result. The structure parameters for the thickness of roll sleeve, the length of the oil groove and the crown of roll were discussed. The fundamental principle of determining the parameters was put forward. The theoretical basis of the application of the hydraulic elastic bulging roll was established.

  2. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disc Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    Bulge components of disc galaxies are the high-density centers interior to their outer discs. Once thought to be equivalent to elliptical galaxies, their observed properties and formation histories turn out to be richer and more varied than those of ellipticals. This book reviews progress in many areas of bulge studies. Two advances deserve emphasis: (1) Observations divide bulges into "classical bulges" that look indistinguishable from ellipticals and "pseudobulges" that are discier and (except in S0s) more actively star-forming than are ellipticals. Classical bulges and ellipticals are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. Discy pseudobulges are a product of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy discs. Nonaxisymmetries such as bars and oval distortions transport some disc gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds a dense central component that is discier in structure than are classical bulges. Secular evolution explains many regular structures (e.g., rings) seen in galaxy discs. It is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. (2) Studies of high-redshift galaxies reveal that their discs are so gas-rich that they are violently unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge. This is an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. This chapter summarizes big-picture successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges and ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with supermassive black holes. I present an observer's perspective on simulations of cold dark matter galaxy formation including baryonic physics. Our picture of the quenching of star formation is becoming general and secure at redshifts z 1000 in mass but that differ from each other as we observe over that whole range. A related difficulty is how hierarchical clustering makes so many giant, bulgeless galaxies in field but not cluster environments. I present arguments that we rely too much on star

  3. On the frequency-dependent specific heat and TMDSC: Constitutive modelling based on thermodynamics with internal state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop constitutive models to represent the thermomechanically chemically coupled behaviour of curing resins, vulcanizing elastomers or melting and crystallizing polymers the technique of DSC is extremely helpful. In the present study, the method of TMDSC is interpreted and evaluated in the context of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The balance equation of energy and the dissipation principle in the form of the Clausius-Duhem inequality form the theoretical basis of our study. Since the pressure and the temperature are the external variables in DSC, the specific Gibbs free energy is used as thermodynamic potential. It depends on temperature, stress and a set of internal state variables to represent the microstructure of the material on a phenomenological basis. The temperature- and internal variable-induced changes in the Gibbs free energy are approximated by a Taylor series up to second order terms. As a substantial result of this work, closed-form expressions for the dynamic calorimetric response due to harmonic temperature perturbations and the frequency-dependent complex heat capacity are derived. The theory allows a physical interpretation of the complex heat capacity and its underlying phenomena and is in accordance with experimental observations from literature.

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics in the strong coupling and non-Markovian regime based on a reaction coordinate mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Lambert, Neill; Brandes, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method to study the thermodynamic behaviour of small systems beyond the weak coupling and Markovian approximation, which is different in spirit from conventional approaches. The idea is to redefine the system and environment such that the effective, redefined system is again coupled weakly to Markovian residual baths and thus, allows to derive a consistent thermodynamic framework for this new system–environment partition. To achieve this goal we make use of the reaction coordinate (RC) mapping, which is a general method in the sense that it can be applied to an arbitrary (quantum or classical and even time-dependent) system coupled linearly to an arbitrary number of harmonic oscillator reservoirs. The core of the method relies on an appropriate identification of a part of the environment (the RC), which is subsequently included as a part of the system. We demonstrate the power of this concept by showing that non-Markovian effects can significantly enhance the steady state efficiency of a three-level-maser heat engine, even in the regime of weak system–bath coupling. Furthermore, we show for a single electron transistor coupled to vibrations that our method allows one to justify master equations derived in a polaron transformed reference frame.

  5. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  6. The Galactic Bulge Survey: outline and X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonker, P G; Nelemans, G; Steeghs, D; Torres, M A P; Maccarone, T J; Hynes, R I; Greiss, S; Clem, J; Dieball, A; Mikles, V J; Britt, C T; Gossen, L; Collazzi, A C; Wijnands, R; Zand, J J M In 't; Mendez, M; Rea, N; Kuulkers, E; Ratti, E M; van Haaften, L M; Heinke, C; Ozel, F; Groot, P J; Verbunt, F

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) and we provide the Chandra source list for the region that has been observed to date. Among the goals of the GBS are constraining the neutron star equation of state and the black hole mass distribution via the identification of eclipsing neutron star and black hole low-mass X-ray binaries. The latter goal will, in addition, be obtained by significantly enlarging the number of black hole systems for which a black hole mass can be derived. Further goals include constraining X-ray binary formation scenarios, in particular the common envelope phase and the occurrence of kicks, via source-type number counts and an investigation of the spatial distribution of X-ray binaries, respectively. The GBS targets two strips of 6x1 degrees (12 square degrees in total), one above (1

  7. Star Clusters in Pseudo-Bulges of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nino, Daiana; Stiavelli, Massimo; Carollo, C Marcella; Scarlata, Claudia; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the properties of the star-cluster systems around pseudo-bulges of late-type spiral galaxies using a sample of 11 galaxies with distances from 17 to 37 Mpc. Star clusters are identified from multiband HST ACS and WFPC2 imaging data by combining detections in 3 bands (F435W and F814W with ACS and F606W with WFPC2). The photometric data are then compared to population synthesis models to infer the masses and ages of the star clusters. Photometric errors and completeness are estimated by means of artificial source Monte Carlo simulations. Dust extinction is estimated by considering F160W NICMOS observations of the central regions of the galaxies, augmenting our wavelength coverage. In all galaxies we identify star clusters with a wide range of ages, from young (age 100-250 Myr), more massive, red clusters. Some of the latter might likely evolve into objects similar to the Milky Way's globular clusters. We compute the specific frequencies for the older clusters with respect to the galaxy an...

  8. Teaching Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions: An Entropy-Based Approach to Help Students Better Understand and Appreciate the Subtleties of Solution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic formalism of ideal solutions is developed in most of the textbooks postulating a form for the chemical potential of a generic component, which is adapted from the thermodynamics of ideal gas mixtures. From this basis, the rest of useful thermodynamic properties can be derived straightforwardly without further hypothesis. Although…

  9. Spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition: a new method to study the evolution of lenticular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, E J; Merrifield, M R; Bedregal, A G

    2012-01-01

    A new method for spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition is presented, in which the spatial light profile in a two-dimensional spectrum is decomposed wavelength-by-wavelength into bulge and disc components, allowing separate one-dimensional spectra for each component to be constructed. This method has been applied to observations of a sample of nine S0s in the Fornax Cluster in order to obtain clean high-quality spectra of their individual bulge and disc components. So far this decomposition has only been fully successful when applied to galaxies with clean light profiles, consequently limiting the number of galaxies that could be separated into bulge and disc components. Lick index stellar population analysis of the component spectra reveals that in those galaxies where the bulge and disc could be distinguished, the bulges have systematically higher metallicities and younger stellar populations than the discs. This correlation is consistent with a picture in which S0 formation comprises the shutting down of s...

  10. A new look at the kinematics of the bulge from an N-body model

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, A; Stefanovitch, N; Haywood, M; Combes, F; Katz, D; Babusiaux, C

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) By using an N-body simulation of a bulge that was formed via a bar instability mechanism, we analyse the imprints of the initial (i.e. before bar formation) location of stars on the bulge kinematics, in particular on the heliocentric radial velocity distribution of bulge stars. Four different latitudes were considered: $b=-4^\\circ$, $-6^\\circ$, $-8^\\circ$, and $-10^\\circ$, along the bulge minor axis as well as outside it, at $l=\\pm5^\\circ$ and $l=\\pm10^\\circ$. The bulge X-shaped structure comprises stars that formed in the disk at different locations. Stars formed in the outer disk, beyond the end of the bar, which are part of the boxy peanut-bulge structure may show peaks in the velocity distributions at positive and negative heliocentric radial velocities with high absolute values that can be larger than 100 $\\rm km$ $\\rm s^{-1}$, depending on the observed direction. In some cases the structure of the velocity field is more complex and several peaks are observed. Stars formed in the inner disk, t...

  11. DEMOGRAPHICS OF BULGE TYPES WITHIN 11 Mpc AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an inventory of galaxy bulge types (elliptical galaxy, classical bulge, pseudobulge, and bulgeless galaxy) in a volume-limited sample within the local 11 Mpc sphere using Spitzer 3.6 μm and Hubble Space Telescope data. We find that whether counting by number, star formation rate, or stellar mass, the dominant galaxy type in the local universe has pure disk characteristics (either hosting a pseudobulge or being bulgeless). Galaxies that contain either a pseudobulge or no bulge combine to account for over 80% of the number of galaxies above a stellar mass of 109 Msun. Classical bulges and elliptical galaxies account for ∼1/4, and disks for ∼3/4 of the stellar mass in the local 11 Mpc. About 2/3 of all star formation in the local volume takes place in galaxies with pseudobulges. Looking at the fraction of galaxies with different bulge types as a function of stellar mass, we find that the frequency of classical bulges strongly increases with stellar mass, and comes to dominate above 1010.5 Msun. Galaxies with pseudobulges dominate at 109.5-1010.5 Msun. Yet lower-mass galaxies are most likely to be bulgeless. If pseudobulges are not a product of mergers, then the frequency of pseudobulges in the local universe poses a challenge for galaxy evolution models.

  12. The Chemical Composition of the Galactic Bulge and Implications for its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The average bulge [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] are +0.06 and +0.17 dex, respectively, in Baade's Window, roughly 0.2 dex higher than the thin disk and ~0.7 dex higher than the local thick disk metallicity. This suggests a higher effective yield in the bulge, perhaps due to more efficient retention of supernova ejecta. The bulge vertical [Fe/H] gradient, at ~0.5 dex/kpc, appears to be due to a changing mixture of sub-populations (near +0.3 dex and -0.3 dex and one possibly near -0.7 dex) with latitude. The bulge is enhanced in O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Al relative to the sun, with [alpha/Fe]=+0.15 dex at [Fe/H]=0.0 dex. Below [Fe/H]~-0.5 dex, the bulge and local thick disk compositions are very similar, but small [Mg/Fe] and possibly [/Fe] enhancements, low [La/Eu] ratios and large [Cu/Fe], relative to the thick disk suggest slightly higher SFR in the bulge. However, these composition differences could simply be due to measurement errors and non-LTE effects. Unfortunately, comparison with the thick disk near solar [Fe/H] su...

  13. A high-velocity bulge RR Lyrae variable on a halo-like orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Kunder, Andrea; Hawkins, Keith; Poleski, Radek; Storm, Jesper; Johnson, Christian I; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu; Cordero, Maria Jose; Nataf, David M; Bono, Giuseppe; Walker, Alistair R; Koch, Andreas; De Propris, Roberto; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymanski, Michal K; Soszynski, Igor; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Pietrukowicz, Pawel; Skowron, Jan; Kozlowski, Szymon; Mroz, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR), which has the unusual radial velocity of -372 +- 8 km/s and true space velocity of -482 +- 22 km/s relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l,b)=(3,-2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it...

  14. The origin of the split red clump in the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Athanassoula, E; Wylie-de-Boer, E; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Lewis, G F; Yong, D; Asplund, M; Lane, R R; Kiss, L L; Ibata, R

    2012-01-01

    Near the minor axis of the Galactic bulge, at latitudes b -0.5 in the two higher-latitude fields, but not in the field at b = -5 degrees. Stars with [Fe/H] < -0.5 do not show the split. We compare the spatial distribution and kinematics of the clump stars with predictions from an evolutionary N-body model of a bulge that grew from a disk via bar-related instabilities. The density distribution of the peanut-shaped model is depressed near its minor axis. This produces a bimodal distribution of stars along the line of sight through the bulge near its minor axis, very much as seen in our observations. The observed and modelled kinematics of the two groups of stars are also similar. We conclude that the split red clump of the bulge is probably a generic feature of boxy/peanut bulges that grew from disks, and that the disk from which the bulge grew had relatively few stars with [Fe/H] < -0.5

  15. The EMBLA Survey -- Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Louise M; Keller, Stefan C; Casey, Andrew R; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F; Nataf, David M; Owen, Christopher I; Da Costa, Gary S; Schmidt, Brian P; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8<[Fe/H]<-1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that ...

  16. A simple conductometric method for trace level determination of brilliant green in water based on β-cyclodextrin and silver nitrate and determination of their thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Mohammad Zadeh Kakhki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric and complexometric titration method based on conductometric technique is presented for the quantitative determination of brilliant green (BG in water. The equilibrium constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with brilliant green (BG and precipitation of silver nitrate with BG have been determined by conductivity measurements in water. The results suggest that stable 1:1 complex is formed between BG and β-cyclodextrin and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHc°,ΔSc° for this complexation reaction have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant using the van’t Hoff plots. Based on the obtained results, the conductometric method for the determination of BG in the presence of β-CD at 25 °C was developed in the range of 10−8–10−3 molL−1 and with AgNO3 is 10−3–10−5 molL−1.

  17. Modelling of the reactive transport for rock salt-brine in geological repository systems based on improved thermodynamic database (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W.; Alkan, H.; Xie, M.; Moog, H.; Sonnenthal, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    The release and migration of toxic contaminants from the disposed wastes is one of the main issues in long-term safety assessment of geological repositories. In the engineered and geological barriers around the nuclear waste emplacements chemical interactions between the components of the system may affect the isolation properties considerably. As the chemical issues change the transport properties in the near and far field of a nuclear repository, modelling of the transport should also take the chemistry into account. The reactive transport modelling consists of two main components: a code that combines the possible chemical reactions with thermo-hydrogeological processes interactively and a thermodynamic databank supporting the required parameters for the calculation of the chemical reactions. In the last decade many thermo-hydrogeological codes were upgraded to include the modelling of the chemical processes. TOUGHREACT is one of these codes. This is an extension of the well known simulator TOUGH2 for modelling geoprocesses. The code is developed by LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Univ. of California) for the simulation of the multi-phase transport of gas and liquid in porous media including heat transfer. After the release of its first version in 1998, this code has been applied and improved many times in conjunction with considerations for nuclear waste emplacement. A recent version has been extended to calculate ion activities in concentrated salt solutions applying the Pitzer model. In TOUGHREACT, the incorporated equation of state module ECO2N is applied as the EOS module for non-isothermal multiphase flow in a fluid system of H2O-NaCl-CO2. The partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases is modelled as a function of temperature, pressure, and salinity. This module is applicable for waste repositories being expected to generate or having originally CO2 in the fluid system. The enhanced TOUGHREACT uses an EQ3/6-formatted database

  18. Effects of Microalloying on Glass Forming Ability and Thermodynamic Fragility of Cu-Pr-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of microalloying of Ti and B on the glass formation of Cu60Pr30Ni10Al10-2xTixBx(x=0, 0.05%(atom fraction)) amorphous alloys was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that microalloying with 0.05% Ti and 0.05% B improved the glass forming ability (GFA). The smaller difference in the Gibbs free energy between the liquid and crystalline states at the glass transition temperature (ΔGl-x (Tg)) and the smaller thermodynamic fragility index (ΔSf/Tm, where ΔSf is the entropy of fusion, and Tm is the melting temperature) after microalloying correlated with the higher GFA.

  19. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  20. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  1. Thermodynamics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pauken, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Take some heat off the complexity of thermodynamics Does the mere thought of thermodynamics make you sweat? It doesn't have to! This hands-on guide helps you score your highest in a thermodynamics course by offering easily understood, plain-English explanations of how energy is used in things like automobiles, airplanes, air conditioners, and electric power plants. Thermodynamics 101 - take a look at some examples of both natural and man-made thermodynamic systems and get a handle on how energy can be used to perform work Turn up the heat - discover how to use the firs

  2. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  3. Thermodynamics of the hot BIon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea;

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the recently obtained nite temperature BIon solution of arXiv:1012.1494, focusing on two aspects. The first concerns comparison of the free energy of the three available phases for the finite temperature brane-antibrane wormhole configuration. Based on this we...... the possibility of constructing a finite temperature generalization of the infinite spike configuration of the extremal BIon. To this end we identify a correspondence point at the end of the throat where the thermodynamics of the D3-F1 blackfold configuration can be matched to that of k non...

  4. The age of the young bulge-like population in the stellar system Terzan5: linking the Galactic bulge to the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Mucciarelli, A; -,

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few Gyr old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations with iron content varying by more than one order of magnitude (from 0.2 up to 2 times the solar value), with chemical abundance patterns strikingly similar to those observed in bulge field stars. Here we report on the detection of two distinct main sequence turn-off points in Terzan 5, providing the age of the two main stellar populations: 12 Gyr for the (dominant) sub-solar component and 4.5 Gyr for the component at super-solar metallicity. This discovery classifies Terzan 5 as a site in the Galactic bulge where multiple bursts of star formation occurred, thus suggesting a quite massive progenitor possibly resembling the giant clumps observed in star forming galaxies at high redshifts. This connection opens a new route ...

  5. Study on dynamic buckling behavior of a cylindrical liquid storage tanks under seismic excitation. 1st report, effects of liquid pressure on elephant foot bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a thin walled cylindrical liquid storage tank is exposed to a very large seismic base excitation, buckling phenomena may be caused such as bending buckling where diamond buckling pattern or elephant foot bulge pattern will be found at the bottom portion, and shear buckling at the middle portion of the tank. In this study, dynamic buckling tests were performed using scale models of thin cylindrical liquid storage tanks for the nuclear power plants. The input seismic acceleration was increased until the elephant foot bulge occurred and the vibrational behavior before and after buckling was investigated. And the effects of static and dynamic liquid pressure on the bending buckling patterns and the buckling critical force was investigated by fundamental tests using small tank models. (author)

  6. Effect of Ni and Pd Addition on Mechanical, Thermodynamic, and Electronic Properties of AuSn4-Based Intermetallics: A Density Functional Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yali; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The effects of Ni and Pd addition on the mechanical, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of AuSn4-based intermetallic compounds (IMCs) have been investigated by first-principles calculations to reveal the essence of Au embrittlement. Three kinds of doped (namely Ni-doped, Pd-doped, and Ni/Pd-codoped) IMCs are considered in this work. The polycrystalline elastic properties are deduced from single-crystal elastic constants. It is found that the doped systems together with nondoped AuSn4 are all ductile phases. For Ni-doped AuSn4, the modulus, hardness, brittleness, Debye temperature, and minimum thermal conductivity increase with the Ni fraction, but this is not the case for the Pd-doped material, since Au0.75Pd0.25Sn4 is the more brittle phase. For Au0.5Pd0.25Ni0.25Sn4, the mechanical, thermodynamic, and electronic properties are similar to those of Au0.5Pd0.5Sn4.

  7. Development of the high-temperature, solid-state, electromotive force technique to study the thermodynamics of Lewis-acid-base transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of the Engel-Brewer theory of metals are summarized and illustrated. Definitions of words used to describe its fundamentals are clarified. The theory predicts the extreme stability of the Lewis-acid-base alloys. The thermodynamics of such alloys may be obtained through the use of oxide-electrolyte, electrochemical cells. Experimental techniques associated with the use of these cells are explained in detail. Much attention is given to the preparation and processing of the materials required. A selective review of the cell literature demonstrates frequent difficulty in obtaining accurate thermodynamic data. In an attempt to correct this situation, as well as to correct problems discovered in this work, the physical processes which create the cell emf are clearly identified. The fundamental understanding afforded by the resulting cell model implies the procedures used to both discover and eliminate errors. Those due to concentration overpotentials, reactive impurities in the gas phase, and interfacial reactions are carefully analyzed. The procedures used to test for and attain equilibrium in an alloy-oxide, powder compact are supported through identification of the transport processes that mediate equilibration

  8. Drag with external and pressure drop with internal flows: a new and unifying look at losses in the flow field based on the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal and external flows are characterized by friction factors and drag coefficients, respectively. Their definitions are based on pressure drop and drag force and thus are very different in character. From a thermodynamics point of view in both cases dissipation occurs which can uniformly be related to the entropy generation in the flow field. Therefore we suggest to account for losses in the flow field by friction factors and drag coefficients that are based on the overall entropy generation due to the dissipation in the internal and external flow fields. This second law analysis (SLA) has been applied to internal flows in many studies already. Examples of this flow category are given together with new cases of external flows, also treated by the general SLA-approach. (paper)

  9. Resonant Orbits and the High Velocity Peaks toward the Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Evans, N. Wyn; Shen, Juntai

    2015-10-01

    We extract the resonant orbits from an N-body bar that is a good representation of the Milky Way, using the method recently introduced by Molloy et al. By decomposing the bar into its constituent orbit families, we show that they are intimately connected to the boxy-peanut shape of the density. We highlight the imprint due solely to resonant orbits on the kinematic landscape toward the Galactic center. The resonant orbits are shown to have distinct kinematic features and may be used to explain the cold velocity peak seen in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment commissioning data. We show that high velocity peaks are a natural consequence of the motions of stars in the 2:1 orbit family and that stars on other higher order resonances can contribute to the peaks. The locations of the peaks vary with bar angle and, with the tacit assumption that the observed peaks are due to the 2:1 family, we find that the locations of the high velocity peaks correspond to bar angles in the range {10}\\circ ≲ {θ }{bar}≲ 25^\\circ . However, some important questions about the nature of the peaks remain, such as their apparent absence in other surveys of the Bulge and the deviations from symmetry between equivalent fields in the north and south. We show that the absence of a peak in surveys at higher latitudes is likely due to the combination of a less prominent peak and a lower number density of bar supporting orbits at these latitudes.

  10. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  11. Dissipative work in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores the concept of dissipative work and shows that such a kind of work is an invariant non-negative quantity. This feature is then used to get a new insight into adiabatic irreversible processes; for instance, why the final temperature in any adiabatic irreversible process is always higher than that attained in a reversible process having the same initial state and equal final pressure or volume. Based on the concept of identical processes, numerical simulations of adiabatic irreversible compression and expansion were performed, enabling a better understanding of differences between configuration and dissipative work. The positive nature of the dissipative work was used to discuss the case where the dissipated energy ends up in the surroundings, while the invariance of such work under a system-surroundings interchange enabled the resulting modification in thermodynamical quantities to be determined. The ideas presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students with a background in thermodynamics, but they may also be of interest to graduate students and teachers.

  12. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  13. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: laesker@mpia.de [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E2E7 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M {sub •}, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L {sub bul}, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation in a companion paper.

  14. The generalized thermodynamic temperature and the new expressions of the first and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yacai; Chen, Qi; Hu, Yayuan

    2016-02-01

    The classical thermodynamics reflects the significant relationship between the heat and the temperature. On the basis of the relationships, according to the mathematical derivation, this paper structures the conceptions of generalized heat, generalized thermodynamic temperature, generalized entropy and so on. The series of conceptions in the classical thermodynamics is merely a special case of the generalized thermodynamics. Based on these conceptions of generalized thermodynamics, this paper presents the new expressions of the first law and the second law of thermodynamics. In other words, these expressions are endued with new explanations. The Eq. LZ = kTS given by this paper provides theoretical basis for these new expressions.

  15. THE IMPACT OF THE UNCERTAINTY IN SINGLE-EPOCH VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES ON THE OBSERVED EVOLUTION OF THE BLACK HOLE-BULGE SCALING RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of the black hole (BH)-bulge scaling relations usually report positive redshift evolution, with higher redshift galaxies harboring more massive BHs than expected from the local relations. All of these studies focus on broad line quasars with BH mass estimated from virial estimators based on single-epoch spectra. Since the sample selection is largely based on quasar luminosity, the cosmic scatter in the BH-bulge relation introduces a statistical bias leading to on average more massive BHs given galaxy properties at high redshift (i.e., the Lauer et al. bias). We here emphasize a previously underappreciated statistical bias resulting from the uncertainty of single-epoch virial BH mass estimators and the shape of the underlying (true) BH mass function, which leads to on average overestimation of the true BH masses at the high-mass end. We demonstrate that the latter virial mass bias can contribute a substantial amount to the observed excess in BH mass at fixed bulge properties, comparable to the Lauer et al. bias. The virial mass bias is independent of the Lauer et al. bias; hence if both biases are at work, they can largely (or even fully) account for the observed BH mass excess at high redshift.

  16. A thermodynamically-based model for predicting microbial growth and community composition coupled to system geochemistry: Application to uranium bioreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, J. D.; Park, M.; Michalsen, M.; Spain, A. M.; Krumholz, L. R.; Liu, C.; McKinley, J.; Long, P.; Roden, E.; Peacock, A. D.; Baldwin, B.

    2010-03-01

    'Bioimmobilization' of redox-sensitive heavy metals and radionuclides is being investigated as a way to remediate contaminated groundwater and sediments. In one approach, growth-limiting substrates are added to the subsurface to stimulate the activity of targeted groups of indigenous microorganisms and create conditions favorable for the microbially-mediated reductive precipitation ('bioreduction') of targeted contaminants. We present a theoretical framework for modeling this process that modifies conventional geochemical reaction path modeling to include thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth and may be called biogeochemical reaction path modeling. In this approach, the actual microbial community is represented by a synthetic microbial community consisting of a collection of microbial groups; each with a unique growth equation that couples a specific pair of energy yielding redox reactions. The growth equations and their computed standard-state free energy yields are appended to the thermodynamic database used in conventional geochemical reaction path modeling, providing a direct coupling between chemical species participating in both microbial growth and geochemical reactions. To compute the biogeochemical reaction paths, growth substrates are reacted incrementally with the defined geochemical environment and the coupled equations are solved simultaneously to predict reaction paths that display changing microbial biomass, community composition (i.e. the fraction of total biomass in each microbial group), and the aqueous and mineral composition of the system, including aqueous speciation and oxidation state of the targeted contaminants. The approach, with growth equations derived from the literature using well-known bioenergetics principles, was used to predict the results of a laboratory microcosm experiment and an in situ field experiment that investigated the bioreduction of uranium. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on uranium

  17. Chemical Equilibrium as Balance of the Thermodynamic Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2004-01-01

    The article sets forth comprehensive basics of thermodynamics of chemical equilibrium as balance of the thermodynamic forces. Based on the linear equations of irreversible thermodynamics, De Donder definition of the thermodynamic force, and Le Chatelier's principle, new thermodynamics of chemical equilibrium offers an explicit account for multiple chemical interactions within the system. Basic relations between energetic characteristics of chemical transformations and reaction extents are based on the idea of chemical equilibrium as balance between internal and external thermodynamic forces, which is presented in the form of a logistic equation, containing only one new parameter. Solutions to the basic equation define the domain of states of the chemical system, from true equilibrium to true chaos. The new theory is derived exclusively from the currently recognized ideas and covers equilibrium thermodynamics as well as non-equilibrium thermodynamics in a unique concept.

  18. Potentiometric and Thermodynamic Studies of Some Schiff-Base Derivatives of 4-Aminoantipyrine and Their Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. El-Bindary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton-ligand dissociation constant of 4-(4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-phenol ( and 4-(4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-benzoic acid ( and metal-ligand stability constants of their complexes with metal ions (Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ have been determined potentiometrically in 0.1 mol·dm−3 KCl and 10% (by volume ethanol-water mixture and at 298, 308, and 318 K. The stability constants of the formed complexes increase in the order Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+. The effect of temperature was studied, and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters (, , and were derived and discussed. The dissociation process is nonspontaneous, endothermic, and entropically unfavourable. The formation of the metal complexes has been found to be spontaneous, endothermic, and entropically favourable.

  19. Thermodynamic possibilities and constraints for pure hydrogen production by iron based chemical looping process at lower temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron offers the possibility of transformation of a syngas or gaseous hydrocarbons into hydrogen by a cycling process of iron oxide reduction (e.g. by hydrocarbons) and release of hydrogen by steam oxidation. From the thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium point of view, the reduction of magnetite by hydrogen, CO, CH4 and a model syngas (mixtures CO + H2 or H2 + CO + CO2) and oxidation of iron by steam has been studied. Attention was concentrated not only on convenient conditions for reduction of Fe3O4 to iron at temperatures 400-800 K but also on the possible formation of undesired soot, Fe3C and iron carbonate as precursors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide formation in the steam oxidation step. Reduction of magnetite at low temperatures requires a relatively high H2/H2O ratio, increasing with decreasing temperature. Reduction of iron oxide by CO is complicated by soot and Fe3C formation. At lower temperatures and higher CO2 concentrations in the reducing gas, the possibility of FeCO3 formation must be taken into account. The purity of the hydrogen produced depends on the amount of soot, Fe3C and FeCO3 in the iron after the reduction step. Magnetite reduction is the more difficult stage in the looping process. Pressurized conditions during the reduction step will enhance formation of soot and carbon containing iron compounds

  20. A novel pressure sensing mechanism in a microchannel based on the surface tension and thermodynamic p–v–T relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and cost-effective pressure sensing mechanism which can readily be used to increase measurement resolutions has been introduced. The proposed method measures the local static water pressure in a microchannel using the surface tension and thermodynamic p–v–T relation of air. The idea was tested using a microchannel along which a series of closed-end taps were perpendicularly placed. The prototype device was fabricated with SU-8, a negative photoresist. The dimension of the microchannel was 50 µm × 7 µm × 2.4 mm (W × H × L). The closed-end taps were located every 100 µm along the microchannel with various dimensions of 5–20 µm × 7 µm × 500–1500 µm (W × H × L). The surface tension was calculated through contact angle measurement on the water–air–SU-8 interface. Experiments were performed by imaging the meniscus location and were compared with analytical calculations. The proposed pressure sensing method showed good agreement with the analytical predictions and feasibilities as a valid pressure sensing mechanism in a microscale flow