WorldWideScience

Sample records for base bulges thermodynamic

  1. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  2. Non-nearest-neighbor dependence of stability for group III RNA single nucleotide bulge loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jessica L; McCann, Michael D; Phillips, Daniel; Panaro, Brandon L; Lim, Geoffrey F S; Serra, Martin J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-five RNA duplexes containing single nucleotide bulge loops were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters for each duplex determined. The bulge loops were of the group III variety, where the bulged nucleotide is either a AG/U or CU/G, leading to ambiguity to the exact position and identity of the bulge. All possible group III bulge loops with Watson-Crick nearest-neighbors were examined. The data were used to develop a model to predict the free energy of an RNA duplex containing a group III single nucleotide bulge loop. The destabilization of the duplex by the group III bulge could be modeled so that the bulge nucleotide leads to the formation of the Watson-Crick base pair rather than the wobble base pair. The destabilization of an RNA duplex caused by the insertion of a group III bulge is primarily dependent upon non-nearest-neighbor interactions and was shown to be dependent upon the stability of second least stable stem of the duplex. In-line structure probing of group III bulge loops embedded in a hairpin indicated that the bulged nucleotide is the one positioned further from the hairpin loop irrespective of whether the resulting stem formed a Watson-Crick or wobble base pair. Fourteen RNA hairpins containing group III bulge loops, either 3' or 5' of the hairpin loop, were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters determined. The model developed to predict the influence of group III bulge loops on the stability of duplex formation was extended to predict the influence of bulge loops on hairpin stability.

  3. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  4. Galactic bulges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyse, RFG; Gilmore, G; Franx, M

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the present observational and theoretical understanding of the stellar populations of bulges and their implications for galaxy formation and evolution. The place of bulges as key to the Hubble Sequence remains secure, but some old paradigms are giving way to new ones as observations devel

  5. The contrasting structures of mismatched DNA sequences containing looped-out bases (bulges) and multiple mismatches (bubbles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, A; Lilley, D M

    1989-09-12

    We have studied the structure and reactivities of two kinds of mismatched DNA sequences--unopposed bases, or bulges, and multiple mismatched pairs of bases. These were generated in a constant sequence environment, in relatively long DNA fragments, using a technique based on heteroduplex formation between sequences cloned into single-stranded M13 phage. The mismatched sequences were studied from two points of view, viz 1. The mobility of the fragments on gel electrophoresis in polyacrylamide was studied in order to examine possible bending of the DNA due to the presence of the mismatch defect. Such bending would constitute a global effect on the conformation of the molecule. 2. Sequences in and around the mismatches were studied using enzyme and chemical probes of DNA structure. This would reveal more local structural effects of the mismatched sequences. We observed that the structures of the bulges and the multiple mismatches appear to be fundamentally different. The bulged sequences exhibited a large gel retardation, consistent with a significant bending of the DNA at the bulge, and whose magnitude depends on the number of mismatched bases. The larger bulges were sensitive to cleavage by single-strand specific nucleases, and modified by diethyl pyrocarbonate (adenines) or osmium tetroxide (thymines) in a non-uniform way, suggesting that the bulges have a precise structure that leads to exposure of some, but not all, of the bases. In contrast the multiple mismatches ('bubbles') cause very much less bending of the DNA fragment in which they occur, and uniform patterns of chemical reactivity along the length of the mismatched sequences, suggesting a less well defined, and possibly flexible, structure. The precise structure of the bulges suggests that such features may be especially significant for recognition by proteins.

  6. Rejuvenation of spiral bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D; Thomas, Daniel; Davies, Roger L.

    2006-01-01

    We seek to understand whether the stellar populations of galactic bulges show fingerprints of secular evolution triggered by the presence of the disc. For this purpose we re-analyse the sample of Proctor and Sansom, deriving stellar population ages and element abundances from absorption line indices. We obtain very consistent constraints on ages from the three Balmer indices Hbeta, Hgamma, and Hdelta, in good agreement with those of Proctor and Sansom based on a completely different method. Like other studies in the literature, we find that bulges have relatively low luminosity weighted ages, the lowest age derived for the smallest bulges being 1.3 Gyr. Hence bulges are not generally old but actually rejuvenated systems. We discuss evidence that this might be true also for the bulge of the Milky Way. We show that the smallest bulges, being the youngest with the lowest alpha/Fe ratios, must have experienced star formation events involving 10-30 per cent of their total mass in the past 1-2 Gyr. No significant c...

  7. Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Enrico

    1956-01-01

    Indisputably, this is a modern classic of science. Based on a course of lectures delivered by the author at Columbia University, the text is elementary in treatment and remarkable for its clarity and organization. Although it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the fundamental facts of thermometry and calorimetry, no advanced mathematics beyond calculus is assumed.Partial contents: thermodynamic systems, the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, absolute thermodynamic temperature, thermal engines), the entr

  8. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho and others

    2001-05-01

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings in patients with peristomal bulging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödahl, Rune I; Thorelius, Lars; Hallböök, Olof J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy.......The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy....

  10. MOX - TDB : Nuclear Thermodynamic DataBase

    OpenAIRE

    Cheynet, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    37 pages; A thermodynamic database collecting critical assessments made for nuclear applications has been built since 2003 for the MOX fuel. MOX-TDB is a thermodynamic database for in-vessel applications coontaining : Ba-Fe-La-O-Pu-Ru-Sr-U-Zr + Ar-H. This database covers the entire field from metal to oxide domains.

  11. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  12. A constitutive model for magnetostriction based on thermodynamic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwangsoo

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a general framework for the continuum-based formulation of dissipative materials with magneto-mechanical coupling in the viewpoint of irreversible thermodynamics. The thermodynamically consistent model developed for the magnetic hysteresis is extended to include the magnetostrictive effect. The dissipative and hysteretic response of magnetostrictive materials is captured through the introduction of internal state variables. The evolution rate of magnetostrictive strain as well as magnetization is derived from thermodynamic and dissipative potentials in accordance with the general principles of thermodynamics. It is then demonstrated that the constitutive model is competent to describe the magneto-mechanical behavior by comparing simulation results with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  13. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals; Entwicklung einer thermodynamischen Datenbasis fuer ausgewaehlte Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  14. Modern Thermodynamics Based on the Extended Carnot Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jitao

    2012-01-01

    "Modern Thermodynamics- Based on the Extended Carnot Theorem" provides comprehensive definitions and mathematical expressions of both classical and modern thermodynamics. The goal is to develop the fundamental theory on an extended Carnot theorem without incorporating any extraneous assumptions. In particular, it offers a fundamental thermodynamic and calculational methodology for the synthesis of low-pressure diamonds. It also discusses many "abnormal phenomena", such as spiral reactions, cyclic reactions, chemical oscillations, low-pressure carat-size diamond growth, biological systems, and more. The book is intended for chemists and physicists working in thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, phase diagrams, biochemistry and complex systems, as well as graduate students in these fields. Jitao Wang is a professor emeritus at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

  15. Is the Galactic Bulge Devoid of Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew T.; Henderson, Calen B.; Clanton, Christian

    2016-10-01

    We consider a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by gravitational microlensing and investigate whether or not the estimated distances to these systems conform to the Galactic distribution of planets expected from models. We derive the expected distribution of distances and relative proper motions from a simulated microlensing survey, correcting for the dominant selection effects that affect the sensitivity of planet detection as a function of distance, and compare it to the observed distribution using Anderson-Darling (AD) hypothesis testing. Taking the relative abundance of planets in the bulge to that in the disk, {f}{bulge}, as a model parameter, we find that our model is consistent with the observed distribution only for {f}{bulge}\\lt 0.54 (for a p-value threshold of 0.01) implying that the bulge may be devoid of planets relative to the disk. Allowing for a dependence of planet abundance on metallicity and host mass, or an additional dependence of planet sensitivity on event timescale, does not restore consistency for {f}{bulge}=1. We examine the distance estimates of some events in detail, and conclude that some parallax-based estimates could be significantly in error. Only by combining the removal of one problematic event from our sample and the inclusion of strong dependences of planet abundance or detection sensitivity on host mass, metallicity, and event timescale are we able to find consistency with the hypothesis that the bulge and disk have equal planet abundance.

  16. Secular- and merger-built bulges in barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Corsini, E M; Aguerri, J A L

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We study the incidence, as well as the nature, of composite bulges in a sample of 10 face-on barred galaxies to constrain the formation and evolutionary processes of the central regions of disk galaxies. We analyze the morphological, photometric, and kinematic properties of each bulge. Then, by using a case-by-case analysis we identify composite bulges and classify every component into a classical or pseudobulge. In addition, bar-related boxy/peanut (B/P) structures were also identified and characterised. We find only three galaxies hosting a single-component bulge (two pseudobulges and one classical bulge). We find evidence of composite bulges coming in two main types based on their formation: secular-built and merger- and secular-built. We call secular-built to composite bulges made of entirely by structures associated with secular processes such as pseudo bulges, central disks, or B/P bulges. We find four composite bulges of this kind in our sample. On the other hand, merger- and secular-built b...

  17. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: With Thermodynamic-Based Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations using ferroelectric materials as a microgenerator. The previous researches show that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting is not effective, whereas thermodynamic-based cycles give higher energy. Also, at different temperatures some thermodynamic cycles exhibit different behaviours. In this paper pyroelectric energy harvesting using Lenoir and Ericsson thermodynamic cycles has been studied numerically and the two cycles were compared with each other. The material used is the PMN-25 PT single crystal that is a very interesting material in the framework of energy harvesting and sensor applications.

  18. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocko, Marián; Klimko, Marek

    2016-03-01

    This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines) to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  19. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocko Marián

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  20. Modern thermodynamics - New concepts based on the second law of thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jitao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a core part of science.Nearly all scientists should have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics.Thermodynamics is a science of development,and is a viewpoint of scientific development in natural sciences.Achievement of thermodynamics has influence not only on natural sciences,but also on social sciences and philosophy.Fundamental concepts and definitions are very important for any discipline of science,so what is classical thermodynamics and what is modern thermodynamics have become the key points of puzzledom in thermodynamics.In this paper,after clarification of fundamental concept in thermodynamics,a complete basic modern classification of thermodynamics is naturally obtained.It is suggested that extended Carnot theorem and dissipation decrease theorem,together with the laws of thermodynamics,are the most fundamental theorems in thermodynamics discipline.Nondissipative thermodynamics is a new field besides equilibrium thermodynamics belonging to the equal part of the second law of thermodynamics.

  1. Pseudo bulges in galaxy groups: the role of environment in secular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2017-01-01

    We examine the dependence of the fraction of galaxies containing pseudo bulges on environment for a flux limited sample of ˜5000 SDSS galaxies. We have separated bulges into classical and pseudo bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Pseudo bulges are thought to be formed by internal processes and are a result of secular evolution in galaxies. We attempt to understand the dependence of secular evolution on environment and morphology. Dividing our sample of disc+bulge galaxies based on group membership into three categories: central and satellite galaxies in groups and isolated field galaxies, we find that pseudo bulge fraction is almost equal for satellite and field galaxies. Fraction of pseudo bulge hosts in central galaxies is almost half of the fraction of pseudo bulges in satellite and field galaxies. This trend is also valid when only galaxies are considered only spirals or S0. Using the projected fifth nearest neighbour density as measure of local environment, we look for the dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environmental density. Satellite and field galaxies show very weak or no dependence of pseudo bulge fraction on environment. However, fraction of pseudo bulges hosted by central galaxies decreases with increase in local environmental density. We do not find any dependence of pseudo bulge luminosity on environment. Our results suggest that the processes that differentiate the bulge types are a function of environment while processes responsible for the formation of pseudo bulges seem to be independent of environment.

  2. Characterization of Multiaxial Stress-Strain Response of Tube Metal from Double-Sided Hydro-Bulging Test Based on Hosford's 1979 Yield Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Zhai-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    To further explore the characterization of the multiaxial stress-strain responses of anisotropic tube metal from double-sided hydro-bulging tests, an analytical model for the equivalent stress and equivalent strain calculation was derived based on Hosford's 1979 yield criterion. Furthermore, thin-walled 5052-O aluminum alloy tubes were used to conduct the bulging experiment with an external pressure of 85 MPa. After the experimental data were substituted into the above analytical model, the Voce equation was used to fit the equivalent stress-strain relationship. It is concluded that the stress versus strain curves of the 5052-O tubes are strongly dependent on the loaded stress states, the adopted yield criteria, and the anisotropy coefficients. The external pressure of 85 MPa had little or no effect on the stress versus strain curves of the tubes, but the locations of the multiaxial stress versus strain curves were lower than that of the uniaxial stress versus strain curve. Moreover, the curve from Hosford's 1979 yield criterion not only had a higher saturation stress and material constant value than the curve from Mises and Hill's 1948 yield criteria but also had a dependence on the anisotropy coefficient.

  3. First law-based thermodynamic analysis on Kalina cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the first law of thermodynamics,and adopting the Peng-Robinson equation (P-R equation) as the basic equation for the properties of ammonia-water mixtures,a thermodynamic analysis on a single-stage distillation Kalina cycle is presented.A program to calculate the thermodynamic properties of ammoniawater mixtures,and that for calculating the performance of Kalina cycles,were developed,with which the heatwork conversion particulars of Kalina cycles were theoretically calculated.The influences on the cycle performance of key parameters,such as the pressure and temperature at the inlet of the turbine,the back pressure of the turbine,the concentration of the working solution,the concentration of the basic solution and the cycle multiplication ratio,were analyzed.

  4. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to de

  5. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to det

  6. Thermodynamics-based models of transcriptional regulation with gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuqiang; Shen, Yanyan; Hu, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative models of gene regulatory activity have the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. However, the few models available today have been based on simplistic assumptions about the sequences being modeled or heuristic approximations of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this work, we have developed a thermodynamics-based model to predict gene expression driven by any DNA sequence. The proposed model relies on a continuous time, differential equation description of transcriptional dynamics. The sequence features of the promoter are exploited to derive the binding affinity which is derived based on statistical molecular thermodynamics. Experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively identify the activity levels of transcription factors and the regulatory parameters. Comparing with the previous models, the proposed model can reveal more biological sense.

  7. Thermodynamics-based Metabolite Sensitivity Analysis in metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparissides, A; Hatzimanikatis, V

    2017-01-01

    The increasing availability of large metabolomics datasets enhances the need for computational methodologies that can organize the data in a way that can lead to the inference of meaningful relationships. Knowledge of the metabolic state of a cell and how it responds to various stimuli and extracellular conditions can offer significant insight in the regulatory functions and how to manipulate them. Constraint based methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Thermodynamics-based flux analysis (TFA), are commonly used to estimate the flow of metabolites through genome-wide metabolic networks, making it possible to identify the ranges of flux values that are consistent with the studied physiological and thermodynamic conditions. However, unless key intracellular fluxes and metabolite concentrations are known, constraint-based models lead to underdetermined problem formulations. This lack of information propagates as uncertainty in the estimation of fluxes and basic reaction properties such as the determination of reaction directionalities. Therefore, knowledge of which metabolites, if measured, would contribute the most to reducing this uncertainty can significantly improve our ability to define the internal state of the cell. In the present work we combine constraint based modeling, Design of Experiments (DoE) and Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) into the Thermodynamics-based Metabolite Sensitivity Analysis (TMSA) method. TMSA ranks metabolites comprising a metabolic network based on their ability to constrain the gamut of possible solutions to a limited, thermodynamically consistent set of internal states. TMSA is modular and can be applied to a single reaction, a metabolic pathway or an entire metabolic network. This is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to use metabolic modeling in order to provide a significance ranking of metabolites to guide experimental measurements.

  8. Energy conservation technologies based on thermodynamic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaru [Shibaura Institute of Technology of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission to prevent global warming, the most promising way for electric generation in the Northeast Asia is to introduce cogeneration and {open_quotes}repowering{close_quotes} technologies based on high temperature gas turbines fueled by natural gas. Especially the old type coal burning boiler-steam turbine plants should be retrofit by introducing gas turbines to become highly efficient combined cycle. Same technologies should be applied to the old garbage incineration plants and/or even to the nuclear power plants. The exhaust heat or steam should become much increased and it should be utilized as the process heat for industries or heat supply as the distinct heating or cooling for residential area. This paper introduces a brief survey of these new technologies.

  9. Functional myelographic differentiation of lumbar bulging annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Kim, Hong Kil; Park, Sang Gyu; Lee, Young Jung; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Herniated disk and bulging annulus are the major causes of lower back pain. It is necessary to differentiate bulging annulus from herniated disk because of their different methods of treatment. Myelography is one of the useful diagnostic methods for disk diseases even though advanced diagnostic modalities such as CT and MRI are more accurate. Functional myelography is not a new technology expect for two additional views, flexion and extension, are obtained with conventional myelography. Differentiation between bulging annulus and herniated disk by conventional myelography is based on the extent and multiplicity of extradural deformity of the contrast filled dural sac and neural sleeve as well as the changes of nerve root. There is no previous report about differential points between bulging annulus and herniated disk according to functional myelography. It is the purpose of this study to find any additional differential points on functional myelography between bulging annulus and herniated disk over convectional myelography. Authors analysed functional myelographic findings of 152 cases from July 1986 to July 1987. Among them, 22 cases who had been suffered from cervical abnormality or vague lower back pain were diagnosed as normal by myelography, and 30 cases of L4-5 herniated disk and 21 cases of L4-5 bulging annulus which had been finally diagnosed by operation were studied. The results were as follows. 1. In normal group, anterior epidural space was gradually widened from the upper lumbar vertebra downward. And anterior epidural space was more sidened at the disk level in extension view than in flexion except for L5-S1 lever. 2. In bulging annulus group, the shape of anterior epidural space in flexion state was as similar as normal. Anoterior epidural space in extension state was more sidened at the buldging annulus than normal, but lesser than herniated disk. 3. In herniated disk group, widening of anterior epidural space at the herniated disk level was

  10. Developing a Thermodynamic Database for Lead-Based Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vaajamo, Iina

    2013-01-01

    The availability of advanced thermodynamic databases and software and the CALPHAD method allow different phenomena, i.e. phase transformations, and chemical reactions, to be evaluated mathematically by means of thermodynamic calculations. These calculations require internally consistent and reliable thermodynamic databases, such as the MTOX (metal-oxide-sulphide-fluoride) database. MTOX covers the thermodynamic data of the systems related to metal smelting and refining processes, where lead i...

  11. Laser based combustion laboratory at NTH/SINTEF applied thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, F.; Bjoerge, T.

    1993-12-01

    During the SPUNG-program, a laser based laboratory has been built up at NTH/SINTEF Applied Thermodynamics by the funding from that program. The laser based laboratory consists of a Nd:YAG laser and an image intensifier electronic camera system. There are numerous different laser based techniques that can be used, using the laser based laboratory, but we have concentrated on laser induced fluorescence (LIF). By shaping the laser beam into a flat plane, 2D imaging of combustion radicals (OH, CH) and emission species (NO) are possible. This can give valuable information about flame structure, flame stabilization, turbulence scales and so on, but at the time being not quantitative concentrations.

  12. Thermodynamic and structural basis for electrochemical response of Cu–Zr based metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunzhi, E-mail: mse201109@126.com; Qiu, Nannan; Kong, Lingliang; Yang, Xiaodan; Li, Huiping

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic and structural basis for electrochemical response were proposed. • La improves the corrosion resistance by inhibition of the selective dissolution. • Corrosion of the MG responses well with thermodynamic and structural parameters. - Abstract: Cu–Zr based metallic glasses were prepared by hyperquenching strategy to explore the thermodynamic and structural basis for electrochemical response. The thermodynamic parameters and the local atomic structure were obtained. Corrosion resistance in seawater was investigated via potentiodynamic polarization curve. The results indicate that increasing thermodynamic parameter values improves the corrosion resistance. The topological instability represented by the nearest neighbor atomic distance yields same tendency as the corrosion resistance with La addition.

  13. Thermodynamic and structural properties of Bi-based liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S. K.; Jha, L. N.; Adhikari, D.

    2015-10-01

    Thermodynamic and microscopic structural properties of two Bi-based liquid alloys, such as In-Bi at 900 K and Tl-Bi at 750 K have been studied employing the regular associated solution model. We have estimated the mole fractions of the complexes and the free monomers assuming the existence of complexes In2 Bi in In-Bi melt and TlBi in Tl-Bi melt. The thermodynamic properties have been studied by computing the Gibbs free energy of mixing, enthalpy of mixing, entropy of mixing and activities of the monomers. The compositional contributions of the heat associated with the formation of complexes and the heat of mixing of the monomers to the net enthalpy change has also been studied. The structural properties of the liquid alloys have been studied by computing concentration fluctuation in the long-wavelength limit, chemical short-range order parameter and the ratio of mutual to intrinsic diffusion coefficients. For both of the alloy systems, the theoretical as well as the experimental values of SCC (0) are found to be lower than the corresponding ideal values over the whole composition range, indicating the hetero-coordinating nature of Bi-In and Bi-Tl alloy melts. All the interaction energy parameters are found to be negative and temperature dependent, and both the alloy systems are found to be weakly interacting.

  14. Conformational thermodynamics of biomolecular complexes: The histogram-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit; Sikdar, Samapan; Ghosh, Mahua; Chakrabarti, J.

    2015-09-01

    Conformational changes in biomacromolecules govern majority of biological processes. Complete characterization of conformational contributions to thermodynamics of complexation of biomacromolecules has been challenging. Although, advances in NMR relaxation experiments and several computational studies have revealed important aspects of conformational entropy changes, efficient and large-scale estimations still remain an intriguing facet. Recent histogram-based method (HBM) offers a simple yet rigorous route to estimate both conformational entropy and free energy changes from same set of histograms in an efficient manner. The HBM utilizes the power of histograms which can be generated as accurately as desired from an arbitrarily large sample space from atomistic simulation trajectories. Here we discuss some recent applications of the HBM, using dihedral angles of amino acid residues as conformational variables, which provide good measure of conformational thermodynamics of several protein-peptide complexes, obtained from NMR, metal-ion binding to an important metalloprotein, interfacial changes in protein-protein complex and insight to protein function, coupled with conformational changes. We conclude the paper with a few future directions worth pursuing.

  15. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). III. Metallicity distributions and kinematics of 26 Galactic bulge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, M.; Vasquez, S.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Valenti, E.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Minniti, J.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; McWilliam, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Hill, V.; Renzini, A.

    2017-02-01

    Galactic bulge, that will help discrimination between different formation models. Based on observations taken with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 71.B-0617, 385.B-0735 and 187.B-0909.Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A12

  16. Stability of black holes based on horizon thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of horizon thermodynamics we study the thermodynamic stability of black holes constructed in general relativity and Gauss–Bonnet gravity. In the framework of horizon thermodynamics there are only five thermodynamic variables E, P, V, T, S. It is not necessary to consider concrete matter fields, which may contribute to the pressure of black hole thermodynamic system. In non-vacuum cases, we can derive the equation of state, P=P(V,T. According to the requirements of stable equilibrium in conventional thermodynamics, we start from these thermodynamic variables to calculate the heat capacity at constant pressure and Gibbs free energy and analyze the local and global thermodynamic stability of black holes. It is shown that P>0 is the necessary condition for black holes in general relativity to be thermodynamically stable, however this condition cannot be satisfied by many black holes in general relativity. For black hole in Gauss–Bonnet gravity negative pressure can be feasible, but only local stable black hole exists in this case.

  17. The Formation of Galactic Bulges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R.; Balcells, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Graham, A.

    2005-01-01

    We summarise some recent results about nearby galactic bulges that are relevant to their formation. We highlight a number of significant advances in our understanding of the surface brightness profiles, stellar populations, and especially the very centers of spiral galaxies. We also view our own Mil

  18. Role of the CCA Bulge of Prohead RNA of Bacteriophage ø29 in DNA Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the pac...

  19. Discovery in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In our efforts to map our galaxys structure, one region has remained very difficult to probe: the galactic center. A new survey, however, uses infrared light to peer through the gas and dust in the galactic plane, searching for variable stars in the bulge of the galaxy. This study has discovered a population of very young stars in a thin disk in the galactic center, providing clues to the star formation history of the Milky Way over the last 100 million years.Obscured CenterThe center of the Milky Way is dominated by a region known as the galactic bulge. Efforts to better understand this region in particular, its star formation history have been hindered by the stars, gas, and dust of the galactic disk, which prevent us from viewing the galactic bulge at low latitudes in visible light.The positions of the 35 classical Cepheids discovered in VVV data, projected onto an image of the galactic plane. Click for a better look! The survey area is bounded by the blue lines, and the galactic bar is marked with a red curve. The bottom panel shows the position of the Cepheids overlaid on the VVV bulge extinction map. [Dkny et al. 2015]Infrared light, however, can be used to probe deeper through the dust than visible-light searches. A new survey called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) uses the VISTA telescope in Chile to search, in infrared, for variable stars in the inner part of the galaxy. The VVV survey area spans the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high.Led by Istvn Dkny, a researcher at the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, a team has now used VVV data to specifically identify classical Cepheid variable stars in the bulge. Why? Cepheids are pulsating stars with a very useful relation between their periods and luminosities that allows them to be used as distance indicators. Moreover, classical Cepheids are indicators of young stellar populations which can

  20. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys.

  1. pycalphad: CALPHAD-based Computational Thermodynamics in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Otis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pycalphad software package is a free and open-source Python library for designing thermodynamic models, calculating phase diagrams and investigating phase equilibria using the CALPHAD method. It provides routines for reading thermodynamic databases and solving the multi-component, multi-phase Gibbs energy minimization problem. The pycalphad software project advances the state of thermodynamic modeling by providing a flexible yet powerful interface for manipulating CALPHAD data and models. The key feature of the software is that the thermodynamic models of individual phases and their associated databases can be programmatically manipulated and overridden at run-time without modifying any internal solver or calculation code. Because the models are internally decoupled from the equilibrium solver and the models themselves are represented symbolically, pycalphad is an ideal tool for CALPHAD database development and model prototyping.

  2. Clumpy Disc and Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J; Tissera, P; Michel-Dansac, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical/Nbody controlled simulations of isolated gas rich galaxies that self-consistently include SN feedback and a detailed chemical evolution model, both tested in cosmological simulations. The initial conditions are motivated by the observed star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3. We find that the presence of a multiphase interstellar media in our models promotes the growth of disc instability favouring the formation of clumps which in general, are not easily disrupted on timescales compared to the migration time. We show that stellar clumps migrate towards the central region and contribute to form a classical-like bulge with a Sersic index, n > 2. Our physically-motivated Supernova feedback has a mild influence on clump survival and evolution, partially limiting the mass growth of clumps as the energy released per Supernova event is increased, with the consequent flattening of the bulge profile. This regulation does not prevent the building of a classical-like bulge even for the most ...

  3. New Breakthroughs in the Battle of the Bulge Using Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Bidin, C. M.; Cohen, R.; Chené, A.; Villanova, S.; Cummings, J.; Gormaz, A.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-García, J.; Hempel, M.; VVV Team

    2015-05-01

    We present some recent work undertaken mostly at the Universidad de Concepción using bulge globular clusters to better understand this important but poorly studied Galactic component, especially based on data from the VVV Survey. This includes discovering new bulge globulars, investigating dual HBs, and obtaining Ca triplet metallicities and velocities.

  4. Is neoclassical microeconomics formally valid? An approach based on an analogy with equilibrium thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Tania; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-06-10

    The relation between Thermodynamics and Economics is a paramount issue in Ecological Economics. Two different levels can be distinguished when discussing it: formal and substantive. At the formal level, a mathematical framework is used to describe both thermodynamic and economic systems. At the substantive level, thermodynamic laws are applied to economic processes. In Ecological Economics, there is a widespread claim that neoclassical economics has the same mathematical formulation as classical mechanics and is therefore fundamentally flawed because: (1) utility does not obey a conservation law as energy does; (2) an equilibrium theory cannot be used to study irreversible processes. Here, we show that neoclassical economics is based on a wrong formulation of classical mechanics, being in fact formally analogous to equilibrium thermodynamics. The similarity between both formalisms, namely that they are both cases of constrained optimisation, is easily perceived when thermodynamics is looked upon using the Tisza-Callen axiomatisation. In this paper, we take the formal analogy between equilibrium thermodynamics and economic systems far enough to answer the formal criticisms, proving that the formalism of neoclassical economics has irreversibility embedded in it. However, the formal similarity between equilibrium thermodynamics and neoclassical microeconomics does not mean that economic models are in accordance with mass, energy and entropy balance equations. In fact, neoclassical theory suffers from flaws in the substantive integration with thermodynamic laws as has already been fully demonstrated by valuable work done by ecological economists in this field. (author)

  5. Heading in the right direction: thermodynamics-based network analysis and pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Meric; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2015-12-01

    Thermodynamics-based network analysis through the introduction of thermodynamic constraints in metabolic models allows a deeper analysis of metabolism and guides pathway engineering. The number and the areas of applications of thermodynamics-based network analysis methods have been increasing in the last ten years. We review recent applications of these methods and we identify the areas that such analysis can contribute significantly, and the needs for future developments. We find that organisms with multiple compartments and extremophiles present challenges for modeling and thermodynamics-based flux analysis. The evolution of current and new methods must also address the issues of the multiple alternatives in flux directionalities and the uncertainties and partial information from analytical methods.

  6. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ChangChun; LV HeXiang; GUAN Ping

    2008-01-01

    A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity con-stitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitu-tive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermody-namics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.

  7. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitutive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermodynamics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.

  8. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression programming (GEP, improved genetic programming (GP, has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS operator to quantitatively keep a balance between the selective pressure and the population diversity during the evolution process. Experiments are conducted on several benchmark datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. The results show that the performance of CTSGEP is better than the conventional GEP and some GEP variations.

  9. Thermodynamically based constraints for rate coefficients of large biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Marcel O; Ross, John

    2009-01-01

    Wegscheider cyclicity conditions are relationships among the rate coefficients of a complex reaction network, which ensure the compatibility of kinetic equations with the conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. The detailed balance at equilibrium, that is the equilibration of forward and backward rates for each elementary reaction, leads to compatibility between the conditions of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, Wegscheider cyclicity conditions can be derived by eliminating the equilibrium concentrations from the conditions of detailed balance. We develop matrix algebra tools needed to carry out this elimination, reexamine an old derivation of the general form of Wegscheider cyclicity condition, and develop new derivations which lead to more compact and easier-to-use formulas. We derive scaling laws for the nonequilibrium rates of a complex reaction network, which include Wegscheider conditions as a particular case. The scaling laws for the rates are used for clarifying the kinetic and thermodynamic meaning of Wegscheider cyclicity conditions. Finally, we discuss different ways of using Wegscheider cyclicity conditions for kinetic computations in systems biology.

  10. Dust properties in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction RV in dust in the interstellar medium differs in the Galactic bulge from its value in the local neighborhood. Aims: We attempt to test this suggestion. Methods: The mid-infrared hydrogen lines in 16 Galactic bulge PNe mea

  11. 3-Dimensional dynamics of the galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soto Vicencio, Mario Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of a project which attempts to unveil the structure of the galactic bulge of our galaxy through the study of the kinematics of stars in low foreground extinction windows.Thus, in order to effectively constraint the phase-space distribution function of the galactic bulge, we have

  12. Meso-scale aurora within the expansion phase bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We present ground-based optical, riometer and magnetometer recordings together with Polar UVI and GOES magnetic field observations of a substorm that occurred over Canada on 24 November 1997. This event involved a clear optical onset followed by poleward motion of the aurora as a signature of an expanding auroral bulge. During the expansion phase, there were three distinct types of meso-scale (10–1000 km auroral structures embedded in the bulge: at first a series of equatorward moving auroral arcs, followed by a well-defined spiral pair, and finally north-south directed aurora (a streamer. The spirals occurred several minutes after the onset, and indicate a shear in the field-aligned current. The north-south aligned aurora that formed about 10 min after the onset suggest bursty bulk flow type flows taking place in the central plasma sheet. Polar UVI observations of the polar cap location indicate that the southward drifting arcs were associated with magnetospheric activity within closed field lines, while the auroral streamer was launched by the bulge reaching the polar cap boundary, i.e. the mid-tail reconnection starting on the open field lines. The riometer data imply high energy electron precipitation in the vicinity of the the poleward moving edge of the auroral bulge, starting at the onset and continuing until the formation of the north-south structure. In this paper, we examine this evolving auroral morphology within the context of substorm theories.

  13. Bulge and Halo Kinematics Across the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the maximum rotational velocity of the disk (v_m) and the central stellar velocity dispersion of the bulge (sigma) offers insights into the relationship between the halo and the bulge. We have assembled integrated H I line widths and central stellar velocity dispersions to study the v_m-sigma relation for 792 galaxies spanning a broad range of Hubble types. Contrary to earlier studies based on much smaller samples, we find that the v_m-sigma relation exhibits significant intrinsic scatter and that its zeropoint varies systematically with galaxy morphology, bulge-to-disk ratio, and light concentration, as expected from basic dynamical considerations. Nucleated but bulgeless late-type spiral galaxies depart significantly from the v_m-sigma relation. While these results render questionable any attempt to supplant the bulge with the halo as the fundamental determinant of the central black hole mass in galaxies, the observed distribution of v_m/sigma, which depends on both the density profi...

  14. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  15. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of ω-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John;

    2015-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir......A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable...... as confirmed by experiment. Once a larger data base is established, in silico screening of several new reactions (new target molecules) can easily be performed each day....

  16. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  17. Roles of the Amino Group of Purine Bases in the Thermodynamic Stability of DNA Base Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energetic aspects of hydrogen-bonded base-pair interactions are important for the design of functional nucleotide analogs and for practical applications of oligonucleotides. The present study investigated the contribution of the 2-amino group of DNA purine bases to the thermodynamic stability of oligonucleotide duplexes under different salt and solvent conditions, using 2'-deoxyriboinosine (I and 2'-deoxyribo-2,6-diaminopurine (D as non-canonical nucleotides. The stability of DNA duplexes was changed by substitution of a single base pair in the following order: G•C > D•T ≈ I•C > A•T > G•T > I•T. The apparent stabilization energy due to the presence of the 2-amino group of G and D varied depending on the salt concentration, and decreased in the water-ethanol mixed solvent. The effects of salt concentration on the thermodynamics of DNA duplexes were found to be partially sequence-dependent, and the 2-amino group of the purine bases might have an influence on the binding of ions to DNA through the formation of a stable base-paired structure. Our results also showed that physiological salt conditions were energetically favorable for complementary base recognition, and conversely, low salt concentration media and ethanol-containing solvents were effective for low stringency oligonucleotide hybridization, in the context of conditions employed in this study.

  18. Theoretical Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared images from the COBE satellite presented the first clear evidence that our Milky Way galaxy contains a boxy shaped bulge. Recent years have witnessed a gradual paradigm shift in the formation and evolution of the Galactic bulge. Bulges were commonly believed to form in the dynamical violence of galaxy mergers. However, it has become increasingly clear that the main body of the Milky Way bulge is not a classical bulge made by previous major mergers, instead it appears to be a bar seen somewhat end-on. The Milky Way bar can form naturally from a precursor disk and thicken vertically by the internal firehose/buckling instability, giving rise to the boxy appearance. This picture is supported by many lines of evidence, including the asymmetric parallelogram shape, the strong cylindrical rotation (i.e., nearly constant rotation regardless of the height above the disk plane), the existence of an intriguing X-shaped structure in the bulge, and perhaps the metallicity gradients. We review the major theor...

  19. PROPER MOTIONS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE: PLAUT'S WINDOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper motion study of a eld of 20' x20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b=(0 ;-8 , has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for -21; 000 stars reaching to V - 20:5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch di erence. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas yr-1. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of - 8700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited di erent proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected re ex solar motion. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between -2 and -3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (l; b = (3:39; 2:91 = (0:11; 0:09 mas yr-1, which is in good agreement with previous results. A mean distance of 6:37+0:87 -0:77 kpc has been estimated for the bulge sample, based on the observed K magnitude of the horizontal branch red clump. The metallicity [M=H] distribution was also obtained for a subsample of 60 bulge giants stars, based on calibrated photometric indices. The observed [M=H] shows a peak value at [M=H]-0:1 with an extended metal poor tail and around 30% of the stars with supersolar metallicity. No change in proper motion dispersion was observed as a function of [M=H]. We are currently in the process of obtaining CCD UBV RI photometry for the entire proper-motion sample of - 21; 000 stars.

  20. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Steeghs, D.; Nelemans, G.; Johnson, C.; Greiss, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a multi-wavelength survey of two 6×1 degree strips above and below the Galactic plane, including deep r' and i' imaging and time domain photometry from CTIO and shallow, wide-field X-ray imaging with Chandra. Targeting fields above |b|=1 avoids most of the copious extinction along the Galactic plane while maintaining high source density. This results in targets that are accessible to follow up in optical and NIR wavelengths. The X-ray observations are shallow to maximize the number of quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) relative to Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). The goals of the GBS are to conduct a census of Low Mass X-ray Binaries in the Milky Way in order to constrain models of binary evolution, the common envelope phase in particular, and to expand the number of known LMXBs for optical follow up. Mass measurements in particular will help constrain the black hole (BH) mass distribution and the equation of state for neutron stars (NS). Constraining the BH mass distribution will constrain models of their formation in supernovae. The current population of Galactic BHs suffers from selection effects, which the GBS avoids by finding new objects while still in quiescence. We expect to find qLMXBs, magnetic CVs, RS CVn stars, and smaller numbers of other types of sources. After removing duplicates, there are 1640 unique X-ray sources in the 12 square degree survey area, which closely matches the predicted number of 1648. We are currently matching X-ray sources to counterparts in other wavelengths using new photometric and spectroscopic observations as well as in archival data where it exists, and searching for variability and periodicity in the counterparts in photometric data. So far, we have spectroscopically identified 27 interacting binaries including promising candidates for quiescent black holes.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Yamshchikov, Leonid F.; Chukin, Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys were studied. Temperature dependences of gadolinium activity in the studied alloys were determined at 573-1073 K employing the EMF method. Solubility of gadolinium in the Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn alloys was measured at 462-1073 K using IMCs sedimentation method. Activity coefficients as well as partial and excess thermodynamic functions of gadolinium in the studied alloys were calculated on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  2. Accounting for selection effects in the BH-bulge relations: No evidence for cosmological evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The redshift evolution of the black hole - bulge relations is an essential observational constraint for models of black hole - galaxy coevolution. In addition to the observational challenges for these studies, conclusions are complicated by the influence of selection effects. We demonstrate that there is presently no statistical significant evidence for cosmological evolution in the black hole-bulge relations, once these selection effects are taken into account and corrected for. We present a fitting method, based on the bivariate distribution of black hole mass and galaxy property, that accounts for the selection function in the fitting and is therefore able to recover the intrinsic black hole - bulge relation unbiased. While prior knowledge is restricted to a minimum, we at least require knowledge of either the sample selection function and the mass dependence of the active fraction, or the spheroid distribution function and the intrinsic scatter in the black hole - bulge relation. We employed our fitting r...

  3. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard D.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or "bulging factors" that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in graphs of the bulging factor as a function of the applied load and as a function of geometric parameters that include the shell radius, the shell thickness and the crack length. The computed bulging factors are compared with solutions based on linear shallow shell theory, and with semi-empirical solutions that approximately account for the nonlinear deformation in the vicinity of the crack. The effect of biaxial loads on the computed bulging factors is also discussed.

  4. A thermodynamic perspective on food webs: Quantifying entropy production within detrital-based ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Bruers, S.

    2007-01-01

    Because ecosystems fit so nicely the framework of a “dissipative system”, a better integration of thermodynamic and ecological perspectives could benefit the quantitative analysis of ecosystems. One obstacle is that traditional food web models are solely based upon the principles of mass and energy

  5. Improving Students' Chemical Literacy Levels on Thermochemical and Thermodynamics Concepts through a Context-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Geban, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to delve into the effect of context-based approach (CBA) over traditional instruction (TI) on students' chemical literacy level related to thermochemical and thermodynamics concepts. Four eleventh-grade classes with 118 students in total taught by two teachers from a public high school in 2012 fall semester were enrolled…

  6. The Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning on Teaching the First Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Munir

    2011-01-01

    Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching approach working in cooperation with self-learning and involving research to solve real problems. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but that energy is conserved. Students had difficulty learning or misconceptions about this law. This study…

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of regulation in metabolic networks using constraint-based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan Radhakrishnan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter sulfurreducens is a member of the Geobacter species, which are capable of oxidation of organic waste coupled to the reduction of heavy metals and electrode with applications in bioremediation and bioenergy generation. While the metabolism of this organism has been studied through the development of a stoichiometry based genome-scale metabolic model, the associated regulatory network has not yet been well studied. In this manuscript, we report on the implementation of a thermodynamics based metabolic flux model for Geobacter sulfurreducens. We use this updated model to identify reactions that are subject to regulatory control in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens using thermodynamic variability analysis. Findings As a first step, we have validated the regulatory sites and bottleneck reactions predicted by the thermodynamic flux analysis in E. coli by evaluating the expression ranges of the corresponding genes. We then identified ten reactions in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens that are predicted to be candidates for regulation. We then compared the free energy ranges for these reactions with the corresponding gene expression fold changes under conditions of different environmental and genetic perturbations and show that the model predictions of regulation are consistent with data. In addition, we also identify reactions that operate close to equilibrium and show that the experimentally determined exchange coefficient (a measure of reversibility is significant for these reactions. Conclusions Application of the thermodynamic constraints resulted in identification of potential bottleneck reactions not only from the central metabolism but also from the nucleotide and amino acid subsystems, thereby showing the highly coupled nature of the thermodynamic constraints. In addition, thermodynamic variability analysis serves as a valuable tool in estimating the ranges of ΔrG' of every reaction in the model

  8. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  9. Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poizeau, Sophie

    To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were determined by emf measurements. It was found that Sb as positive electrode would provide the highest voltage for Ca-based liquid metal batteries (1 V). The price of such a battery would be competitive for the grid-scale energy storage market. The impact of Pb, a natural impurity of Sb, was predicted successfully and confirmed via electrochemical measurements. It was shown that the impact on the open circuit voltage would be minor. Indeed, the interaction between Ca and Sb was demonstrated to be much stronger than between Ca and Pb using thermodynamic modeling, which explains why the partial thermodynamic properties of Ca would not vary much with the addition of Pb to Sb. However, the usage of the positive electrode would be reduced, which would limit the interest of a Pb-Sb positive electrode. Throughout this work, the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) was used for the first time for alloys with thermodynamic properties showing strong negative deviation from ideality. This model showed that systems such as Ca-Sb have strong short-range order: Ca is most stable when its first nearest neighbors are Sb. This is consistent with what the more traditional thermodynamic model, the regular association model, would predict. The advantages of the MIVM are the absence of assumption regarding the composition of an associate, and the reduced number of fitting parameters (2 instead of 5). Based on the parameters derived from the thermodynamic modeling using the MIVM, a new potential of mixing for liquid alloys was defined to compare the strength of interaction in different Ca-based alloys. Comparing this trend with the strength of interaction in the solid state of these systems (assessed by the energy of formation of the intermetallics), the systems with

  10. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hultzsch, P J N; Méndez, R H; Pauldrach, A W A; Kudritzki, R P; Hoffmann, T L; McCarthy, J K

    2007-01-01

    Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic Bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the Bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic Bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius d...

  11. The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K Y

    2016-01-01

    We present HST images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies' central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing "classical" bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions: (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude ($10^6$ -- $10^8 M_\\odot$) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all $\\sim 10^{11} M_\\odot$ within a factor of three; (2) the BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected, when compared to an ex...

  12. Bulge growth and quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp; Wuyts, Stijn; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Somerville, Rachel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brammer, Gabe [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Faber, Sandra M.; Momcheva, Ivelina [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 0490 (United States); Nelson, Erica J. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Primack, Joel R. [Department of Physics, University of California at SantaCruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2014-06-10

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  13. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hearty, Fred R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Zasowski, Gail [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Smith, Verne V.; Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Nidever, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, 2800 South University Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400 (Brazil); and others

    2013-04-10

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] {<=} -1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] {approx} -2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the {alpha}-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant {alpha}-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  14. The Milky Way Bulge: Observed properties and a comparison to external galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Oscar A

    2015-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge offers a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the role that different processes such as dynamical instabilities, hierarchical merging, and dissipational collapse may have played in the history of the Galaxy formation and evolution based on its resolved stellar population properties. Large observation programmes and surveys of the bulge are providing for the first time a look into the global view of the Milky Way bulge that can be compared with the bulges of other galaxies, and be used as a template for detailed comparison with models. The Milky Way has been shown to have a box/peanut (B/P) bulge and recent evidence seems to suggest the presence of an additional spheroidal component. In this review we summarise the global chemical abundances, kinematics and structural properties that allow us to disentangle these multiple components and provide constraints to understand their origin. The investigation of both detailed and global properties of the bulge now provide us with the opportu...

  15. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  16. The Demographics of galactic bulges in the SDSS database

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Keunho; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from SDSS DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe ($0.005 < z < 0.05$). We performed decompositions in $g$ and $r$ bands by utilizing the {\\sc{galfit}} software. The bulge colors and bulge-to-total ratios are found to be sensitive to the details in the decomposition technique, and hence we hereby provide full details of our method. The $g-r$ colors of bulges derived are almost constantly red regardless of bulge size except for the bulges in the low bulge-to-total ratio galaxies ($B/T_{\\rm r} \\lesssim 0.3$). Bulges exhibit similar scaling relations to those followed by elliptical galaxies, but the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios clearly show a gradually larger departure in slope from the elliptical galaxy sequence. The scatters around the scaling relations are also larger for the bulges in galaxies with lower bulge-to-total ratios. Both the depa...

  17. Calculation of thermodynamic and transport properties of thermal plasmas based on the Cantera software toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Charles; Hencken, Kai

    2013-09-01

    Computational fluid-dynamic simulations nowadays play a central role in the development of new gas circuit breakers. For these simulations to be reliable, a good knowledge of the pressure and temperature-dependence of the thermodynamic and transport properties of ionized gases is required. A key ingredient in the calculation of thermodynamic properties of thermal plasmas is the calculation of the chemical equilibrium composition of the gas. The general-purpose, open-source software toolkit Cantera provides most functionality required to carry out such thermodynamic calculations. In this contribution, we explain how we tailored Cantera specifically to calculate material properties of plasmas. The highly modular architecture of this framework made it possible to add support for Debye-Hückel non-ideality corrections in the calculation of the chemical equilibrium mixture, as well as to enable the calculation of the key transport parameters needed in CFD-based electric arc simulations: electrical and thermal conductivity, viscosity, and diffusion coefficients. As an example, we discuss the thermodynamic and transport properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide and copper vapor.

  18. Observations of planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Köppen, J; Acker, A; Stenholm, B

    2000-01-01

    High quality spectrophotometric observations of 30 Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge have been made. Accurate reddenings, plasma parameters, and abundances of He,O,N,S,Ar,Cl are derived. We find the abundances of O,S,Ar in the Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge to be comparable with the abundances of the Planetary Nebulae in the Disk, high abundances being maybe slightly more frequent in the Bulge. The distribution of the N/O ratio does not present in the Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae the extension to high values that it presents in the Disk Planetary Nebulae. We interpret this as a signature of the greater age of Bulge Planetary Nebulae. We thus find the Bulge Planetary Nebulae to be an old population, slightly more metal-rich than the Disk Planetary Nebulae. The population of the Bulge Planetary Nebulae shows hence the same characteristics than the Bulge stellar population.

  19. THEREDA. Thermodynamic reference data base. Phase II. Release of thermodynamic data. Summary and final report; THEREDA. Thermodynamische Referenz-Datenbasis. Phase II. Freigabe thermodynamischer Daten. Zusammenfassung der Abschlussberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Marquardt, Christian; Montoya, Vanessa [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Bok, Frank; Richter, Anke [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Moog, Helge C.; Scharge, Tina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Voigt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Wilhelm, Stefan [AF Consult AG, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    The final report on the thermodynamic reference data base THEREDA covers the following issues: project management, quality management (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and GRS), data base interfaces, documentation, uranium (HZDR), other nuclides (Karlsruhe Institute for technology, KIT), data for cement minerals and their reaction products (AF-Consult, GRS), phosphate (GRS), systems with CO2 and carbonate at variable temperatures and pressure (Bergakademie Freiberg, TUBAF).

  20. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. One-dimensional tensile constitutive equation cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional bulging mechanical problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Yuquan(宋玉泉); LIU; Shumei(刘术梅)

    2002-01-01

    Superplastic forming has been extensively applied to manufacture parts and components with complex shapes or high-precisions. However, superplastic formation is in multi-stress state. In a long time, uniaxial tensile constitutive equation has been directly generalized to deal with multi-stress state. Whether so doing is feasible or not needs to be proved in theory. This paper first summarizes the establishing processes of superplastic tensile and bulging constitutive equation with variable m, and, using the analytical expressions of equivalent stress ? and equivalent strain rateof free bulge based on the fundamentals of continuum medium plastic mechanics, derives the analytical expressions of optimum loading rules for superplastic free bulge. By comparing the quantitative results on typical superplastic alloy ZnAl22, it is shown that one-dimensional tensile constitutive equations cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional bulging quantitative mechanical problems; only superplastic bulging constitutive equation based on bulging stress state can be used to treat the quantitative mechanical problems of bulge.

  2. Diagnostics based on thermodynamic analysis of performance of steam turbines: case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirone, G.; Arrighi, L.; Bonifacino, L.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some types of failures which have occurred with the ENEL stock of fossil-fuel steam turbines over the last 5--7 years. This paper also presents the corresponding thermodynamic analysis of turbine parameters which permitted failure diagnosis and pre-scheduled opening of the turbine. The examined failures concern: in-service rupture of the bell seal retainer nut between the SH steam inlet sleeves and the inner HP/IP cylinder, on turbines with a main steam inlet system with bell seals; incorrect assembly of pressure seal rings between steam inlet sleeves and the inner cylinder on turbines with a main steam inlet system with pressure seal rings during a scheduled outage; and steam flow path restriction in IP turbine inlet. Thermodynamic failure analysis and the subsequent analysis of turbine damage (mechanical and financial) enabled condition-based maintenance operations to be carried out.

  3. Dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong In; Kwak, Ho Jae; Doh, Seung Woo; Ahn, Ho Seon; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2015-02-17

    For several decades, evaporation phenomena have been intensively investigated for a broad range of applications. However, the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation has only been inductively inferred on the basis of experimental data and remains unclear. This study focuses on the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics. Considering the decrease in the Gibbs free energy of a system with different evaporation modes, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the receding contact angle during contact line depinning as a function of surface conditions. Comparison of experimentally measured and theoretically modeled receding contact angles indicated that the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation was caused by the most favorable thermodynamic process encountered during constant contact radius (CCR mode) and constant contact angle (CCA mode) evaporation to rapidly reach an equilibrium state during droplet evaporation.

  4. Thermodynamics-Based Computational Design of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidemenopoulos, G. N.; Katsamas, A. I.; Kamoutsi, H.

    2010-04-01

    Alloying additions of Sc and Zr raise the yield strength of Al-Mg alloys significantly. We have studied the effects of Sc and Zr on the grain refinement and recrystallization resistance of Al-Mg alloys with the aid of computational alloy thermodynamics. The grain refinement potential has been assessed by Scheil-Gulliver simulations of solidification paths, while the recrystallization resistance (Zener drag) has been assessed by calculation of the precipitation driving forces of the Al3Sc and Al3Zr intermetallics. Microstructural performance indices have been derived, used to rank several alloy composition variants, and finally select the variant with the best combination of grain refinement and recrystallization resistance. The method can be used, with certain limitations, for a thermodynamics-based design of Al-Mg and other alloy compositions.

  5. Thermodynamic data base needs for modeling studies of the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, C.E.A.; Silva, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Bucher, J.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

    1996-07-12

    This document is the first in a series of documents outlining the thermodynamic data needs for performing geochemical modeling calculations in support of various waste package performance assessment activities for the Yucca Mountain Project. The documents are intended to identify and justify the critical thermodynamic data needs for the data base to be used with the models. The Thermodynamic Data Determinations task supplies data needed to resolve performance or design issues and the development of the data base will remain an iterative process as needs change or data improve. For example, data are needed to predict: (1) major ion groundwater chemistry and its evolution, (2) mineral stabilities and evolution, (3) engineered barrier near-field transport and retardation properties, (4) changes in geochemical conditions and processes, (5) solubilities, speciation and transport of waste radionuclides and (6) the dissolution of corrosion of construction and canister materials and the effect on groundwater chemistry and radionuclide solubilities and transport. The system is complex and interactive, and data need to be supplied in order to model the changes and their effect on other components of the system, e.g., temperature, pH and redox conditions (Eh). Through sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, the critical data and system parameters will be identified and the acceptable variations in them documented.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS bulge, disk and total stellar mass estimates (Mendel+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. T.; Simard, L.; Palmer, M.; Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here. (4 data files).

  7. The Demographics of Galactic Bulges in the SDSS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keunho; Oh, Sree; Jeong, Hyunjin; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new database of our two-dimensional bulge-disk decompositions for 14,233 galaxies drawn from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR12 in order to examine the properties of bulges residing in the local universe (0.005 originate from the presence of young stars. The bulges in galaxies with low bulge-to-total ratios show signs of a frosting of young stars so substantial that their luminosity-weighted Balmer-line ages are as small as 1 Gyr in some cases. While bulges seem largely similar in optical properties to elliptical galaxies, they do show clear and systematic departures as a function of bulge-to-total ratio. The stellar properties and perhaps associated formation processes of bulges seem much more diverse than those of elliptical galaxies.

  8. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C

    2015-01-01

    SDO/EVE provide rich information of the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly of solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. Reading from the charts, we are able to easily recognize if there is a late phase following a main phase of a flare, and able to learn the begin, peak and end times of the flare as well as the drift of the temperature, i.e., the cooling rate, of the heated plasma during the flare. Through four M-class flares of different types, we illustrate which thermodynamic information can be revealed from the TDS charts. Further, we investigate the TDS charts of all the flares greater than M5.0, and some interesting results are achieved. First, there are two distinct drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperture, whereas for Type II flares, the drift is somewhat reversed, suggesting a more violent and durable heating during Type I...

  9. Dephosphorization Thermodynamics of Crude Steel Using CaO-Based Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yin-dong; McKague A R; McLean A; Sommerville I D

    2003-01-01

    The experiments were carried out at 1 175-1 450 ℃ to study the phosphorus distribution ratio between molten CaO-based slags and carbon saturated hot metal. The phosphate capacity of the slags and the activity coefficient of PO2.5 were calculated from the phosphorus distribution ratio. The effect of addition of CaF2 and/or CaCl2 on the thermodynamic properties of slags was discussed. The correlation of optical basicity with phosphate capacity of slags was studied, and the dephosphorization ability of CaO-based fluxes with various additives was compared with the results from different studies.

  10. Stochastic thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  11. Mira variables in the Galactic bulge with OGLE-II data

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, N; Nakada, Y

    2005-01-01

    We have extracted a total of 1968 Mira variables from the OGLE-II data base in the Galactic bulge region. Among them, 1960 are associated with 2MASS sources, and 1541 are further identified with MSX point sources. Their photometric properties are compared with those of Mira variables in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We have found that mass-losing stars with circumstellar matter are reddened such that the colour dependence of the absorption coefficient is similar to that of interstellar matter. We also discuss the structure of the bulge. The surface number density of the bulge Mira variables is well correlated with the 2.2-micron surface brightness obtained by the COBE satellite. Using this relation, the total number of Mira variables in the bulge is estimated to be about 600,000. The logP-K relation of the Mira variables gives their space distribution which supports the well-known asymmetry of the bar-like bulge.

  12. Composite Bulges: The Coexistence of Classical Bulges and Disky Pseudobulges in S0 and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, Peter; Fabricius, Maximilian; Thomas, Jens; Nowak, Nina; Rusli, Stephanie; Bender, Ralf; Beltran, Juan Carlos Vega; Beckman, John E

    2014-01-01

    We study nine S0-Sb galaxies with (photometric) bulges consisting of two distinct components. The outer component is a flattened, kinematically cool, disklike structure: a "disky pseudobulge". Embedded inside is a rounder, kinematically hot spheroid: a "classical bulge". This indicates that pseudobulges and classical bulges are not mutually exclusive: some galaxies have both. The disky pseudobulges almost always have an exponential disk (scale lengths = 125-870 pc, mean $\\sim 440$ pc) with disk-related subcomponents: nuclear rings, bars, and/or spiral arms. They constitute 11-59% of the galaxy stellar mass (mean PB/T = 0.33), with stellar masses $\\sim 7 \\times 10^{9}$-$9 \\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$. Classical-bulge components have Sersic indices of 0.9-2.2, effective radii of 25-430 pc and stellar masses of $5 \\times 10^{8}$-$3 \\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$ (usually < 10% of the galaxy's stellar mass; mean B/T = 0.06). The classical bulges show rotation, but are kinematically hotter than the disky pseudobulges. ...

  13. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge?

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y K

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consistent with bulge membership. On the other hand, a similar velocity dispersion could be the result from an induced star formation event when the SDG crosses the galactic midplane. It is suggested that the carbon stars are tracers of such an event and that they therefore are located at distances related to the SDG. However, the majority of the carbon stars are not member of the SDG, nor are they similar to the C-stars which are member of the SDG. The radial velocities can be used to determine a possible membership to the SD...

  14. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A; Trevisan, M; Dutra, N

    2013-01-01

    Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut beween the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Gala...

  15. Thermodynamic contribution and nearest-neighbor parameters of pseudouridine-adenosine base pairs in oligoribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Graham A; Bloomingdale, Richard J; Znosko, Brent M

    2013-11-01

    Pseudouridine (Ψ) is the most common noncanonical nucleotide present in naturally occurring RNA and serves a variety of roles in the cell, typically appearing where structural stability is crucial to function. Ψ residues are isomerized from native uridine residues by a class of highly conserved enzymes known as pseudouridine synthases. In order to quantify the thermodynamic impact of pseudouridylation on U-A base pairs, 24 oligoribonucleotides, 16 internal and eight terminal Ψ-A oligoribonucleotides, were thermodynamically characterized via optical melting experiments. The thermodynamic parameters derived from two-state fits were used to generate linearly independent parameters for use in secondary structure prediction algorithms using the nearest-neighbor model. On average, internally pseudouridylated duplexes were 1.7 kcal/mol more stable than their U-A counterparts, and terminally pseudouridylated duplexes were 1.0 kcal/mol more stable than their U-A equivalents. Due to the fact that Ψ-A pairs maintain the same Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding capabilities as the parent U-A pair in A-form RNA, the difference in stability due to pseudouridylation was attributed to two possible sources: the novel hydrogen bonding capabilities of the newly relocated imino group as well as the novel stacking interactions afforded by the electronic configuration of the Ψ residue. The newly derived nearest-neighbor parameters for Ψ-A base pairs may be used in conjunction with other nearest-neighbor parameters for accurately predicting the most likely secondary structure of A-form RNA containing Ψ-A base pairs.

  16. Central Star Formation in Pseudobulges and Classical Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D B

    2006-01-01

    I use Spitzer 3.6-8.0 \\mu m color profiles to compare the radial structure of star formation in pseudobulges and classical bulges. Pseudobulges are ``bulges'' which form through secular evolution, rather than mergers. In this study, pseudobulges are identified using the presence of disk-like structure in the center of the galaxy (nuclear spiral, nuclear bar, and/or high ellipticity in bulge); classical bulges are those galaxy bulges with smooth isophotes which are round compared to the outer disk, and show no disky structure in their bulge. I show that galaxies structurally identified as having pseudobulges have higher central star formation rates than those of classical bulges. Further, I also show that galaxies identified as having classical bulges have remarkably regular star formation profiles. The color profiles of galaxies with classical bulges show a star forming outer disk with a sharp change, consistent with a decline in star formation rates, toward the center of the galaxy. Classical bulges have a n...

  17. A Thermodynamic Approach to Predict Formation Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid

    2016-07-01

    A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of formation enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results predicted by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of predicting formation enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.

  18. Discovery of Five New R. Coronae Borealis Stars in the MACHO Galactic Bulge Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewshi, A; Clayton, G C; Welch, D; Gordon, K D; Minniti, D; Cook, K

    2005-06-16

    We have identified five new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galactic bulge using the MACHO Project photometry database, raising the total number of known Galactic RCB stars to about 40. We have obtained spectra to confirm the identifications. The fact that four out of the five newly identified RCB stars are ''cool'' (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) rather than ''warm'' (T{sub eff} > 6000 K) suggests that the preponderance of warm RCB stars among the existing sample is a selection bias. These cool RCB stars are redder and fainter than their warm counterparts and may have been missed in surveys done with blue plates. Based on the number of new RCB stars discovered in the MACHO bulge fields, there may be {approx}250 RCB stars in the reddened ''exclusion'' zone toward the bulge.

  19. Prediction of surface and interfacial tension based on thermodynamic data and CALPHAD approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Zhiyu; CAO Zhanmin; Tanaka Toshihiro

    2006-01-01

    In this article, following a brief introduction concerning experimental measurements of surface and interfacial tensions, methods for calculating surface tension and surface segregation for binary, ternary, and multicomponent high-temperature melts based on Bulter's original treatment [1 ] and on available physical properties and thermodynamic data, especially excess Gibbs free energies of bulk phase and surface phase versus temperature obtained from thermodynamic databases using the calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) approach, with special attention to the model parameter β, have been described. In addition, the geometric models can be extended to predict surface tensions of multicom ponent systems from those of sub-binary systems. For illustration, some calculated examples, including Pb-free soldering systems and phase-diagram evaluation of binary alloys in nanoparticle systems are given. On the basis of surface tensions of high-temperature melts, interfacial tensions between liquid alloy and molten slag as well as molten slag and molten matter can be calculated using the Girifalco-Good equation [2]. Modifications are suggested in the Nishizawa's model [3] for estimation of interfacial tension in liquid metal (A)/ceramics (MX) systems so that the calculations can be carried out based on the sublattice model and thermodynamic data, without deliberately differentiating the phase of MX at high temperature. Finally, the derivation of an approximate expression for predicting interfacial tension between the high-temperature multicomponent melts, employing Becket's model [4] in conjunction with Bulter's equation and interfacial tension data of the simple systems is described, and some examples concerning pyrometallurgical systems are given for better understanding.

  20. Exploring the unusually high black hole-to-bulge mass ratios in NGC4342 and NGC4291: the asynchronous growth of bulges and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, Akos; Zhuravleva, Irina; Mihos, J Christopher; Kraft, Ralph P; Harding, Paul; Guo, Qi; Li, Zhiyuan; Churazov, Eugene; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E J; Schindler, Sabine; Jones, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We study two nearby, early-type galaxies, NGC4342 and NGC4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC4342 and NGC4291 are ~6.9% and ~1.9%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ~0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC4342 and NGC4291 are ~5.1 sigma and ~3.4 sigma outliers from the M_BH - M_bulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper we explore the origin of the unusually high black hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC4342 and NGC4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC4342 and NGC4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which >90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explai...

  1. Thermodynamics of polymer nematics described with a worm-like chain model: particle-based simulations and SCF theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Cristina; Yiang, Ying; Kremer, Kurt; Chen, Jeff; Daoulas, Kostas

    Polymer liquid crystals, apart from traditional applications as high strength materials, are important for new technologies, e.g. Organic Electronics. Their studies often invoke mesoscale models, parameterized to reproduce thermodynamic properties of the real material. Such top-down strategies require advanced simulation techniques, predicting accurately the thermodynamics of mesoscale models as a function of characteristic features and parameters. Here a recently developed model describing nematic polymers as worm-like chains interacting with soft directional potentials is considered. We present a special thermodynamic integration scheme delivering free energies in particle-based Monte Carlo simulations of this model, avoiding thermodynamic singularities. Conformational and structural properties, as well as Helmholtz free energies are reported as a function of interaction strength. They are compared with state-of-art SCF calculations invoking a continuum analog of the same model, demonstrating the role of liquid-packing and fluctuations.

  2. Proper Motions in the Galactic Bulge: Plaut's Window

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Katherine; Mendez, Rene A; Rich, R Michael; Girard, Terrence M; Korchagin, Vladimir I; van Altena, William; Majewski, Steven R; Bergh, Sidney van den

    2007-01-01

    A proper motion study of a field of 20' x 20' inside Plaut's low extinction window (l,b)=(0 deg,-8 deg), has been completed. Relative proper motions and photographic BV photometry have been derived for ~21,000 stars reaching to V~20.5 mag, based on the astrometric reduction of 43 photographic plates, spanning over 21 years of epoch difference. Proper motion errors are typically 1 mas/yr and field dependent systematics are below 0.2 mas/yr. Cross-referencing with the 2MASS catalog yielded a sample of ~8,700 stars, from which predominantly disk and bulge subsamples were selected photometrically from the JH color-magnitude diagram. The two samples exhibited different proper-motion distributions, with the disk displaying the expected reflex solar motion as a function of magnitude. Galactic rotation was also detected for stars between ~2 and ~3 kpc from us. The bulge sample, represented by red giants, has an intrinsic proper motion dispersion of (sigma_l,sigma_b)=(3.39, 2.91)+/-(0.11,0.09) mas/yr, which is in good...

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of the La-Mg-Y system and Mg-based alloys database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhenmin; GUO Cuiping; LI Changrong; ZHANG Weijing

    2006-01-01

    As an example of the La-Mg-Y system, the method how to set up the thermodynamic model of individual phases was introduced in the process of thermodynamic optimization. The solution phases (liquid, body-centered cubic,face-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed and double hexagonal close-packed) were modeled with the Redlich-Kister equation. The compound energy model has been used to describe the thermodynamic functions of the intermetallic compounds in the La-Mg-Y systems. The compounds Mg2Y, Mg24Y5, Mg12La, Mg17La2, Mg41La5, Mg3La and Mg2La in the La-Mg-Y system were treated as the formulae (Mg, Y)2(La,Mg, Y), Mg24(La,Mg, Y)4Y, Mg12(La, Y), Mg17(La, Y)2,Mg41(La,Y)5, Mg3(La,Mg,Y) and Mg2(La,Y), respectively. A model (La,Mg,Y)0.5(La,Mg,Y)0.5 was applied to describe the compound MgM formed by MgLa and MgY in order to cope with the order-disorder transition between body-centered cubic solution (A2) and MgM with CsCl-type structure (B2) in the La-Mg-Y system. The Gibbs energies of individual phases were optimized in the La-Mg, La-Y and La-Mg-Y systems by CALPHAD technique. The projection of the liquidus surfaces for the La-Mg-Y system was predicted. The Mg-based alloys database including 36 binary and 15 ternary systems formed by Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn and rare earth elements was set up in SGTE standard.

  4. Stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2000-01-01

    We compare the populations of Red Giant stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge, in the light of recent determinations of their abundances patterns. We find both populations to be compatible. From the planetary nebulae, we find evidences that the Bulge did not form stars recently. The whole abundances pattern remains however puzzling, some elements favoring a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge (Mg and Ti), and others a much slower one (He, O, Si, S, Ar and Ca).

  5. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained as a long-standing problem -- what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer space telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio ($B/T$) less than $0.5$; whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges -- possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius --indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth ...

  6. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, ~10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, ~25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  7. THERMODYNAMIC SPECTRUM OF SOLAR FLARES BASED ON SDO/EVE OBSERVATIONS: TECHNIQUES AND FIRST RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Jie [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 6A2, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Chamberlin, Phillip C., E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  8. Developing and assessing research-based tools for teaching quantum mechanics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin R.

    Research-based tools to educate college students in physics courses from introductory level to graduate level are essential for helping students with a diverse set of goals and backgrounds learn physics. This thesis explores issues related to student common difficulties with some topics in undergraduate quantum mechanics and thermodynamics courses. Student difficulties in learning quantum mechanics and thermodynamics are investigated by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students outside the class to unpack the cognitive mechanisms of the difficulties. The quantum mechanics research also focuses on using the research on student difficulties for the development and evaluation of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) to help students learn about the time-dependence of expectation values using the context of Larmor precession of spin and evaluating the role of asking students to self-diagnose their mistakes on midterm examination on their performance on subsequent problem solving. The QuILT on Larmor precession of spin has both paper-pencil activities and a simulation component to help students learn these foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the QuILT, which strives to help students build a robust knowledge structure of time-dependence of expectation values in quantum mechanics using a guided approach, is successful in helping students learn these topics in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. The technique to help upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses effectively engage in the process of learning from their mistakes is also found to be effective. In particular, research shows that the self-diagnosis activity in upper-level quantum mechanics significantly helps students who are struggling and this activity can reduce the gap between the high and low achieving students on subsequent problem solving. Finally, a survey

  9. T-bulge-shaped quantum router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The transport properties of a single photon scattered by a two-level system (TLS) in a T-bulge-shaped waveguide have been studied, which is made of two coupled-resonator waveguides (CRWs), an infinite CRW and a semi-infinite CRW with N-1 FP cavities below the node. The spontaneous emission of the TLS directs single photons from one CRW to the other. The N-1 FP cavities effect the extreme point's value and location of the propagation coefficient and incident energy curve.

  10. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) III. Metallicity distributions and kinematics of 26 Galactic bulge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zoccali, M; Gonzalez, O A; Valenti, E; Rojas-Arriagada, A; Minniti, J; Rejkuba, M; Minniti, D; McWilliam, A; Babusiaux, C; Hill, V; Renzini, A

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the Galactic bulge hosts two components with different mean metallicities, and possibly different spatial distribution and kinematics. As a consequence, both the metallicity distribution and the radial velocity of bulge stars vary across different line of sights. We present here the metallicity distribution function of red clump stars in 26 fields spread across a wide area of the bulge, with special emphasis on fields close to Galactic plane, at latitudes b=-2 and b=-1, that were not explored before. This paper includes new metallicities from a sample of about 5000 K giant stars, observed at spectral resolution R=6500, in the Calcium II Triplet region. They are the main dataset of the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey. As part of the same survey we have previously published results for a sample of about 600 K giant stars, at latitude b=-4 , derived from higher resolution spectra (R=22,500). Results. The combined sample allows us to trace and characterize the metal poor a...

  11. Diagnostics based on thermodynamic analysis of performance of steam turbines: Case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirone, G.; Arrighi, L.; Bonifacino, L.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some types of failures which have occurred with the ENEL stock of fossil-fuel steam turbines over the last 5--7 years. This paper also presents the corresponding thermodynamic analysis of turbine parameters which permitted failure diagnosis and pre-scheduled opening of the turbine. The examined failures concern: (1) in-service rupture of the bell seal retainer nut between a SH steam inlet sleeve and the inner HP/IP cylinder, on turbines with a main steam inlet system with bell seals; (2) incorrect assembly of pressure seal rings between steam inlet sleeves and the inner cylinder on turbines with a main steam inlet system with pressure seal rings during a scheduled outage; (3) steam flow path restriction in IP turbine inlet; (4) steam flow path restriction in 1st HP turbine stage nozzles; and (5) steam flow path restriction in 2nd HP turbine stage vanes. Thermodynamic failure analysis and the subsequent analysis of turbine damage (mechanical and financial) enabled condition-based maintenance operations to be carried out.

  12. Ni-based Superalloy Development for VHTR - Methodology Using Design of Experiments and Thermodynamic Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Dong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this work, to develop novel structural materials for the IHX of a VHTR, a more systematic methodology using the design of experiments (DOE) and thermodynamic calculations was proposed. For 32 sets of designs of Ni-Cr-Co-Mo alloys with minor elements of W and Ta, the mass fraction of TCP phases and mechanical properties were calculated, and finally the chemical composition was optimized for further experimental studies by applying the proposed . The highly efficient generation of electricity and the production of massive hydrogen are possible using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) among generation IV nuclear power plants. The structural material for an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) among numerous components should be endurable at high temperature of up to 950 .deg. C during long-term operation. Impurities inevitably introduced in helium as a coolant facilitate the material degradation by corrosion at high temperature. This work is concerning a methodology of Ni-Cr-Co-Mo based superalloy developed for VHTR using the design of experiments (DOE) and thermodynamic calculationsmethodology.

  13. A Thermodynamically-consistent FBA-based Approach to Biogeochemical Reaction Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B.; Jin, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial rates are critical to understanding biogeochemical processes in natural environments. Recently, flux balance analysis (FBA) has been applied to predict microbial rates in aquifers and other settings. FBA is a genome-scale constraint-based modeling approach that computes metabolic rates and other phenotypes of microorganisms. This approach requires a prior knowledge of substrate uptake rates, which is not available for most natural microbes. Here we propose to constrain substrate uptake rates on the basis of microbial kinetics. Specifically, we calculate rates of respiration (and fermentation) using a revised Monod equation; this equation accounts for both the kinetics and thermodynamics of microbial catabolism. Substrate uptake rates are then computed from the rates of respiration, and applied to FBA to predict rates of microbial growth. We implemented this method by linking two software tools, PHREEQC and COBRA Toolbox. We applied this method to acetotrophic methanogenesis by Methanosarcina barkeri, and compared the simulation results to previous laboratory observations. The new method constrains acetate uptake by accounting for the kinetics and thermodynamics of methanogenesis, and predicted well the observations of previous experiments. In comparison, traditional methods of dynamic-FBA constrain acetate uptake on the basis of enzyme kinetics, and failed to reproduce the experimental results. These results show that microbial rate laws may provide a better constraint than enzyme kinetics for applying FBA to biogeochemical reaction modeling.

  14. Hesitant Fuzzy Thermodynamic Method for Emergency Decision Making Based on Prospect Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peijia; Xu, Zeshui; Hao, Zhinan

    2016-12-30

    Due to the timeliness of emergency response and much unknown information in emergency situations, this paper proposes a method to deal with the emergency decision making, which can comprehensively reflect the emergency decision making process. By utilizing the hesitant fuzzy elements to represent the fuzziness of the objects and the hesitant thought of the experts, this paper introduces the negative exponential function into the prospect theory so as to portray the psychological behaviors of the experts, which transforms the hesitant fuzzy decision matrix into the hesitant fuzzy prospect decision matrix (HFPDM) according to the expectation-levels. Then, this paper applies the energy and the entropy in thermodynamics to take the quantity and the quality of the decision values into account, and defines the thermodynamic decision making parameters based on the HFPDM. Accordingly, a whole procedure for emergency decision making is conducted. What is more, some experiments are designed to demonstrate and improve the validation of the emergency decision making procedure. Last but not the least, this paper makes a case study about the emergency decision making in the firing and exploding at Port Group in Tianjin Binhai New Area, which manifests the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.

  15. An approach to rational ligand-design based on a thermodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui, Mihoko; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2010-11-01

    Thermodynamic analysis is an effective tool in screening of lead-compounds for development of potential drug candidates. In most cases, a ligand achieve high affinity and specificity to a target protein by means of both favorable enthalpy and entropy terms, which can be reflected in binding profiles of Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). A favorable enthalpy change suggests the contribution of noncovalent contacts such as hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction between a ligand and its target protein. In general, optimization of binding enthalpy is more difficult than that of entropies in ligand-design; therefore, it is desirable to choose firstly a lead-compound based on its binding enthalpic gain. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of thermodynamic approach to ligand screening using anti-ciguatoxin antibody 10C9 as a model of a target protein which possesses a large hydrophobic pocket. As a result of this screening, we have identified three compounds that could bind to the antigen-binding pocket of 10C9 with a few kcal/mol of favorable binding enthalpy. Comparison of their structure with the proper antigen ciguatoxin CTX3C revealed that 10C9 rigorously identifies their cyclic structure and a characteristic hydroxyl group. ITC measurement might be useful and powerful for a rational ligand screening and the optimization of the ligand; the enthalpic gain is an effective index for ligand-design studies.

  16. A catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, J Trevor; Palmer, Michael; Ellison, Sara L; Patton, David R

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660,000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both th...

  17. Solvation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with a subject that has been studied since the beginning of physical chemistry. Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that some fundamen­ tal and well-established concepts underlying the traditional approach to this subject are not satisfactory and need revision. The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical (macroscopic) ther­ modynamics alone. However, solvation is inherently a molecular pro­ cess, dependent upon local rather than macroscopic properties of the system. Therefore, the starting point should be based on statistical mechanical methods. For many years it has been believed that certain thermodynamic quantities, such as the standard free energy (or enthalpy or entropy) of solution, may be used as measures of the corresponding functions of solvation of a given solute in a given solvent. I first challenged this notion in a paper published in 1978 b...

  18. Thermodynamic Properties of Hard-Sphere Fluid under Confined Condition Based on Bridge Density Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世琦

    2003-01-01

    Based on the functional integral procedure, a recently proposed bridge density function [J. Chem. Phys. 112 (2000) 8079] is developed to calculate global thermodynamic properties of non-uniform fluids. The resulting surface tension of a hard wall-hard sphere interface as a function of the bulk hard sphere fluid density is in good agreement with the available simulation data. The proposed numerical procedure from the approximation of non-uniform first=order direct correlation function to a non=uniform system with excess Helmholtz free energy is of fundamental importance for phase behaviour under the confined condition due to the fact that many available simple approximations in classical density functional theory are for non=uniform first=order direct correlation function.

  19. Modelling the spreading rate of controlled communicable epidemics through an entropy-based thermodynamic model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W B; Cao, Z M; Hu, R F

    2013-01-01

    A model based on a thermodynamic approach is proposed for predicting the dynamics of communicable epidemics in a city, when the epidemic is governed by controlling efforts of multiple scales so that an entropy is associated with the system. All the epidemic details are factored into a single parameter that is determined by maximizing the rate of entropy production. Despite the simplicity of the final model, it predicts the number of hospitalized cases with a reasonable accuracy, using the data of SARS of the year 2003, once the inflexion point characterizing the effect of multiple controlling efforts is known. This model is supposed to be of potential usefulness since epidemics such as avian influenza like H7H9 in China this year have the risk to become communicable among human beings.

  20. An Analysis of the Thermodynamics of Hydrophobic Solvation Based on Scaled Particle Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, H

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive, semi-quantitative model for the thermodynamics of hydrophobic solvation is presented. The model is based on a very simple premise suggested by the scaled particle theory and treats both solute and solvent molecules as hard spheres. A connection between the peculiarly large heat-capacity change for hydrophobic solvation and the large temperature dependence of the thermal expansivity of water is found. Analysis reveals a possible physical origin for the converging behavior of solvation entropies for a series of homologous hydrophobic compounds. The model suggests that the low solubility and the large heat-capacity change of hydrophobic solvation stem from two distinct aspects of water molecules: the static geometry of the molecule and the dynamic hydrogen bonding network, respectively.

  1. Nitridation of Ni-based alloys: thermodynamics, kinetics, and deformation phenomena accompanying internal precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander A. Kodentsov; Jorma K. Kivilahti; Frans J.J. van Loo

    2006-01-01

    When a moderately stable phase is precipitated out during an internal reaction, the behaviour of the penetrating atoms within the diffusion zone can be interpreted based on thermodynamic considerations. Evidence for "up-hill" diffusion of the penetrating species through the matrix towards the precipitation front during the internal nitridation of Ni-Cr alloys at 1125℃ and 6000 bar of N2-pressure was predicted. Such behaviour of nitrogen is opposite to the boundary conditions in Wagner's description of internal reactions. A volume change associated with the precipitation reaction resulted in a stress gradient between the alloys surface and the internal nitridation front. Stress relief occurred mainly by transport of nickel to the gas/metal interface. Pipe diffusion-controlled creep is the dominant stress accommodation mechanism during nitriding of dilute Ni-Cr alloys at 700℃ under a flowing NH3 + H2 gas mixture.

  2. An estimate of the DM profile in the Galactic bulge region

    CERN Document Server

    Iocco, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the mass distribution in the region of the Galactic bulge, which leads to constraints on the total amount and distribution of Dark Matter (DM) therein. Our results -based on the dynamical measurement of the BRAVA collaboration- are quantitatively compatible with those of a recent analysis, and generalised to a vaste sample of observationally inferred morphologies of the stellar components in the region of the Galactic bulge. By fitting the inferred DM mass to a generalised NFW profile, we find that cores (index gamma smaller than 0.6) are forbidden only for very light configurations of the bulge, and that cusps (index gamma bigger than 1.2) are allowed, but not necessarily preferred. Interestingly, we find that the results for the bulge region are compatible with those obtained with dynamical methods (based on the rotation curve) applied to outer regions of the Milky Way, for all morphologies adopted. We find that the uncertainty on the shape of the stellar morphology heavily affects...

  3. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H

    2015-01-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature T=10^4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to r_{B,eff}/r_B, where r_{B,eff} is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and r_B is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ~1 percent of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass M_bulge is greater than the critical value of 10^6 M_sun and is proportional to M_bulge. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass M_{BH}, the growth rate of BHs with masses of 10^2, 10^4, and 10^6 M_sun exhibits distinct dependencies o...

  4. Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    1999-01-01

    We present results of broad band BVRI observations of a sample of galaxies with a low surface brightness (LSB) disk and a bulge. These galaxies are well described as exponential disks and exponential bulges with no preferred value for either scale length or central surface brightness. The median B b

  5. The Galactic Bulge The Stellar and Planetary Nebulae Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2001-01-01

    We compare abundances patterns in the Bulge for elements observed in stars and in planetary nebulae. Some alpha elements, like Mg and Ti, are overabundant respect to Fe, and others are not, like He, O, Si, S, Ar, Ca. The first ones favor a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge, and the seconds a much slower one.

  6. Central stars of planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Puls, J.; Méndez, R. H.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hoffmann, T. L.; McCarthy, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. Aims: By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. Methods: We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius dependent quantities are obtained from both the known distances and from evolutionary tracks, and the results from both approaches are compared. Results: The major result of the present investigation is that the derived spectroscopic distances depend crucially on the applied reddening law. Assuming either standard reddening or values based on radio-Hβ extinctions, we find a mean distance of 9.0±1.6 kpc and 12.2±2.1 kpc, respectively. An “average extinction law” leads to a distance of 10.7±1.2 kpc, which is still considerably larger than the Galactic center distance of 8 kpc. In all cases, however, we find a remarkable internal agreement of the individual spectroscopic distances of our sample objects, within ±10% to ±15% for the different reddening laws. Conclusions: Due to the uncertain reddening correction, the analysis presented here cannot yet be regarded as a consistency check for our method, and a rigorous test of the CSPN

  7. Natures of a clump-origin bulge: a pseudobulge-like but old metal-rich bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into two types: classical bulges or pseudobulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudobulges are suggested to form by secular evolution due to spiral arms and a barred structure funneling gas into the galactic centre. Noguchi (1998, 1999) suggested another bulge formation scenario, `clump-origin bulge'. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation since the premature disc is expected to be highly gas-rich, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. This bulge formation scenario expected happen only at the high-redshift is different from the galactic merger and the secular evolution. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. We perform a high-resolution N-body/smoothed partic...

  8. Finite Element Analysis of Bulge Forming of Laser Welding Dimple Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisi ZHONG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain states of the model of laser welded dimple jacket is analyzed using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in order to determine the relation between bulging height and pressure and to achieve the controllability of pressure distension of the jacket. It is shown that in the same conditions, the bulging height increases with the increasing of the bulging pressure and the space of honeycomb. And it will decrease when the thickness of jacket plate changing larger. A table showing the relation between bulging height and pressure is obtained. An experiment using a test panel is conducted to certify the reliability of finite element analysis. It turns out that the data of finite element analysis is coincident with experimental data, which support finite element method based ANSYS/LS-DYNA can be an efficient way to research the laser welded dimple jacket. The relation table is useful as guidance for the fabrication process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9704

  9. The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-Shaped Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Debattista, V P; Mayer, L; Moore, B; Debattista, Victor P.; Mayer, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts which would allow study of their relation to bars and disks in greater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on the fact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distribution in the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signature corresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment $s_4$. We demonstrate our method on $N$-body simulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts can be recognized to inclinations $i \\simeq 30\\degrees$, regardless of the strength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulge is present in the initial conditions as may happen if bulges form at high redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because the vertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk, that the signature of a peanut in $s_4$ is weakened...

  10. Galactic bulge giants: probing stellar and galactic evolution I. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Uttenthaler, Stefan; Sahai, Raghvendra; Blommaert, Joris A D L; Schultheis, Mathias; Kraemer, Kathleen E; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Price, Stephan D

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We aim at measuring mass-loss rates and the luminosities of a statistically large sample of Galactic bulge stars at several galactocentric radii. The sensitivity of previous infrared surveys of the bulge has been rather limited, thus fundamental questions for late stellar evolution, such as the stage at which substantial mass-loss begins on the red giant branch and its dependence on fundamental stellar properties, remain unanswered. We aim at providing evidence and answers to these questions. Methods: To this end, we observed seven 15 times 15 arcmin^2 fields in the nuclear bulge and its vicinity with unprecedented sensitivity using the IRAC and MIPS imaging instruments on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. In each of the fields, tens of thousands of point sources were detected. Results: In the first paper based on this data set, we present the observations, data reduction, the final catalogue of sources, and a detailed comparison to previous mid-IR surveys of the Galactic bulge, as well as to theoretic...

  11. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of omega-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen Deslauriers, Maria; Woodley, John

    2015-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir...

  12. A minimal dissipation type-based classification in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kazakov, V.; Kolinko, N. A.

    2003-10-01

    We formulate the problem of finding classes of kinetic dependencies in irreversible thermodynamic and microeconomic systems for which minimal dissipation processes belong to the same type. We show that this problem is an inverse optimal control problem and solve it. The commonality of this problem in irreversible thermodynamics and microeconomics is emphasized.

  13. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of ω-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John

    2015-01-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir...

  14. Thermodynamic study and modelling of iron-based melts for adequate prediction of modern ladle metallurgy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A. I.; Rodionova, I. G.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.; Zemlyanko, O. A.; Karamisheva, N. A.

    2008-02-01

    The representation of iron-based melts as associated liquids have been developed basing on the detail experimental investigation and analysis of available data on their thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. It has allowed, for the first time, to interpret adequately the reactivity of the earth metals in the iron-based melts and to predict with high precision the reactions of metal refinement and non-metallic inclusions modifying in modern ladle metallurgy.

  15. The formation of the Galactic bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine if the bulge formed via mergers as predicted by Cold Dark Matter (CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy shape, or both processes. We are observing about 28,000 bulge stars in fields that span longitudes of − 31 to + 26° and latitudes of − 5° to − 10°, targeting mostly red clump giants and we are measuring stellar velocities and chemical abundances. We have almost concluded our observations and have analysed data of 23,000 stars. We find a cylindrical rotation profile for the bulge which blends smoothly out into the disk and from the [Fe/H] results we find the bulge to be comprised of separate components, with an underlying slowly rotating metal poor subsample which we believe to be the inner halo stars and metal weak thick disk. We find only a small [Fe/H] gradient with latitude in the bulge, of − 0.07dex/kpc. This weak gradient does not necessarily support a merger origin for our bulge and the composite nature of the bulge is consistent with formation out of the thin disk as per instability formation models.

  16. A Connection Between Bulge Properties and the Bimodality of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Drory, Niv

    2007-01-01

    The global colors of galaxies have recently been shown to follow bimodal distributions. Galaxies separate into a ``red sequence'', populated prototypically by early-type galaxies, and a ``blue cloud'', whose typical objects are late-type disk galaxies. Intermediate-type (Sa-Sbc) galaxies populate both regions. It has been suggested that this bimodality reflects the two-component nature of disk-bulge galaxies. However, it has now been established that there are two types of bulges: ``classical bulges'' that are dynamically hot systems resembling (little) ellipticals, and ``pseudobulges'', dynamically cold, flattened, disk-like structures that could not have formed via violent relaxation. Therefore thee question is whether at types Sa-Sbc, where both bulge types are found, the red-blue dichotomy separates galaxies at some value of disk-to-bulge ratio, $B/T$, or, whether it separates galaxies of different bulge type, irrespective of their $B/T$. We identify classical bulges and pseudobulges morphologically with ...

  17. VIMOS mosaic integral-field spectroscopy of the bulge and disc of the early-type galaxy NGC 4697

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Coccato, L.; Pota, V.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Tortora, C.; Covone, G.; Capaccioli, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present an integral-field study of the internal structure, kinematics and stellar population of the almost edge-on, intermediate-luminosity (L★) elliptical galaxy NGC 4697. We build extended two-dimensional (2D) maps of the stellar kinematics and line strengths of the galaxy up to ˜0.7 effective radii (Reff) using a mosaic of eight VIMOS (VIsible Multi-Objects Spectrograph, on the Very Large Telescope) integral-field unit pointings. We find clear evidence for a rotation-supported structure along the major axis from the 2D kinematical maps, confirming the previous classification of this system as a `fast rotator'. We study the correlations between the third and fourth Gauss-Hermite moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) h3 and h4 with the rotation parameter (V/σ), and compare our findings to hydrodynamical simulations. We find remarkable similarities to predictions from gas-rich mergers. Based on photometry, we perform a bulge/disc decomposition and study the stellar population properties of the two components. The bulge and the disc show different stellar populations, with the stars in the bulge being older (age_bulge=13.5^{+1.4}_{-1.4} Gyr, age_disc=10.5^{+1.6}_{-2.0} Gyr) and more metal poor ({[M/H]_{bulge}} = -0.17^{+0.12}_{-0.1}, {[M/H]_{disc}} = -0.03^{+0.02}_{-0.1}). The evidence of a later-formed, more metal-rich disc embedded in an older, more metal poor bulge, together with the LOSVD structure, supports a mass assembly scenario dominated by gas-rich minor mergers and possibly with a late gas-rich major merger that left a previously rapidly rotating system unchanged. The bulge and the disc do not show signs of different stellar initial mass function (IMF) slopes, and both match well with a Milky Way-like IMF.

  18. Planetary nebulae and the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, R D D; Maciel, W J; Costa, Roberto D.D.; Escudero, Andre V.; Maciel, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron temperatures, densities, ionic and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, sulfur and neon were derived for a sample of bulge planetary nebulae, representative of its intermediate mass population. Using these results as constraints, a model for the chemical evolution of the galactic bulge was developed. The results indicate that the best fit is achieved using a double-infall model, where the first one is a fast collapse of primordial gas and the second is slower and enriched by material ejected by the bulge itself during the first episode.

  19. On the importance of thermodynamic investigations for the re-assessment of selected ternary Fe-base systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presoly, P.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-07-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data are essential for the design and the production of new alloying systems. Particularly, the knowledge of the high-temperature phase transformations (TLiquid, TSolid, TPerit, Tγ→δ) are important for the solidification and the further processing. Investigations of selected commercial Dual-Phase, TRIP and high-Mn TWIP steels by DTA/DSC measurements show that the experimental results differ significantly from the calculation results of thermodynamic databases with respect to the phase transformation temperature and sequence. Based on these findings, it is very important to identify the defective subsystems of complex alloys in order to optimise the thermodynamic databases. In order to verify a quaternary system, e.g. the Fe-C-Si-Mn system, it is important to check the corresponding ternary subsystems. This was performed by DSC measurements of selected model alloys. By doing so, it was found that in Si- and Mn-alloyed Dual-Phase steels the thermodynamic description of the Fe-Si-Mn system is currently inadequate. This is a very important result, since all new designed steel grades for the automotive industry are based on a Fe-C-Si-Mn matrix.

  20. Advancing viral RNA structure prediction: measuring the thermodynamics of pyrimidine-rich internal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Andy; Mailey, Katherine; Sakai, Jessica; Gu, Xiaobo; Schroeder, Susan J

    2017-02-17

    Accurate thermodynamic parameters improve RNA structure predictions and thus accelerate understanding of RNA function and the identification of RNA drug binding sites. Many viral RNA structures, such as internal ribosome entry sites, have internal loops and bulges that are potential drug target sites. Current models used to predict internal loops are biased towards small, symmetric purine loops, and thus poorly predict asymmetric, pyrimidine-rich loops with more than 6 nucleotides that occur frequently in viral RNA. This paper presents new thermodynamic data for 40 pyrimidine loops, many of which can form UU or protonated CC base pairs. Protonated cytosine and uracil base pairs stabilize asymmetric internal loops. Accurate prediction rules are presented that account for all thermodynamic measurements of RNA asymmetric internal loops. New loop initiation terms for loops with more than 6 nucleotides are presented that do not follow previous assumptions that increasing asymmetry destabilizes loops. Since the last 2004 update, 126 new loops with asymmetry or sizes greater than 2x2 have been measured (Mathews 2004). These new measurements significantly deepen and diversify the thermodynamic database for RNA. These results will help better predict internal loops that are larger, pyrimidine-rich, and occur within viral structures such as internal ribosome entry sites.

  1. Experimental study of heat pump thermodynamic cycles using CO2 based mixtures - Methodology and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteiller, Paul; Terrier, Marie-France; Tobaly, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to study heat pump cycles, using CO2 based mixtures as working fluids. Since adding other chemicals to CO2 moves the critical point and generally equilibrium lines, it is expected that lower operating pressures as well as higher global efficiencies may be reached. A simple stage pure CO2 cycle is used as reference, with fixed external conditions. Two scenarios are considered: water is heated from 10 °C to 65 °C for Domestic Hot Water scenario and from 30 °C to 35 °C for Central Heating scenario. In both cases, water at the evaporator inlet is set at 7 °C to account for such outdoor temperature conditions. In order to understand the dynamic behaviour of thermodynamic cycles with mixtures, it is essential to measure the fluid circulating composition. To this end, we have developed a non intrusive method. Online optical flow cells allow the recording of infrared spectra by means of a Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometer. A careful calibration is performed by measuring a statistically significant number of spectra for samples of known composition. Then, a statistical model is constructed to relate spectra to compositions. After calibration, compositions are obtained by recording the spectrum in few seconds, thus allowing for a dynamic analysis. This article will describe the experimental setup and the composition measurement techniques. Then a first account of results with pure CO2, and with the addition of propane or R-1234yf will be given.

  2. Material Based Structure Design: Numerical Analysis Thermodynamic Response of Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite /Al Sandwich Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Yan, Shilin; Yu, Dingshan

    2016-12-01

    Amine-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based thermally conductive adhesive (TCA) was studied in the previous paper and applied here in thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG)/Al radiator due to its high thermal conductivity, toughness and cohesiveness. In this paper, in an attempt to confirm the application of TCA to TPG/Al sandwich radiator, the thermodynamic response in TPG/Al sandwich composites associated with key material properties and structural design was investigated using finite element simulation with commercial available ANSYS software. The induced thermal stress in TCA layer is substantial due to the thermal expansion mismatch between Al plate and TPG. The maximum thermal stress is located near the edge of TCA layer with the von Mises stress value of 4.02 MPa and the shear stress value of 1.66 MPa. The reasonable adjustment of physical-mechanical properties including thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young,s modulus and the thickness of TCA layer, Al plate and TPG are beneficial for reducing the temperature of the top surface of the upper skin and their effects on the reduction of thermal structural response in some ways. These findings will highlight the structural optimization of TPG/Al radiator for future application.

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Diesel Engine Integrated with a PCM Based Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velraj

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the energy and exergy analysis of a diesel engine integrated with a PCM based energy storage system, and provides more realistic and meaningful assessment than the conventional energy analysis. Using actual system data, the assessments of energy and exergy saved, and energy and exergy efficiencies are done. The exergy saved in the overall system is quantified and illustrated using an exergy flow diagram. Also, energy and exergy flow diagrams are compared. It is observed through the analysis that 6.13% of the total energy of the fuel is saved using the TES system. From the exergy analysis, it is identified that only 0.47% of the chemical availability of the fuel is saved. The energy efficiency of the integrated system is found to be varying between 3.19% and 34.15%. In contrast, the exergy efficiency, which incorporates the second law of thermodynamics for the integrated system, ranges from 0.25% to 27.41%.

  4. Thermodynamics of two-stroke engine based on periodically driven two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvosta, Petr; Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem; Einax, Mario; Maass, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a microscopic motor based on an externally driven two-level system. One cycle of the motor operation consists of two strokes. Within each stroke, the two energy levels are driven with a constant rate. The occupation probabilities of the two states evolve according to the Pauli rate equation and represent the delayed system's response to the external driving. We give the exact solution of the Pauli rate equation and discuss its thermodynamical consequences. In particular, we calculate the motor's efficiency, the power output, and the performance dependence on the control parameters. Secondly, we introduce an augmented stochastic process which reflects, at a given time, both the occupation probabilities for the two states and the time spent in the individual states during the previous evolution. Our exact calculation of the evolution operator for the augmented process allows one to discuss in detail the probability density for the work during the limit cycle. In the strongly irreversible regime, the density shows strong deviations from a Gaussian shape.

  5. Dynamic biogas upgrading based on the Sabatier process: thermodynamic and dynamic process simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiaze Augustine; Born, Jens; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of substitute natural gas (SNG) generation using biogas from anaerobic digestion and hydrogen from renewable energy systems. Using thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, kinetic reactor modeling and transient simulation, an integrated approach for the operation of a biogas-based Sabatier process was put forward, which was then verified using a lab scale heterogenous methanation reactor. The process simulation using a kinetic reactor model demonstrated the feasibility of the production of SNG at gas grid standards using a single reactor setup. The Wobbe index, CO2 content and calorific value were found to be controllable by the H2/CO2 ratio fed the methanation reactor. An optimal H2/CO2 ratio of 3.45-3.7 was seen to result in a product gas with high calorific value and Wobbe index. The dynamic reactor simulation verified that the process start-up was feasible within several minutes to facilitate surplus electricity use from renewable energy systems.

  6. Material Based Structure Design: Numerical Analysis Thermodynamic Response of Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite /Al Sandwich Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Yan, Shilin; Yu, Dingshan

    2016-06-01

    Amine-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based thermally conductive adhesive (TCA) was studied in the previous paper and applied here in thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG)/Al radiator due to its high thermal conductivity, toughness and cohesiveness. In this paper, in an attempt to confirm the application of TCA to TPG/Al sandwich radiator, the thermodynamic response in TPG/Al sandwich composites associated with key material properties and structural design was investigated using finite element simulation with commercial available ANSYS software. The induced thermal stress in TCA layer is substantial due to the thermal expansion mismatch between Al plate and TPG. The maximum thermal stress is located near the edge of TCA layer with the von Mises stress value of 4.02 MPa and the shear stress value of 1.66 MPa. The reasonable adjustment of physical-mechanical properties including thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young,s modulus and the thickness of TCA layer, Al plate and TPG are beneficial for reducing the temperature of the top surface of the upper skin and their effects on the reduction of thermal structural response in some ways. These findings will highlight the structural optimization of TPG/Al radiator for future application.

  7. Stochastic thermodynamics based on incomplete information: generalized Jarzynski equality with measurement errors with or without feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, Christopher W.; Strasberg, Philipp; Brandes, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    In the derivation of fluctuation relations, and in stochastic thermodynamics in general, it is tacitly assumed that we can measure the system perfectly, i.e., without measurement errors. We here demonstrate for a driven system immersed in a single heat bath, for which the classic Jarzynski equality =1 holds, how to relax this assumption. Based on a general measurement model akin to Bayesian inference we derive a general expression for the fluctuation relation of the measured work and we study the case of an overdamped Brownian particle and of a two-level system in particular. We then generalize our results further and incorporate feedback in our description. We show and argue that, if measurement errors are fully taken into account by the agent who controls and observes the system, the standard Jarzynski-Sagawa-Ueda relation should be formulated differently. We again explicitly demonstrate this for an overdamped Brownian particle and a two-level system where the fluctuation relation of the measured work differs significantly from the efficacy parameter introduced by Sagawa and Ueda. Instead, the generalized fluctuation relation under feedback control, =1, holds only for a superobserver having perfect access to both the system and detector degrees of freedom, independently of whether or not the detector yields a noisy measurement record and whether or not we perform feedback.

  8. Computation of bone remodelling after Duracon knee arthroplasty using a thermodynamic-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougherara, H; Nazgooei, S; Sayyidmousavi, A; Marsik, F; Marík, I A

    2011-07-01

    The present study utilizes a recently developed literature model for the bone remodelling process to predict the evolution of bone density following Duracon total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this model, which is based on chemical kinetics and irreversible thermodynamics, bone is treated as a self-organizing system capable of exchanging matter, energy, and entropy with its surroundings. Unlike previous models in which mechanical loading is regarded as the only stimulus for bone remodelling, the present model establishes a unique coupling between mechanical loading and the chemical reactions involved in the process of bone remodelling. This model was incorporated into the finite element software ANSYS by means of a macro to compute density distribution in distal femoral bone both before and after TKA. Consistent with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans reported in the literature, the results showed that the most severe bone loss occurs in the anterior region of the distal femur and that there is more bone resorption in the lateral than the medial condyle following TKA. Furthermore, the bone density distribution predicted using the present model showed a gradual and uniform pattern and thus a more realistic bone evolution contrary to the strain energy density model, where there is no gradual bone density evolution.

  9. An adaptive distance-based group contribution method for thermodynamic property prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tanjin; Li, Shuang; Chi, Yawei; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Zhi; Yang, Bin; He, Xin; You, Xiaoqing

    2016-09-14

    In the search for an accurate yet inexpensive method to predict thermodynamic properties of large hydrocarbon molecules, we have developed an automatic and adaptive distance-based group contribution (DBGC) method. The method characterizes the group interaction within a molecule with an exponential decay function of the group-to-group distance, defined as the number of bonds between the groups. A database containing the molecular bonding information and the standard enthalpy of formation (Hf,298K) for alkanes, alkenes, and their radicals at the M06-2X/def2-TZVP//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was constructed. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) fitting were used to obtain the contributions from individual groups and group interactions for further predictions. Compared with the conventional group additivity (GA) method, the DBGC method predicts Hf,298K for alkanes more accurately using the same training sets. Particularly for some highly branched large hydrocarbons, the discrepancy with the literature data is smaller for the DBGC method than the conventional GA method. When extended to other molecular classes, including alkenes and radicals, the overall accuracy level of this new method is still satisfactory.

  10. Towards an evolutionary theory of the origin of life based on kinetics and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy; Sutherland, John D

    2013-11-06

    A sudden transition in a system from an inanimate state to the living state-defined on the basis of present day living organisms-would constitute a highly unlikely event hardly predictable from physical laws. From this uncontroversial idea, a self-consistent representation of the origin of life process is built up, which is based on the possibility of a series of intermediate stages. This approach requires a particular kind of stability for these stages-dynamic kinetic stability (DKS)-which is not usually observed in regular chemistry, and which is reflected in the persistence of entities capable of self-reproduction. The necessary connection of this kinetic behaviour with far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions is emphasized and this leads to an evolutionary view for the origin of life in which multiplying entities must be associated with the dissipation of free energy. Any kind of entity involved in this process has to pay the energetic cost of irreversibility, but, by doing so, the contingent emergence of new functions is made feasible. The consequences of these views on the studies of processes by which life can emerge are inferred.

  11. Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Bulge as Derived from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of K and M Red Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, K; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.

    2006-01-01

    We present chemical abundances in K and M red-giant members of the Galactic bulge derived from high-resolution infrared spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini-South. The elements studied are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, titanium, and iron. The evolution of C and N abundances in the studied red-giants show that their oxygen abundances represent the original values with which the stars were born. Oxygen is a superior element for probing the timescale of bulge chemical enrichment via [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. The [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation in the bulge does not follow the disk relation, with [O/Fe] values falling above those of the disk. Titanium also behaves similarly to oxygen with respect to iron. Based on these elevated values of [O/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] extending to large Fe abundances, it is suggested that the bulge underwent a more rapid chemical enrichment than the halo. In addition, there are declines in both [O/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] in those bulge targets with the largest Fe abundances, signifying a...

  12. Polarization in microlensing towards the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ingrosso, G; De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Nucita, A A; Strafella, F; Zakharov, A F

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing, when finite size source effects are relevant, provides an unique tool for the study of source star stellar atmospheres through an enhancement of a characteristic polarization signal. This is due to the differential magnification induced during the crossing of the source star. In this paper we consider a specific set of reported highly magnified, both single and binary exoplanetary systems, microlensing events towards the Galactic bulge and evaluate the expected polarization signal. To this purpose, we consider several polarization models which apply to different types of source stars: hot, late type main sequence and cool giants. As a result we compute the polarization signal P,which goes up to P=0.04% for late type stars and up to a few percent for cool giants, depending on the underlying physical polarization processes and atmosphere model parameters. Given a I band magnitude at maximum magnification of about 12, and a typical duration of the polarization signal up to 1 day, we c...

  13. Application of fundamental aquatic chemistry to the safety case and the role of thermodynamic reference data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Fellhauer, David; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2015-07-01

    All national and international programs developing a Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety Case have recognized the essential requirement of assessing aqueous (radionuclide) chemistry and establishing reliable thermodynamic databases. Long-term disposal of nuclear waste in deep underground repositories is the safest option to separate highly hazardous radionuclides from the environment. In order to predict the long-term performance of a repository for different evolution scenarios, the potentially relevant specific (geo)chemical systems are analyzed. This requires a detailed understanding of solubility, speciation and thermodynamics for all relevant components including radionuclides, and the availability of reliable thermodynamic data and databases as fundamental input for integral geochemical model calculations and hence PA. Radionuclide solubility and speciation strongly depend on chemical conditions (pH, E{sub h}, matrix electrolyte system and ionic strength) with additional factors like the presence of complexing ligands or temperature further impacting solution chemistry. As the fundamental chemical key processes are known and convincingly described by general laws of nature (→ solution thermodynamics), the long-term behavior of a repository system can be analyzed over geological timescales using geochemical tools. A key application of fundamental aquatic chemistry in the Safety Case is the determination of solubility limits (radionuclide source terms). Based upon fundamental chemical information (on solid phases, complexation reactions, activity coefficients, etc.), the maximum amount of radionuclides potentially dissolved in a given volume of solution and transported away from the repository, are quantified. A detailed understanding of radionuclide chemistry is also crucial for neighboring fields. For example, advanced mechanistic understanding and modeling of sorption processes at the solid liquid interphase, waste dissolution processes, secondary phase and

  14. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  15. Hiding its age: the case for a younger bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, M; Snaith, O; Calamida, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the age of the bulge has led to two contradictory results. On the one side, the color-magnitude diagrams in different bulge fields seem to indicate a uniformly old ($>$10 Gyr) population. On the other side, individual ages derived from dwarfs observed through microlensing events seem to indicate a large spread, from $\\sim$ 2 to $\\sim$ 13 Gyr. Because the bulge is now recognised as being mainly a boxy peanut-shaped bar, it is suggested that disk stars are one of its main constituents, and therefore also stars with ages significantly younger than 10 Gyr. Other arguments as well point to the fact that the bulge cannot be exclusively old, and in particular cannot be a burst population, as it is usually expected if the bulge was the fossil remnant of a merger phase in the early Galaxy. In the present study, we show that given the range of metallicities observed in the bulge, a uniformly old population would be reflected into a significant spread in color at the turn-off which is not observed. ...

  16. Stellar populations of the bulges of four spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Corsini, E M; Bontà, E Dalla; Coccato, L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Parmiggiani, M

    2015-01-01

    Key information to understand the formation and evolution of disk galaxies are imprinted in the stellar populations of their bulges. This paper has the purpose to make available new measurements of the stellar population properties of the bulges of four spiral galaxies. Both the central values and radial profiles of the line strength of some of the most common Lick indices are measured along the major- and minor- axis of the bulge-dominated region of the sample galaxies. The corresponding age, metallicity, and {\\alpha}/Fe ratio are derived by using the simple stellar population synthesis model predictions. The central values and the gradients of the stellar population properties of ESO-LV1890070, ESO-LV4460170, and ESO-LV 5140100 are consistent with previous findings for bulges of spiral galaxies. On the contrary, the bulge of ESO-LV 4500200 shows peculiar chemical properties possibly due to the presence of a central kinematically-decoupled component. The negative metallicity gradient found in our bulges samp...

  17. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First, we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyr so that these stars have high [α/Fe] as well as a high total energy reflecting their accretion to the centre of the galaxy. Therefore, higher total energy is a good indicator for finding accreted stars. The bulges of the simulated galaxies formed through multiple mergers separated by about a Gyr. Since [α/Fe] is sensitive to the first few Gyr of star formation history, stars that formed during mergers at different epochs show different [α/Fe]. We show that the [Mg/Fe] against star formation time relation can be very useful to identify a multiple merger bulge formation scenario, provided there is sufficiently good age information available. Our simulations also show that stars formed during one of the merger events retain a systematically prograde rotation at the final time. This demonstrates that the orbit of the ancient merger that helped to form the bulge could still remain in the kinematics of bulge stars.

  18. Synthesis, thermodynamic properties and BSA interaction of a new Valen Shiff base derived from o-vanillin and trimethoprim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xu; Jiang, Jian-Hong; Xiao, Sheng-Xiong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Gu, Hui-Wen, E-mail: gruyclewee@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan Province (China); Li, Chuan-Hua; Ye, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; He, Du-Gui; Yao, Fei-Hong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Li, Qiang-Guo, E-mail: liqiangguo@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China)

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the synthetic Shiff base and BSA at four different temperatures has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Highlights: • A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. • The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. • The interaction between the Shiff base and BSA has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Abstract: A new Valen Shiff base (C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}) was synthesized using equivalent moles of o-vanillin and trimethoprim. At 298.15 K, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the new compound was estimated to be Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup Θ} [C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}(s), 298.15 K] = −(696.92 ± 1.67) kJ mol{sup −1} by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the Shiff base and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Shiff base is a result of the formation of a Shiff base-BSA complex. Quenching constants were determined using the Sterns–Volmer equation to provide a measurement of the binding site between Shiff base and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS of the system at different temperatures were calculated. What is more, the distance r between donor (Trp. 213) and acceptor (Shiff base) was obtained. Finally, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data has suggested the association between Shiff base and BSA changed the molecular conformation of BSA.

  19. Molecular thermodynamic modeling of ionic liquids using the perturbation-based linear Yukawa isotherm regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi Mahboub, Mahdi; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an extensive study on a novel approach to the molecular modeling of pure ionic liquids (ILs) that incorporates the perturbed thermodynamic linear Yukawa isotherm regularity (LYIR), which is derived based on an effective nearest neighboring pair attractive interaction of the Yukawa potential. The LYIR was used to model the densities of ILs up to high pressures (35 MPa) and in the temperature range 293.15 to 393.15 K. To use the LYIR for ILs, a simple molecular model was proposed to describe their molecular structure, in which they were considered as a liquid consisting of the ion pairs moving together in the fluid, and each ion pair was assumed to be a one-center spherical united atom. The ILs under consideration contained one of the IL cations [C2mim]+, [C4mim]+, [C7mim]+, [C8mim]+, [C3mpy]+, [C3mpip]+, [C3mpyr]+ or [C4mpyr]+, and one of the IL anions [BF4]-, [C(CN)3]-, [CF3SO4]- or [NTf2]-. The reliability and physical significance of the parameters as well as the proposed molecular model were tested by calculating the densities of pure imidazolium-, pyridinium-, piperidinium- and pyrrolidimium-based ILs. The results showed that the LYIR can be used to predict and reproduce the density of ILs in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the LYIR enabled us to determine the physical quantities, such as an effective Yukawa screening length, λ eff, the product of the effective energy well depth and the effective coordination number, (ɛ eff/k)z eff, the contribution of the non-reference thermal pressure and also the influence of the anionic and cationic structure on the λ eff parameter. The standard deviation of the IL densities predicted in this work is lower than those calculated by the one other important equation of state reported in the literature.

  20. Application of thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models of concrete in the seismic analysis of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LENG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the seismic analysis of concrete dams with consideration of material nonlinearity. Based on a consistent rate-dependent model and two thermodynamics-based models, two thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models were developed with consideration of the influence of the strain rate. They can describe the dynamic behavior of concrete and be applied to nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete dams taking into account the rate sensitivity of concrete. With the two models, a nonlinear analysis of the seismic response of the Koyna Gravity Dam and the Dagangshan Arch Dam was conducted. The results were compared with those of a linear elastic model and two rate-independent thermodynamics-based constitutive models, and the influences of constitutive models and strain rate on the seismic response of concrete dams were discussed. It can be concluded from the analysis that, during seismic response, the tensile stress is the control stress in the design and seismic safety evaluation of concrete dams. In different models, the plastic strain and plastic strain rate of concrete dams show a similar distribution. When the influence of the strain rate is considered, the maximum plastic strain and plastic strain rate decrease.

  1. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Mário J

    2013-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions.  These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This textbo...

  2. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  3. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  4. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data.

  5. The Black Hole-Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läsker, Ronald; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies’ central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing “classical” bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions. (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude (106-{10}8 {M}⊙ ) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all ˜ {10}11 {M}⊙ within a factor of three. (2) The BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected when compared to an extrapolation of the BH-bulge relation based on early-type galaxies. (3) The observed large intrinsic scatter of BH masses in the megamaser host galaxies raises the question of whether scaling relations exist in spiral galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 12185.

  6. The kinematics of the bulge and the disc of NGC 7331

    CERN Document Server

    Bottema, R

    1999-01-01

    Presented are spectroscopic emission and absorption line observations along the major axis of the Sb galaxy NGC 7331. The kinematics of the ionized gas and the stars appears to be regular, but contrary to what one might expect, the emission line gas rotates slower than the stars in the inner regions. This may be caused by an inner inclined and warped gas layer. In the bulge region the absorption line profiles have a shallow extension towards the systemic velocity, but no counterrotation is observed which is contrary to previous claims. These claims might have been based on a wrong interpretation of the employed analysis method. A kinematical model has been made in order to explain the observed sizes and shapes of the absorption line profiles. It appeared necessary to combine a rapidly rotating disc having a radially decreasing velocity dispersion with a slowly rotating constant dispersion bulge. Then, simultaneously, the observed stellar radial velocities, the velocity dispersions and the observed asymmetry o...

  7. The BRAVE Program. I. Improved Bulge Stellar Velocity Dispersion Estimates for a Sample of Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Onken, Christopher A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2017-02-01

    We present new bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements for 10 active galaxies with secure MBH determinations from reverberation mapping. These new velocity dispersion measurements are based on spatially resolved kinematics from integral-field (IFU) spectroscopy. In all but one case, the field of view of the IFU extends beyond the effective radius of the galaxy, and in the case of Mrk 79 it extends to almost one half the effective radius. This combination of spatial resolution and field of view allows for secure determinations of stellar velocity dispersion within the effective radius for all 10 target galaxies. Spatially resolved maps of the first (V) and second (σ⋆) moments of the line of sight velocity distribution indicate the presence of kinematic substructure in most cases. In future projects we plan to explore methods of correcting for the effects of kinematic substructure in the derived bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements.

  8. General thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Olander, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The book’s methodology is unified, concise, and multidisciplinary, allowing students to understand how the principles of thermodynamics apply to all technical fields that touch upon this most fundamental of scientific theories. It also offers a rigorous approach to the quantitative aspects of thermodynamics, accompanied by clear explanations to help students transition smoothly from the physical concepts to their mathematical representations

  9. Thermodynamics of relation-based systems with applications in econophysics, sociophysics, and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2012-10-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze relation-based systems evolving in time by using the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics. The behavior of such systems can be tracked from the scattering matrix which is actually a network of directed vectors (or pathways) connecting subsequent values, which characterize an event, such as the index values in stock markets. A system behaves in a rigid (elastic) way to an external effect and resists permanent deformation, or it behaves in a viscous (or soft) way and deforms in an irreversible way. It was shown in the past that a formula derived using the slope of paths gives a measure about the extent of viscoelastic behavior of relation-based systems Gündüz (2009) [5] Gündüz and Gündüz (2010) [6]. In this research the ‘work’ associated with ‘elastic’ component, and ‘heat’ associated with ‘viscous’ component were discussed and elaborated. In a simple two subsequent pathway system in a scattering diagram the first vector represents ‘the cause’ and the second ‘the effect’. By using work and heat energy relations that involve force and also storage and loss modulus terms, respectively, one can calculate the energy involved in relation-based systems. The modulus values can be found from the parallel and vertical components of the second vector with respect to the first vector. Once work-like and heat-like terms were determined the internal energy is also easily found from their summation. The parallel and vertical components can also be used to calculate the magnitude of torque and torque energy in the system. Three cases, (i) the behavior of the NASDAQ-100 index, (ii) a social revolt, and (iii) the structure of a melody were analyzed for their ‘work-like’, ‘heat-like’, and ‘torque-like’ energies in the course of their evolution. NASDAQ-100 exhibits highly dissipative behavior, and its work terms are very small but heat terms are of large magnitude. Its internal energy highly fluctuates

  10. Numerical Predictions of Damage and Failure in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminates Using a Thermodynamically-Based Work Potential Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, referred to as enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Consistent characteristic lengths are introduced into the formulation to govern the evolution of the failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs are derived. The theory is implemented into a commercial finite element code. The model is verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared against the experimental results.

  11. Theoretical models for fluid thermodynamics based on the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Summary The theoretical modeling of fluid thermodynamics is one of the most challenging fields in physical chemistry. In fact the fluid behavior, except at very low density conditions, is still extremely difficult to be modeled from a statistical mechanical point of view, as for any realistic model

  12. Advanced thermodynamics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Jog, Milind A

    2011-01-01

    Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels IntroductionImportance, Significance and LimitationsReview of ThermodynamicsMathematical BackgroundOverview of Microscopic/NanothermodynamicsSummaryAppendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems First Law of ThermodynamicsZeroth LawFirst Law for a Closed SystemQuasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) ProcessesEnthalpy and First LawAdiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific HeatsFirst Law for an Open SystemApplications of First Law for an Open SystemIntegral and Differential Form

  13. Design of Ni-base superalloys and MCrAlY coatings from first-principles and computational thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan

    This thesis explores the thermodynamics of Ni-base superalloys and metallic coatings used in the protection of these alloys. First, a thermodynamic description of the Nb-Re binary system is developed by means of the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method supplemented by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and experimental data in the literature. In addition to terminal solution phases in the Nb-Re system, there are two intermetallic phases, sigma (sigma) and chi (chi), all modeled with sublattice models. Special quasi-random structures (SQS) are employed to mimic the random mixing of the bcc, hcp, and fcc solid solution phases from first-principles. Finite temperature thermodynamic properties of end-members and dilute mixing in each sublattice of the complex sigma and chi phases are predicted from first-principles calculations and the Debye-Gruneisen model. The utility of the Debye-Gruneisen model is then investigated with respect to its fitting parameter known as the scaling factor, and it is found that the prediction of finite-temperature properties can be improved by modification of this factor. This scaling factor is studied using bcc, fcc, hcp systems and the Mg-Zn binary system due to the abundance of thermodynamic data. Predicted Debye temperatures (thetaD), using a calculated scaling factor, show good agreement with experiments and improvements over the scaling factor derived by Moruzzi et al. Finite-temperature thermodynamic properties of intermetallics are investigated to show the efficiency and improved accuracy of the calculated scaling factor. However, for the intermetallic Mg2Zn11, the Debye-Gruneisen model cannot account for anomalous lattice dynamics at low temperatures. The calculated scaling factor is then used throughout the present work for finite-temperature predictions. Another missing piece of the literature includes the thermodynamics of Al-Co-Cr-Ni bond coat system used in the protection of

  14. Fracture and springback on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Djavanroodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish a basic understanding of Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Form processing of stainless steel deep drawn cups. The method is briefly reviewed by carrying out experimental tests and Finite element analysis. By measuring bulge height in both formed curves by Coordinate measuring machine (CMM and thickness variation specimen by Ulterasonic thickness measurment device (UTM, it has been shown that maximum thinness occured where the bending is maximized. A finite element model is constructed to simulate the Double Bulge Tube Hydro Forming process and asses the influence of friction cofficient, tube Material properties and springback. It has been shown that material hardening coefficient had the most significant influence on formability characteristics during double bulge tube hydroforming. Also it is shown that springback has significant effect on tolerances of formed tube. Finally fracture strain was estimated by analytical method and compared with simulation results, also fracture location was predicted on Double Bulge Tube Hydro-Forming (DBTHF by simulating the process.

  15. Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can...

  16. Large-scale screening of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage from first-principles calculations based on equilibrium reaction thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chul; Kulkarni, Anant D; Johnson, J Karl; Sholl, David S

    2011-04-21

    Systematic thermodynamics calculations based on density functional theory-calculated energies for crystalline solids have been a useful complement to experimental studies of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides. We report the most comprehensive set of thermodynamics calculations for mixtures of light metal hydrides to date by performing grand canonical linear programming screening on a database of 359 compounds, including 147 compounds not previously examined by us. This database is used to categorize the reaction thermodynamics of all mixtures containing any four non-H elements among Al, B, C, Ca, K, Li, Mg, N, Na, Sc, Si, Ti, and V. Reactions are categorized according to the amount of H(2) that is released and the reaction's enthalpy. This approach identifies 74 distinct single step reactions having that a storage capacity >6 wt.% and zero temperature heats of reaction 15 ≤ΔU(0)≤ 75 kJ mol(-1) H(2). Many of these reactions, however, are likely to be problematic experimentally because of the role of refractory compounds, B(12)H(12)-containing compounds, or carbon. The single most promising reaction identified in this way involves LiNH(2)/LiH/KBH(4), storing 7.48 wt.% H(2) and having ΔU(0) = 43.6 kJ mol(-1) H(2). We also examined the complete range of reaction mixtures to identify multi-step reactions with useful properties; this yielded 23 multi-step reactions of potential interest.

  17. Chemical abundances in a high velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Camilla Juul; Koch, Andreas; Xu, Siyi; Kunder, Andrea; Ludwig, Hans-Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass, variable, high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic centre. Wide-area surveys like APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities larger than 350 km/s. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass, RR Lyrae star, located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~ -400 km/s. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derive abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allow us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, combining its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances suggests that the star was accelerated from the out...

  18. Milky Way mass galaxies with X-shaped bulges are not rare in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Laurikainen, E; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, A; Herrera-Endoqui, M

    2014-01-01

    Boxy/Peanut/X-shaped (B/P/X) bulges are studied using the 3.6 micron images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), and the Ks-band images from the Near-IR S0 galaxy Survey (NIRS0S). They are compared with the properties of barlenses, defined as lens-like structures embedded in bars. Based on observations and recent simulation models we show evidence that barlenses are the more face-on counterparts of B/P/X-shaped bulges. Using unsharp masks 18 new X-shaped structures were identified, covering a large range of galaxy inclinations. The similar masses and red B-3.6 micron colors of the host galaxies, and the fact that the combined axial ratio distribution of the host galaxy disks is flat, supports the interpretation that barlenses and X-shapes are physically the same phenomenon. Our detailed 2D multi-component decompositions for 30 galaxies, fitting the barlens/X-shape with a separate component indicate very small or non-existent classical bulges. Taking into account that the structures ...

  19. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  20. A new [Oiii] \\lamda5007 {\\AA} Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, A V; Jacoby, G H; Miszalski, B

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Nebulae Luminosity Function (PNLF) describes the collective luminosity evolution for a given population of Planetary Nebulae (PN). A major paradox in current PNLF studies is in the universality of the absolute magnitude of the brightest PNe with galaxy type and age. The progenitor central-star mass required to produce such bright PNe should have evolved beyond the PNe phase in old, red elliptical galaxies whose stellar populations are ~10~Gyr. Only by dissecting this resolved population in detail can we attempt to address this conundrum. The Bulge of our Galaxy is predominantly old \\citep{Z03} and can therefore be used as a proxy for an elliptical galaxy, but with the significant advantage that the population is resolvable from ground based telescopes. We have used the MOSAIC-II camera on the Blanco 4-m at CTIO to carefully target ~80 square degrees of the Galactic Bulge and establish accurate [Oiii] fluxes for 80% of Bulge PNe currently known from the Acker and MASH catalogues. Construction of ...

  1. Bulge Growth and Quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Philipp; Somerville, Rachel; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Genzel, Reinhard; Bell, Eric F; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale D; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J; Primack, Joel R; Rosario, David J; Skelton, Rosalind E; Tacconi, Linda J; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all 5 CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10^10 Msun, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit 2-dimensional models comprising a single Sersic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10^11 Msun. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our fin...

  2. Mapping the Three-Dimensional "X-Shaped Structure" in Models of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the X-shaped structure in the Milky Way bulge can naturally arise from the bar instability and buckling instability. To understand the influence of the buckling amplitude on the morphology of the X-shape, we analyze three self-consistent numerical simulations of barred galaxies with different buckling amplitudes (strong, intermediate and weak). We derive the three-dimensional density with an adaptive kernel smoothing technique. The face-on iso-density surfaces are all elliptical, while in the edge-on view, the morphology of buckled bars transitions with increasing radius, from a central boxy core to a peanut bulge and then to an extended thin bar. Based on these iso-density surfaces at different density levels, we find no clear evidence for a well-defined structure shaped like a letter X. The X-shaped structure is more peanut-like, whose visual perception is probably enhanced by the pinched inner concave iso-density contours. The peanut bulge can reproduce qualitatively t...

  3. Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The Distance Scale Galactic Bulge - LMC - SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the mean luminosity of three samples of field RRab Lyr stars observed in the course of the OGLE microlensing experiment: 73 stars from the Galactic bulge and 110 and 128 stars from selected fields in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The fields are the same as in the recent distance determination to the Magellanic Clouds with the red clump stars method by Udalski et al (1998). We determine the relative distance scale d_{GB}:d_{LMC}:d_{SMC} equal to: (0.194+/-0.010):1.00:(1.30+/-0.08). We calibrate our RR Lyr distance scale with the recent calibration of Gould and Popowski (1998) based on statistical parallaxes. We obtain the following distance moduli to the Galactic bulge, LMC and SMC: m-M=14.53+/-0.15, m-M=18.09+/-0.16 and m-M=18.66+/-0.16 mag. We use the RR Lyr mean V-band luminosity at the Galactic bulge metallicity as the reference brightness and analyze the mean, I-band luminosity of the red clump stars in objects with different ages and metallicities. We add to our analysis the metal poor Carina...

  4. Determination of Cloud Thermodynamic Phase with Ground Based, Polarimetrically Sensitive, Passive Sky Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Dunagan, S. E.; Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.

    2015-12-01

    When observed from the ground, optically thick clouds minimally polarize light, while the linear polarization direction (angle) of optically thin clouds contains information about thermodynamic phase. For instruments such at the Cimel radiometers that comprise the AErosol RObotic NEtwork (AERONET), these properties can also be exploited to aid cloud optical property retrievals. Using vector radiative transfer simulations, we explore the conditions most favorable to cloud thermodynamic phase determination, then test with actual AERONET data. Results indicate that this technique may be appropriate for some, but not all, conditions, and motivate a deeper investigation about the polarization direction measurement capability of Cimel instruments, which to date have been primarily used to determine degree of polarization. Recent work explores these measurement issues using a newly installed instrument at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.

  5. Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement to the Indium Point Based on Radiance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2017-04-01

    A multi-national project (the EMRP InK project) was completed recently, which successfully determined the thermodynamic temperatures of several of the high-temperature fixed points above the copper point. The National Metrology Institute of Japan contributed to this project with its newly established absolute spectral radiance calibration capability. In the current study, we have extended the range of thermodynamic temperature measurement to below the copper point and measured the thermodynamic temperatures of the indium point (T_{90} = 429.748 5 K), tin point (505.078 K), zinc point (692.677 K), aluminum point (933.473 K) and the silver point (1 234.93 K) by radiance comparison against the copper point, with a set of radiation thermometers having center wavelengths ranging from 0.65 μm to 1.6 μm. The copper-point temperature was measured by the absolute radiation thermometer which was calibrated by radiance method traceable to the electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer. The radiance of the fixed-point blackbodies was measured by standard radiation thermometers whose spectral responsivity and nonlinearity are precisely evaluated, and then the thermodynamic temperatures were determined from radiance ratios to the copper point. The values of T-T_{90} for the silver-, aluminum-, zinc-, tin- and indium-point cells were determined as -4 mK (U = 104 mK, k=2), -99 mK (88 mK), -76 mK (76 mK), -68 mK (163 mK) and -42 mK (279 mK), respectively.

  6. The lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chun-Hua; Lv Guo-Liang; Wang Zhao-Jun; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge, we have made a detailed study of thermal pulseasymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars by using a population synthesis code. The effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood (close to the present observations) is insufficient to explain the rareness of carbon stars in the bulge. We suggest that the large mass loss rate may serve as a controlling factor in the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars.

  7. Near-Infrared Bulge-Disk Correlations of Lenticular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Kembhavi, Ajit K; Mayya, Y D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the luminosity and environmental dependence of structural parameters of lenticular galaxies in the near-infrared K band. Using a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extract bulge and disk structural parameters for a sample of 36 lenticular galaxies observed by us in the K band. By combining data from the literature for field and cluster lenticulars with our data, we study correlations between parameters that characterise the bulge and the disk as a function of luminosity and environment. We find that scaling relations such as the Kormendy relation, photometric plane and other correlations involving bulge and disk parameters show a luminosity dependence. This dependence can be explained in terms of galaxy formation models in which faint lenticulars (M_T > -24.5) formed via secular formation processes that likely formed the pseudobulges of late-type disk galaxies, while brighter lenticulars (M_T < -24.5) formed through a different formation mechanism most likely involving maj...

  8. Galactic Rotation Described with Bulge+Disk Gravitational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, C F

    2008-01-01

    Observations reveal that mature spiral galaxies consist of stars, gases and plasma approximately distributed in a thin disk of circular shape, usually with a central bulge. The rotation velocities quickly increase from the galactic center and then achieve a constant velocity from the core to the periphery. The basic dynamic behavior of a mature spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, is well described by simple models balancing Newtonian gravitational forces against the centrifugal forces associated with a rotating thin axisymmetric disk. In this research, we investigate the effects of adding central bulges to thin disk gravitational models. Even with the addition of substantial central bulges, all the critical essential features of our thin disk gravitational models are preserved. (1) Balancing Newtonian gravitational and centrifugal forces at every point within the disk yields computed radial mass distributions that describe the measured rotation velocity profiles of mature spiral galaxies successfully. (2) T...

  9. The Metallicity Gradient of the Old Galactic Bulge Population

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structure, formation and evolution of the Galactic Bulge requires the proper determination of spatial metallicity gradients in both the radial and vertical directions. RR Lyrae pulsators, known to be excellent distance indicators, may hold the key to determining these gradients. Jurcsik & Kovacs (1996) has shown that RR Lyrae light curves and the phase difference of their Fourier decomposition, {\\phi}31, can be used to estimate photometric metallicities. The existence of galactic bulge metallicity gradients is a currently debated topic that would help pinpoint the Galaxy's formation and evolution. A recent study of the OGLE-III Galactic Bulge RR Lyrae Population by Pietrukowicz et al. (2012) suggests that the spatial distribution is uniform. We investigate how small a gradient would be detectable within the current S/N levels of the present data set, given the random and systematic errors associated with the derivation of a photometric metallicity versus spatial position relationship.

  10. A Thermodynamically-Based Model For Predicting Microbial Growth And Community Composition Coupled To System Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    We present an approach that couples thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth and geochemical reactions to provide quantitative predictions for the effects of substrate addition or other enviornmental perturbations on microbial community composition. A synthetic microbial community is defined as a collection of defined microbial groups; each with a growth equation derived from bioenergetic principles. The growth equations and standard-state free energy yields are appended to a thermodynamic database for geochemical reactions and the combined equations are solved simultaneously to predict coupled changes in microbial biomass, community composition, and system geochemistry. This approach, with a single set of thermodynamic parameters (one for each growth equation), was used to predict the results of laboratory and field experiments at three geochemically diverse research sites. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on radionuclide and heavy metal solubility, major ion geochemistry, mineralogy, microbial biomass and community composition were in general agreement with experimental observations although the available experimental data precluded rigorous model testing. Model simulations provide insight into the long-standing difficulty in transferring experimental results from the laboratory to the field and from one site to the next, especially if the form, concentration, or delivery of growth substrate is varied from one experiment to the next. Although originally developed for use in better understanding bioimmobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals via reductive precipitation, the modeling approach is potentially useful for exploring the coupling of microbial growth and geochemical reactions in a variety of basic and applied biotechnology research settings.

  11. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2014-12-01

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron-vanadium, and iron-chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. Proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  12. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  14. Constructor Theory of Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Marletto, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics, powerful for countless purposes, are not exact: both their phenomenological and their statistical-mechanical versions are valid only at 'macroscopic scales', which are never defined. Here I propose a new, exact and scale-independent formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, using the principles and tools of the recently proposed constructor theory. Specifically, I improve upon the axiomatic formulations of thermodynamics (Carath\\'eodory, 1909; Lieb and Yngvason, 1999) by proposing an exact and more general formulation of 'adiabatic accessibility'. This work provides an exact distinction between work and heat; it reveals an unexpected connection between information theory and the first law of thermodynamics (not just the second); it resolves the clash between the irreversibility of the 'cycle'-based second law and time-reversal symmetric dynamical laws. It also achieves the long-sought unification of the axiomatic version of the second law with Kelvin's.

  15. Thermodynamic-based retention time predictions of endogenous steroids in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline C A; Ebrahimi-Najafadabi, Heshmatollah; McGinitie, Teague M; Casilli, Alessandro; Pereira, Henrique M G; Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Harynuk, James J

    2015-05-01

    This work evaluates the application of a thermodynamic model to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry for anabolic agent investigation. Doping control deals with hundreds of drugs that are prohibited in sports. Drug discovery in biological matrices is a challenging task that requires powerful tools when one is faced with the rapidly changing designer drug landscape. In this work, a thermodynamic model developed for the prediction of both primary and secondary retention times in GC × GC has been applied to trimethylsilylated hydroxyl (O-TMS)- and methoxime-trimethylsilylated carbonyl (MO-TMS)-derivatized endogenous steroids. This model was previously demonstrated on a pneumatically modulated GC × GC system, and is applied for the first time to a thermally modulated GC × GC system. Preliminary one-dimensional experiments allowed the calculation of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔC p ) which were successfully applied for the prediction of the analytes' interactions with the stationary phases of both the first-dimension column and the second-dimension column. The model was able to predict both first-dimension and second-dimension retention times with high accuracy compared with the GC × GC experimental measurements. Maximum differences of -8.22 s in the first dimension and 0.4 s in the second dimension were encountered for the O-TMS derivatives of 11β-hydroxyandrosterone and 11-ketoetiocholanolone, respectively. For the MO-TMS derivatives, the largest discrepancies were from testosterone (9.65 ) for the first-dimension retention times and 11-keto-etiocholanolone (0.4 s) for the second-dimension retention times.

  16. Thermodynamic Stability of Structure H Hydrates Based on the Molecular Properties of Large Guest Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Ohmura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper report analyses of thermodynamic stability of structure-H clathrate hydrates formed with methane and large guest molecules in terms of their gas phase molecular sizes and molar masses for the selection of a large guest molecule providing better hydrate stability. We investigated the correlation among the gas phase molecular sizes, the molar masses of large molecule guest substances, and the equilibrium pressures. The results suggest that there exists a molecular-size value for the best stability. Also, at a given molecule size, better stability may be available when the large molecule guest substance has a larger molar mass.

  17. Galactic Bulge Giants: Probing Stellar and Galactic Evolution. 1. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttenthaler, Stefan; Stute, Matthias; Sahai, Raghvendra; Blommaert, Joris A.; Schultheis, Mathias; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Groenewegen, Martin A.; Price, Stephan D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We aim at measuring mass-loss rates and the luminosities of a statistically large sample of Galactic bulge stars at several galactocentric radii. The sensitivity of previous infrared surveys of the bulge has been rather limited, thus fundamental questions for late stellar evolution, such as the stage at which substantial mass-loss begins on the red giant branch and its dependence on fundamental stellar properties, remain unanswered. We aim at providing evidence and answers to these questions. Methods. To this end, we observed seven 15 15 arcmin2 fields in the nuclear bulge and its vicinity with unprecedented sensitivity using the IRAC and MIPS imaging instruments on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. In each of the fields, tens of thousands of point sources were detected. Results. In the first paper based on this data set, we present the observations, data reduction, the final catalogue of sources, and a detailed comparison to previous mid-IR surveys of the Galactic bulge, as well as to theoretical isochrones. We find in general good agreement with other surveys and the isochrones, supporting the high quality of our catalogue.

  18. Optimum Location of Tube Blank in Electromagnetic Bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using analytical method, this paper gets the mutual inductance between coil and workpiece in tube blank electromagnetic bulging. According to this, we obtain the optimum locations of tube blank with different length of coil and workpiece. There is a good agreement between results calculated and the experimental data.

  19. The disc origin of the Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, P

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge, that is the prominent out-of-plane over-density present in the inner few kiloparsecs of the Galaxy, is a complex structure, as the morphology, kinematics, chemistry and ages of its stars indicate. To understand the nature of its main components -- those at [Fe/H] >~ -1 dex -- it is necessary to make an inventory of the stellar populations of the Galactic disc(s), and of their borders : the chemistry of the disc at the solar vicinity, well known from detailed studies of stars over many years, is not representative of the whole disc. This finding, together with the recent revisions of the mass and sizes of the thin and thick discs, constitutes a major step in understanding the bulge complexity. N-body models of a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge formed from a thin disc through the intermediary of a bar have been successful in interpreting a number of global properties of the Galactic bulge, but they fail in reproducing the detailed chemo-kinematic relations satisfied by its components and their morp...

  20. New insights on the Galactic Bulge Initial Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Calamida, A; Casertano, S; Anderson, J; Cassisi, S; Gennaro, M; Cignoni, M; Brown, T M; Kains, N; Ferguson, H; Livio, M; Bond, H E; Buonanno, R; Clarkson, W; Ferraro, I; Pietrinferni, A; Salaris, M; Valenti, J

    2015-01-01

    We have derived the Galactic bulge initial mass function of the SWEEPS field down to 0.15 $M_{\\odot}$, using deep photometry collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Observations at several epochs, spread over 9 years, allowed us to separate the disk and bulge stars down to very faint magnitudes, $F814W \\approx$ 26 mag, with a proper-motion accuracy better than 0.5 mas/yr (20 km/s). This allowed us to determine the initial mass function of the pure bulge component uncontaminated by disk stars for this low-reddening field in the Sagittarius window. In deriving the mass function, we took into account the presence of unresolved binaries, errors in photometry, distance modulus and reddening, as well as the metallicity dispersion and the uncertainties caused by adopting different theoretical color-temperature relations. We found that the Galactic bulge initial mass function can be fitted with two power laws with a break at $M \\sim$ 0.56 $M_{\\odot}$, the slope being steeper ($\\a...

  1. Ongoing massive star formation in the bulge of M51

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, HJGLM; Panagia, N; Scuderi, S; Romaniello, M; Spaans, M; Kirshner, R

    2002-01-01

    We present a study of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the inner kiloparsec of the interacting galaxy M51 in six bands from 2550 to 8140 Angstrom. The images show an oval-shaped area (which we call the "bulge") of about 11" x 16", or 450 x 650 pc, around the nucle

  2. Relation between $M_{BH}$ and $M_{bulge}

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Yan Ning; Deng, Z G

    2001-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of super star clusters (SSCs) moving in the background of dark matter halo has been investigated as a possible event causing the observed correlation between the mass of galactic bulge, $M_{bulge}$, and the mass of its central black hole, $M_{BH}$. The involved physical processes are the sinking of SSCs due to the dynamical friction, and the stripping of SSCs on their way to the center. Model calculations show that only sinking of circumnuclear SSCs contribute to both the growth of the central object and the formation of the galactic bulge at the early stage. On the assumption of a universal density profile for the dark matter halo, and an isothermal model for the SSCs, our simulations have yielded the mass ratio of the central objects to the bulges formed this way to be about a few times $10^{-4}$, less than the observed median value for early type galaxies. It is, however, consistent with the observed mass ratio for disk spirals, implying that the proposed scenario might be a possibl...

  3. Type-Ia Supernova-driven Galactic Bulge Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shikui; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Joung, M Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Stellar feedback in galactic bulges plays an essential role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. To quantify this role and facilitate comparisons with X-ray observations, we conduct 3D hydrodynamical simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code, FLASH, to investigate the physical properties of hot gas inside a galactic bulge, similar to that of our Galaxy or M31. We assume that the dynamical and thermal properties of the hot gas are dominated by mechanical energy input from SNe, primarily Type Ia, and mass injection from evolved stars as well as iron enrichment from SNe. We study the bulge-wide outflow as well as the SN heating on scales down to ~4 pc. An embedding scheme that is devised to plant individual SNR seeds, allows to examine, for the first time, the effect of sporadic SNe on the density, temperature, and iron ejecta distribution of the hot gas as well as the resultant X-ray morphology and spectrum. We find that the SNe produce a bulge wind with highly filamentary density structures and patch...

  4. The X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way revealed by WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way bulge has a boxy/peanut morphology and an X-shaped structure. This X-shape has been revealed by the `split in the red clump' from star counts along the line of sight toward the bulge, measured from photometric surveys. This boxy, X-shaped bulge morphology is not unique to the Milky Way and such bulges are observed in other barred spiral galaxies. N-body simulations show that boxy and X-shaped bulges are formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. It has also been proposed that the Milky Way bulge is not X-shaped, but rather, the apparent split in the red clump stars is a consequence of different stellar populations, in an old classical spheroidal bulge. We present a WISE image of the Milky Way bulge, produced by downsampling the publicly available "unWISE" coadds. The WISE image of the Milky Way bulge shows that the X-shaped nature of the Milky Way bulge is self-evident and irrefutable. The X-shape morphology of the bulge in itself and the fraction of bulge stars that comprise orbits withi...

  5. Thermodynamical analysis of a quantum heat engine based on harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insinga, Andrea; Andresen, Bjarne; Salamon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Many models of heat engines have been studied with the tools of finite-time thermodynamics and an ensemble of independent quantum systems as the working fluid. Because of their convenient analytical properties, harmonic oscillators are the most frequently used example of a quantum system. We analyze different thermodynamical aspects with the final aim of the optimization of the performance of the engine in terms of the mechanical power provided during a finite-time Otto cycle. The heat exchange mechanism between the working fluid and the thermal reservoirs is provided by the Lindblad formalism. We describe an analytical method to find the limit cycle and give conditions for a stable limit cycle to exist. We explore the power production landscape as the duration of the four branches of the cycle are varied for short times, intermediate times, and special frictionless times. For short times we find a periodic structure with atolls of purely dissipative operation surrounding islands of divergent behavior where, rather than tending to a limit cycle, the working fluid accumulates more and more energy. For frictionless times the periodic structure is gone and we come very close to the global optimal operation. The global optimum is found and interestingly comes with a particular value of the cycle time.

  6. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermodynamic Studies of Nanoemulsion-Based Transdermal Delivery System for Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Loong Ngan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated in palm kernel oil esters stabilized by low amount of mixed nonionic surfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were established in the colloidal system of PKOEs/Tween 80 : Span 80/water incorporated with fullerene as antioxidant. Preformulation was subjected to combination of high and low energy emulsification methods and the physicochemical characteristics of fullerene nanoemulsions were analyzed using electroacoustic spectrometer. Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsions with particle sizes in the range of 70–160 nm were formed. The rheological characteristics of colloidal systems exhibited shear thinning behavior which fitted well into the power law model. The effect of xanthan gum (0.2–1.0%, w/w and beeswax (1–3%, w/w in the estimation of thermodynamics was further studied. From the energetic parameters calculated for the viscous flow, a moderate energy barrier for transport process was observed. Thermodynamic study showed that the enthalpy was positive in all xanthan gum and beeswax concentrations indicating that the formation of nanoemulsions could be endothermic in nature. Fullerene nanoemulsions with 0.6% or higher xanthan gum content were found to be stable against creaming and flocculation when exposed to extreme environmental conditions.

  7. A micromechanics-based thermodynamic model for the domain switch in ferroelectric crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.F.; Weng, G.J

    2004-05-03

    In this work we take the view that domain switch in ferroelectric crystals is a thermodynamics-driven process. In this light we first consider the micromechanics of domain switch to derive the Gibbs free energy of the heterogeneous system and the corresponding thermodynamic driving force at a given level of switched domain concentration f{sub p}, applied stress {sigma}-bar{sub ij}, and applied electric field E-bar{sub i}. Then in conjunction with Miller and Weinreich's [Phys. Rev. 117 (1960) 1460] resistance force for the sidewise motion of 180 deg. domain walls, a kinetic equation is established to calculate the evolution of new domains under a reversed electric field for a BaTiO{sub 3} crystal. The calculated results show that, as the field increases, the switching process is initially rapid, and then becomes quite slow as it approaches the saturation state. The calculated polarization versus the electric field relation (P-E relation) is found to agree with the measured characteristics. The effect of porosity on the switching processes is also examined. It is found that, due to the lower level of Gibbs free energy in the presence of pores, a higher field is required to overcome the energy resistance of domain switch. On the other hand, due to the lower initial parent domain concentration, the level of electric field to cause a complete reversal of the domains decreases with porosity.

  8. Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics-Based ICME Framework for High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróyave, Raymundo; Talapatra, Anjana; Johnson, Luke; Singh, Navdeep; Ma, Ji; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, considerable interest in the development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs) for solid-state actuation has increased dramatically as key applications in the aerospace and automotive industry demand actuation temperatures well above those of conventional SMAs. Most of the research to date has focused on establishing the (forward) connections between chemistry, processing, (micro)structure, properties, and performance. Much less work has been dedicated to the development of frameworks capable of addressing the inverse problem of establishing necessary chemistry and processing schedules to achieve specific performance goals. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) has emerged as a powerful framework to address this problem, although it has yet to be applied to the development of HTSMAs. In this paper, the contributions of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to ICME of HTSMAs are described. Some representative examples of the use of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to understand the phase stability and microstructural evolution in HTSMAs are discussed. Some very recent efforts at combining both to assist in the design of HTSMAs and limitations to the full implementation of ICME frameworks for HTSMA development are presented.

  9. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  10. Developing a thermodynamic a conceptual model for the Itumbiara hydroelectric reservoir based on satellite and telemetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enner Herenio de Alcântara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic systems continually respond to climatic conditions that vary over broad scales of space and time. The response of each water body to external conditions (hydro-meteorological processes is revealed in the first place by the thermal structures present in water body. Most lacustrine chemical, physical and biological processes are affected directly by lake hydrological (e.g. lake depth and thermal changes (e.g. seasonal stratification, and are thus, indirectly affected by climate variation. Understanding lake-climate system interactions is therefore of fundamental importance to evaluate the effects of climate change on limnological processes. Based on this, the objective of this work was to develop a thermodynamic conceptual model for the Itumbiara hydroelectric reservoir (Goiás State, Brazil. The developed methodology was based on the use of satellite imagery of moderate resolution that allow the computation of the water surface temperature from 2003 to 2008 (six years during the daytime and nighttime. The results showed the potential of the use of moderate resolution satellite data to study water surface temperature variability and to explain the main causes of this variability. The use of hydro-meteorological and bulk temperature collected by station and autonomous buoy, respectively, contributed to better understand the physical processes in the mixed depth of the reservoir. Also the results allow the elaboration of conceptual models for the thermodynamics of the Itumbiara reservoir.

  11. Bioenergetics-based modeling of Plasmodium falciparum metabolism reveals its essential genes, nutritional requirements, and thermodynamic bottlenecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappino-Pepe, Anush; Ataman, Meriç

    2017-01-01

    Novel antimalarial therapies are urgently needed for the fight against drug-resistant parasites. The metabolism of malaria parasites in infected cells is an attractive source of drug targets but is rather complex. Computational methods can handle this complexity and allow integrative analyses of cell metabolism. In this study, we present a genome-scale metabolic model (iPfa) of the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and its thermodynamics-based flux analysis (TFA). Using previous absolute concentration data of the intraerythrocytic parasite, we applied TFA to iPfa and predicted up to 63 essential genes and 26 essential pairs of genes. Of the 63 genes, 35 have been experimentally validated and reported in the literature, and 28 have not been experimentally tested and include previously hypothesized or novel predictions of essential metabolic capabilities. Without metabolomics data, four of the genes would have been incorrectly predicted to be non-essential. TFA also indicated that substrate channeling should exist in two metabolic pathways to ensure the thermodynamic feasibility of the flux. Finally, analysis of the metabolic capabilities of P. falciparum led to the identification of both the minimal nutritional requirements and the genes that can become indispensable upon substrate inaccessibility. This model provides novel insight into the metabolic needs and capabilities of the malaria parasite and highlights metabolites and pathways that should be measured and characterized to identify potential thermodynamic bottlenecks and substrate channeling. The hypotheses presented seek to guide experimental studies to facilitate a better understanding of the parasite metabolism and the identification of targets for more efficient intervention. PMID:28333921

  12. Thermodynamics of liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnirenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a liquid metal based on quantum-mechanical models of the crystal, electronic, and nuclear structures of the metal are derived in this paper. The models are based on such formulations as the Bohr radius, the Boltzmann constant, the Planck Law, the Fermi surface, and the Pauli principle.

  13. Thermodynamic modelling of Li–Sn liquid alloy based on Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencze, L., E-mail: bencze@chem.elte.hu [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Eötvös Loránd University, Dept. of Physical Chemistry, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Henriques, D. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Motalov, V. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics, Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Sheremetevsky av.7, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Markus, T. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The experimental KEMS data fit well with the Redlich–Kister sub-regular solution model applied to Li–Sn melt. • The Redlich–Kister binary interaction L-parameters of the Li–Sn melt were provided in this work. • The experimental KEMS data fit well with the ideally associated mixture model, too. • The quantitative associate composition of the Li–Sn melt was given. • The thermodynamic properties of the associate-forming reactions were also provided. - Abstract: The mixing thermodynamic properties of liquid Li–Sn system, determined previously by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS), were successfully fitted to both Redlich–Kister (RK) sub-regular mixture and ideally associated mixture (IAMT) models. The RK binary interaction L parameters, as a function of temperature in the CALPHAD-type functional form, were obtained as follows: L{sup (0)}=-(108580±0.00171)+(16.4±1.6·10{sup -5})·T+(1.96496·10{sup -9}±2.03133·10{sup -6}) ·T·ln(T) L{sup (1)}=-(96600±4700)+(3.3±43.0)·T+(4.4±5.6)·T·ln(T) L{sup (2)}=-(64670±190)-(44.4±1.7)·T+(8.44±0.22)·T·ln(T) L{sup (3)}=-(20900±1500)-(29±14)·T+(4.3±1.8)·T·ln(T) The former literature data provided only qualitative information on possible liquid associates but no quantitative associate composition was given as a function of the sample composition and temperature. The experimental KEMS data in the composition range X{sub Li} = 0 to ∼0.7 fit well with the Li(l) + Sn(l) + LiSn(l) + LiSn{sub 2}(l) + Li{sub 2}Sn(l) associate model. At X{sub Li} > 0.7 no associate variations – including further associate variants such as Li{sub 4}Sn(l) etc. – could be fitted to the KEMS data. Nevertheless, in this work the Li(l) + Sn(l) + LiSn(l) + LiSn{sub 2}(l) + Li{sub 2}Sn(l) + Li{sub 4}Sn(l) + Li{sub 9}Sn(l) associate model was successfully fitted to the thermodynamic data of a selected literature study over the complete composition range. The thermodynamic data of the associate

  14. Hydrogen Absorption Thermodynamic Properties of Rare Earth Based Hydrogen Storage Alloy in Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡官明; 陈长聘; 安越; 徐国华; 陈立新; 王启东

    2002-01-01

    The hydriding/dehydriding thermodynamic properties of the slurry system formed by suspending La-rich mischmetal nickel hydrogen storage alloy (MlNi5) in Benzene (C6H6) were investigated. The pressure-composition isotherms for both the alloy powder and the slurry suspended with MlNi5 were measured at several temperatures(10, 20, 30, 40 ℃). The standard enthalpy of formation ΔH° and standard entropy of formation ΔS° for the alloy powder with and without benzene were determined respectively. The experimental results show that the values of ΔH° and ΔS° for the hydriding reaction of hydrogen storage alloy (MlNi5) of the slurry system and the gas-solid system are all very close.

  15. A Thermodynamical Selection-Based Discrete Differential Evolution for the 0-1 Knapsack Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many problems in business and engineering can be modeled as 0-1 knapsack problems. However, the 0-1 knapsack problem is one of the classical NP-hard problems. Therefore, it is valuable to develop effective and efficient algorithms for solving 0-1 knapsack problems. Aiming at the drawbacks of the selection operator in the traditional differential evolution (DE, we present a novel discrete differential evolution (TDDE for solving 0-1 knapsack problem. In TDDE, an enhanced selection operator inspired by the principle of the minimal free energy in thermodynamics is employed, trying to balance the conflict between the selective pressure and the diversity of population to some degree. An experimental study is conducted on twenty 0-1 knapsack test instances. The comparison results show that TDDE can gain competitive performance on the majority of the test instances.

  16. Toposelective synthesis under thermodynamic control and bioactivities of topoisomers based on diethoxycarbonyl glycoluril derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Baohan; YIN Guodong; WANG Zhiguo; CHEN Yunfeng; WU Anxin; WAN Jian

    2006-01-01

    Six topoisomers consisting of diethoxycarbonyl glycoluril have been successfully synthesized in one-pot by using a "figure-of-seven" building block through anti-connectivity and syn-connectivity reactions, respectively. The structures of all six topoisomers were first determined by X-ray crystallography. The finding that (±) CT isomers are the dominant products under thermodynamic control can be explained by the calculated relative energies of the six topoisomers. That the (±) CT isomers have the lowest energy is most likely due to the additional intramolecular electrostatic interactions between -NO2 and -OMe groups. The biological activities of the topoisomers were primitively investigated and the results of bioassay showed that the six topoisomers possessed obvious difference of herbicidal activity.

  17. Design, implementation and evaluation of a practical pseudoknot folding algorithm based on thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The general problem of RNA secondary structure prediction under the widely used thermodynamic model is known to be NP-complete when the structures considered include arbitrary pseudoknots. For restricted classes of pseudoknots, several polynomial time algorithms have been designed, where the O(n6time and O(n4 space algorithm by Rivas and Eddy is currently the best available program. Results We introduce the class of canonical simple recursive pseudoknots and present an algorithm that requires O(n4 time and O(n2 space to predict the energetically optimal structure of an RNA sequence, possible containing such pseudoknots. Evaluation against a large collection of known pseudoknotted structures shows the adequacy of the canonization approach and our algorithm. Conclusions RNA pseudoknots of medium size can now be predicted reliably as well as efficiently by the new algorithm.

  18. Thermodynamics-based design of microbial cell factories for anaerobic product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; van Maris, A J A; Wahl, S Aljoscha; Heijnen, J J

    2015-09-01

    The field of metabolic engineering has delivered new microbial cell factories and processes for the production of different compounds including biofuels, (di)carboxylic acids, alcohols, and amino acids. Most of these processes are aerobic, with few exceptions (e.g., alcoholic fermentation), and attention is focused on assembling a high-flux product pathway with a production limit usually set by the oxygen transfer rate. By contrast, anaerobic product synthesis offers significant benefits compared to aerobic systems: higher yields, less heat generation, reduced biomass production, and lower mechanical energy input, which can significantly reduce production costs. Using simple thermodynamic calculations, we demonstrate that many products can theoretically be produced under anaerobic conditions using several conventional and non-conventional substrates.

  19. A set of molecular models based on quantum mechanical ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data

    CERN Document Server

    Eckl, Bernhard; Hasse, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A parameterization strategy for molecular models on the basis of force fields is proposed, which allows a rapid development of models for small molecules by using results from quantum mechanical (QM) ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data. The geometry of the molecular models is specified according to the atom positions determined by QM energy minimization. The electrostatic interactions are modeled by reducing the electron density distribution to point dipoles and point quadrupoles located in the center of mass of the molecules. Dispersive and repulsive interactions are described by Lennard-Jones sites, for which the parameters are iteratively optimized to experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, i.e. vapor pressure, saturated liquid density, and enthalpy of vaporization of the considered substance. The proposed modeling strategy was applied to a sample set of ten molecules from different substance classes. New molecular models are presented for iso-butane, cyclohexane, formaldehyde, dimethyl...

  20. On a new law of bone remodeling based on damage elasticity: a thermodynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idhammad Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone tissue is the main element of the human skeleton and is a dynamic tissue that is continuously renewed by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. The bone is also capable of repairing itself and adapting its structure to changes in its load environment through the process of bone remodeling. Therefore, this phenomenon has been gaining increasing interest in the last years and many laws have been developed in order to simulate this process. Results In this paper, we develop a new law of bone remodeling in the context of damaged elastic by applying the thermodynamic approach in the case of small perturbations. The model is solved numerically by a finite difference method in the one-dimensional bone structure of a n-unit elements model. Conclusion In addition, several numerical simulations are presented that confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the model.

  1. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R.

    2016-11-01

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U(1)-U(0). The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as `real' thermodynamic variables. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  2. Analysis of Cross-Polarization Dynamics between Two Abundant Nuclei, 19F and 1H, Based on Spin Thermodynamics Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shinji; Harris, Robin K.; Reinsberg, Stefan A.

    1999-11-01

    The phenomenological theory of spin thermodynamics based on the spin temperature hypothesis was employed to describe the cross-polarization (CP) dynamics between two abundant nuclei, 19F and 1H, when the number of fluorine atoms is not substantially less than the number of hydrogens. The influence of T1ρ's of both nuclei and the relative magnitude (heat capacity) of the two spin baths must be incorporated explicitly into the analysis in order to derive values for the parameters involved in the CP dynamics. Numerical calculations were performed to clarify the difference in the evolution of magnetization in variable contact time CP experiments between the 1H → 13C and 1H → 19F cases. A new type of CP-drain experiment was developed for observing the residual 1H magnetization after 1H → 19F CP. 19F direct polarization magic-angle spinning (MAS), 1H → 19F CP, and 1H → 19F CP-drain MAS NMR spectra have been measured for a fluorinated polyimide, 6FDA/ODA. The CP dynamics between 1H and 19F for the polyimide were analyzed on the basis of the spin thermodynamics theory. The constant for polarization transfer (THF) was determined by the analysis using the effective CP parameters, which were directly obtained from the CP and CP-drain experiments, together with independently measured values of TH1ρ and TF1ρ.

  3. Evolution of Ti-Based Nonmetallic Inclusions During Solution Treatment of Maraging 250 Steel: Thermodynamic Calculations and Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmulevitsh, Mati; Pinkas, Malki; Weizman, Amir; Frage, Nachum

    2011-06-01

    The evolution of Ti-based nonmetallic inclusions in Maraging 250 steel, namely Ti(CxN1-x) and Ti4C2S2, was investigated experimentally. Their stability in austenite also was analyzed by a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-Ni-Ti-C-N-S system. It was established that the total concentration of the inclusions decreases from 0.024 pct to 0.008 pct after treatment at 1453 K (1180 °C) for 3 hours. The Ti4C2S2 inclusions completely dissolve in austenite at 1523 K (1250 °C) during 1 hour of treatment. The composition of the carbonitride inclusions is shifted toward higher TiN contents when they dissolve in austenite. Nitrogen-enriched titanium carbonitride inclusions are stable in austenite and their fraction may be reduced only by controlling nitrogen content in the steel. The experimental observations are in good agreement with the results of the thermodynamic analysis.

  4. Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-05-15

    Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest.

  5. Chemical Abundances and Dust in Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Gutenkunst, S; Pottasch, S R; Sloan, G C; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of eleven planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the Bulge, the infrared spectra allow us to determine abundances for certain elements more accurately that previously possible with optical data alone. Abundances of argon and sulfur (and in most cases neon and oxygen) in planetary nebulae in the Bulge give the abundances of the interstellar medium at the time their progenitor stars formed; thus these abundances give information about the formation and evolution of the Bulge. The abundances of Bulge planetary nebulae tend to be slightly higher than those in the Disk on average, but they do not follow the trend of the Disk planetary nebulae, thus confirming the difference between Bulge and Disk evolution. Additionally, the Bulge planetary nebulae show peculiar dust properties compared...

  6. Effects of sulfur on lead partitioning during sludge incineration based on experiments and thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-yong, E-mail: www053991@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Shu-jie; Sun, Shui-yu; Ning, Xun-an; He, Rui-zhe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Xiao-ming [Guangdong Testing Institute of Product Quality Supervision, Guangzhou 510330 (China); Chen, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Guang-qian [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Fu, Jie-wen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was carried out. • Effects of three types of sulfurs on Pb distribution were investigated. • The mechanism for three types of sulfurs acting on Pb partitioning were proposed. • Lead partitioning and species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified. - Abstract: Experiments in a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were conducted to investigate the impact of sulfur compounds on the migration of lead (Pb) during sludge incineration. Representative samples of typical sludge with and without the addition of sulfur compounds were combusted at 850 °C, and the partitioning of Pb in the solid phase (bottom ash) and gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) was quantified. The results indicate that three types of sulfur compounds (S, Na{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) added to the sludge could facilitate the volatilization of Pb in the gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) into metal sulfates displacing its sulfides and some of its oxides. The effect of promoting Pb volatilization by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S was superior to that of the addition of S. In bottom ash, different metallic sulfides were found in the forms of lead sulfide, aluminosilicate minerals, and polymetallic-sulfides, which were minimally volatilized. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that sulfur stabilizes Pb in the form of PbSO{sub 4}(s) at low temperatures (<1000 K). The equilibrium calculation prediction also suggested that SiO{sub 2}, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing materials function as condensed phase solids in the temperature range of 800–1100 K as sorbents to stabilize Pb. However, in the presence of sulfur or chlorine or the co-existence of sulfur and chlorine, these sorbents were inactive. The effect of sulfur on Pb partitioning in the sludge incineration process mainly depended on the gas phase reaction, the surface reaction, the volatilization of products, and the

  7. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTER OF INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article includes data concerning application of one of the universal method of the modern science based on fundamental thermodynamic laws to analyze the efficiency of the information processes. The comparison of the information and thermodynamic processes brought the author to the basic conclusion of the energetic character of information.

  8. Comparison of traditional and enthalpy-based thermodynamics solvers in the polythermal ice sheet model SICOPOLIS

    CERN Document Server

    Greve, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    In order to model the thermal structure of polythermal ice sheets accurately, energy-conserving schemes and correct tracking of the cold-temperate transition surface (CTS) are necessary. We compare four different thermodynamics solvers in the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS (the previously available polythermal two-layer and cold-ice schemes and the newly implemented conventional and melting CTS one-layer enthalpy schemes) by running two scenarios of the EISMINT Phase 2 Simplified Geometry Experiments (Payne and others, 2000, J. Glaciol. 46, 227-238) with different set-ups. In terms of temperate ice layer thickness, CTS positioning and smoothness of temperature profiles across the CTS (a requirement for the assumed case of melting conditions), the polythermal two-layer scheme performs best, and thus its results are used as a reference against which the performance of the other schemes is tested. Both the cold-ice scheme and the conventional one-layer enthalpy scheme fail to produce a continuous temperature gradient...

  9. Synthesis and thermodynamic properties of a novel pyridinium-based asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuzhao; Wang, Jun; Zou, Wenyuan; Wu, Jinchao [Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-12-15

    A novel asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid (GIL), [1-(1-pyridinium-yl-hexyl)-6-methylpiperidinium] dihexafluorophosphate ([PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2}) combined with pyridine, 1-methylpiperidine by 1,6-dibromohexane with PF{sub 6} as anion, was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and IR. The molar heat capacity of the GIL was measured via differential scanning calorimetry from 298.15 K to 448.15 K under atmospheric pressure. No phase transition or other thermal anomaly was observed in the solid-phase region (298.15 K to 358.15 K) and liquid-phase region (403.15 K to 448.15 K). The basic properties and thermodynamic functions of the GIL, such as melting point, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion, heat capacity, enthalpy HT-H298.15 K, and entropy S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15} K, were also determined from the experimental data. Thermal decomposition kinetics of [PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} were investigated by using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis in pure nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates. Thermal decomposition data were, respectively, correlated with Friedman method, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall equation, and ASTM model. The activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (logA) values were obtained by using the above three methods.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrocarbon Refrigerants-Based Ethylene BOG Re-liquefaction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boumedienne M Beladjine; Ahmed Ouadha; and Yacine Addad

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction system that consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system’s performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration. In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.

  11. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altıntas, Yemliha [Abdullah Gül University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Aksöz, Sezen [Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, 50300, Nevşehir (Turkey); Keşlioğlu, Kâzım, E-mail: kesli@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Maraşlı, Necmettin [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34210, Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl{sub 2}) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔS{sub f},ΔH{sub M}, ΔC{sub P}, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon refrigerants-based ethylene BOG re-liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladjine, Boumedienne M.; Ouadha, Ahmed; Addad, Yacine

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction system that consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system's performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration. In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.

  13. Thermodynamics and thermal decomposition for shape memory effects with crystallization based on dissipation and logarithmic strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R. B.; Rao, I. J.; Qi, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    The present effort provides a 3-D thermodynamic framework generalizing the 1-D modeling of 2-way shape memory materials described by Westbrook et al. (J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 312:041010, 2010) and Chung et al. (Macromolecules 41:184-192, 2008), while extending the strain-induced crystallization and shape memory approaches of Rao and Rajagopal (Interfaces Free Bound. 2:73-94, 2000; Int. J. Solids Struct. 38:1149-1167, 2001), Barot and Rao (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 57:652-681, 2006), and Barot et al. (Int. J. Eng. Sci. 46:325-351, 2008) to include finite thermal expansion within a logarithmic strain basis. The free energy of newly-formed orthotropic crystallites is assumed additive, with no strains in their respective configurations of formation. A multiplicative decomposition is assumed for the assumed thermoelastic orthotropic expansional strains of the respective crystallites. The properties of the crystallites are allowed to depend both on current temperature and their respective temperatures of formation. The entropy production rate relation is written in the frame rotating with the logarithmic spin and produces stress and entropy relations incorporating the integrated configurational free energies, and a driving term for the crystallization analogous to that obtained by the previous studies of Rao et al. The salient attributes of the 1-D modeling of Westbrook et al. are recovered, and applications are discussed.

  14. Thermodynamic constrains for life based on non-aqueous polar solvents on free-floating planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel

    2011-02-01

    Free-floating planets (FFPs) might originate either around a star or in solitary fashion. These bodies can retain molecular gases atmospheres which, upon cooling, have basal pressures of tens of bars or more. Pressure-induced opacity of these gases prevents such a body from eliminating its internal radioactive heat and its surface temperature can exceed for a long term the melting temperature of a life-supporting solvent. In this paper two non-aqueous but still polar solvents are considered: hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Thermodynamic requirements to be fulfilled by a hypothetic gas constituent of a life-supporting FFP's atmosphere are studied. The three gases analyzed here (nitrogen, methane and ethane) are candidates. We show that bodies with ammonia oceans are possible in interstellar space. This may happen on FFPs of (significantly) smaller or larger mass than the Earth. Generally, in case of FFP smaller in size than the Earth, the atmosphere exhibits a convective layer near the surface and a radiative layer at higher altitudes while the atmosphere of FFPs larger in size than Earth does not exhibit a convective layer. The atmosphere mass of a life-hosting FFP of Earth size is two or three orders of magnitude larger than the mass of Earth atmosphere. For FFPs larger than the Earth and specific values of surface pressure and temperature, there are conditions for condensation (in the ethane atmosphere). Some arguments induce the conclusion than the associated surface pressures and temperatures should be treated with caution as appropriate life conditions.

  15. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  16. Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

  17. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  18. Effects of surface charge on interfacial interactions related to membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huihui; Fan, Hao; Zhao, Leihong; Hong, Huachang; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Effects of both membrane and sludge foulant surface zeta potentials on interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulant in different interaction scenarios were systematically investigated based on thermodynamic methods. Under conditions in this study, it was found that zeta potential had marginal effects on total interfacial interaction between two infinite planar surfaces, and the total interfacial interaction between foulant particles and membrane would be more repulsive with increase of absolute value of zeta potential. Adhesion of foulant particles on membrane surface should overcome an energy barrier. There exists a critical zeta potential below which energy barrier would disappear. Results also showed that rough surface membrane corresponded to significantly low strength of interfacial interactions. This study not only provided a series of methods to quantitatively assess the interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulants, but also reconciled the contradictory conclusions regarding effects of zeta potential in literature, giving important implications for membrane fouling mitigation.

  19. Thermodynamics of Nonadditive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Ruffo, Stefano

    2015-06-12

    The usual formulation of thermodynamics is based on the additivity of macroscopic systems. However, there are numerous examples of macroscopic systems that are not additive, due to the long-range character of the interaction among the constituents. We present here an approach in which nonadditive systems can be described within a purely thermodynamics formalism. The basic concept is to consider a large ensemble of replicas of the system where the standard formulation of thermodynamics can be naturally applied and the properties of a single system can be consequently inferred. After presenting the approach, we show its implementation in systems where the interaction decays as 1/r(α) in the interparticle distance r, with α smaller than the embedding dimension d, and in the Thirring model for gravitational systems.

  20. Discrete Thermodynamics of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper offers a discrete thermodynamic model of lasers. Laser is an open system; its equilibrium is based on a balance of two thermodynamic forces, one related to the incoming pumping power and another to the emitted light. The basic expression for such equilibrium is a logistic map, graphical solutions to which are pitchfork bifurcation diagrams. As pumping force increases, the relative populations on the ground and lasing branches tend to zero and unity correspondingly. An interesting feature of this model is the line spectrum of the up and down transitions between the branches beyond bifurcation point. Even in a simple case of 2-level laser with only 2 possible transition types (up and down), the spectra look like sets of the line packets, starting well before the population inversion. This effect is an independent confirmation of the Einstein's prohibition on practical realization of 2-level laser. Multilevel lasers may be approached by employing the idea of thermodynamic activity for the emitting atom...

  1. Orientation of Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae toward the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A

    2014-01-01

    We have used the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope to perform the integral field spectroscopy for a sample of the Galactic planetary nebulae. The spatially resolved velocity distributions of the H$\\alpha$ emission line were used to determine the kinematic features and nebular orientations. Our findings show that some bulge planetary nebulae toward the Galactic center have a particular orientation.

  2. Galaxies in COSMOS: Evolution of Black hole vs. bulge mass but not vs. total stellar mass over the last 9 Gyrs?

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Knud; Brusa, Marcella; Capak, Peter; Cappelluti, Nico; Cisternas, Mauricio; Civano, Francesca; Colbert, James; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Hasinger, Günther; Impey, Chris; Inskip, Katherine; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lilly, Simon; Maier, Christian; Merloni, Andrea; Riechers, Dominik; Salvato, Mara; Schinnerer, Eva; Scoville, Nick Z; Silverman, John; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Trump, Jonathan R; Yan, Lin

    2009-01-01

    We constrain the ratio of black hole (BH) mass to total stellar mass of type-1 AGN in the COSMOS survey at 1based on restframe UV-to-optical host galaxy colors which constrain mass-to-light ratios. All objects have virial BH mass-estimates available from the COSMOS Magellan/IMACS and zCOSMOS surveys. We find zero difference between the M_BH--M_(*,total)-relation at z~1.4 and the M_BH--M_(*,bulge)-relation in the local Universe. Our interpretation is: (a) If our objects were purely bulge-dominated, the M_BH--M_(*,bulge)-relation has not evolved since z~1.4. However, (b) since we have evidence for substantial disk components, the bulges of massive galaxies (logM_(*,total)=11.1+-0.25 or logM_BH~8.3+-0.2) must have grown over the last 9 Gyrs predominantly by redistribution of disk- into bulge-mass. Since all necessary stellar mass exists in the galaxy at z=1.4, no star...

  3. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Edge-On Sbc Galaxy UGC10043: Evidence for a Galactic Wind and a Peculiar Triaxial Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, L D

    2004-01-01

    We present new optical imaging and spectroscopy of the peculiar, edge-on Sbc galaxy UGC10043. B & R imaging reveals that the inner bulge of UGC10043 is elongated perpendicular to the major axis. At larger r, the bulge isophotes twist to become oblate and nearly circular, suggesting the bulge is triaxial. Based on stellar and ionized gas kinematics, the bulge shows no clear evidence for rotation about either its major or minor axis. The southwestern quadrant of the bulge is girdled by a narrow dust lane parallel to the minor axis that may be part of an inner polar ring. The stellar disk of UGC10043 has a low optical surface brightness, a small scale height, a mild integral sign warp, and a dusty, inner region that appears tilted relative to the outlying disk. The HA and [NII] emission lines in UGC10043 resolve into multiple velocity components, indicating the presence of a large-scale galactic wind with an outflow velocity of ~104 km/s. HA+[NII] imaging reaffirms this picture by revealing ionized gas exten...

  4. ISO Mid-Infrared spectroscopy of Galactic Bulge AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blommaert, J A D L; Okumura, K; Ganesh, S; Omont, A; Cami, J; Glass, I S; Habing, H J; Schultheis, M; Simon, G; Van Loon, J T; Blommaert, Joris A.D.L.; Groenewegen, Martin A.T.; Okumura, Koryo; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Omont, Alain; Cami, Jan; Glass, Ian S.; Habing, Harm J.; Schultheis, Mathias; Simon, Guy; Loon, Jacco Th. van

    2006-01-01

    To study the nature of Bulge AGB stars and in particular their circumstellar dust, we have analysed mid-infrared spectra obtained with the ISOCAM CVF spectrometer in three Bulge fields. The ISOCAM 5-16.5 micron CVF spectra were obtained as part of the ISOGAL infrared survey of the inner Galaxy. A classification of the shape of the 10 micron dust feature was made for each case. The spectra of the individual sources were modelled using a radiative transfer model. Different combinations of amorphous silicates and aluminium-oxide dust were used in the modelling. Spectra were obtained for 29 sources of which 26 are likely to be Bulge AGB stars. Our modelling shows that the stars suffer mass loss rates in the range of 10^{-8} - 5 x 10^{-7} Msun / yr, which is at the low end of the mass-loss rates experienced on the Thermally Pulsing AGB. The luminosities range from 1,700 to 7,700 Lsun as expected for a population of AGB stars with Minit of 1.5 - 2Msun. In agreement with the condensation sequence scenario, we find t...

  5. Research on bulging plate of scaler for horizontal pendulum tiltmeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zhong; ZHU Hu; WU Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ After the horizontal pendulum is used in ground-tilt measurement, its scaling has drawn great attentions from the people, because without a correct calibration of scale value, the observation is of little application significance. From the 1920's, quite a few scholars were engaged in the researches in this respect. And this question was satisfactorily solved until 1962 when Verbaandert (1962) invented the bulging plate, i.e., mercury-cup scaler.After further improvement, the V-M quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter was used globally in observation and great success was achieved (Melchior, 1966, 1978). In China, the quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter as well as the bulging-plate scaler were developed at the beginning of 1970's and then put into use after some improvements (ZHU and FENG, 1980). The successful observation by SQ quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter should be related not only to the excellent performance of horizontal pendulum, but also to its accurate calibration. The bulging plate plays an important role in calibration, because it is the critical component of scaler.

  6. Study of extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Esteban, F M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Extremely reddened AGB stars lose mass at high rates of >10^-5 Msun/yr. This is the very last stage of AGB evolution, in which stars in the mass range 2.0--4.0 Msun (for solar metallicity) should have been converted to C stars already. The extremely reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge are however predominantly O-rich, implying that they might be either low-mass stars or stars at the upper end of the AGB mass range. Aims. To determine the mass range of the most reddened AGB stars in the Galactic bulge. Methods. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we constructed spectral energy distributions of a sample of 37 evolved stars in the Galactic bulge with extremely red IRAS colours. We fitted DUSTY models to the observational data to infer the bolometric fluxes. Applying individual corrections for interstellar extinction and adopting a common distance, we determined luminosities and mass-loss rates, and inferred the progenitor mass range from comparisons with AGB evolutionary models. Results. The observed ...

  7. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Zoccali, M.; Vásquez, S.; Ripepi, V.; Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. Aims: We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. Methods: High resolution spectra (R ~ 48 000) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from ~130 Fe i and Fe ii transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. Results: An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.98 ± 0.08 dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of vhel = -96.6 ± 1.3 km s-1 were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of [O/Fe] = 0.29 ± 0.18 dex, [Mg/Fe] = 0.23 ± 0.10 dex, [Si/Fe] = 0.36 ± 0.05 dex, and [Ca/Fe] = 0.30 ± 0.07 dex. Similar overabundance is found for the iron-peak Ti with [Ti/Fe] = 0.24 ± 0.09 dex. Odd-Z elements Na and Al present abundances of [Na/Fe] = 0.00 ± 0.21 dex and [Al/Fe] = 0.31 ± 0.21 dex, respectively. Finally, the s-element Ba is also enhanced by [Ba/Fe] = 0.22 ± 0.21 dex. Conclusions: The enhancement levels of NGC 6723 are comparable to those of other metal-intermediate bulge globular clusters. In turn, these enhancement levels are compatible with the abundance profiles displayed by bulge field stars at that metallicity. This hints at a possible similar chemical evolution with globular clusters and the metal-poor of the bulge going through an early prompt chemical enrichment.

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of ionic liquid systems: development and detailed overview of novel methodology based on the PC-SAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2012-04-26

    We present the results of an extensive study on a novel approach of modeling ionic liquids (ILs) and their mixtures with molecular compounds, incorporating perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). PC-SAFT was used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of different homologous series of ILs based on the bis(trifluormethylsulfonyl)imide anion ([NTf2]). First, pure fluid parameters were obtained for each IL by means of fitting the model predictions to experimental liquid densities over a broad range of temperature and pressure. The reliability and physical significance of the parameters as well as the employed molecular scheme were tested by calculation of density, vapor pressure, and other properties of pure ILs (e.g., critical properties, normal boiling point). Additionally, the surface tension of pure ILs was calculated by coupling the PC-SAFT equation of state with density gradient theory (DGT). All correlated/predicted results were compared with literature experimental or simulation data. Afterward, we attempted to model various thermodynamic properties of some binary systems composed of IL and organic solvent or water. The properties under study were the binary vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibria and the excess enthalpies of mixing. To calculate cross-interaction energies we used the standard combining rules of Lorentz-Berthelot, Kleiner-Sadowski, and Wolbach-Sandler. It was shown that incorporation of temperature-dependent binary corrections was required to obtain much more accurate results than in the case of conventional predictions. Binary corrections were adjusted to infinite dilution activity coefficients of a particular solute in a given IL determined experimentally or predicted by means of the modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) group contribution method. We concluded that the latter method allows accurate and reliable calculations of bulk-phase properties in a totally predictive manner.

  9. Temperature dependence of strain energy and thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based single-walled nanotubes: Zone-folding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsev, Vitaly V; Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2016-06-15

    A zone-folding approach is applied to estimate the thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based nanotubes. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculations. It is shown that the zone-folding approximation allows an accurate estimation of nanotube thermodynamic properties and gives a gain in computation time compared to their direct calculations. Both approaches show that temperature effects do not change the relative stability of V2 O5 free layers and nanotubes derived from the α- and γ-phase. The internal energy thermal contributions into the strain energy of nanotubes are small and can be ignored. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Thermodynamics of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century has brought a lot of new results related to graphene. Apparently, graphene has been characterized from all points of view except surface science and, especially, surface thermodynamics. This report aims to close this gap. Since graphene is the first real two-dimensional solid, a general formulation of the thermodynamics of two-dimensional solid bodies is given. The two-dimensional chemical potential tensor coupled with stress tensor is introduced, and fundamental equations are derived for energy, free energy, grand thermodynamic potential (in the classical and hybrid forms), enthalpy, and Gibbs energy. The fundamentals of linear boundary phenomena are formulated with explaining the concept of a dividing line, the mechanical and thermodynamic line tensions, line energy and other linear properties with necessary thermodynamic equations. The one-dimensional analogs of the Gibbs adsorption equation and Shuttleworth-Herring relation are presented. The general thermodynamic relationships are illustrated with calculations based on molecular theory. To make the reader sensible of the harmony of chemical and van der Waals forces in graphene, the remake of the classical graphite theory is presented with additional variable combinations of graphene sheets. The calculation of the line energy of graphene is exhibited including contributions both from chemical bonds and van der Waals forces (expectedly, the latter are considerably smaller than the former). The problem of graphene holes originating from migrating vacancies is discussed on the basis of the Gibbs-Curie principle. An important aspect of line tension is the planar sheet/nanotube transition where line tension acts as a driving force. Using the bending stiffness of graphene, the possible radius range is estimated for achiral (zigzag and armchair) nanotubes.

  11. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  12. Embodiment Analysis for Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Chinese Economy Based on Global Thermodynamic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the Global Thermodynamic Potential (GTP indicator to perform a unified assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and to systematically reveal the emission embodiment in the production, consumption, and international trade of the Chinese economy in 2007 as the most recent year available with input-output table and updated inventory data. The results show that the estimated total direct GHG emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 amount to 10,657.5 Mt CO2-eq by the GTPs with 40.6% from CH4 emissions in magnitude of the same importance as CO2 emissions. The five sectors of Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, are responsible for 83.3% of the total GHG emissions with different emission structures. The demands of coal and coal-electricity determine the structure of emission embodiment to an essential extent. The Construction sector holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and domestic consumption. The GHG emission embodied in gross capital formation is more than those in other components of final demand characterized by extensive investment and limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with a remarkable share of direct emission induced by international trade, such as textile products, industrial raw materials, and primary machinery and equipment products exports. The fractions of CH4 in the component of embodied GHG emissions in the final demand are much greater than those fractions calculated by the Global Warming Potentials, which highlight the importance of CH4 emissions for the case of China and indicate the essential effect of CH4 emissions on global climate change. To understand the full context to achieve GHG emission mitigation, this study provides a new insight to address China’s GHG emissions status and

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  14. Nanoscopic Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weihong

    2016-09-20

    Conventional thermodynamics for bulk substances encounters challenges when one considers materials on the nanometer scale. Quantities such as entropy, enthalpy, free energy, melting temperature, ordering temperature, Debye temperature, and specific heat no longer remain constant but change with the crystal dimension, size, and morphology. Often, one phenomenon is associated with a variety of theories from different perspectives. Still, a model that can reconcile the size and shape dependence of the thermal properties of the nanoscaled substances remains one of the goals of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This Account highlights the nanoscopic thermodynamics for nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms, with particular emphasis on the bond energy model. The central idea is that the atomic cohesive energy determines the thermodynamic performance of a substance and the cohesive energy varies with the atomic coordination environment. It is the cohesive energy difference between the core and the shell that dictates the nanoscopic thermodynamics. This bond energy model rationalizes the following: (i) how the surface dangling bonds depress the melting temperature, entropy, and enthalpy; (ii) how the order-disorder transition of the nanoparticles depends on particle size and how their stability may vary when they are embedded in an appropriate matrix; (iii) predictions of the existence of face-centered cubic structures of Ti, Zr, and Hf at small size; (iv) how two elements that are immiscible in the bulk can form an alloy on the nanoscale, where the critical size can be predicted. The model has enabled us to reproduce the size and shape dependence of a number of physical properties, such as melting temperature, melting entropy, melting enthalpy, ordering temperature, Gibbs free energy, and formation heat, among others, for materials such as Pd, Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Sn, Pb, In, Bi, Al, Ti, Zr, Hf, In-Al, Ag-Ni, Co-Pt, Cu-Ag, Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Ag-Pt, and Au-Pt on the nanometer scale

  15. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baldiotti, M C; Molina, C

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed ontop of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac's theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases.

  16. Keratin 15 promoter targets putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Lyle, Stephen; Yang, Zaixin; Cotsarelis, George

    2003-11-01

    Putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge are thought to play pivotal roles in the homeostasis, aging, and carcinogenesis of the cutaneous epithelium. Elucidating the role of bulge cells in these processes has been hampered by the lack of gene promoters that target this area with specificity. Here we describe the isolation of the mouse keratin 15 (K15) promoter and demonstrate its utility for preferentially targeting hair follicle bulge cells in adult K15/lacZ transgenic mice. We found that patterns of K15 expression and promoter activity changed with age and correlated with levels of differentiation within the cutaneous epithelium; less differentiated keratinocytes in the epidermis of the neonatal mouse and in the bulge area of the adult mouse preferentially expressed K15. These findings demonstrate the utility of the K15 promoter for targeting epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and set the stage for elucidating the role of bulge cells in skin biology.

  17. Effect of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key parameters for BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece manufactured by vacuum hot bulge forming. A two-dimensional nonlinear thermo-mechanical coupled FE model was established. Numerical simulation of vacuum hot bulge forming process of titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece was carried out using FE analysis software MSC Marc. The effects of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece were analyzed by numerical simulation.The simulated results show that the Y-direction displacement and the equivalent plastic strain of the workpiece increase with increasing bulge temperature. The residual stress decreases with increasing bulge temperature. The optimal temperature range of BT20 titanium alloy during vacuum hot bulge forming is 750-850 ℃. The corresponding experiments were carried out. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental results.

  18. Rational design of ion force fields based on thermodynamic solvation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinek, Dominik; Mamatkulov, Shavkat I; Netz, Roland R

    2009-03-28

    Most aqueous biological and technological systems contain solvated ions. Atomistic explicit-water simulations of ionic solutions rely crucially on accurate ionic force fields, which contain most commonly two adjustable parameters: the Lennard-Jones diameter and the interaction strength. Assuming these parameters to be properly optimized, the plethora of parameters one finds in the literature for one and the same ion is surprising. In principle, the two parameters should be uniquely determined by matching two ionic properties obtained for a particular water model and within a given simulation protocol with the corresponding experimental observables. Traditionally, ion parameters were chosen in a somewhat unsystematic way to reproduce the solvation free energy and to give the correct ion size when compared with scattering results. Which experimental observable one chooses to reproduce should in principle depend on the context within which the ionic force field is going to be used. In the present work we suggest to use the solvation free energy in conjunction with the solvation entropy to construct thermodynamically sound force fields for the alkali and halide ions for the simulation of ion-specific effects in aqueous environment. To that end we determine the solvation free energy and entropy of both cations and anions in the entire relevant parameter space. As an independent check on the quality of the resulting force fields we also determine the effective ionic radius from the first peak of the radial ion-water distribution function. Several difficulties during parameter optimization are discussed in detail. (i) Single-ion solvation depends decisively on water-air surface properties, which experimentally becomes relevant when introducing extrathermodynamic assumptions on the hydronium (H(3)O(+)) solvation energy. Fitting ion pairs circumvents this problem but leaves the parameters of one reference ion (here we choose chloride) undetermined. (ii) For the halides the

  19. High-Resolution Mapping of Dust via Extinction in the M31 Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Q D; Lauer, Tod R; Olsen, Knut A G; Saha, Abhijit; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Groves, Brent A

    2016-01-01

    We map the dust distribution in the central 180" (~680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST/WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 A) to near-infrared (1.5 micron). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. We fit a pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distributions to construct a high-dynamic-range extinction map with unparalleled angular resolution (~0.5" , i.e., ~2 pc) and sensitivity (the extinction uncertainty, \\delta A_V~0.05). In particular, the data allow to directly fit the fractions of starlight obscured by individual dusty clumps, and hence their radial distances in the bulge. Most of these clumps seem to be located in a thin plane, which is tilted with respect to the M31 disk and appears face-on. We convert the extinction map into a dust mass surface density map and compare it with that derived from the dust emission as observed by Herschel . The dust masses in these two maps are co...

  20. Constitutive modeling of a commercially pure titanium: validation using bulge tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil-Baudard, Benoit; Massoni, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, mechanical tests aimed at characterizing the plastic anisotropy of a commercially pure α-titanium sheet are presented. Hemispheric and elliptic bulge tests conducted to investigate the forming properties of the material are also reported. To model the particularities of the plastic response of the material the classical Hill [1] yield criterion, and Cazacu et al. [2] yield criterion are used. Identification of the material parameters involved in both criteria is based only on uniaxial test data, while their predictive capabilities are assessed through comparison with the bulge tests data. Both models reproduce qualitatively the experimental plastic strain distribution and the final thickness of the sheet. However, only Cazacu et al. [2] yield criterion, which accounts for both the anisotropy and tension-compression asymmetry of the material captures correctly plastic strain localization, in particular its directionality. Furthermore, it is shown that accounting for the strong tension-compression asymmetry in the model formulation improves numerical predictions regarding the mechanical behavior close to fracture of a commercially pure titanium alloy under sheet metal forming processes.

  1. Discovery of RR Lyrae Stars in the Nuclear Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Minniti, D; Zoccali, M; Rejkuba, M; Gonzalez, O A; Valenti, E; Gran, F

    2016-01-01

    Galactic nuclei, like the one of the Milky Way, are extreme places with high stellar densities and, in most cases, hosting a supermassive black hole. One of the scenarios proposed for the formation of the Galactic nucleus is by merging of primordial globular clusters (Capuzzo-Dolcetta 1993). An implication of this model is that this region should host stars characteristically found in old Milky Way globular clusters. RR Lyrae stars are primary distance indicators, well known representatives of old and metal-poor stellar populations, and therefore regularly found in globular clusters. Here we report the discovery of a dozen RR Lyrae ab-type stars in the vicinity of the Galactic center, i.e. in the so-called nuclear stellar bulge of the Milky Way. This discovery provides the first direct observational evidence that the Galactic nuclear stellar bulge contains ancient stars (>10 Gyr old). Based on this we conclude that merging globular clusters likely contributed to building-up the high stellar density in the nuc...

  2. Deformation Characterization of Friction-Stir-Welded Tubes by Hydraulic Bulge Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Q.; Hu, Z. L.; Pan, X.; Zuo, X. Q.

    2014-10-01

    In this article, the large-diameter thin-walled aluminum alloy tubes were produced using a hybrid process combining friction-stir welding (FSW) and spinning. For this novel process, rolled aluminum alloy sheets with a thickness about 2-3 times the wall thickness of target tube, were FSW to form cylinders, and then the cylinders were subjected to spinning to get thin-walled aluminum alloy tubes. Both experimental and simulation study were conducted to investigate the deformation characterization of the FSW tube during hydraulic bulge testing, and the stress and strain states and thickness distribution of the FSW tube were investigated. It was found that the common defects of FSW tube can be significantly improved by specific welding devices. The ductility of the tube is considerably improved with nearly two times higher bulge ratio than as-spun tube after annealing treatment at 300°C. But the annealed tube still shows a high nonuniform wall thickness distribution due to the inhomogeneous deformation characteristics. With increasing deformation of the tube, the gap between the hoop and axial stress for the weld and base metal (BM) decreases. However, the hoop and axial stress of the weld are always greater than those of the BM at the same pressure.

  3. Correlations between Kinematics and Metallicity in the Galactic Bulge: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusiaux, Carine

    2016-06-01

    Recent large-scale surveys of galactic bulge stars allowed to build a detailed map of the bulge kinematics. The bulge exhibits cylindrical rotation consistent with a disky origin which evolved through bar-driven secular evolution. However, correlations between metallicity and kinematics complicate this picture. In particular a metal-poor component with distinct kinematic signatures has been detected. Its origin, density profile and link with the other Milky Way stellar populations are currently still poorly constrained.

  4. The growth of disks and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation. I: fast evolution vs secular processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Croton, Darren J; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy disks and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code SAGE. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disk instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model can successfully reproduce the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar disks, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disk fraction. Bulge type also affe...

  5. On The Linearity of The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Active and in Nearby Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, Ari

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of PG quasar observations suggests a nonlinear relation between the black hole mass, M_BH, and the bulge mass, M_bulge, although a linear relation, as proposed for nearby galaxies, cannot be ruled out. New M_BH values for nearby galaxies from Gebhardt et al., and L_bulge measurements for Seyfert 1 galaxies from Virani et al., are used here to obtain a more accurate value for the slope of the M_BH-M_bulge relation. The combined sample of 40 active and non-active galaxies suggests a si...

  6. Quantum mechanics based force field for carbon (QMFF-Cx) validated to reproduce the mechanical and thermodynamics properties of graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Tod A.; Karasawa, Naoki; Goddard, William A.

    2010-10-01

    As assemblies of graphene sheets, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes become components of new nanotechnologies, it is important to be able to predict the structures and properties of these systems. A problem has been that the level of quantum mechanics practical for such systems (density functional theory at the PBE level) cannot describe the London dispersion forces responsible for interaction of the graphene planes (thus graphite falls apart into graphene sheets). To provide a basis for describing these London interactions, we derive the quantum mechanics based force field for carbon (QMFF-Cx) by fitting to results from density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X level, which demonstrates accuracies for a broad class of molecules at short and medium range intermolecular distances. We carried out calculations on the dehydrogenated coronene (C24) dimer, emphasizing two geometries: parallel-displaced X (close to the observed structure in graphite crystal) and PD-Y (the lowest energy transition state for sliding graphene sheets with respect to each other). A third, eclipsed geometry is calculated to be much higher in energy. The QMFF-Cx force field leads to accurate predictions of available experimental mechanical and thermodynamics data of graphite (lattice vibrations, elastic constants, Poisson ratios, lattice modes, phonon dispersion curves, specific heat, and thermal expansion). This validates the use of M06-2X as a practical method for development of new first principles based generations of QMFF force fields.

  7. Isotherm and thermodynamic studies of Zn (II) adsorption on lignite and coconut shell-based activated carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sohan; Son, Guntae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Tae Gwan

    2013-08-01

    The Zn (II) adsorption capacity of lignite and coconut shell-based activated carbon fiber (ACF) was evaluated as a function of initial Zn (II) concentration, temperature and contact time in batch adsorption process in this study. Adsorption uptake increased with initial Zn (II) concentration and temperature. Optimal contact time for the adsorption of Zn (II) ions onto lignite and coconut shell-based ACF was found to be 50 min. Removal percentage decreased from 88.0% to 78.54% with the increment in initial Zn (II) concentration from 5 to 50 mg L(-1). Equilibrium data fit well with Langmuir-I isotherm indicating homogeneous monolayer coverage of Zn (II) ions on the adsorbent surface. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of Zn (II) ions on ACF was found to be 9.43 mg g(-1). Surface morphology and functionality of ACF prior to and after adsorption were characterized by electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Various thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), standard enthalpy (ΔH°), and standard entropy (ΔS°) were evaluated.

  8. TARGET/CRYOCHIL - THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SUBSCALE MODELING OF SPACE-BASED ORBIT TRANSFER VEHICLE CRYOGENIC PROPELLANT RESUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defelice, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for space-based transfer vehicles. As part of NASA Lewis's ongoing efforts in micro-gravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques have been developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. These efforts have been incorporated into two FORTRAN programs, TARGET and CRYOCHIL. The TARGET code is used to determine the maximum temperature at which the filling of a given tank can be initiated and subsequently filled to a specified pressure and fill level without venting. The main process is the transfer of the energy stored in the thermal mass of the tank walls into the inflowing liquid. This process is modeled by examining the end state of the no-vent fill process. This state is assumed to be at thermal equilibrium between the tank and the fluid which is well mixed and saturated at the tank pressure. No specific assumptions are made as to the processes or the intermediate thermodynamic states during the filling. It is only assumed that the maximum tank pressure occurs at the final state. This assumption implies that, during the initial phases of the filling, the injected liquid must pass through the bulk vapor in such a way that it absorbs a sufficient amount of its superheat so that moderate tank pressures can be maintained. It is believed that this is an achievable design goal for liquid injection systems. TARGET can be run with any fluid for which the user has a properties data base. Currently it will only run for hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen since pressure-enthalpy data sets have been included for these fluids only. CRYOCHIL's primary function is to predict the optimum liquid charge to be injected for each of a series of charge-hold-vent chilldown cycles. This information can then be used with specified mass flow rates and valve response times to control a liquid injection system for tank chilldown operations. This will

  9. Free Bulging at Constant Pressure of Superplastic Sheet Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanzo Bellini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to establish, by means of analytical modelling, a practical definition of the superplastic behaviour by using the results of the free bulging of sheet metal instead of the results of the traditional tensile test. In particular this paper analyses the superplastic flow of PbSn60 alloy and it focuses the attention on the value of H parameter corresponding to the maximum value of dt/dH, never considered in the literature. This parameter can represent a practical tool in industrial applications to establish the superplastic behaviour of a sheet metal.

  10. Extended X-ray Objects in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project was to locate extended X-ray objects in the galactic bulge. Data was taken from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and analyzed using vtpdetect, a program that scans for overdensities of photons in FITS files. The regions flagged by the program were further investigated to determine whether the sources were real extended objects. The original list of detected sources was narrowed down to 7 candidates which are now being further analyzed to determine what specifically the objects are. For this poster I will describe the elimination process for each flagged object and discuss future analysis techniques to determine the identity of the remaining candidates.

  11. Simulations of joule effect heating in a bulge test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazel, Nathan; Laurent, Hervé; Carin, Muriel; Coër, Jérémy; Le Masson, Philippe; Favero, Jérôme; Canivenc, Romain; Graveleau, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the integration of an electrical conduction heating of circular blank in a bulge test device. This device will be used to characterize the thermomechanical behaviour of Usibor®1500 under biaxial deformation at very high temperature (to 930°C). First a thermoelectric model using COMSOL Multiphysics® was developed to study the heating of a rectangular blank. This model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with thermocouples measurements. Secondly electrical field optimization is approached to obtain a fast and uniform heating of a circular blank.

  12. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheis, M. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de Côte d' Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Zasowski, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allende Prieto, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anders, F.; Chiappini, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Beaton, R. L.; García Pérez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Beers, T. C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ge, J. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hearty, F.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, J. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Muna, D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shetrone, M., E-mail: mathias.schultheis@oca.eu, E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmospheric parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.

  13. Bars in Disk-Dominated and Bulge-Dominated Galaxies at z~0: New Insights from ~3600 SDSS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barazza, Fabio D; Marinova, Irina

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of large-scale bars in the local Universe, based on a large sample of ~3692 galaxies, with -18.5 60^{\\circ}$) systems, we find the following results. (1) The optical r-band fraction (f_opt-r) of barred galaxies, when averaged over the whole sample, is ~48%-52%. (2)~When galaxies are separated according to half light radius (r_e), or normalized r_e/R_24, which is a measure of the bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio, a remarkable result is seen: f_opt-r rises sharply, from ~40% in galaxies that have small r_e/R_24 and visually appear to host prominent bulges, to ~70% for galaxies that have large r_e/R_24 and appear disk-dominated. (3)~f_opt-r rises for galaxies with bluer colors, lower masses, or fainter luminosities. (4) While hierarchical $\\Lambda$CDM models of galaxy evolution models fail to produce galaxies without classical bulges, our study finds that ~20% of disk galaxies appear to be ``quasi-bulgeless''. (5) After applying the same cutoffs in magnitude (M_V= 1.5 kpc), and bar ellipticity (e_bar...

  14. Radio detection prospects for a bulge population of millisecond pulsars as suggested by Fermi LAT observations of the inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Calore, Francesca; Donato, Fiorenza; Hessels, Jason W T; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Analogously to globular clusters, the dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis found support in the analysis of gamma rays from the inner Galaxy seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed a possible excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center (Fermi GeV excess). The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution that strongly peaks towards the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsation from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and the gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previ...

  15. The solubility behaviour and thermodynamic relations of the three forms of Venlafaxine free base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eupen, J Th H; Westheim, R; Deij, M A; Meekes, H; Bennema, P; Vlieg, E

    2009-02-23

    The polymorphic and solubility behaviour of the active pharmaceutical ingredient Venlafaxine free base, which is used as an antidepressant, is studied. Using differential scanning calorimetry and slurry experiments, an enantiotropic relation between the three forms was found. Transition temperatures were determined using solubility data and compared with calculated transition temperatures based on the melting enthalpies and temperatures of the different forms. The solubility of Venlafaxine in heptane, toluene and methanol shows a large deviation from ideal behaviour. The deviations are to a large extent determined by the temperature dependence of the difference in fusion enthalpy of the undercooled melt and the solid.

  16. The nuclear bulge. I. K band observations of the central 30 PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, S.; Zylka, R.; Mezger, P. G.; Duschl, W. J.; Herbst, T.; Tuffs, R. J.

    1999-08-01

    Out of ~ 500 individual source images we have constructed a mosaic map of the K band surface brightness in an area Delta alphax Delta delta ~ 650''x710'' (R_equiv ~ 15.8 pc for R_0 = 8.5 kpc) centered approximately on Sgr A*. An observing technique was used which allows us to recover an extended background emission. To separate sources from an unresolved background continuum we fitted Lorentzian distributions to the sources and find that about one half of an integrated, not dereddened K band flux density of 752 Jy is contributed by ~ 6*E(4) stars with flux densities S_K(') >~ 100 mu Jy and the remainder is contributed by an extended continuum provided by about 6*E(8) stars too weak to be observed as individual sources. We estimate that >~ 80% of the integrated flux density of the mosaic is contributed by stars in the Nuclear Bulge (NB; R 3 kpc). We determine the K band luminosity functions (KLF) of the mosaic and of subareas dominated by Nuclear Bulge, Galactic Bulge and Disk stars, respectively, and construct difference KLFs which relate to the specific stellar populations of these regions. The detection limit is S_K(') ~ 100 mu Jy, for the completeness limit we estimate S_K(') ~ 2 000 mu Jy. We find that the stellar population of the Nuclear Bulge contains considerably more bright stars (i.e. with reddened K band flux densities S_K(') >~ 5*E(3 mu ) Jy), most of which are probably early O stars, Giants and Supergiants. The stellar population of the Galactic Bulge on the other hand is dominated by stars which appear to be lower mass (Main Sequence (MS) stars. A model KLF constructed with a Salpeter Initial Mass Function (IMF) for stars of spectral type O9 or later (S_K(') masses ranging from 0.06 to 6 M_sun account for the unresolved continuum. Combining observed and model KLF we obtain a mosaic KLF which increases ~ S_K({') - 1} for 10(6) >~ S_K('/mu ) Jy >~ 10(3) and ~ S_K({') - 0.6} for 10(3) >~ S_K('/mu ) Jy >~ 3*E(-3) . For radii R relatively young generation

  17. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Chiappini, C.; Barbuy, B.; Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Depagne, E.; Cantelli, E.; Pignatari, M.; Hirschi, R.; Frischknecht, U.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Efforts to look for signatures of the first stars have concentrated on metal-poor halo objects. However, the low end of the bulge metallicity distribution has been shown to host some of the oldest objects in the Milky Way and hence this Galactic component potentially offers interesting targets to look at imprints of the first stellar generations. As a pilot project, we selected bulge field stars already identified in the ARGOS survey as having [Fe/H] ≈-1 and oversolar [α/Fe] ratios, and we used FLAMES-UVES to obtain detailed abundances of key elements that are believed to reveal imprints of the first stellar generations. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to analyse selected ARGOS stars using new high-resolution (R ~ 45 000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N> 100) spectra. We aim to derive their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of C, N, the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the neutron-capture s-process dominated elements Y, Zr, La, and Ba, and the r-element Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of five field giant stars were obtained at the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. Spectroscopic parameters were derived based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. The abundance analysis was performed with a MARCS LTE spherical model atmosphere grid and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code. Results: We confirm that the analysed stars are moderately metal-poor (-1.04 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-0.43), non-carbon-enhanced (non-CEMP) with [C/Fe] ≤ + 0.2, and α-enhanced. We find that our three most metal-poor stars are nitrogen enhanced. The α-enhancement suggests that these stars were formed from a gas enriched by core-collapse supernovae, and that the values are in agreement with results in the literature for bulge stars in the same metallicity range. No abundance anomalies (Na - O, Al - O, Al - Mg anti-correlations) were

  18. Thermodynamics of micellization of cholic acid based facial amphiphiles carrying three permanent ionic head groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, H.M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a series of cholic acid based facial amphiphiles carrying three ionic headgroups. Their micellization behavior in water was studied as a function of spacer length and alkyl tail length: both were found to have a small influence on the critical micellization concentration (cmc).

  19. Computational Implementation of a Thermodynamically Based Work Potential Model For Progressive Microdamage and Transverse Cracking in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    A continuum-level, dual internal state variable, thermodynamically based, work potential model, Schapery Theory, is used capture the effects of two matrix damage mechanisms in a fiber-reinforced laminated composite: microdamage and transverse cracking. Matrix microdamage accrues primarily in the form of shear microcracks between the fibers of the composite. Whereas, larger transverse matrix cracks typically span the thickness of a lamina and run parallel to the fibers. Schapery Theory uses the energy potential required to advance structural changes, associated with the damage mechanisms, to govern damage growth through a set of internal state variables. These state variables are used to quantify the stiffness degradation resulting from damage growth. The transverse and shear stiffness of the lamina are related to the internal state variables through a set of measurable damage functions. Additionally, the damage variables for a given strain state can be calculated from a set of evolution equations. These evolution equations and damage functions are implemented into the finite element method and used to govern the constitutive response of the material points in the model. Additionally, an axial failure criterion is included in the model. The response of a center-notched, buffer strip-stiffened panel subjected to uniaxial tension is investigated and results are compared to experiment.

  20. Thermodynamic and Structure Guided Design of Statin Based Inhibitors of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarver, Ronald W.; Bills, Elizabeth; Bolton, Gary; Bratton, Larry D.; Caspers, Nicole L.; Dunbar, James B.; Harris, Melissa S.; Hutchings, Richard H.; Kennedy, Robert M.; Larsen, Scott D.; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Bainbridge, Graeme (Pfizer)

    2008-10-02

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors, are effective at lowering mortality levels associated with cardiovascular disease; however, 2--7% of patients may experience statin-induced myalgia that limits compliance with a treatment regimen. High resolution crystal structures, thermodynamic binding parameters, and biochemical data were used to design statin inhibitors with improved HMGR affinity and therapeutic index relative to statin-induced myalgia. These studies facilitated the identification of imidazole 1 as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 7.9 nM) inhibitor with excellent hepatoselectivity (>1000-fold) and good in vivo efficacy. The binding of 1 to HMGR was found to be enthalpically driven with a {Delta}H of -17.7 kcal/M. Additionally, a second novel series of bicyclic pyrrole-based inhibitors was identified that induced order in a protein flap of HMGR. Similar ordering was detected in a substrate complex, but has not been reported in previous statin inhibitor complexes with HMGR.

  1. Acid Blue 25 adsorption on base treated Shorea dasyphylla sawdust: Kinetic,isotherm, thermodynamic and spectroscopic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megat Ahmad Kamal Megat Hanafiah; Wan Saime Wan Ngah; Shahira Hilwani Zolkafly; Lee Ching Teong; Zafri Azran Abdul Majid

    2012-01-01

    The potential of base treated Shorea dasyphylla (BTSD) sawdust for Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) adsorption was investigated in a batch adsorption process.Various physiochemical parameters such as pH,stirring rate,dosage,concentration,contact time and temperature were studied.The adsorbent was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer,scanning electron microscope and Brunauer,Emmett and Teller analysis.The optimum conditions for AB 25 adsorption were pH 2,stirring rate 500 r/min,adsorbent dosage 0.10 g and contact time 60 min.The pseudo second-order model showed the best conformity to the kinetic,data.The equilibrium adsorption of AB 25 was described by Freundlich and Langmuir,with the latter found to agree well with the isotherm model.The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of BTSD was 24.39 mg/g at 300 K,estimated from the Langmuir model.Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy,enthalpy and entropy were determined.It was found that AB 25 adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic.

  2. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  3. Electronic structures and thermodynamic stabilities of aluminum-based deuterides from first principles calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Xiao-Qiu; Luo De-Li; Sang Ge; Ao Bing-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The alanates (complex aluminohydrides) have relatively high gravimetric hydrogen densities and are among the most promising solid-state hydrogen-storage materials. In this work, the electronic structures and the formation enthalpies of seven typical aluminum-based deuterides have been calculated by the plane-wave pseudopotential method,these being AID3, LiAID4, Li3AID6, BaAID5, Ba2AID7, LiMg(AID4)3 and LiMgAID6. The results show that all these compounds are large band gap insulators at 0 K with estimated band gaps from 2.31 eV in AID3 to 4.96 eV in LiMg(AID4)3. The band gaps are reduced when the coordination of Al varies from 4 to 6. Two peaks present in the valence bands are the common characteristics of aluminum-based deuterides containing AID4 subunits while three peaks are the common characteristics of those containing AID6 subunits. The electronic structures of these compounds are determined mainly by aluminum deuteride complexes (AID4 or AID6) and their mutual interactions. The predicted formation enthalpies are presented for the studied aluminum-based deuterides.

  4. Joint Cosmological Formation of QSOs and Bulge-dominated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P; Danese, L; Monaco, Pierluigi; Salucci, Paolo; Danese, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    Older and more recent pieces of observational evidence suggest a strong connection between QSOs and galaxies; in particular, the recently discovered correlation between black hole and galactic bulge masses suggests that QSO activity is directly connected to the formation of galactic bulges. The cosmological problem of QSO formation is analyzed in the framework of an analytical model for galaxy formation; for the first time a joint comparison with galaxy and QSO observables is performed. In this model it is assumed that the same physical variable which determines galaxy morphology is able to modulate the mass of the black hole responsible for QSO activity. Both halo spin and the occurence of a major merger are considered as candidates to this role. The predictions of the model are compared to available data for the type-dependent galaxy mass functions, the star-formation history of elliptical galaxies, the QSO luminosity function and its evolution (including the obscured objects contributing to the hard-X-ray ...

  5. Realistic Stellar Feedback & Bulge Formation in Clumpy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Murray, Norman; Quataert, Eliot; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of isolated galaxies to study the effects of realistic stellar feedback on the formation and evolution of giant star-forming gas 'clumps' in high-redshift, gas-rich galaxies. Such galactic disks are unstable to the formation of bound gas-rich clumps whose properties initially depend only on global disk properties, not the microphysics of feedback. In simulations without stellar feedback, clumps turn an order-unity fraction of their mass into stars and sink to the center, forming a large bulge and kicking most of the stars out into a much more extended stellar envelope. By contrast, stellar feedback disrupts even the most massive clumps after they turn ~10-20% of their mass into stars, in a timescale of ~10-100 Myr, ejecting some material into a super-wind and recycling the rest of the gas into the diffuse ISM. This suppresses the bulge formation rate by direct 'clump coalescence' by a factor of several. However, the galactic disks do undergo significant secular evolution in the ab...

  6. The mechanics of decompressive craniectomy: Bulging in idealized geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2016-11-01

    In extreme cases of traumatic brain injury or a stroke, the resulting uncontrollable swelling of the brain may lead to a harmful increase of the intracranial pressure. As a common measure for immediate release of pressure on the brain, part of the skull is surgically removed allowing for the brain to bulge outwards, a procedure known as a decompressive craniectomy. During this excessive brain swelling, the affected tissue typically undergoes large deformations resulting in a complex three-dimensional mechanical loading state with several important implications on optimal treatment strategies and outcome. Here, as a first step towards a better understanding of the mechanics of a decompressive craniectomy, we consider simple models for the bulging of elastic solids under geometric constraints representative of the surgical intervention. In small deformations and simple geometries, the exact solution of this problem is derived from the theory of contact mechanics. The analysis of these solutions reveals a number of interesting generic features relevant for the mechanics of craniectomy.

  7. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2016-11-01

    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and a Navarro-Frenk-White halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km s-1 kpc-1 agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor-thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  8. Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge using Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, S F; Kálnay, A J; Saha, P; Zhao, H S; Beaulieu, Sylvie F.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kalnajs, Agris J.; Saha, Prasenjit; Zhao, HongSheng

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for a bar at the center of the Milky Way triggered a renewed enthusiasm for dynamical modelling of the Galactic bar-bulge. Our goal is to compare the kinematics of a sample of tracers, planetary nebulae, widely distributed over the bulge with the corresponding kinematics for a range of models of the inner Galaxy. Three of these models are N-body barred systems arising from the instabilities of a stellar disk (Sellwood, Fux and Kalnajs), and one is a Schwarzschild system constructed to represent the 3D distribution of the COBE/DIRBE near-IR light and then evolved as an N-body system for a few dynamical times (Zhao). For the comparison of our data with the models, we use a new technique developed by Saha (1998). The procedure finds the parameters of each model, i.e. the solar galactocentric distance R_o in model units, the orientation angle phi, the velocity scale (in km/s per model unit), and the solar tangential velocity which best fit the data.

  9. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disk galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrised up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the midplane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically-symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second bucklin...

  10. Molecular Gas in the Bulge and Ring of NGC 7331

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, F P

    1999-01-01

    Maps of the J=2-1 12CO emission from the SbII galaxy NGC 7331 show a low-contrast ring at a radius of about 3.5 kpc. There is no evidence for a pronounced central hole in the CO distribution as claimed by others. The molecular ring is just outside the radius of peak emission from warm dust, but coincides with the peak of colder dust emission. Various 12CO and 13CO transitions have been observed from three positions including the center, which was also observed in the 492 GHz transition. The line measurements have been modelled by emission from a clumpy mixture of low-density molecular gas at about T(kin) = 10 K and high-density molecular gas at temperatures of 10 K and 20 K. The CO to H2 conversion factor in NGC 7331 is lower than that in the Milky Way, and lowest in the center of NGC 7331. The total interstellar gas mass is dominated by molecular hydrogen in the bulge and in the ring, and by atomic hydrogen outside the ring. Total hydrogen mass densities in the ring are about twice those in the bulge. Total ...

  11. Planetary Nebulae towards the Galactic bulge. I. [OIII] fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Anna V; Jacoby, George H; Sharp, Rob; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J

    2010-01-01

    We present [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 fluxes and angular diameters for 435 Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the central 10' x 10' region towards the Galactic bulge. Our sample is taken from the new discoveries of the MASH PN surveys as well as previously known PN. This sample accounts for 80% of known PN in this region. Fluxes and diameters are measured from narrow-band imaging with the MOSAIC-II camera on the 4-m Blanco telescope at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This is the largest (~60 square degrees), uniform [OIII]{\\lambda}5007 survey of the inner Galactic bulge ever undertaken. 104 of the objects have measured [OIII]{\\lambda}5007, [OIII]{\\lambda}4959, H{\\alpha} or H{\\beta} fluxes from the literature, which we use to undertake a detailed comparison to demonstrate the integrity of our new fluxes. Our independent measurements are in excellent agreement with the very best literature sources over two orders of magnitude, while maintaining good consistency over five orders of magnitude. The excellent resoluti...

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, M., E-mail: marco.schweizer@math.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Department of Materials, Polymer Physics, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Sagis, L. M. C., E-mail: leonard.sagis@wur.nl [ETH Zurich, Department of Materials, Polymer Physics, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Food Physics Group, Wageningen University, Bornse Weilanden, 6708 WG Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects.

  13. Thermodynamic Stability and Defect Chemistry of Bismuth-Based Lead-Free Double Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zewen; Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Jianbo; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-09-22

    Bismuth- or antimony-based lead-free double perovskites represented by Cs2 AgBiBr6 have recently been considered promising alternatives to the emerging lead-based perovskites for solar cell applications. These new perovskites belong to the Fm3‾ m space group and consist of two types of octahedra alternating in a rock-salt face-centered cubic structure. We show, by density functional theory calculations, that the stable chemical potential region for pure Cs2 AgBiBr6 is narrow. Ag vacancies are a shallow accepters and can easily form, leading to intrinsic p-type conductivity. Bi vacancies and AgBi antisites are deep acceptors and should be the dominant defects under the Br-rich growth conditions. Our results suggest that the growth of Cs2 AgBiBr6 under Br-poor/Bi-rich conditions is preferred for suppressing the formation of the deep defects, which is beneficial for maximizing the photovoltaic performance.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of a new praseodymium Schiff-base complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan-Hua, E-mail: lichuanhua0526@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Song, Xiang-Zhi, E-mail: xzsong@csu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Jiang, Jian-Hong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Gu, Hui-Wen [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Tao, Li-Ming; Yang, Ping; Li, Xu; Xiao, Sheng-Xiong; Yao, Fei-Hong; Liu, Wen-Qi; Xie, Jin-Qi; Peng, Meng-Na; Pan, Lan; Wu, Xi-Bin; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Song; Xu, Man-Fen [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Li, Qiang-Guo, E-mail: liqiangguo@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A new mononuclear Schiff base praseodymium complex was synthesized. • Based on Hess's law, thermochemical cycles of two reactions were designed. • The dissolution enthalpies were measured by a solution–reaction calorimeter. • The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the complex was calculated. - Abstract: The title complex [Pr(H{sub 2}vanen)(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·NO{sub 3}] was synthesized reacting of Valen Schiff-base ligand [H{sub 2}vanen = N,N′-ethylene-bis(3-methoxysalicylideneimine)] and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O in ethanol at 60 °C. The complex was crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/c. The coordination polyhedron of Pr(III) ion was consisted of two bidentate nitrate ions, two molecules of water and one ligand which coordinated through oxygen atoms of the two phenolic and methoxy groups. After designing two reasonable thermochemical cycles according to Hess's law, the calorimetric experiments were conducted using isoperibol solution–reaction calorimeter at a constant temperature of 298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpy changes of two reactions were determined to be Δ{sub r}H{sub m}{sup θ}(1a)=−(51.94±1.26) kJ mol{sup −1} and Δ{sub r}H{sub m}{sup θ}(1b)=−(8.62±1.34) kJ mol{sup −1}. Then the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the ligand and the title complex were calculated to be Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup θ} [H{sub 2}vanen(s), 298.15 K] = −(517.75 ± 2.36) kJ mol{sup −1} and Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup θ} [Pr(H{sub 2}vanen)(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·NO{sub 3} (s), 298.15 K] = −(2454.8 ± 2.7) kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. The rationality of two thermochemical cycles was verified by UV spectra and refractive indexes.

  15. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    CERN Document Server

    Perim, Eric; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting bulk metallic glass formers from known parameters remains a challenge and the search for new systems is still performed by trial and error. It has been speculated that some sort of "confusion" during crystallization of the crystalline phases competing with glass formation could play a key role. Here, we propose a heuristic descriptor quantifying confusion and demonstrate its validity by detailed experiments on two well-known glass forming alloy systems. With the insight provided by these results, we develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the spectral decomposition of geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab-initio in the AFLOW high throughput framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be a much more common phenomenon than currently estimated, with more than ...

  16. Chemical abundances and dust in planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutenkunst, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of 11 planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the bulge, the infrared

  17. An Experimental Study of Bulge-Forming Polycarbonate (PC)Semisphere Shell Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new bulge-forming technology is described to manufacture a polycarbonate semisphere shell. Some experiments have been done, and the experimental results show that this technique is feasible to form polycarbonate part. But the wall thickness distribution of the bulged specimen by this method is not so even.

  18. Battle for the bulge: directing small molecules to DNA and RNA defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2002-08-01

    Small molecules were tailored to specifically bind bulged DNA by complementing the geometry and nucleotide size of the bulge site. The prospect of generating small molecules that influence the secondary structure of DNA and RNA holds great promise for clinical applications.

  19. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.; Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.B.; Mowlavi, N.; Oosterbroek, T.; Orr, A.; Rísquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field of

  20. 3D kinematics through the X-shaped Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, S; Hill, V; Renzini, A; González, O A; Gardner, E; Debattista, Victor P; Robin, A C; Rejkuba, M; Baffico, M; Monelli, M; Motta, V; Minniti, D

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that the Galactic bulge is X-shaped, with the two southern arms of the X both crossing the lines of sight at l=0 and |b|>4, hence producing a double red clump (RC) in the bulge CMD. Dynamical models predict the formation of X-shaped bulges, as extreme cases of boxy-peanut bulges. However, since X-shaped bulges were known to be present only in external galaxies, models have never been compared to 3D kinematical data for individual stars. We study the orbital motion of Galactic bulge stars, in the two arms of the X in the southern hemisphere. The goal is to provide observational constraints to bulge formation models that predict the formation of X-shapes through bar dynamical instabilities. Radial velocities have been obtained for a sample of 454 bulge giants, roughly equally distributed between the bright and faint RC, in a field at (l,b)=(0,-6). Proper motions were derived for all RC stars in the same field by combining images from two epochs obtained 11 years apart. The proper...

  1. Lost in secular evolution: the case of a low mass classical bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a classical bulge in disk galaxies holds important clue to the assembly history of galaxies. Finding observational evidence of very low mass classical bulges particularly in barred galaxies including our Milky Way, is a challenging task as the bar driven secular evolution might bring significant dynamical change to these bulges alongside the stellar disk. Using high-resolution N-body simulation, we show that if a cool stellar disk is assembled around a non-rotating low-mass classical bulge, the disk rapidly grows a strong bar within a few rotation time scales. Later, the bar driven secular process transform the initial classical bulge into a flattened rotating stellar system whose central part also have grown a bar-like component rotating in sync with the disk bar. During this time, a boxy/peanut (hereafter, B/P) bulge is formed via the buckling instability of the disk bar and the vertical extent of this B/P bulge being slightly higher than that of the classical bulge, it encompasses the whol...

  2. The maximum optical depth toward bulge stars from axisymmetric models of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K

    1997-01-01

    It has been known that recent microlensing results toward the bulge imply mass densities that are surprisingly high, given dynamical constraints on the Milky Way mass distribution. We derive the maximum optical depth toward the bulge that may be generated by axisymmetric structures in the Milky Way,

  3. Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations : Global scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Graham, Alister W.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate bulge and disk scaling relations using a volume-corrected sample of early-to intermediate-type disk galaxies in which, importantly, the biasing flux from additional nuclear components has been modeled and removed. Structural parameters are obtained from a seeing-convolved, bulge + dis

  4. Holostar thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, M

    2003-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic model for the final state of a collapsed, spherically symmetric star is presented. It is assumed, that the star's interior at the endpoint of the collapse consists of an ideal gas of ultra-relativistic fermions and bosons in thermal equilibrium and that the metric approaches the static metric of the so called holostar-solution of general relativity. The final configuration has a radius slightly exceeding the gravitational radius of the star. The radial coordinate difference between gravitational and actual radius is of order of the Planck length. The total number of ultra-relativistic particles within the star is proportional its proper surface-area, measured in units of the Planck-area. This is first direct evidence for the microscopic-statistical nature of the Hawking entropy and indicates, that the holographic principle is valid for compact self gravitating objects of any size. A "Stephan-Boltzmann-type" relation between the surface temperature and the surface area of the star is der...

  5. Thermodynamic interpolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, D E

    1998-10-01

    A method for constructing bicubic interpolation polynomials for the pressure P and internal energy E that are thermodynamically consistent at the mesh ponts and continuous across mesh boundaries is presented. The slope boundary conditions for the pressure and energy are derived from finite differences of the data and from Maxwell's consistency relation. Monotonicity of the sound speed and the specific heat is obtained by a bilinear interpolation of the slopes of the tabulated data. Monotonicity of the functions near steep gradients may be achieved by mesh refinement or by using a non-consistent bilinear to the data. Mesh refinement is very efficient for uniform-linear or uniform-logarithmic spaced data because a direct table lookup can be used. The direct method was compared to binary search and was 37 percent faster for logarithmic-spaced data and 106 percent faster for linear-spaced data. This improvement in speed is very important in the radiation-transport opacity-lookup part of the calculation. Interpolation in P-E space, with mesh refinement, can be made simple, robust, and conserve energy. In the final analysis the interpolation of the free energy and entropy (Maiden and Cook) remains a competitor.

  6. Thermodynamical and structural properties of imidazolium based ionic liquids from molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Gabriele; Köhler, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to determine the densities and heat of vaporization as well as structural information for the 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium based ionic liquids [amim][Cl] and [amim][BF4] in the temperature range from 298to363K. In this simulation study, we used an united atom model of Liu et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1096 (2006)] for the [emim+] and [bmim+] cations, which we have extended for simulation in [hmim]-ILs and combined with parameters of Canongia Lopes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2038 (2004)] for the [Cl-] anion. Our simulation results prove that both the original united atoms approach by Liu et al. and our extension yield reasonable predictions for the ionic liquid with a considerably reduced computational expense than that required for all atoms models. Radial distribution functions and spatial distribution functions where employed to analyze the local structure of this ionic liquid, and in which way it is influenced by the type of the anion, the size of the cation, and the temperature. Our simulations give evidence for the occurrence of tail aggregations in these ionic liquids with increasing length of the side chain and also increasing temperature.

  7. A density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) based approach to understand the effect of symmetry of fullerenes on the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of carbon NanoBuds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Amrit; Roy, Ram Kinkar

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we have rationalized the effect of variation in the symmetry of relatively smaller fullerene (C32) on the mode of its interaction with semi-conducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the process of formation of stable hybrid carbon NanoBuds. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, along with the charge transfer values associated with the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs, have been evaluated using an un-conventional and computationally cost-effective method based on density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). In addition to this, conventional DFT based studies are also performed to substantiate the growth of NanoBud structures formed by the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs. The findings of the present study suggest that the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of hybrid carbon NanoBuds are significantly influenced by both the symmetry of C32 fullerene and its site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT.

  8. Abundances of disk and bulge giants from hi-res optical spectra: II. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the bulge sample

    CERN Document Server

    Jönsson, H; Schultheis, M; Zoccali, M

    2016-01-01

    Determining elemental abundances of bulge stars can, via chemical evolution modeling, help to understand the formation and evolution of the bulge. Recently there have been claims both for and against the bulge having a different [$\\alpha$/Fe] vs. [Fe/H]-trend as compared to the local thick disk possibly meaning a faster, or at least different, formation time scale of the bulge as compared to the local thick disk. We aim to determine the abundances of oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium in a sample of 46 bulge K-giants, 35 of which have been analyzed for oxygen and magnesium in previous works, and compare them to homogeneously determined elemental abundances of a local disk sample of 291 K-giants. We use spectral synthesis to determine both the stellar parameters as well as the elemental abundances of the bulge stars analyzed here. The method is exactly the same as was used for analyzing the comparison sample of 291 local K-giants in Paper I of this series. Compared to the previous analysis of the 35 star...

  9. New Thermodynamic Paradigm of Chemical Equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents new thermodynamic paradigm of chemical equilibrium, setting forth comprehensive basics of Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria (DTd). Along with previous results by the author during the last decade, this work contains also some new developments of DTd. Based on the Onsager's constitutive equations, reformulated by the author thermodynamic affinity and reaction extent, and Le Chatelier's principle, DTd brings forward a notion of chemical equilibrium as a balance of internal and external thermodynamic forces (TdF), acting against a chemical system. Basic expression of DTd is the chemical system logistic map of thermodynamic states that ties together energetic characteristics of chemical reaction, occurring in the system, the system shift from "true" thermodynamic equilibrium (TdE), and causing that shift external thermodynamic forces. Solutions to the basic map are pitchfork bifurcation diagrams in coordinates "shift from TdE - growth factor (or TdF)"; points, corresponding to the ...

  10. The impact of bulges on the radial distribution of supernovae in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, A A; Barkhudaryan, L V; Mamon, G A; Kunth, D; Petrosian, A R; Adibekyan, V; Aramyan, L S; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of bulges on the radial distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) in the stellar discs of host galaxies with various morphologies. We find that in Sa-Sm galaxies, all core-collapse (CC) and vast majority of SNe Ia belong to the disc, rather than the bulge component. The radial distribution of SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies is inconsistent with their distribution in Sa-Sm hosts, which is probably due to the contribution of the outer bulge SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies. The radial distributions of both types of SNe are similar in all the subsamples of Sa-Sbc and Sc-Sm galaxies. These results confirm that the old bulges of Sa-Sm galaxies are not significant producers of Type Ia SNe, while the bulge populations are significant for SNe Ia only in S0-S0/a galaxies.

  11. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L; Casey, A R; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Gilmore, G; Lind, K; Worley, C; Bessell, M S; Casagrande, L; Marino, A F; Nataf, D M; Owen, C I; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Vallenari, A; Prieto, C Allende; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Magrini, L; Maiorca, E; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of the EMBLA survey (Extremely Metal-poor BuLge stars with AAOmega), aimed at finding metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, where the oldest stars should now preferentially reside. EMBLA utilises SkyMapper photometry to pre-select metal-poor candidates, which are subsequently confirmed using AAOmega spectroscopy. We describe the discovery and analysis of four bulge giants with -2.72<=[Fe/H]<=-2.48, the lowest metallicity bulge stars studied with high-resolution spectroscopy to date. Using FLAMES/UVES spectra through the Gaia-ESO Survey we have derived abundances of twelve elements. Given the uncertainties, we find a chemical similarity between these bulge stars and halo stars of the same metallicity, although the abundance scatter may be larger, with some of the stars showing unusual [{\\alpha}/Fe] ratios.

  12. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disk Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2015-01-01

    This is the summary chapter of a review book on galaxy bulges. Bulge properties and formation histories are more varied than those of ellipticals. I emphasize two advances: 1 - "Classical bulges" are observationally indistinguishable from ellipticals, and like them, are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. "Disky pseudobulges" are diskier and more actively star-forming (except in S0s) than are ellipticals. Theys are products of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy disks: bars and other nonaxisymmetries move disk gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds relatively flat, rapidly rotating components. This secular evolution is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. 2 - Disks of high-redshift galaxies are unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge - an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. I review successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges+ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with...

  13. Influences of acid-base property of membrane on interfacial interactions related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leihong; Qu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Meijia; Lin, Hongjun; Zhou, Xiaoling; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Mei, Rongwu; Hong, Huachang

    2016-08-01

    Failure of membrane hydrophobicity in predicting membrane fouling requires a more reliable indicator. In this study, influences of membrane acid base (AB) property on interfacial interactions in two different interaction scenarios in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were studied according to thermodynamic approaches. It was found that both the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and foulant samples in the MBR had relatively high electron donor (γ(-)) component and low electron acceptor (γ(+)) component. For both of interaction scenarios, AB interaction was the major component of the total interaction. The results showed that, the total interaction monotonically decreased with membrane γ(-), while was marginally affected by membrane γ(+), suggesting that γ(-) could act as a reliable indicator for membrane fouling prediction. This study suggested that membrane modification for fouling mitigation should orient to improving membrane surface γ(-) component rather than hydrophilicity.

  14. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  15. A TWO-PHASE SCENARIO FOR BULGE ASSEMBLY IN {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreja, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.; Brook, C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Serrano, F. J.; Domenech-Moral, M.; Serna, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain); Molla, M. [Departamento de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Stinson, G., E-mail: aura.obreja@uam.es [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-20

    We analyze and compare the bulges of a sample of L {sub *} spiral galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological context, using two different codes, P-DEVA and GASOLINE. The codes regulate star formation in very different ways, with P-DEVA simulations inputting low star formation efficiency under the assumption that feedback occurs on subgrid scales, while the GASOLINE simulations have feedback that drives large-scale outflows. In all cases, the marked knee shape in mass aggregation tracks, corresponding to the transition from an early phase of rapid mass assembly to a later slower one, separates the properties of two populations within the simulated bulges. The bulges analyzed show an important early starburst resulting from the collapse-like fast phase of mass assembly, followed by a second phase with lower star formation, driven by a variety of processes such as disk instabilities and/or mergers. Classifying bulge stellar particles identified at z = 0 into old and young according to these two phases, we found bulge stellar sub-populations with distinct kinematics, shapes, stellar ages, and metal contents. The young components are more oblate, generally smaller, more rotationally supported, with higher metallicity and less alpha-element enhanced than the old ones. These results are consistent with the current observational status of bulges, and provide an explanation for some apparently paradoxical observations, such as bulge rejuvenation and metal-content gradients observed. Our results suggest that bulges of L {sub *} galaxies will generically have two bulge populations that can be likened to classical and pseudo-bulges, with differences being in the relative proportions of the two, which may vary due to galaxy mass and specific mass accretion and merger histories.

  16. Review of selenium thermodynamic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, C. E.

    1988-02-01

    This report assesses the accuracy and completeness of available thermodynamic data on selenium. A review of experimental methods from published literature on selenium thermodynamic data focused on chemical reactions responsible for the formation of both aqueous complexes and solid phases of selenate, selenite, and selenide. The reviewer selected best data values, based on the methods used for estimating thermodynamic data. After inclusion of these values into the MINTEQ model, a validation study evaluated model performance for selenite and selenide solid phases. Lack of selenate data precluded model validation for this compound. The review furnished data on 22 aqueous complexes of selenite, 15 of selenide, and 17 of selenate, as well as 21 solid phases of selenite, 20 of selenide and 8 of selenate. These data proved inadequate to represent the formation of species in the solid phase. The validation study gave inconclusive predictions of selenite and selenide solubility and could not be used to assess the accuracy or completeness of the thermodynamic data.

  17. The Star-Forming Histories of the Nucleus, Bulge, and Inner Disk of NGC 5102: Clues to the Evolution of a Nearby Lenticular Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J

    2014-01-01

    Long slit spectra recorded with GMOS on Gemini South are used to examine the star-forming history of the lenticular galaxy NGC 5102. Structural and supplemental photometric information are obtained from archival Spitzer [3.6] images. Comparisons with model spectra point to luminosity-weighted metallicities that are consistent with the colors of resolved red giant branch stars in the disk. The nucleus has a luminosity-weighted age at visible wavelengths of ~1 Gyr, and the integrated light is dominated by stars that formed over a time period of only a few hundred Myr. For comparison, the luminosity-weighted ages of the bulge and disk are ~2 Gyr and ~10 Gyr, respectively. The g'-[3.6] colors of the nucleus and bulge are consistent with the spectroscopically-based ages. In contrast to the nucleus, models that assume star-forming activity spanning many Gyr provide a better match to the spectra of the bulge and disk than simple stellar population models. Isophotes in the bulge have a disky shape, hinting that the b...

  18. Galaxies in the Illustris simulation as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - I: Bulge+disc decompositions, methods, and biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, Connor; Torrey, Paul; Simard, Luc; Ellison, Sara L.

    2017-01-01

    We present an image-based method for comparing the structural properties of galaxies produced in hydrodynamical simulations to real galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The key feature of our work is the introduction of extensive observational realism, such as object crowding, noise and viewing angle, to the synthetic images of simulated galaxies, so that they can be fairly compared to real galaxy catalogs. We apply our methodology to the dust-free synthetic image catalog of galaxies from the Illustris simulation at z = 0, which are then fit with bulge+disc models to obtain morphological parameters. In this first paper in a series, we detail our methods, quantify observational biases, and present publicly available bulge+disc decomposition catalogs. We find that our bulge+disc decompositions are largely robust to the observational biases that affect decompositions of real galaxies. However, we identify a significant population of galaxies (roughly 30% of the full sample) in Illustris that are prone to internal segmentation, leading to systematically reduced flux estimates by up to a factor of 6, smaller half-light radii by up to a factor of ˜ 2, and generally erroneous bulge-to-total fractions of (B/T)=0.

  19. Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn

  20. 3 CFR 8465 - Proclamation 8465 of December 15, 2009. 65th Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009 8465 Proclamation 8465 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8465 of December 15, 2009 Proc. 8465 65th Anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, 2009By the... the Bulge, a grateful Nation remembers the fallen who gave their lives in that critical battle, and...

  1. Lithium abundances in Bulge-like SMR stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Trevisan, M.; Gustafsson, B.; Eriksson, K.; Grenon, M.; Pompéia, L.

    2010-04-01

    We analyze a sample of 21 super-metal-rich (SMR) stars, using high-resolution échelle spectra obtained with the FEROS Spectrograph at the 1.5m ESO telescope. The metallicities are in the range 0.15 < [Fe/H] < 0.5, 3 of them in common with Pompéia et al. (2002). Geneva photometry, astrometric data from Hipparcos, and radial velocities from CORAVEL are available for these stars. The peculiar kinematics suggests the thin disk close to the bulge as the probable birthplace of these stars (Grenon 1999). From Hipparcos data, it appears that the turnoff of this population indicates an age of 10-11 Gyr (Grenon 1999). Detailed analysis of the sample stars is carried out. Lithium abundances of these stars were derived, and their behaviour with effective temperature is shown.

  2. Evidence for the Galactic X-ray Bulge, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Dame, T M

    1998-01-01

    A mosaic of 5 \\ros~PSPC pointed observations in the Galactic plane ($l\\sim25^{\\circ}$) reveals X-ray shadows in the $0.5-2.0$ keV band cast by distant molecular clouds. The observed on-cloud and off-cloud X-ray fluxes indicate that $\\sim15$% and $\\sim37$% of the diffuse X-ray background in this direction in the \\tq~keV and 1.5 keV bands, respectively, originates behind the molecular gas which is located at $\\sim$3 kpc from the Sun. The implication of the derived background X-ray flux beyond the absorbing molecular cloud is consistent with, and lends further support to recent observations of a Galactic X-ray bulge.

  3. Variability of Optical Counterparts in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britt, Christopher T; Johnson, C B; Baldwin, A; Jonker, P G; Nelemans, G; Torres, M A P; Maccarone, T; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Heinke, C; Bassa, C G; Collazzi, A; Villar, A; Gabb, M; Gossen, L

    2014-01-01

    We present optical lightcurves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey. Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from $\\sim2$ hr to 8 days over the $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the lightcurve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. $87\\%$ of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. $24\\%$ of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and di...

  4. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces for Adsorption of R507A, R134a, and n -Butane on Pitch-Based Carbonaceous Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2010-10-01

    The thermodynamic property surfaces of R507A, R134a, and n-butane on pitch-based carbonaceous porous material (Maxsorb III) are developed from rigorous classical thermodynamics and experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data. These property fields enable us to compute the entropy, enthalpy, internal energy, and heat of adsorption as a function of pressure, temperature, and the amount of adsorbate. The entropy and enthalpy maps are necessary for the analysis of adsorption cooling cycle and gas storage. We have shown here that it is possible to plot an adsorption cooling cycle on the temperature-entropy (T-s) and enthalpy-uptake (h-x) maps. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC 2010.

  5. MbT-Tool: An open-access tool based on Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model to obtain microbial-metabolic reactions to be used in biotechnological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Pablo Granda; Gras, Anna; Ginovart, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs) using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics) can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4 (+), NO3 (-), NO2 (-), N2) to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc). MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.

  6. MbT-Tool: An open-access tool based on Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model to obtain microbial-metabolic reactions to be used in biotechnological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Araujo Granda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4+, NO3−, NO2−, N2 to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc. MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.

  7. An Energy-Based Thermodynamic Stabilization Framework for Hybrid Control Design of Large-Scale Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-27

    parallelism makes it possible to effectively update a neural network on line. These properties make neural networks a viable paradigm for adaptive...Irreversibility, and the Entropic Arrow of Time: From Mechanics to System Thermodynamics," Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, vol. 9, pp. 250-271, 2008

  8. Thermodynamic tables to accompany Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is provided at no extra charge with new copies of Balmer's Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. It contains two appendices. Appendix C contains 40 thermodynamic tables, and Appendix D consists of 6 thermodynamic charts. These charts and tables are provided in a separate booklet to give instructors the flexibility of allowing students to bring the tables into exams. The booklet may be purchased separately if needed.

  9. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF A NEUTRON-CAPTURE ENHANCED RED GIANT IN THE BULGE PLAUT FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: cijohnson@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present chemical abundances for 27 elements ranging from oxygen to erbium in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –1.67) bulge red giant branch star 2MASS 18174532-3353235. The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of a high-resolution (R ∼ 30, 000) spectrum obtained with the Magellan-MIKE spectrograph. While the light (Z ∼< 30) element abundance patterns match those of similar metallicity bulge and halo stars, the strongly enhanced heavy element abundances are more similar to 'r-II' halo stars (e.g., CS 22892-052) typically found at [Fe/H] ∼< – 2.5. We find that the heaviest elements (Z ≥ 56) closely follow the scaled-solar r-process abundance pattern. We do not find evidence supporting significant s-process contributions; however, the intermediate mass elements (e.g., Y and Zr) appear to have been produced through a different process than the heaviest elements. The light and heavy element abundance patterns of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are in good agreement with the more metal-poor r-process enhanced stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17{sup o}3248. 2MASS 18174532-3353235 also shares many chemical characteristics with the similar metallicity but comparatively α-poor Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy giant COS 82. Interestingly, the Mo and Ru abundances of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are also strongly enhanced and follow a similar trend recently found to be common in moderately metal-poor main-sequence turn-off halo stars.

  10. Precise Black Hole Masses from Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BHgsim108 M sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H2O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH-σ* relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ* seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH-σ* relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH-σ* relation in this low-mass regime.

  11. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  12. Bulging Behavior of Thin-walled Welded Low Carbon Steel Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Wen-cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the deformation behaviour of welded tubes during hydraulic bulging process,the hydraulic bulging tests of thin-walled welded low carbon steel tubes (STKM11A were conducted on the tube hydroformability testing unit.The thickness distribution,profiles of bulging area and the strain distribution were all obtained.Results show that the thickness reduction of weld zone is just 2.4%-5.5% while its effective strain is just 0.05-0.10,which is very small and negligible compared with the parent material and means that just the geometric position of weld zone is changed with the continuous bulging.The thinnest points are located on the both sides of weld seam symmetrically and the angle between the thinnest point and weld seam is about 30°,at which the necking has been occurred.When the length of bulging area increases,the fracture pressure,the thickness reduction and the ultimate expansion ratio all decrease,and the profile of the bulging area gradually steps away from the elliptical model which is powerless for the ratio of length to diameter up to 2.0.Moreover,the strain state of the tube is transformed from biaxial tension to plane strain state with the increasing length of bulging area,on the basis of this the forming limit diagram of welded STKM11A steel tubes can be established.

  13. Heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, M; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu in 56 bulge giants (red giant branch and red clump) with metallicities ranging from -1.3 dex to 0.5 dex. Methods. We obtained high-resolution spectra of our giant stars using the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. We inspected four bulge fields along the minor axis. Results. We measure the chemical evolution of heavy elements, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. Conclusions. The [Ba, La, Ce, Nd/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] ratios decrease with increasing metallicity, in which aspect they differ from disc stars. In our metal-poor bulge stars, La and Ba are enhanced relative to their thick disc counterpart, while in our metal-rich bulge stars La and Ba are underabundant relative to their disc counterpart. Therefore, this contrast between bulge and discs trends indicates that bulge and (solar neighbourhood) thick disc stars could behave differently. An increase in [La, Nd/Eu] with increasing m...

  14. Bulge and Clump Evolution in Hubble Ultra Deep Field Clump Clusters, Chains and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Fernandez, Maria Ximena; Lemonias, Jenna Jo

    2008-01-01

    Clump clusters and chain galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field are examined for bulges in the NICMOS images. Approximately 50% of the clump clusters and 30% of the chains have relatively red and massive clumps that could be young bulges. Magnitudes and colors are determined for these bulge-like objects and for the bulges in spiral galaxies, and for all of the prominent star-formation clumps in these three galaxy types. The colors are fitted to population evolution models to determine the bulge and clump masses, ages, star-formation rate decay times, and extinctions. The results indicate that bulge-like objects in clump cluster and chain galaxies have similar ages and 2 to 5 times larger masses compared to the star-formation clumps, while the bulges in spirals have ~6 times larger ages and 20 to 30 times larger masses than the clumps. All systems appear to have an underlying red disk population. The masses of star-forming clumps are typically in a range from 10^7 to 10^8 Msun; their ages have a wide range ar...

  15. Prediction of the properties and thermodynamics of formation for energetic nitrogen-rich salts composed of triaminoguanidinium cation and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate-based anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weihua; Yan, Qingli; Li, Jinshan; Cheng, Bibo; Shao, Yuling; Xia, Xuelan; Xiao, Heming

    2012-08-15

    Density functional theory and volume-based thermodynamics calculations were performed to study the effects of different substituents and linkages on the densities, heats of formation (HOFs), energetic properties, and thermodynamics of formation for a series of energetic nitrogen-rich salts composed of triaminoguanidinium cation and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate anions. The results show that the -NO(2), -NF(2), or -N(3) group is an effective substituent for increasing the densities of the 5-nitroiminotetrazolate salts, whereas the effects of the bridge groups on the density are coupled with those of the substituents. The substitution of the group -NH(2), -NO(2), -NF(2), -N(3), or the nitrogen bridge is helpful for increasing the HOFs of the salts. The calculated energetic properties indicate that the -NO(2), -NF(2), -N(3), or -N=N- group is an effective structural unit for improving the detonation performance for salts. The thermodynamics of formation of the salts show that all the salts may be synthesized easily by the proposed reactions. The structure-property relationships provide basic information for the molecular design of novel high-energy salts.

  16. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  17. 基于热力学定律的绿色经济发展探究%To Explore the Green Economy Based on the Thermodynamics Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庭珠

    2011-01-01

    Green economy, whose nature is ecological economy, is a new economic development model which can promote harmonious development between the soeio - economy and the environment. As complying with environmental rules, it has the primary meaning to study the thermodynamics laws of the thermal phenomenon about the energy conversion and state changes law for the green economy. The revelations of the thermodynamics laws to green economy are explored in this paper, while the thermodynamic analyses on green economy are made. The green economic development measures are put forward based on the thermodynamics laws by building low -entropy model: following the natural law, developing green science and technology and setting low- entropy idea.%绿色经济是人类寻求的一种能够促进社会经济与环境和谐发展的新型经济发展模式,其本质是生态经济.绿色经济遵从生态规律,研究热现象中物态转变和能量转换规律的热力学定律对于绿色经济具有重要的意义.文章探究了热力学定律对绿色经济发展的启示,并对绿色经济进行了热力学分析,提出通过构建低熵发展模式、遵循自然生态规律、发展绿色科技、树立低熵观念等途径发展绿色经济.

  18. Solution-based thermodynamic modeling of the Ni-Al-Mo system using first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S H [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Y [Pennsylvania State University; Chen, L -Q [Pennsylvania State University; Liu, Z -K [Pennsylvania State University; Napolitano, R E [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    A solution-based thermodynamic description of the ternary Ni–Al–Mo system is developed here, incorporating first-principles calculations and reported modeling of the binary Ni–Al, Ni–Mo and Al–Mo systems. To search for the configurations with the lowest energies of the N phase, the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolkit (ATAT) was employed and combined with VASP. The liquid, bcc and γ-fcc phases are modeled as random atomic solutions, and the γ'-Ni3Al phase is modeled by describing the ordering within the fcc structure using two sublattices, summarized as (Al,Mo,Ni)0.75(Al,Mo,Ni)0.25. Thus, γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3Al are modeled with a single Gibbs free energy function with appropriate treatment of the chemical ordering contribution. In addition, notable improvements are the following: first, the ternary effects of Mo and Al in the B2-NiAl and D0a-Ni3Mo phases, respectively, are considered; second, the N-NiAl8Mo3 phase is described as a solid solution using a three-sublattice model; third, the X-Ni14Al75Mo11 phase is treated as a stoichiometric compound. Model parameters are evaluated using first-principles calculations of zero-Kelvin formation enthalpies and reported experimental data. In comparison with the enthalpies of formation for the compounds ψ-AlMo, θ-Al8Mo3 and B2-NiAl, the first-principles results indicate that the N-NiAl8Mo3 phase, which is stable at high temperatures, decomposes into other phases at low temperature. Resulting phase equilibria are summarized in the form of isothermal sections and liquidus projections. To clearly identify the relationship between the γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3Al phases in the ternary Ni–Al–Mo system, the specific γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3Al phase fields are plotted in x(Al)–x(Mo)–T space for a temperature range 1200–1800 K.

  19. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of modified cellulose fiber-based materials and related interactions with water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedane, Alemayehu H., E-mail: Alemayehu.Bedane@unb.ca; Xiao, Huining, E-mail: hxiao@unb.ca; Eić, Mladen, E-mail: meic@unb.ca; Farmahini-Farahani, Madjid, E-mail: Madjid.Farahani@unb.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Coating on paper increases the specific surface area but decreases the pore diameter. • Pore size reduction and decrease of hydrophilic property caused reduction in WVTRs. • The low monolayer moisture content of the sample is generally related to the low WVTR. • The net isosteric heats of adsorption decreased with increased sample moisture content. • FT-IR results reveal the formation of water clusters at higher relative humidities. - Abstract: In this study, the surface characteristics, water vapor interactions, and state of water adsorbed on unmodified and coated paper samples were investigated in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental principles related to thermodynamics of this process, as well as to provide essential insight that could be used for further improvement of the papers’ barrier properties. Based on the BET measurement, the coated paper samples showed higher specific surface areas than unmodified paper; however, their mean pore diameters are smaller. The BJH method was used for pore size distribution analysis. Hydrophobic properties of the paper samples were determined from experimental isotherms, e.g., monolayer moisture content, and these results have been related to the water vapor transfer rates (WVTRs) showing a complex nature of these relations. The highest peak corresponding to the modified samples with smaller pore sizes was found to be in the range of 1–30 nm, while it was in the 30–100 nm pore size range for unmodified paper. The net isosteric heats of sorption for different unmodified and modified paper samples were determined from water vapor adsorption isotherms measured at 15, 25, and 35 °C. The net isosteric heats of sorption decreased with an increase of moisture content after reaching the maximum values at 12.53, 15.25, 14.71, 23.2, and 22.77 kJ/mol for unmodified, zein grafted, calendered coated, PLA, and PHBV coated papers, respectively. The state of adsorbed water and water

  20. Thermodynamic characteristics of acid-base equilibria of DL-α-alanyl-DL-norleucine in aqueous solutions at 298 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Bychkova, S. A.; Skvortsov, I. A.

    2015-09-01

    Protolytic equilibria in aqueous solutions of DL-α-alanyl-DL-norleucine are studied via potentiometry and calorimetry. Measurements are made at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 (against a background of potassium nitrate). The thermodynamic characteristics (p K, Δ G, Δ H, Δ S) of the stepwise dissociation of the dipeptide both in aqueous-salt solutions and in standard solution are obtained for the first time.

  1. Impact of CrSiTi and NiSi on the Thermodynamics, Microstructure, and Properties of AlCoCuFe-Based High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Tie-Song; He, Peng; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of spontaneous combustion on titanium via electrospark deposition (ESD), two AlCoCuFe-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs), AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi), were produced by vacuum arc melting as electrodes in ESD process. The thermodynamic analysis of AlCoCuFe-based HEAs were carried out using the concept of mixing enthalpy matrix and a powerful thermodynamic calculation toolbox (HEA-Thermo-Calcu). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the two alloys were investigated. The AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy contains a body-centered cubic (BCC) phase and a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase. The AlCoCuFeNiSi alloy is composed of two BCC phases and an FCC phase. Addition of CrSiTi and NiSi to AlCoCuFe-based alloys makes the enthalpy of mixing to be sizably more negative than for the other AlCoCuFe-based HEAs. Notwithstanding the fact that the thermodynamic parameters do not agree with Yang's proposition, the two alloys form simple solid solutions. The electronegativity difference (Δ χ) favors a formation of the solid solution when Δχ ≤ 14.2. The hardness of AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi) alloys reaches 935 HV and 688 HV, respectively. The yield strength, fracture strength, and ultimate strain of AlCoCuFeNiSi are larger, i.e., 29, 30, and 45%, respectively, than those of the AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy.

  2. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  3. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial applicat......Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...... promising direction for a general and useful for engineering purposes modeling of complex thermodynamics is via the use of association theories e.g. those based on chemical theory (like APACT), or on the lattice theory (like NRHB) or those based on perturbation theory (like SAFT and CPA). The purpose...

  4. Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from the X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Oscar; Crocker, Roland M; Coleman, Brendan; Paterson, Dylan; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Pohl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    An anomalous signal has been found in Fermi Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope data covering the center of the Galaxy. Given its morphological and spectral characteristics, this "Galactic Center Excess" is ascribable to self-annihilation of dark matter particles. We report on an analysis that exploits hydrodynamical modeling to register the position of interstellar gas associated with diffuse Galactic $\\gamma$-ray emission. Our improved analysis reveals that the excess $\\gamma$-rays are spatially correlated with both the X-shaped stellar over-density in the Galactic bulge and the nuclear stellar bulge. Given these correlations, we argue that the excess is not a dark matter phenomenon but rather associated with the stellar population of the X-bulge and the nuclear bulge.

  5. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of a Spheroidal Metal-poor Bulge Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Storm, J.; Nataf, D. M.; De Propris, R.; Walker, A. R.; Bono, G.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, Juntai; Li, Z.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RRLs predate these structures and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a “classical” bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -1 dex) halo-bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  6. A Population Synthesis Study of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S.; García-Berro, E. G.; Cojocaru, R. E.; Calamida, A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have allowed to determine, for the first time, the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge. However, observations show systematically redder objects than those predicted by the theoretical cooling tracks of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the galactic bulge including both single white dwarfs and binary systems. These calculations incorporate the most up-to-date cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres, for both white dwarfs with carbon-oxygen and helium cores, and also take into account detailed prescriptions of the evolution of binary systems and of the observational biases. This allows us to model with a high degree of realism the white dwarf population of the Galactic bulge. Among other interesting results we estimate the fraction of binaries and double degenerate systems of the Galactic bulge.

  7. Planetary Nebula Velocities in the Disk and Bulge of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, C; Carter, D; Douglas, N G; Evans, N W; Irwin, M J; Jackson, Z C; Kuijken, K; Merrett, H R; Merrifield, M R; Quinn, D P; Romanowsky, A J; Wilkinson, M I

    2006-01-01

    We present radial velocities for a sample of 723 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the disk and bulge of M31, measured using the WYFFOS fibre spectrograph on the William Herschel telescope. Velocities are determined using the [OIII] 5007 Angstrom emission line. Rotation and velocity dispersion are measured to a radius of 50 arcminutes (11.5 kpc), the first stellar rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile for M31 to such a radius. Our kinematics are consistent with rotational support at radii well beyond the bulge effective radius of 1.4kpc, although our data beyond a radius of 5kpc are limited. We present tentative evidence for kinematic substructure in the bulge of M31 to be studied fully in a later work. This paper is part of an ongoing project to constrain the total mass, mass distribution and velocity anisotropy of the disk, bulge and halo of M31.

  8. The stellar population and luminosity function in M31 bulge and Inner Disk Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. Michael; Mould, J. R.; Graham, James R.

    1993-01-01

    We report infrared photometry and stellar identifications for stars in five fields in the M31 bulge located from 2 to 11 arcmin from the nucleus. These fields have been chosen such that the bulge/disk star ratio predicted from Kent's (1989) small bulge model varies from 7:1 to 1:5, allowing a study of near pure disk and near pure bulge stellar populations. We reject the hypothesis of Davies et al. (1991) that luminous stars found within 500 pc of the nucleus are due to a contaminating disk population. We find that the bulge contains stars in excess of M(sub bol) = -5 mag and that the bulge luminosity function has a distinct shape different from the disk fields. We find many stars redder than (J-K) = 2 mag, and suggest that these stars may be the counterparts of the IRAS-selected Galactic bulge Miras studied by Whitelock et at. (1991). The number of bright stars (M(sub bol) is less than -5 mag) falls off more rapidly than the r band surface brightness. By building model fields out of a bulge luminosity function and artificial stars, we are able to show that the change in the luminosity function toward the center cannot be explained simply by the mismeasurement of overcrowded star images. However, these tests also raise the possibility that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) tip may be approximately equal to 1 mag fainter than actually measured in our most crowded field, reaching only M(sub bol) = -5. We compare observed counts of AGB stars with those predicted from theoretical lifetimes using a technique of general interest for this problem, the Fuel Consumption Theorem of Renzini & Buzzoni (1986) Spectral Evolution of Galaxies (Reidel, Dordrecht). Our methodology is generally applicable to the study of other resolved extragalactic stellar populations. The number of observed stars per magnitude up to a luminosity of M(bol) = -5.5 mag is consistent with AGB evolution of the whole population of the innermost bulge field with the standard lifetime on the AGB of 1.3 Myr

  9. Effect of the Thermodynamic Behavior of Selective Laser Melting on the Formation of In situ Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Aluminum-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfeng Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the phase and microstructure, the thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool, and the growth mechanism of in situ oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS aluminum-based composites processed by a selective laser melting (SLM additive manufacturing/3D printing process. The phase and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM equipped with EDX, respectively. The thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool was investigated for a comprehensive understanding on the growth mechanism of the SLM-processed composite using a finite volume method (FVM. The results revealed that the in situ Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites were successfully fabricated by SLM. Combined with the XRD spectrum and EDX analysis, the new silica-rich Al2Si4O10 reinforcing phase was identified, which was dispersed around the grain boundaries of the aluminum matrix under a reasonable laser power of 200 W. Combined with the activity of Marangoni convection and repulsion forces, the characteristic microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites tended to transfer from the irregular network structure to the nearly sphere-like network structure in regular form by increasing the laser power. The formation mechanism of the microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites is thoroughly discussed herein.

  10. Mechanical Analysis of Dead Load Crown and Structure Parameter of Hydraulic Elastic Bulging Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang-cai; LI Wei-min; LIU Zhu-bai

    2003-01-01

    The dead load crown of hydraulic elastic bulging roll was discussed using the theory of elastically supported beam, and the dead load experiment was carried out. The theoretical calculation is consistent with the experimental result. The structure parameters for the thickness of roll sleeve, the length of the oil groove and the crown of roll were discussed. The fundamental principle of determining the parameters was put forward. The theoretical basis of the application of the hydraulic elastic bulging roll was established.

  11. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disc Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    Bulge components of disc galaxies are the high-density centers interior to their outer discs. Once thought to be equivalent to elliptical galaxies, their observed properties and formation histories turn out to be richer and more varied than those of ellipticals. This book reviews progress in many areas of bulge studies. Two advances deserve emphasis: (1) Observations divide bulges into "classical bulges" that look indistinguishable from ellipticals and "pseudobulges" that are discier and (except in S0s) more actively star-forming than are ellipticals. Classical bulges and ellipticals are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. Discy pseudobulges are a product of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy discs. Nonaxisymmetries such as bars and oval distortions transport some disc gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds a dense central component that is discier in structure than are classical bulges. Secular evolution explains many regular structures (e.g., rings) seen in galaxy discs. It is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. (2) Studies of high-redshift galaxies reveal that their discs are so gas-rich that they are violently unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge. This is an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. This chapter summarizes big-picture successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges and ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with supermassive black holes. I present an observer's perspective on simulations of cold dark matter galaxy formation including baryonic physics. Our picture of the quenching of star formation is becoming general and secure at redshifts z 1000 in mass but that differ from each other as we observe over that whole range. A related difficulty is how hierarchical clustering makes so many giant, bulgeless galaxies in field but not cluster environments. I present arguments that we rely too much on star

  12. DBCreate: A SUPCRT92-based program for producing EQ3/6, TOUGHREACT, and GWB thermodynamic databases at user-defined T and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Saar, Martin O.

    2013-02-01

    SUPCRT92 is a widely used software package for calculating the standard thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions. However, it is labor-intensive and error-prone to use it directly to produce databases for geochemical modeling programs such as EQ3/6, the Geochemist's Workbench, and TOUGHREACT. DBCreate is a SUPCRT92-based software program written in FORTRAN90/95 and was developed in order to produce the required databases for these programs in a rapid and convenient way. This paper describes the overall structure of the program and provides detailed usage instructions.

  13. Calibrating a large slab vessel: A battle of the bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, I.R. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Safeguards and Security Section

    1993-12-31

    The accurate measurement of volume in slab vessels can be difficult because slab vessels expand--in spite of internal or external supports--as they are filled. One form of bulging is elastic deflection, a gradual expansion of the vessel wall resulting from an increased weight of contained solution. As part of an upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, slab tanks were proposed as accountability measurement vessels. A 1960 liter slab tank prototype was set up for preliminary calibrations. Two series of calibrations were conducted: the first using water, and the second using aluminum nitrate. It was conjectured that the increased weight of aluminum nitrate would cause the vessel walls to deflect more than they did for an equal level of water, resulting in a greater volume. As expected, a significant expansion was observed with the aluminum nitrate, but some of the deflection proved to be permanent rather than elastic. The consequence is that considerably more effort will be required to calibrate slab vessels for uranium accountability. Not only must a calibration curve (or family of curves) be developed giving volume as a function of both liquid level and density, but, if possible, a determination must be made as to when the deflection is no longer temporary.

  14. The Luminosity Function and Mass Function in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Holtzmann, J A; Baum, W A; Grillmair, C J; Groth, E J; Light, R M; Lynds, R; O'Neil, E J; Holtzman, Jon A.; Watson, Alan M.; Baum, William A.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Groth, Edward J.; Light, Robert M.; Lynds, Roger; Neil, Earl J. O'

    1998-01-01

    We present deep photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in a field in Baade's Window in the Galactic bulge. We derive a luminosity function down to I ~ 24.3, or V ~ 27.5, corresponding to M ~ 0.3 Msun. The luminosity function from the turnoff down to this level appears remarkably similar to that observed in the solar neighborhood. We derive a mass function using both an empirical local mass-luminosity relation and a mass-luminosity relation from recent stellar model calculations, allowing for the presence of binaries and photometric errors. The mass function has a power law form with dN/dM proportional to M^{-2.2} for M >~ 0.7 Msun. However, we find strong evidence for a break in the mass function slope around 0.5-0.7 Msun, with a significantly shallower slope at lower masses. The value of the slope for the low masses depends on the assumed binary fraction and the accuracy of our completeness correction. This mass function should directly reflect the initial mass function.

  15. Stellar populations in the bulges of isolated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Corsini, E M; Costantin, L; Bontà, E Dalla; Mèndez-Abreu, J; Pizzella, A

    2016-01-01

    We present photometry and long-slit spectroscopy for 12 S0 and spiral galaxies selected from the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies. The structural parameters of the sample galaxies are derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i-band images by performing a two-dimensional photometric decomposition of the surface brightness distribution. This is assumed to be the sum of the contribution of a S\\`ersic bulge, an exponential disc, and a Ferrers bar characterized by elliptical and concentric isophotes with constant ellipticity and position angles. The rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles of the stellar component are measured from the spectra obtained along the major axis of galaxies. The radial profiles of the H{\\beta}, Mg and Fe line-strength indices are derived too. Correlations between the central values of the Mg 2 and Fe line-strength indices and the velocity dispersion are found. The mean age, total metallicity and total {\\alpha}/Fe enhancement of the stellar population in the centre and at the radi...

  16. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  17. Transiting extrasolar planetary candidates in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, K C; Bond, H E; Valenti, J; Smith, T E; Minniti, D; Zoccali, M; Livio, M; Panagia, N; Piskunov, N; Brown, T M; Brown, T; Renzini, A; Rich, R M; Clarkson, W; Lubow, S; Sahu, Kailash C.; Casertano, Stefano; Bond, Howard E.; Valenti, Jeff; Minniti, Dante; Zoccali, Manuela; Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Piskunov, Nikolai; Brown, Thomas M.; Brown, Timothy; Renzini, Alvio; Clarkson, Will; Lubow, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    More than 200 extrasolar planets have been discovered around relatively nearby stars, primarily through the Doppler line shifts owing to the reflex motions of their host stars, and more recently through transits of some planets across the face of the host stars. The detection of planets with the shortest known periods, 1.2 to 2.5 days, has mainly resulted from transit surveys which have generally targeted stars more massive than 0.75 M_sun. Here we report the results from a planetary transit search performed in a rich stellar field towards the Galactic bulge. We discovered 16 candidates with orbital periods between 0.4 and 4.2 days, five of which orbit stars of 0.44 to 0.75 M_sun. In two cases, radial-velocity measurements support the planetary nature of the companions. Five candidates have orbital periods below 1.0 day, constituting a new class of ultra-short-period planets (USPPs), which occur only around stars of less than 0.88 M_sun. This indicates that those orbiting very close to more luminous stars mig...

  18. The mixed chemistry phenomenon in Galactic Bulge PNe

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Calderón, J V; García-Lario, P; Szczerba, R; Bobrowsky, M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dual-dust chemistry (DDC) phenomenon in PNe and discuss reasons for its occurrence, by analyzing Spitzer/IRS spectra of a sample of 40 Galactic PNe among which 26 belong to the Galactic Bulge (GB). The mixed chemistry is derived from the simultaneous detection of PAH features in the 6-14 micron range and crystalline silicates (CS) beyond 20 microns in the Spitzer/IRS spectra. Out of the 26 PNe observed in the GB, 21 show signatures of DDC. Our observations reveal that the simultaneous presence of O- and C-rich dust features in the IR spectra of [WC]-type PNe is not restricted to late/cool [WC]-type stars, as previously suggested in the literature, but is a common feature associated with all [WC]-type PNe. Surprisingly, we found that the DDC is seen also in all observed wels, as well as in other PNe with central stars being neither [WC] nor wels. Most sources observed display CS features in their spectra, with only a few PNe exhibiting, in addition, amorphous silicate bands. We appear to det...

  19. Spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition: a new method to study the evolution of lenticular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, E J; Merrifield, M R; Bedregal, A G

    2012-01-01

    A new method for spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition is presented, in which the spatial light profile in a two-dimensional spectrum is decomposed wavelength-by-wavelength into bulge and disc components, allowing separate one-dimensional spectra for each component to be constructed. This method has been applied to observations of a sample of nine S0s in the Fornax Cluster in order to obtain clean high-quality spectra of their individual bulge and disc components. So far this decomposition has only been fully successful when applied to galaxies with clean light profiles, consequently limiting the number of galaxies that could be separated into bulge and disc components. Lick index stellar population analysis of the component spectra reveals that in those galaxies where the bulge and disc could be distinguished, the bulges have systematically higher metallicities and younger stellar populations than the discs. This correlation is consistent with a picture in which S0 formation comprises the shutting down of s...

  20. The effects of gas on morphological transformation in mergers: implications for bulge and disc demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Kereš, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

    2009-08-01

    Transformation of discs into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that the bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in haloes according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the overproduction of spheroids: low- and intermediate-mass galaxies are predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T ~ 0.5 at physical behaviour of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T ~ 0.1 at galaxies in good agreement with observations). Simulations and analytic models which neglect the similarity-breaking behaviour of gas have difficulty reproducing the strong observed morphology-mass relation. However, the observed dependence of gas fractions on mass, combined with suppression of bulge formation in gas-rich mergers, naturally leads to the observed trends. Discrepancies between observations and models that ignore the role of gas increase with redshift; in models that treat gas properly, galaxies are predicted to be less bulge-dominated at high redshifts, in agreement with the observations. We discuss implications for the global bulge mass density and future observational tests.

  1. Mergers and Bulge Formation in Lambda-CDM: Which Mergers Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Croton, Darren; Hernquist, Lars; Keres, Dusan; Khochfar, Sadegh; Stewart, Kyle; Wetzel, Andrew; Younger, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    We use a suite of semi-empirical models to predict galaxy merger rates and contributions to bulge growth as functions of merger mass, redshift, and mass ratio. The models use empirical halo occupation constraints to identify mergers, together with high-resolution simulations to quantify how mergers with different properties contribute to the bulge population. We find good agreement with a variety of observational constraints, and provide fitting functions for merger rates and contributions to bulge growth. We identify several robust conclusions. (1) Major mergers dominate formation and assembly of L* bulges and the spheroid mass density, minor mergers contribute ~30%. (2) This is mass-dependent: bulge formation is dominated by more minor mergers in lower-mass systems. At higher masses, bulges form in major mergers near L*, but subsequently assemble in minor mergers. (3) The minor/major contribution is also morphology-dependent: higher B/T systems form in more major mergers, lower B/T systems form in situ from...

  2. A new look at the kinematics of the bulge from an N-body model

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, A; Stefanovitch, N; Haywood, M; Combes, F; Katz, D; Babusiaux, C

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) By using an N-body simulation of a bulge that was formed via a bar instability mechanism, we analyse the imprints of the initial (i.e. before bar formation) location of stars on the bulge kinematics, in particular on the heliocentric radial velocity distribution of bulge stars. Four different latitudes were considered: $b=-4^\\circ$, $-6^\\circ$, $-8^\\circ$, and $-10^\\circ$, along the bulge minor axis as well as outside it, at $l=\\pm5^\\circ$ and $l=\\pm10^\\circ$. The bulge X-shaped structure comprises stars that formed in the disk at different locations. Stars formed in the outer disk, beyond the end of the bar, which are part of the boxy peanut-bulge structure may show peaks in the velocity distributions at positive and negative heliocentric radial velocities with high absolute values that can be larger than 100 $\\rm km$ $\\rm s^{-1}$, depending on the observed direction. In some cases the structure of the velocity field is more complex and several peaks are observed. Stars formed in the inner disk, t...

  3. The Chemical Composition of the Galactic Bulge and Implications for its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The average bulge [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] are +0.06 and +0.17 dex, respectively, in Baade's Window, roughly 0.2 dex higher than the thin disk and ~0.7 dex higher than the local thick disk metallicity. This suggests a higher effective yield in the bulge, perhaps due to more efficient retention of supernova ejecta. The bulge vertical [Fe/H] gradient, at ~0.5 dex/kpc, appears to be due to a changing mixture of sub-populations (near +0.3 dex and -0.3 dex and one possibly near -0.7 dex) with latitude. The bulge is enhanced in O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Al relative to the sun, with [alpha/Fe]=+0.15 dex at [Fe/H]=0.0 dex. Below [Fe/H]~-0.5 dex, the bulge and local thick disk compositions are very similar, but small [Mg/Fe] and possibly [/Fe] enhancements, low [La/Eu] ratios and large [Cu/Fe], relative to the thick disk suggest slightly higher SFR in the bulge. However, these composition differences could simply be due to measurement errors and non-LTE effects. Unfortunately, comparison with the thick disk near solar [Fe/H] su...

  4. 3-D Simulations of the Chemical and Dynamical Evolution of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Nakasato, N; Nakasato, Naohito; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamical N-body model for the formation of the Galaxy is presented with special attention to the formation of the bulge component. Starting with cosmologically motivated initial conditions, we obtain a qualitatively similar stellar system to the Galaxy. Then we analyze the chemical and kinematic properties of the bulge stars in our model and find qualitative agreement with observational data. The early evolution of our model has revealed that most bulge stars form during the sub-galactic merger (merger component of the bulge stars). Because of the strong star burst induced by the merger, the metallicity distribution function of such stars becomes as wide as observed. We find that another group of the bulge stars forms later in the inner region of the disk (non-merger component of the bulge stars). Because of the difference in the formation epoch, the main source of iron for this group of stars is different from the merger component. Iron in the merger and non-merger components comes ...

  5. A High-velocity Bulge RR Lyrae Variable on a Halo-like Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Hawkins, K.; Poleski, R.; Storm, J.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y.; Cordero, M. J.; Nataf, D. M.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Koch, A.; De Propris, R.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of -372 ± 8 km s-1 and true space velocity of -482 ± 22 km s-1 relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, -2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  6. A HIGH-VELOCITY BULGE RR LYRAE VARIABLE ON A HALO-LIKE ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Hawkins, K. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cordero, M. J. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut: Zentrum für Astronomie, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nataf, D. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Koch, A. [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-07-20

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  7. THE NUMBER OF TIDAL DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN DEPENDENCE OF BULGE INDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Corredoira, Martín [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: martinlc@iac.es, E-mail: pavel@astro.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-01-20

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation.

  8. The EMBLA Survey -- Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Louise M; Keller, Stefan C; Casey, Andrew R; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F; Nataf, David M; Owen, Christopher I; Da Costa, Gary S; Schmidt, Brian P; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8<[Fe/H]<-1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that ...

  9. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  10. Thermodynamics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pauken, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Take some heat off the complexity of thermodynamics Does the mere thought of thermodynamics make you sweat? It doesn't have to! This hands-on guide helps you score your highest in a thermodynamics course by offering easily understood, plain-English explanations of how energy is used in things like automobiles, airplanes, air conditioners, and electric power plants. Thermodynamics 101 - take a look at some examples of both natural and man-made thermodynamic systems and get a handle on how energy can be used to perform work Turn up the heat - discover how to use the firs

  11. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  12. Modelling the steady state deformation stress under various deformation conditions using a single irreversible thermodynamics based formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Mingxin, E-mail: mingxin.huang@arcelormittal.com [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E.J. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Bouaziz, Olivier [ArcelorMittal Research, Voie Romaine-BP30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Zwaag, Sybrand van der [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    A new unified description for the steady state deformation stress in single and polycrystalline metals and for various deformation conditions is presented. The new formulation for dislocation controlled deformation stems from the field of irreversible thermodynamics. The model applies to conditions of dynamic recovery as well as dynamic recrystallization and has been validated for constant strain rate and creep loading conditions. Unlike existing approaches, the new model captures transitions between deformation mechanisms within a single formulation. For conditions of dynamic recrystallization, the average dislocation density is found to be a function of the shear strain rate and a term combining the dislocation climb velocity and the grain boundary velocity.

  13. A fluorescence approach to the unfolding thermodynamics of horseradish peroxidase based on heme degradation by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Lamei; Huang, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a classical heme-containing protein which has been applied in many fields. The prosthetic group heme in HRP, especially in unfolded state, can react with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce a fluorescent product with the maximum emission wavelength at 450 nm. Utilizing this emission band as a fluorescence probe, the unfolding process of HRP in urea can be assessed quantitatively, and the calculated thermodynamic parameters are consistent with those determined by circular dichroism (CD) at 222 nm and steady-state tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence methods.

  14. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  15. Thermodynamics of the hot BIon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the recently obtained nite temperature BIon solution of arXiv:1012.1494, focusing on two aspects. The first concerns comparison of the free energy of the three available phases for the finite temperature brane-antibrane wormhole configuration. Based on this we...... is the possibility of constructing a finite temperature generalization of the infinite spike configuration of the extremal BIon. To this end we identify a correspondence point at the end of the throat where the thermodynamics of the D3-F1 blackfold configuration can be matched to that of k non-extremal black...

  16. Teaching Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions: An Entropy-Based Approach to Help Students Better Understand and Appreciate the Subtleties of Solution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic formalism of ideal solutions is developed in most of the textbooks postulating a form for the chemical potential of a generic component, which is adapted from the thermodynamics of ideal gas mixtures. From this basis, the rest of useful thermodynamic properties can be derived straightforwardly without further hypothesis. Although…

  17. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics in the strong coupling and non-Markovian regime based on a reaction coordinate mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Lambert, Neill; Brandes, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method to study the thermodynamic behaviour of small systems beyond the weak coupling and Markovian approximation, which is different in spirit from conventional approaches. The idea is to redefine the system and environment such that the effective, redefined system is again coupled weakly to Markovian residual baths and thus, allows to derive a consistent thermodynamic framework for this new system-environment partition. To achieve this goal we make use of the reaction coordinate (RC) mapping, which is a general method in the sense that it can be applied to an arbitrary (quantum or classical and even time-dependent) system coupled linearly to an arbitrary number of harmonic oscillator reservoirs. The core of the method relies on an appropriate identification of a part of the environment (the RC), which is subsequently included as a part of the system. We demonstrate the power of this concept by showing that non-Markovian effects can significantly enhance the steady state efficiency of a three-level-maser heat engine, even in the regime of weak system-bath coupling. Furthermore, we show for a single electron transistor coupled to vibrations that our method allows one to justify master equations derived in a polaron transformed reference frame.

  18. Thermodynamics of a Compressible Maier-Saupe Model Based on the Self-Consistent Field Theory of Wormlike Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical formalism for describing systems of semiflexible polymers, which can have density variations due to finite compressibility and exhibit an isotropic-nematic transition. The molecular architecture of the semiflexible polymers is described by a continuum wormlike-chain model. The non-bonded interactions are described through a functional of two collective variables, the local density and local segmental orientation tensor. In particular, the functional depends quadratically on local density-variations and includes a Maier–Saupe-type term to deal with the orientational ordering. The specified density-dependence stems from a free energy expansion, where the free energy of an isotropic and homogeneous homopolymer melt at some fixed density serves as a reference state. Using this framework, a self-consistent field theory is developed, which produces a Helmholtz free energy that can be used for the calculation of the thermodynamics of the system. The thermodynamic properties are analysed as functions of the compressibility of the model, for values of the compressibility realizable in mesoscopic simulations with soft interactions and in actual polymeric materials.

  19. A simple conductometric method for trace level determination of brilliant green in water based on β-cyclodextrin and silver nitrate and determination of their thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Mohammad Zadeh Kakhki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric and complexometric titration method based on conductometric technique is presented for the quantitative determination of brilliant green (BG in water. The equilibrium constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with brilliant green (BG and precipitation of silver nitrate with BG have been determined by conductivity measurements in water. The results suggest that stable 1:1 complex is formed between BG and β-cyclodextrin and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHc°,ΔSc° for this complexation reaction have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant using the van’t Hoff plots. Based on the obtained results, the conductometric method for the determination of BG in the presence of β-CD at 25 °C was developed in the range of 10−8–10−3 molL−1 and with AgNO3 is 10−3–10−5 molL−1.

  20. Thermodynamic possibilities and constraints for pure hydrogen production by a nickel and cobalt-based chemical looping process at lower temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, Karel [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of EC, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Praha 6 - Suchdol 2 (Czech Republic); Siewiorek, Aleksandra; Baxter, David [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of EC, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Rogut, Jan [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of EC, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40 166 Katowice (Poland); Pohorely, Michael [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Praha 6 - Suchdol 2 (Czech Republic)

    2008-02-15

    The reduction of nickel and cobalt oxides by hydrogen, CO, CH{sub 4} and model syngas (mixtures of CO + H{sub 2} or H{sub 2} + CO + CO{sub 2}) and oxidation by water vapour has been studied from the thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium points of view. Attention was concentrated not only on convenient conditions for reduction of the relevant oxides to metals at temperatures in the range 400-1000 K, but also on the possible formation of undesired soot, carbides and carbonates as precursors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide formation in the steam oxidation step. Reduction of nickel and cobalt oxides (NiO, CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) by hydrogen or CO at such temperatures is feasible. The oxidation of Ni and Co by steam and simultaneous production of hydrogen is thermodynamically the more difficult step at temperatures of 400-900 K. For the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO systems, the formation of corresponding Ni/Co-ferrite or Ni/Co aluminum spinel could be used for a higher hydrogen equilibrium yield. Only such Ni-NiO and Co-CoO systems with the support of ferrite and aluminum spinel formation could be suitable systems for chemical looping production of hydrogen by the chemical looping redox process. Oxidation of mixed Ni/Co-Fe metals or alloys by steam without segregation caused by preferential oxidation of Fe is critical for the ferrites. For processes based on Ni/Co aluminum spinel, reduction to metals is the critical part of the cyclic process. Under strongly reducing conditions, at high CO concentrations/pressures, formation of nickel carbide (Ni{sub 3}C) before cobalt carbide Co{sub 2}C is thermodynamically favored. Pressurized conditions during the reduction step with CO/CO{sub 2} containing gases enhance the formation of soot and carbon containing carbide and/or carbonate compounds. (author)

  1. The age of the young bulge-like population in the stellar system Terzan5: linking the Galactic bulge to the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Mucciarelli, A; -,

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few Gyr old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations with iron content varying by more than one order of magnitude (from 0.2 up to 2 times the solar value), with chemical abundance patterns strikingly similar to those observed in bulge field stars. Here we report on the detection of two distinct main sequence turn-off points in Terzan 5, providing the age of the two main stellar populations: 12 Gyr for the (dominant) sub-solar component and 4.5 Gyr for the component at super-solar metallicity. This discovery classifies Terzan 5 as a site in the Galactic bulge where multiple bursts of star formation occurred, thus suggesting a quite massive progenitor possibly resembling the giant clumps observed in star forming galaxies at high redshifts. This connection opens a new route ...

  2. An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a

  3. Effects of Microalloying on Glass Forming Ability and Thermodynamic Fragility of Cu-Pr-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of microalloying of Ti and B on the glass formation of Cu60Pr30Ni10Al10-2xTixBx(x=0, 0.05%(atom fraction)) amorphous alloys was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that microalloying with 0.05% Ti and 0.05% B improved the glass forming ability (GFA). The smaller difference in the Gibbs free energy between the liquid and crystalline states at the glass transition temperature (ΔGl-x (Tg)) and the smaller thermodynamic fragility index (ΔSf/Tm, where ΔSf is the entropy of fusion, and Tm is the melting temperature) after microalloying correlated with the higher GFA.

  4. A theoretical calculation of microlensing signatures caused by free-floating planets towards the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamolli, L; Nucita, A A

    2014-01-01

    Free-floating planets are recently drawing a special interest of the scientific community. Gravitational microlensing is up to now the exclusive method for the investigation of free-floating planets, including their spatial distribution function and mass function. In this work, we examine the possibility that the future Euclid space-based observatory may allow to discover a substantial number of microlensing events caused by free-floating planets. Based on latest results about the free-floating planet mass function in the mass range $[10^{-5}, 10^{-2}]M_{\\odot}$, we calculate the optical depth towards the Galactic bulge as well as the expected microlensing rate and find that Euclid may be able to detect hundreds to thousands of these events per month. Making use of a synthetic population, we also investigate the possibility of detecting parallax effect in simulated microlensing events due to free-floating planets and find a significant efficiency for the parallax detection that turns out to be around 30%.

  5. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects Involved in the Development of Nanocarriers and Drug Delivery Systems Based on Cationic Biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Ismael D; Alasino, Roxana V; Leonhard, Victoria; Beltramo, Dante M

    2016-01-01

    During the last years we have seen an increasing number of reports describing new properties and potential applications of cationic polymers and derived nanostructures. This review gives a summary of their applications in drug delivery, the preparation methods for nano and microstructures and will attempt to give a glimpse on how their structure, chemical composition and properties may be affected or modulated as to make them suitable for an intended application as drug delivery nanocarriers. The compositional complexity with the existence of several reacting groups makes cationic nanostructures critically sensitive to the contribution of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in the determination of the type and stability of a particular structure and its ability to respond to changes in environmental conditions in the right time frame. Curiously, and contrarily to what could be expected, despite the fact that cationic polymers can form strong electrostatic interactions the contribution of the entropic component has been often found to be very important for their association with negatively charged supramolecular structures. Some general considerations indicate that when considering a complex multimolecular system like a nanocarrier containing an active ingredient it is frequently possible to find conditions under which enthalpic and entropic contributions are compensated leading to stable structures with a marginal thermodynamic stability (free energy change close to zero) which make them able to respond relatively fast to changes in the environmental conditions and therefore suitable for the design of smart drug delivery systems. Like with other nanocarriers, it should always be kept in mind that the properties of cationic nanocarriers will depend not only on their chemical composition but also on the properties of the structures formed by them.

  6. Molecular hydrogels from bolaform amino acid derivatives: a structure-properties study based on the thermodynamics of gel solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, Vicent J; Armengol, José; Smets, Johan; Prieto, Susana Fernández; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F

    2012-03-26

    Insight is provided into the aggregation thermodynamics associated to hydrogel formation by molecular gelators derived from L-valine and L-isoleucine. Solubility data from NMR measurements are used to extract thermodynamic parameters for the aggregation in water. It is concluded that at room temperature and up to 55 °C, these systems form self-assembled fibrillar networks in water with quite low or zero enthalpic component, whereas the entropy of the aggregation is favorable. These results are explained by considering that the hydrophobic effect is dominant in the self-assembly. However, studies by NMR and IR spectroscopy reveal that intermolecular hydrogen bonding is also a key issue in the aggregation process of these molecules in water. The low enthalpy values measured for the self-assembly process are ascribed to the result of a compensation of the favorable intermolecular hydrogen-bond formation and the unfavorable enthalpy component of the hydrophobic effect. Additionally, it is shown that by using the hydrophobic character as a design parameter, enthalpy-controlled hydrogel formation, as opposed to entropy-controlled hydrogel formation, can be achieved in water if the gelator is polar enough. It is noteworthy that these two types of hydrogels, enthalpy-versus entropy-driven hydrogels, present quite different response to temperature changes in properties such as the minimum gelator concentration (mgc) or the rheological moduli. Finally, the presence of a polymorphic transition in a hydrogel upon heating above 70 °C is reported and ascribed to the weakening of the hydrophobic effect upon heating. The new soft polymorphic materials present dramatically different solubility and rheological properties. Altogether these results are aimed to contribute to the rational design of molecular hydrogelators, which could be used for the tailored preparation of this type of soft materials. The reported results could also provide ground for the rationale of different

  7. Thermodynamics of radiation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Eduardo; De la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, PO Box 55 534, Mexico, D F, 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail: pge@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: tere@xanum.uam.mx

    2010-03-15

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the frequencies. One equation relating frequency and volume is used to define the thermodynamics of one mode, and to explain the mystery of the frequency-dependent quantities having a similar behaviour to the non-frequency-dependent quantities for some thermodynamic equations and different behaviour for others. Besides, this frequency-volume relation is used to count the number of modes in a band of frequency.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of Air Separation System Based on Exergy Balance%基于平衡的空分系统热力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毕杨

    2015-01-01

    Based on the thermodynamics description and analysis methods of air separation ,the exergy balance of air sepa-ration system has established .While the evaluation of raw material and the products exergy obtained form , exergy change and exergy transfer , an unified benchmark was used in the balance relation to make thermodynamic analysis of the system , which provides a theoretical basis for the amortization of the cost of energy in actual production .%通过对空分系统的热力学描述和分析方法的比较,建立空分系统的平衡关系,通过统一基准,对系统进行热力学分析,得到系统原料及各产品的构成、变化和转移情况。为实际生产过程中能源成本的摊销提供了理论依据。

  9. Study of the adsorption of Cd (II from aqueous solution using zeolite-based geopolymer, synthesized from coal fly ash; kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedreza Javadian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific type of zeolite, synthesized from coal fly ash, was used in our batch adsorption experiments in order to adsorb Cd (II ions from aqueous solution. Solid-state conversion of fly ash to an amorphous aluminosilicate adsorbent (geopolymer was investigated under specific conditions. The adsorbent ZFA was characterized using XRD, XRF, FT-IR, FE-SEM, LPS and BET surface area. The optimum conditions of sorption were found to be: a ZFA dose of 0.08 g in 25 mL of Cd (II with contact time of 7 h and pH 5. Four equations, namely Morris–Weber, Lagergren, Pseudo-second order and Elovich have been used in order to determine the kinetics of removal process. The collected kinetic data showed that pseudo-second order equations controlled the adsorption process. According to adsorption isotherm studies, the Langmuir isotherm was proved to be the best fit for our experimental data, in comparison to Freundlich, D–R and Tempkin models. The thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔS and ΔG are evaluated. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of Cd (II onto ZFA was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. To conduct desorption experiments, several solvents (including alkaline, bases and water have been employed. 84% of desorption efficiency was achieved using NaOH.

  10. Development of the high-temperature, solid-state, electromotive force technique to study the thermodynamics of Lewis-acid-base transition metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    The basic principles of the Engel-Brewer theory of metals are summarized and illustrated. Definitions of words used to describe its fundamentals are clarified. The theory predicts the extreme stability of the Lewis-acid-base alloys. The thermodynamics of such alloys may be obtained through the use of oxide-electrolyte, electrochemical cells. Experimental techniques associated with the use of these cells are explained in detail. Much attention is given to the preparation and processing of the materials required. A selective review of the cell literature demonstrates frequent difficulty in obtaining accurate thermodynamic data. In an attempt to correct this situation, as well as to correct problems discovered in this work, the physical processes which create the cell emf are clearly identified. The fundamental understanding afforded by the resulting cell model implies the procedures used to both discover and eliminate errors. Those due to concentration overpotentials, reactive impurities in the gas phase, and interfacial reactions are carefully analyzed. The procedures used to test for and attain equilibrium in an alloy-oxide, powder compact are supported through identification of the transport processes that mediate equilibration.

  11. Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from those data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyze the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency η ≤1 . We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyze Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

  12. Thermodynamic Stability of Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadi, S N

    2016-01-01

    In the context of GR, we study the thermodynamic stability of evolving Lorentzian wormholes at the apparent horizon. The average pressure of the anisotrropic components is considered as the pressure of the wormhole. According to the requirements of stable equilibrium in conventional thermodynamics, we calculate the heat capacity at constant pressure and Gibbs free energy and analyze the local and global thermodynamic stability of the wormhole.

  13. Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goldt, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from that data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyse the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency $\\eta\\le1$. We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyse Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

  14. 多加强肋胀形可行性补充条件及有限元数值模拟%Feasibility supplementary criterion and finite element numerical simulation of bulging for multiple reinforcement ribs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管爱枝; 施于庆

    2013-01-01

    Multiple reinforcement ribs of metal shell parts should be made by one bulging procedure,while the current bulging feasibility criterion used for single reinforcement rib can not be directly used to determine whether multiple reinforcement ribs can be successfully bulged for the first time.After the regions between the positive reinforcement ribs were regarded as reverse reinforcement ribs,a feasibility supplementary criterion of bulging for multiple reinforcement ribs was proposed based on the supposition that the maximum bulging increment of reverse ribs should be smaller than that of positive ribs.Three kinds of metal shell parts were modeled,with single reinforcement rib,multiple ribs with small center distance and multiple ribs with large center distance,respectively.And the numerical simulation of the bulging process for those parts was carried out through ANSYS/LS-DYNA module based on finite element method.The validity of the feasibility supplementary criterion of bulging for multiple reinforcement ribs was verified by the results of thickness thinning rate distribution and forming limit diagram.The center distance between adjacent ribs is the key factor for determining the feasibility of once bulging.%金属板壳件的多加强肋需一次成形,而现有单加强肋胀形可行性条件不能直接用来判断多加强肋能否一次成功胀形.将多加强肋间区域视为反向加强肋,在其许用变形程度比正向加强肋小的前提下,提出了多加强肋胀形可行性的补充条件.建立了单加强肋、近距分布及远距分布多加强肋的3种板壳件模型,运用ANSYS/LS-DYNA完成了其胀形成形的有限元数值模拟.厚度减薄率和成形极限图的模拟结果验证了多加强肋胀形可行性补充条件的有效性.多加强肋之间的距离是决定其能否一次胀形成形的关键因素.

  15. Simulating metabolism with statistical thermodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Cannon

    Full Text Available New methods are needed for large scale modeling of metabolism that predict metabolite levels and characterize the thermodynamics of individual reactions and pathways. Current approaches use either kinetic simulations, which are difficult to extend to large networks of reactions because of the need for rate constants, or flux-based methods, which have a large number of feasible solutions because they are unconstrained by the law of mass action. This report presents an alternative modeling approach based on statistical thermodynamics. The principles of this approach are demonstrated using a simple set of coupled reactions, and then the system is characterized with respect to the changes in energy, entropy, free energy, and entropy production. Finally, the physical and biochemical insights that this approach can provide for metabolism are demonstrated by application to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of Escherichia coli. The reaction and pathway thermodynamics are evaluated and predictions are made regarding changes in concentration of TCA cycle intermediates due to 10- and 100-fold changes in the ratio of NAD+:NADH concentrations. Finally, the assumptions and caveats regarding the use of statistical thermodynamics to model non-equilibrium reactions are discussed.

  16. Simulating metabolism with statistical thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, William R

    2014-01-01

    New methods are needed for large scale modeling of metabolism that predict metabolite levels and characterize the thermodynamics of individual reactions and pathways. Current approaches use either kinetic simulations, which are difficult to extend to large networks of reactions because of the need for rate constants, or flux-based methods, which have a large number of feasible solutions because they are unconstrained by the law of mass action. This report presents an alternative modeling approach based on statistical thermodynamics. The principles of this approach are demonstrated using a simple set of coupled reactions, and then the system is characterized with respect to the changes in energy, entropy, free energy, and entropy production. Finally, the physical and biochemical insights that this approach can provide for metabolism are demonstrated by application to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of Escherichia coli. The reaction and pathway thermodynamics are evaluated and predictions are made regarding changes in concentration of TCA cycle intermediates due to 10- and 100-fold changes in the ratio of NAD+:NADH concentrations. Finally, the assumptions and caveats regarding the use of statistical thermodynamics to model non-equilibrium reactions are discussed.

  17. Drag with external and pressure drop with internal flows: a new and unifying look at losses in the flow field based on the second law of thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwig, Heinz; Schmandt, Bastian, E-mail: h.herwig@tuhh.de [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute for Thermo-Fluid Dynamics, Denickestr. 17, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Internal and external flows are characterized by friction factors and drag coefficients, respectively. Their definitions are based on pressure drop and drag force and thus are very different in character. From a thermodynamics point of view in both cases dissipation occurs which can uniformly be related to the entropy generation in the flow field. Therefore we suggest to account for losses in the flow field by friction factors and drag coefficients that are based on the overall entropy generation due to the dissipation in the internal and external flow fields. This second law analysis (SLA) has been applied to internal flows in many studies already. Examples of this flow category are given together with new cases of external flows, also treated by the general SLA-approach. (paper)

  18. Drag with external and pressure drop with internal flows: a new and unifying look at losses in the flow field based on the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Heinz; Schmandt, Bastian

    2013-10-01

    Internal and external flows are characterized by friction factors and drag coefficients, respectively. Their definitions are based on pressure drop and drag force and thus are very different in character. From a thermodynamics point of view in both cases dissipation occurs which can uniformly be related to the entropy generation in the flow field. Therefore we suggest to account for losses in the flow field by friction factors and drag coefficients that are based on the overall entropy generation due to the dissipation in the internal and external flow fields. This second law analysis (SLA) has been applied to internal flows in many studies already. Examples of this flow category are given together with new cases of external flows, also treated by the general SLA-approach.

  19. Methods of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m

  20. The influence of changes in cervical lordosis on bulging disk and spinal stenosis: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Joon; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To assess the effect of lordotic curve change of the cervical spine on disk bulging and spinal stenosis by means of functional cervical MR imaging at the flexion and extension position. Using a 1.5T imager, kinematic MR examinations of 25 patients with degenerative spondylosis (average age, 41 years) were performed at the neutral, flexed and extended position of the cervical spine. Sagittal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were obtained during each of the three phases. Lordotic angle, bulging thickness of the disk, AP diameter of the spinal canal, and distance between the disk and spinal cord were measured on the workstation at each disk level. After qualitative independent observation of disk bulging, one of four grades(0, normal; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, marked) was assigned at each phase, and after further comparative observation, one of five scores (-2, prominent decrease; -1, mild decrease; 0, no change; 1, notable increase; 2 prominent increase) was also assigned. In addition, bulging thickness of the disk was measured and compared at the neutral, flexed, and extended positions. Average angles of the cervical spine were 160.5{+-}5.9 deg (neutral position, lordotic angle); 185.4{+-}8.5 deg (flexion, kyphotic angle); and 143.7{+-}6.7 deg (extension, lordotic angle). Average grades of disk bulging were 0.55 at the neutral position. 0.16 at flexion, and 0.7 at extension. Comparative observation showed that average scores of disk bulging were -0.39 at flexion and 0.31 at extension. The bulging thickness of the disk decreased by 24.2% at flexion and increased by 30.3% at extension, while the diameter of the spinal canal increased by 4.5% at flexion and decreased by 3.6% at extension. The distance from the posterior margin of the disk to the anterior margin of the spinal cord decreased at both flexion(6.6%) and extension(19.1%). Functional MRI showed that compared with the neutral position, disk bulging and spinal stenosis are less prominent at flexion and

  1. Clues to the Formation of Lenticular Galaxies Using Spectroscopic Bulge-Disk Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Evelyn J; Merrifield, Michael R; Bedregal, Alejandro G

    2013-01-01

    Lenticular galaxies have long been thought of as evolved spirals, but the processes involved to quench the star formation are still unclear. By studying the individual star formation histories of the bulges and disks of lenticulars, it is possible to look for clues to the processes that triggered their transformation from spirals. To accomplish this feat, we present a new method for spectroscopic bulge-disk decomposition, in which a long-slit spectrum is decomposed into two one-dimensional spectra representing purely the bulge and disk light. We present preliminary results from applying this method to lenticular galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters, in which we show that the most recent star formation activity in these galaxies occurred within the bulges. We also find that the star formation timescales of the bulges are longer than the disks, and that more massive galaxies take longer to lose their gas during the transformation. These results point towards slow processes, such as ram-pressure stripping o...

  2. Composite Stellar Populations and Element by Element Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge and Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Baitian; Davis, A Bianca

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the integrated-light characteristics of the Milky Way (MW) bulge and to what extent they match those of elliptical galaxies in the local universe. We model composite stellar populations with realistic abundance distribution functions (ADFs), tracking the trends of individual elements as a function of overall heavy element abundance as actually observed in MW bulge stars. The resultant predictions for absorption feature strengths from the MW bulge mimic elliptical galaxies better than solar neighborhood stars do, but the MW bulge does not match elliptical galaxies, either. Comparing bulge versus elliptical galaxies, Fe, Ti, and Mg trend about the same for both but C, Na, and Ca seem irreconcilably different. Exploring the behavior of abundance compositeness leads to the concepts of "red lean" where a narrower ADF appears more metal rich than a wide one, and "red spread" where the spectral difference between wide and narrow ADFs increases as the ADF peak is moved to more metal-rich values. T...

  3. Bulges and disks in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    CERN Document Server

    Morselli, L; Erfanianfar, G; Concas, A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy morphology and star formation activity are strictly linked, in the way that bulge-dominated galaxies are in general quiescent, while disk dominated galaxies are actively star-forming. In this paper, we study the properties of bulges and disks as a function of the position of galaxies in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass ($M_{\\star}$) plane. Our sample is built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue, and the bulge-disk decomposition is the one of Simard et al. (2011). We find that at a given stellar mass the Main Sequence (MS) is populated by galaxies with the lowest B/T ratios. The B/T on the MS increases with increasing stellar mass, thus confirming previous results in literature. In the upper envelop of the MS, the average B/T is higher than that of MS counterparts at fixed stellar mass. This indicates that starburst galaxies have a significant bulge component. In addition, bulges above the MS are characterised by blue colours, whereas, if on the MS or below it, they are mostly red and dead. The disks ...

  4. The number of tidal dwarf satellite galaxies in dependence of bulge index

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5sigma) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of SDSS and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalogue by Kaviraj et al. (2012). In the standard cold or warm dark-matter cosmological models the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized-gravity models without cold or warm dark matter such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture in-falling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies, because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher b...

  5. Unifying the planar bar and the boxy bulge of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Valpuesta I.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For some time the Milky Way has been understood as a barred disk galaxy. Star count observations have provided evidence for two bars at apparently different orientations, the boxy bulge and a long planar bar. We report recent work in which we argued for a scenario where these observations can be reproduced with a single boxy bulge/bar: an evolved bar from the stellar disk and the corresponding boxy bulge generated from it through secular evolution and buckling instability. We calculated the star count distributions along different lines-of-sight for a simulated barred galaxy and an observer at the Sun position, and compared them with observations of red clump magnitude distributions. We found a good agreement between the model and the observations, even though the simulation has a single boxy bulge/bar. In this model, the different apparent orientations of the boxy bulge and planar bar are partially due to the volume effect and partially to the leading ends of the bar.

  6. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  7. ARGOS III: Stellar Populations in the Galactic Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Athanassoula, E; de Boer, E Wylie; Hawthorn, J Bland; Asplund, M; Lewis, G F; Yong, D; Lane, R R; Kiss, L L

    2012-01-01

    We present the metallicity results from the ARGOS spectroscopic survey of the Galactic bulge. Our aim is to understand the formation of the Galactic bulge: did it form via mergers, as expected from Lambda CDM theory, or from disk instabilities, as suggested by its boxy/peanut shape, or both? We have obtained spectra for 28,000 stars at a spectral resolution of R = 11,000. From these spectra, we have determined stellar parameters and distances to an accuracy of -0.5 are part of the boxy/peanut bar/bulge. We associate the lower metallicity stars ([Fe/H] -0.5, we find two discrete populations; (i) stars with [Fe/H] ~ -0.25 which provide a roughly constant fraction of the stars in the latitude interval b = -5 deg to -10 deg, and (ii) a kinematically colder, more metal-rich population with mean [Fe/H] ~ +0.15 which is more prominent closer to the plane. The changing ratio of these components with latitude appears as a vertical abundance gradient of the bulge. We attribute both of these bulge components to instab...

  8. A case against an X-shaped structure in the Milky Way young bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT. A number of recent papers have claimed the discovery of an X-shape structure in the bulge of our Galaxy in the population of the red clumps. AIMS. We endeavor to analyze the stellar density of bulge stars in the same regions using a different stellar population that is characteristic of the young bulge ($\\lesssim 5$ Gyr). Particularly, we use F0-F5 main-sequence stars with distances derived through photometric parallax. METHODS. We extract these stars from extinction-corrected color-magnitude diagrams in the near-infrared of VISTA-VVV data in some bulge regions and calculate the densities along the line of sight. We take the uncertaintity in the photometric parallax and the contamination of other sources into account, and we see that these errors do not avoid the detection of a possible double peak along some lines of sight as expected for a X-shape bulge if it existed. RESULTS. Only a single peak in the density distribution along the line of sight is observed, so apparently there is no X-shape struc...

  9. Precise Black Hole Masses From Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J E; Kim, M; Kuo, C Y; Braatz, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Condon, J J; Lo, K Y; Henkel, C; Reid, M J

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of effort to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M_BH> 10^8 M_sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L< L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H_2O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al. (2010), yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the DIS spe...

  10. New insight on the origin of the double red clump in the Milky Way bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Joo, Seok-Joo; Chung, Chul

    2016-01-01

    The double red clump (RC) observed in the Milky Way bulge is widely interpreted as evidence for an X-shaped structure. We have recently suggested, however, an alternative interpretation based on the multiple population phenomenon, where the bright RC is from helium enhanced second-generation stars (G2), while the faint RC is representing first-generation stars (G1) with normal helium abundance. Here our RC models are constructed in a large parameter space to see the effects of metallicity, age, and helium abundance on the double RC feature. Our models show that the luminosity of RC stars is mainly affected by helium abundance, while the RC color is primarily affected by metallicity. The effect of age is relatively small, unless it is older than 12 Gyr or much younger than 6 Gyr. The observed double RC feature can therefore be reproduced in a relatively large parameter space, once {\\Delta}Y between G2 and G1 is assumed to be greater than $\\sim$0.10. We further show that the longitude dependence of the double R...

  11. Metallicity Distribution Functions, Radial Velocities, and Alpha Element Abundances in Three Off-Axis Bulge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Pilachowski, Catherine A; Koch, Andreas; De Propris, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundance ratios of [Fe/H], [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for 264 red giant branch (RGB) stars in three Galactic bulge off-axis fields located near (l,b)=(-5.5,-7), (-4,-9), and (+8.5,+9). The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate resolution (R~18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N~75-300) spectra obtained with the Hydra spectrographs on the Blanco 4m and WIYN 3.5m telescopes. The targets were selected from the blue side of the giant branch to avoid cool stars that would be strongly affected by CN and TiO; however, a comparison of the color-metallicity distribution in literature samples suggests our selection of bluer targets should not present a significant bias against metal-rich stars. We find a full range in metallicity that spans [Fe/H]\\approx-1.5 to +0.5, and that, in accordance with the previously observed minor-axis vertical metallicity gradient, the median [Fe/H] also declines with increasing Galactic latitude in ...

  12. The Acceleration of the Nebular Shells in Planetary Nebulae in the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, Michael G; Pereyra, Margarita; Riesgo, Hortensia; Diaz, Maria Teresa Garcia; Baez, Sol-Haret

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of line widths in the [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 and H$\\alpha$ lines for a sample of 86 planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge based upon spectroscopy obtained at the \\facility{Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro M\\'artir (OAN-SPM)} using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. The planetary nebulae were selected with the intention of simulating samples of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae. We separate the planetary nebulae into two samples containing cooler and hotter central stars, defined by the absence or presence, respectively, of the \\ion{He}{2} $\\lambda$6560 line in the H$\\alpha$ spectra. This division separates samples of younger and more evolved planetary nebulae. The sample of planetary nebulae with hotter central stars has systematically larger line widths, larger radii, lower electron densities, and lower H$\\beta$ luminosities. The distributions of these parameters in the two samples all differ at significance levels exceeding 99%. These dif...

  13. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge - a population potpourri

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; Preston, George W; Thompson, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern Galactic bulge, at (l,b)$\\sim$(0$^{\\rm o}$,-11$^{\\rm o}$). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H]=-2.52 dex, and another one is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe]=1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars ...

  14. Extension of Tycho catalog for low-extinction windows in the galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Dominici, T P; Horváth, J E; Medina-Tanco, G A; Benevides-Soares, P

    1999-01-01

    We present in this work secondary catalogs up to $m_{Val} \\sim 13$ based on the Tycho reference frame (ESA, 1997) for 12 selected low-extinction fields towards the galactic bulge. The observations have been performed with the Askania-Zeiss Meridian Circle equiped with a CCD camera, located at the Abrahão de Moraes Observatory (Valinhos, Brazil) and operated by the Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, São Paulo University. The presented catalog, though not complete, has been designed to help in intensive search programmes (e.g. microlensing and variable searches) and therefore the selected standards have a high astrometric and photometric ($V$ band, approximately) quality. The mean precisions obtained were $0.0018^{s}$ in $\\alpha$, 0.013'' in magnitude when weighted with the error bars in each night (in the mean, 42 stars for the catalog of each window). Tables B.1 to B.12 are also available in eletronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg....

  15. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Arriagada, A; Vásquez, S; Ripepi, V; Musella, I; Marconi, M; Grado, A; Limatola, L

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC~6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. High resolution spectra ($R\\sim48~000$) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from $\\sim130$ FeI and FeII transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H]$=-0.98\\pm0.08$ dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of $v_{hel}=-96.6\\pm1.3~km s^{-1}$ were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of $[O/...

  16. Identification of twenty-three accreting binaries in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, M A P; Britt, C T; Johnson, C B; Hynes, R I; Greiss, S; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Ozel, F; Bassa, C; Nelemans, G

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged:) We present the identification of optical counterparts to 23 Galactic Bulge Survey X-ray sources. We report their accurate coordinates and optical spectra acquired at the VLT and Magellan. All sources are classified as accreting binaries according to their emission line characteristics. To distinguish accreting binaries from chromospherically active objects we develop and explain criteria based on Halpha and HeI 5786,6678 emission line properties available in the literature. The spectroscopic properties and photometric variability of all the objects are discussed and a classification of the source is given where possible. Among the 23 systems, at least 9 of them show an accretion-dominated optical spectrum (CX28, CX63, CX70, CX128, CX142, CX207, CX522, CX794, CX1011) and another 6 show photospheric lines from a late-type donor star in addition to accretion disc emission (CX44, CX93, CX137, CX154, CX377 and CX1004) indicating that they are probably accreting binaries in quiescence or in a low accret...

  17. On the age of Galactic bulge microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

    2015-01-01

    Recent results by Bensby and collaborators on the ages of microlensed stars in the Galactic bulge have challenged the picture of an exclusively old stellar population. However, these age estimates have not been independently confirmed. In this paper we verify these results by means of a grid-based method and quantify the systematic biases that might be induced by some assumptions adopted to compute stellar models. We explore the impact of increasing the initial helium abundance, neglecting the element microscopic diffusion, and changing the mixing-length calibration in theoretical stellar track computations. We adopt the SCEPtER pipeline with a novel stellar model grid for metallicities [Fe/H] from -2.00 to 0.55 dex, and masses in the range [0.60; 1.60] Msun from the ZAMS to the helium flash at the red giant branch tip. We show for the considered evolutionary phases that our technique provides unbiased age estimates. Our age results are in good agreement with Bensby and collaborators findings and show 16 star...

  18. A Catalog of Bulge+Disk Decompositions and Updated Photometry for 1.12 Million Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, Luc; Patton, David R; Ellison, Sara L; McConnachie, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional, Point-Spread-Function-convolved, bulge+disk decompositions in the $g$ and $r$ bandpasses on a sample of 1,123,718 galaxies from the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven. Four different decomposition procedures are investigated which make improvements to sky background determinations and object deblending over the standard SDSS procedures that lead to more robust structural parameters and integrated galaxy magnitudes and colors, especially in crowded environments. We use a set of science-based quality assurance metrics namely the disk luminosity-size relation, the galaxy color-magnitude diagram and the galaxy central (fiber) colors to show the robustness of our structural parameters. The best procedure utilizes simultaneous, two-bandpass decompositions. Bulge and disk photometric errors remain below 0.1 mag down to bulge and disk magnitudes of $g \\simeq 19$ and $r \\simeq 18.5$. We also use and compare three different galaxy fitting models: a pure Sersic mod...

  19. A thermodynamically-based model for predicting microbial growth and community composition coupled to system geochemistry: Application to uranium bioreduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istok, Jonathan D.; Park, Melora M.; Michalsen, Mandy M.; Spain, A. M.; Krumholz, Lee R.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.; Roden, Eric E.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Baldwin, Brett R.

    2010-04-01

    ‘Bioimmobilization’ of redox-sensitive heavy metals and radionuclides is being investigated as a way to remediate contaminated groundwater and sediments. In one approach, growth-limiting substrates are added to the subsurface to stimulate the activity of targeted groups of indigenous microorganisms and create conditions favorable for the microbially-mediated reductive precipitation (‘bioreduction’) of targeted contaminants. We present a theoretical framework for modeling this process that modifies conventional geochemical reaction path modeling to include thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth and may be called biogeochemical reaction path modeling. In this approach, the actual microbial community is represented by a synthetic microbial community consisting of a collection of microbial groups; each with a unique growth equation that couples a specific pair of energy yielding redox reactions. The growth equations and their computed standard-state free energy yields are appended to the thermodynamic databasse used in conventional geochemical reaction path modeling, providing a direct coupling between chemical species participating in both microbial growth and geochemical reactions. To compute the biogeochemical reaction paths, growth substrates are added incrementally to a defined geochemical environment and the coupled equations are solved simultaneously to predict microbial biomass, community composition (i.e. the fraction of total biomass in each microbial group), and the aqueous and mineral composition of the system, including aqueous speciation and oxidation state of the targeted contaminants. The approach, with growth equations derived from the literature using well known bioenergetics principles, was used to predict the results of a laboratory microcosm experiment and an in situ field experiment that investigated the bioreduction of uranium. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on uranium concentration and speciation, major ion

  20. A thermodynamically-based model for predicting microbial growth and community composition coupled to system geochemistry: Application to uranium bioreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, J. D.; Park, M.; Michalsen, M.; Spain, A. M.; Krumholz, L. R.; Liu, C.; McKinley, J.; Long, P.; Roden, E.; Peacock, A. D.; Baldwin, B.

    2010-03-01

    'Bioimmobilization' of redox-sensitive heavy metals and radionuclides is being investigated as a way to remediate contaminated groundwater and sediments. In one approach, growth-limiting substrates are added to the subsurface to stimulate the activity of targeted groups of indigenous microorganisms and create conditions favorable for the microbially-mediated reductive precipitation ('bioreduction') of targeted contaminants. We present a theoretical framework for modeling this process that modifies conventional geochemical reaction path modeling to include thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth and may be called biogeochemical reaction path modeling. In this approach, the actual microbial community is represented by a synthetic microbial community consisting of a collection of microbial groups; each with a unique growth equation that couples a specific pair of energy yielding redox reactions. The growth equations and their computed standard-state free energy yields are appended to the thermodynamic database used in conventional geochemical reaction path modeling, providing a direct coupling between chemical species participating in both microbial growth and geochemical reactions. To compute the biogeochemical reaction paths, growth substrates are reacted incrementally with the defined geochemical environment and the coupled equations are solved simultaneously to predict reaction paths that display changing microbial biomass, community composition (i.e. the fraction of total biomass in each microbial group), and the aqueous and mineral composition of the system, including aqueous speciation and oxidation state of the targeted contaminants. The approach, with growth equations derived from the literature using well-known bioenergetics principles, was used to predict the results of a laboratory microcosm experiment and an in situ field experiment that investigated the bioreduction of uranium. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on uranium

  1. A thermodynamically-based model for predicting microbial growth and community composition coupled to system geochemistry: Application to uranium bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, J D; Park, M; Michalsen, M; Spain, A M; Krumholz, L R; Liu, C; McKinley, J; Long, P; Roden, E; Peacock, A D; Baldwin, B

    2010-03-01

    'Bioimmobilization' of redox-sensitive heavy metals and radionuclides is being investigated as a way to remediate contaminated groundwater and sediments. In one approach, growth-limiting substrates are added to the subsurface to stimulate the activity of targeted groups of indigenous microorganisms and create conditions favorable for the microbially-mediated reductive precipitation ('bioreduction') of targeted contaminants. We present a theoretical framework for modeling this process that modifies conventional geochemical reaction path modeling to include thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth and may be called biogeochemical reaction path modeling. In this approach, the actual microbial community is represented by a synthetic microbial community consisting of a collection of microbial groups; each with a unique growth equation that couples a specific pair of energy yielding redox reactions. The growth equations and their computed standard-state free energy yields are appended to the thermodynamic database used in conventional geochemical reaction path modeling, providing a direct coupling between chemical species participating in both microbial growth and geochemical reactions. To compute the biogeochemical reaction paths, growth substrates are reacted incrementally with the defined geochemical environment and the coupled equations are solved simultaneously to predict reaction paths that display changing microbial biomass, community composition (i.e. the fraction of total biomass in each microbial group), and the aqueous and mineral composition of the system, including aqueous speciation and oxidation state of the targeted contaminants. The approach, with growth equations derived from the literature using well-known bioenergetics principles, was used to predict the results of a laboratory microcosm experiment and an in situ field experiment that investigated the bioreduction of uranium. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on uranium

  2. Complexation of Cu(II) by original tartaric acid-based ligands in nonionic micellar media: thermodynamic study and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Leclercq, Laurence; Giroux, Sébastien; Parant, Stéphane; Khoudour, Leïla; Henry, Bernard; Rubini, Patrice

    2009-04-09

    The complexation of Cu(II) with original alkylamidotartaric acids (C(x)T) is investigated in homogeneous aqueous medium and in the presence of nonionic micelles of Brij 58 (C16EO20), thanks to various analytical techniques such as NMR self-diffusion experiments, CD and UV-vis spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, pHmetry and micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF). First, a complete speciation study proves the formation of dimeric complexes in water and provides their formation constants. Second, a similar study is led in the presence of nonionic micelles. It underlines a modification of the apparent equilibrium constants in micellar medium and demonstrates that the structure of the complexes is slightly modified in the presence of micelles. This thermodynamic and structural study is applied to modelize the evolution of the extraction yields of Cu(II) by the micelles as a function of pH and to identify the complexes extracted in the micelles. The effects of the chain length of the ligand (C3T vs C8T) on the solubilization properties are put into relief and discussed. Anionic species are proved to be more incorporated in the nonionic micelles than the cationic species. The extracting system constituted of octylamidotartaric acid (CsT) solubilized in nonionic micelles of Brij 58 is demonstrated to be very efficient for the extraction of Cu(II) by MEUF, this technique being an interesting green alternative to traditional solvent extraction.

  3. Potentiometric and Thermodynamic Studies of Some Schiff-Base Derivatives of 4-Aminoantipyrine and Their Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. El-Bindary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton-ligand dissociation constant of 4-(4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-phenol ( and 4-(4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-benzoic acid ( and metal-ligand stability constants of their complexes with metal ions (Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ have been determined potentiometrically in 0.1 mol·dm−3 KCl and 10% (by volume ethanol-water mixture and at 298, 308, and 318 K. The stability constants of the formed complexes increase in the order Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+. The effect of temperature was studied, and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters (, , and were derived and discussed. The dissociation process is nonspontaneous, endothermic, and entropically unfavourable. The formation of the metal complexes has been found to be spontaneous, endothermic, and entropically favourable.

  4. Semiempirical model based on thermodynamic principles for determining 6 kW proton exchange membrane electrolyzer stack characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, N. V.; Mann, M. D.; Salehfar, H.

    The performance of a 6 kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer was modeled using a semiempirical equation. Total cell voltage was represented as a sum of the Nernst voltage, activation overpotential and ohmic overpotential. A temperature and pressure dependent Nernst potential, derived from thermodynamic principles, was used to model the 20 cell PEM electrolyzer stack. The importance of including the temperature dependence of various model components is clearly demonstrated. The reversible potential without the pressure effect decreases with increasing temperature in a linear fashion. The exchange current densities at both the electrodes and the membrane conductivity were the coefficients of the semiempirical equation. An experimental system designed around a 6 kW PEM electrolyzer was used to obtain the current-voltage characteristics at different stack temperatures. A nonlinear curve fitting method was employed to determine the equation coefficients from the experimental current-voltage characteristics. The modeling results showed an increase in the anode and cathode exchange current densities with increasing electrolyzer stack temperature. The membrane conductivity was also increased with increasing temperature and was modeled as a function of temperature. The electrolyzer energy efficiencies at different temperatures were evaluated using temperature dependent higher heating value voltages instead of a fixed value of 1.48 V.

  5. Understanding of surface pit formation mechanism of GaN grown in MOCVD based on local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Yuan, Gao; Xiao-Wei, Xue; Jiang-Jiang, Li; Xun, Wang; Yan-Hui, Xing; Bi-Feng, Cui; De-Shu, Zou

    2016-06-01

    Frank’s theory describes that a screw dislocation will produce a pit on the surface, and has been evidenced in many material systems including GaN. However, the size of the pit calculated from the theory deviates significantly from experimental result. Through a careful observation of the variations of surface pits and local surface morphology with growing temperature and V/III ratio for c-plane GaN, we believe that Frank’s model is valid only in a small local surface area where thermodynamic equilibrium state can be assumed to stay the same. If the kinetic process is too vigorous or too slow to reach a balance, the local equilibrium range will be too small for the center and edge of the screw dislocation spiral to be kept in the same equilibrium state. When the curvature at the center of the dislocation core reaches the critical value 1/r 0, at the edge of the spiral, the accelerating rate of the curvature may not fall to zero, so the pit cannot reach a stationary shape and will keep enlarging under the control of minimization of surface energy to result in a large-sized surface pit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204009 and 61204011) and the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 4142005).

  6. Bulge formation and necking in a polymer tube under dynamic expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Britta; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Bulging and necking in long thin polymer tubes subjected to increasing internal pressure are analysed numerically. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation and the calculations are carried out using a dynamic finite element program. Two types...... of imposed loading are prescribed: (i) a pressure that increases linearly with time and (ii) a change in enclosed volume that increases linearly with time. For both loading conditions, an axisymmetric bulge develops on the tube followed by necking in the bulge. The necks propagate in both the circumferential...... and the axial directions. Multiple necks form at locations given by the thin points associated with the wave number of the prescribed initial thickness imperfection. When a change in enclosed volume is prescribed, the pressure reaches a maximum, decreases and then stays approximately constant. One neck...

  7. Chandra Studies of Unidentified X-ray Sources in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideyuki

    2013-09-01

    We propose to study a complete X-ray sample in the luminosity range of > 10^34 erg s^-1 in the Galactic bulge, including 5 unidentified sources detected in the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Our goal is to obtain a clear picture about X-ray populations in the bulge, by utilizing the excellent Chandra position accuracy leading to unique optical identification together with the X-ray spectral properties. This is a new step toward understanding the formation history of the bulge. Furthermore, because the luminosity range we observe corresponds to a ``missing link'' region ever studied for a neutron star or blackhole X-ray binary, our results are also unique to test accretion disk theories at intermediate mass accretion rates.

  8. Long-Lived Spiral Structure for Galaxies with Intermediate Size Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2016-01-01

    Spiral structure in disk galaxies is modeled with nine collisionless N-body simulations including live disks, halos, and bulges with a range of masses. Two of these simulations make long-lasting and strong two-arm spiral wave modes that last for $\\sim5$ Gyr with constant pattern speed. These two had a light stellar disk and the largest values of the Toomre $Q$ parameter in the inner region at the time the spirals formed, suggesting the presence of a Q-barrier to wave propagation resulting from the bulge. The relative bulge mass in these cases is about 10\\%. Models with weak two-arm spirals had pattern speeds that followed the radial dependence of the Inner Lindblad Resonance.

  9. What drives the M*-SFR relation turning over at high masses? The role of bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhizheng; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jinrong; Wang, Jing; Fan, Lulu; Kong, Xu

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether bulge growth is responsible for the flattening of the star formation main sequence (MS) at the high mass end. To investigate the role of bulges in shaping the MS, we compare the NUV$-r$ color between the central ($r2.0 tend to be redder in the central NUV$-r$ color than those with $n$2.0 rapidly increases with $M_{\\ast}$ at $M_{\\ast}>10^{10.2}M_{\\sun}$, which is consistent with the turning over of the MS at the same transition mass. We conclude that the increasing fraction of low-sSFR dense bulges in $M_{\\ast}>10^{10.2}M_{\\sun}$ galaxies, rather than increasing B/T, is responsible for the flattened slope of the $M_{\\ast}$$-$SFR relation at high masses.

  10. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamics is an exciting and fascinating subject that deals with energy, which is essential for sustenance of life, and Thermodynamics has long been an essential part of Engineering Curricula all over the world. It has a broad application area ranging from Microscopic Organisms to common Household Appliances, Transportation Vehicles, and Power Generation Systems.

  11. Thermodynamics of fragment binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G; Keserű, György M

    2012-04-23

    The ligand binding pockets of proteins have preponderance of hydrophobic amino acids and are typically within the apolar interior of the protein; nevertheless, they are able to bind low complexity, polar, water-soluble fragments. In order to understand this phenomenon, we analyzed high resolution X-ray data of protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank and found that fragments bind to proteins with two near optimal geometry H-bonds on average. The linear extent of the fragment binding site was found not to be larger than 10 Å, and the H-bonding region was found to be restricted to about 5 Å on average. The number of conserved H-bonds in proteins cocrystallized with multiple different fragments is also near to 2. These fragment binding sites that are able to form limited number of strong H-bonds in a hydrophobic environment are identified as hot spots. An estimate of the free-energy gain of H-bond formation versus apolar desolvation supports that fragment sized compounds need H-bonds to achieve detectable binding. This suggests that fragment binding is mostly enthalpic that is in line with their observed binding thermodynamics documented in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) data sets and gives a thermodynamic rationale for fragment based approaches. The binding of larger compounds tends to more rely on apolar desolvation with a corresponding increase of the entropy content of their binding free-energy. These findings explain the reported size-dependence of maximal available affinity and ligand efficiency both behaving differently in the small molecule region featured by strong H-bond formation and in the larger molecule region featured by apolar desolvation.

  12. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  13. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamics has always been a remarkable science in that it studies macroscopic properties that are only partially determined by the properties of individual molecules. Entropy and free energy only exist in constellations of more than a single molecule (degree of freedom). They are the so...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...... by taking into account both the molecular properties and the emergent properties that are due to (dys)organisation. This redefinition will free nonequilibrium thermodynamics from the limitations imposed by earlier near-equilibrium assumptions, resolve the duality with kinetics, and bridge the apparent gap...

  14. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  15. A case against an X-shaped structure in the Milky Way young bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corredoira, Martín

    2016-09-01

    Context. A number of recent papers have claimed the discovery of an X-shape structure in the bulge of our Galaxy in the population of the red clumps. Aims: We endeavor to analyze the stellar density of bulge stars in the same regions using a different stellar population that is characteristic of the young bulge (≲ 5 Gyr). Particularly, we use F0-F5 main-sequence stars with distances derived through photometric parallax. Methods: We extract these stars from extinction-corrected color-magnitude diagrams in the near-infrared of VISTA-VVV data in some bulge regions and calculate the densities along the line of sight. We take the uncertaintity in the photometric parallax and the contamination of other sources into account, and we see that these errors do not avoid the detection of a possible double peak along some lines of sight as expected for a X-shape bulge if it existed. Results: Only a single peak in the density distribution along the line of sight is observed, so apparently there is no X-shape structure for this population of stars. Nonetheless, the effects of the dispersion of absolute magnitudes in the selected population might be an alternative explanation, although in principle these effects are insufficient to explain this lack of double peak according to our calculations. Conclusions: The results of the present paper do not demonstrate that previous claims of X-shaped bulge using only red clump stars are incorrect, but there are apparently some puzzling questions if we want to maintain the validity of both the red-clump results and the results of this paper.

  16. Thermodynamics-based models of transcriptional regulation by enhancers: the roles of synergistic activation, cooperative binding and short-range repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    Full Text Available Quantitative models of cis-regulatory activity have the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. However, the few models available today have been based on simplistic assumptions about the sequences being modeled, or heuristic approximations of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. We have developed a thermodynamics-based model to predict gene expression driven by any DNA sequence, as a function of transcription factor concentrations and their DNA-binding specificities. It uses statistical thermodynamics theory to model not only protein-DNA interaction, but also the effect of DNA-bound activators and repressors on gene expression. In addition, the model incorporates mechanistic features such as synergistic effect of multiple activators, short range repression, and cooperativity in transcription factor-DNA binding, allowing us to systematically evaluate the significance of these features in the context of available expression data. Using this model on segmentation-related enhancers in Drosophila, we find that transcriptional synergy due to simultaneous action of multiple activators helps explain the data beyond what can be explained by cooperative DNA-binding alone. We find clear support for the phenomenon of short-range repression, where repressors do not directly interact with the basal transcriptional machinery. We also find that the binding sites contributing to an enhancer's function may not be conserved during evolution, and a noticeable fraction of these undergo lineage-specific changes. Our implementation of the model, called GEMSTAT, is the first publicly available program for simultaneously modeling the regulatory activities of a given set of sequences.

  17. Mechanical problems of superplastic fill-forming bulge solved by one-dimensional tensile and two-dimensional free bulging constitutive equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Because of the strong structural sensitivity of superplasticity, the deformation rule must be affected by stress-state. It is necessary to prove whether one-dimensional tensile constitutive equation can be directly generalized to deal with the two-dimensional mechanical problems or not. In this paper, theoretical results of fill-forming bulge have been derived from both one-dimensional tensile and two-dimensional bulging constitutive equation with variable m value. By comparing theoretical analysis and experimental results made on typical superplastic alloy Zn-wt22%Al, it is shown that one-dimensional tensile constitutive equation cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional mechanical questions. A method to correct deviation between theoretical and experimental results is also proposed.

  18. The black hole - bulge mass relation in active and inactive galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    New virial black-hole mass estimates are presented for a sample of 72 AGN covering three decades in optical luminosity. Using a model in which the AGN broad-line region (BLR) has a flattened geometry, we investigate the M_{bh)-L_{bulge} relation for a combined 90-object sample, consisting of the AGN plus a sample of 18 nearby inactive elliptical galaxies with dynamical black-hole mass measurements. It is found that, for all reasonable mass-to-light ratios, the M_{bh}-L_{bulge} relation is equ...

  19. Thermodynamical stability of the Bardeen black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretón, Nora [Dpto. de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I. P. N., Apdo. 14-740, D.F. (Mexico); Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago E. [Dpto. de Física, U. Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the stability of the regular magnetic Bardeen black hole both thermodynamically and dynamically. For the thermodynamical analysis we consider a microcanonical ensemble and apply the turning point method. This method allows to decide a change in stability (or instability) of a system, requiring only the assumption of smoothness of the area functional. The dynamical stability is asserted using criteria based on the signs of the Lagrangian and its derivatives. It turns out from our analysis that the Bardeen black hole is both thermodynamically and dynamically stable.

  20. Considerations on non equilibrium thermodynamics of interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Nature can be considered the "first" engineer! For scientists and engineers, dynamics and evolution of complex systems are not easy to predict. A fundamental approach to study complex system is thermodynamics. But, the result is the origin of too many schools of thermodynamics with a consequent difficulty in communication between thermodynamicists and other scientists and, also, among themselves. The solution is to obtain a unified approach based on the fundamentals of physics. Here we suggest a possible unification of the schools of thermodynamics starting from two fundamental concepts of physics, interaction and flows.

  1. Self-assembly thermodynamics of pH-responsive amino-acid-based polymers with a nonionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, Anna; Keller, Sandro; Klingler, Johannes; Sedlak, Marian; Rak, Dmytro; Sturcova, Adriana; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Filippov, Sergey K

    2014-09-30

    The behavior of pH-responsive polymers poly(N-methacryloyl-l-valine) (P1), poly(N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine) (P2), and poly(N-methacryloylglycyne-l-leucine) (P3) has been studied in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Brij98. The pure polymers phase-separate in an acidic medium with critical pHtr values of 3.7, 5.5, and 3.4, respectively. The addition of the surfactant prevents phase separation and promotes reorganization of polymer molecules. The nature of the interaction between polymer and surfactant depends on the amino acid structure in the side chain of the polymer. This effect was investigated by dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, electrophoretic measurements, small-angle neutron scattering, and infrared spectroscopy. Thermodynamic analysis revealed an endothermic association reaction in P1/Brij98 mixture, whereas a strong exothermic effect was observed for P2/Brij98 and P3/Brij98. Application of regular solution theory for the analysis of experimental enthalpograms indicated dominant hydrophobic interactions between P1 and Brij98 and specific interactions for the P2/Brij98 system. Electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering measurements support the applicability of the theory to these cases. The specific interactions can be ascribed to hydrogen bonds formed between the carboxylic groups of the polymer and the oligo(ethylene oxide) head groups of the surfactant. Thus, differences in polymer-surfactant interactions between P1 and P2 polymers result in different structures of polymer-surfactant complexes. Specifically, small-angle neutron scattering revealed pearl-necklace complexes and "core-shell" structures for P1/Brij98 and P2/Brij98 systems, respectively. These results may help in the design of new pH-responsive site-specific micellar drug delivery systems or pH-responsive membrane-disrupting agents.

  2. Comparing the properties of the X-shaped bulges of NGC 4710 and the Milky Way with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O A; Debattista, V P; Rejkuba, M; Valenti, E; Zoccali, M; Coccato, L; Minniti, D; Ness, M

    2016-01-01

    We used the new ESO VLT instrument MUSE to obtain spectral and imaging coverage of NGC 4710. The wide area and excellent sampling of the MUSE integral field spectrograph allows us to investigate the dynamical properties of the X-shaped bulge of NGC 4710 and compare it with the properties of the Milky Way's own X-shaped bulge. We measured the radial velocities, velocity dispersion, and stellar populations using a penalized pixel full spectral fitting technique adopting simple stellar populations models, on a 1' x 1' area centred on the bulge of NGC 4710. We have constructed the velocity maps of the bulge of NGC 4710 and we investigated the presence of vertical metallicity gradients. These properties were compared to those of the Milky Way bulge and as well as to a simulated galaxy with boxy/peanut bulge. We find the line-of-sight velocity maps and 1D rotation curves of the bulge of NGC 4710 to be remarkably similar to those of the Milky Way bulge. Some specific differences that were identified are in good agre...

  3. Bulge mass is king: The dominant role of the bulge in determining the fraction of passive galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bluck, Asa F L; Ellison, Sara L; Moreno, Jorge; Simard, Luc; Patton, David R; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the origin of galaxy bimodality by quantifying the relative role of intrinsic and environmental drivers to the cessation (or `quenching') of star formation in over half a million local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. Our sample contains a wide variety of galaxies at z=0.02-0.2, with stellar masses of 8 < log(M*/M_sun) < 12, spanning the entire morphological range from pure disks to spheroids, and over four orders of magnitude in local galaxy density and halo mass. We utilise published star formation rates and add to this recent GIM2D photometric and stellar mass bulge + disk decompositions from our group. We find that the passive fraction of galaxies increases steeply with stellar mass, halo mass, and bulge mass, with a less steep dependence on local galaxy density and bulge-to-total stellar mass ratio (B/T). At fixed internal properties, we find that central and satellite galaxies have different passive fraction relationships. For centrals, we conclude that there is less variat...

  4. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    CERN Document Server

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Fernandez-Bariviera, Aurelio; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper we show that a thermodynamic model based on the Maximum Entropy Principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive data-base of Spanish firms, which covers to a very large extent Spain's economic activity with a total of 1,155,142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of the economic system for creating/destroying firms, and can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger that 1, creation of firms is favored; when it is smaller that 1, destruction of firms is favored instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full mac...

  5. Renewable feedstocks in green solvents: thermodynamic study on phase diagrams of D-sorbitol and xylitol with dicyanamide based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Okuniewski, Marcin; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-06-13

    Experimental and theoretical studies on thermodynamic properties of three ionic liquids based on dicyanamide anion (namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium dicyanamide) and their binary mixtures with sugar alcohols (D-sorbitol and xylitol) were conducted in order to assess the applicability of the salts ionic liquids for dissolution of those biomass-related materials. Density and dynamic viscosity (at ambient pressure) of pure ionic liquids are reported in the temperature range from T = 293.15 to 363.15 K. Solid-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams in binary systems {sugar alcohol + ionic liquid} were measured with dynamic method up to the fusion temperature of sugar alcohol. The impact of the chemical structure of both the ionic liquid and sugar alcohol were established and discussed. For the very first time, the experimental solubility data were reproduced and analyzed in terms of equation of state rooted in statistical mechanics. For this purpose, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was employed. In particular, new molecular schemes for the ionic liquids, D-sorbitol, and xylitol were proposed, and then the pure chemicals were parametrized by using available density and vapor pressure data. The model allowed accurate correlation of pure fluid properties for both ionic liquids and sugar alcohols, when the association term is taken into account. The results of solid-liquid equilibria modeling were also satisfactory. However, one or two adjustable binary corrections to the adopted combining rules were required to be adjusted in order to accurately capture the phase behavior. It was shown that a consistent thermodynamic description of extremely complex systems can be achieved by using relatively simple (but physically grounded) theoretical tools and molecular schemes.

  6. Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J

    2015-04-01

    We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.

  7. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  8. Thermodynamics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics I includes review of properties and states of a pure substance, work and heat, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Groot, S R De

    2011-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  10. Difference Image Analysis of the OGLE-II Bulge Data. III. Catalog of 200,000 Candidate Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, P R; Szymanski, M H; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Zebrun, K

    2002-01-01

    We present the first edition of a catalog of variable stars from OGLE-II Galactic Bulge data covering 3 years: 1997-1999. Typically 200-300 I band data points are available in 49 fields between -11 and 11 degrees in galactic longitude, totaling roughly 11 square degrees in sky coverage. Photometry was obtained using the Difference Image Analysis (DIA) software and tied to the OGLE data base with the DoPhot package. The present version of the catalog comprises 221,801 light curves. In this preliminary work the level of contamination by spurious detections is still about 10%. Parts of the catalog have only crude calibration, insufficient for distance determinations. The next, fully calibrated, edition will include the data collected in year 2000. The data is accessible via FTP. Due to the data volume, we also distribute DAT tapes upon request.

  11. Hadron thermodynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammiraju, P.

    1985-01-01

    Various phenomenological models based on statistical thermodynamical considerations were used to fit the experimental data at high P sub T to a two temperature distribution. Whether this implies that the two temperatures belong to two different reaction mechanisms, or consequences of Lorentz-contraction factor, or related in a fundamental way to the intrinsic thermodynamics of Space-Time can only be revealed by further theoretical and experimental investigations of high P sub T phenomena in extremely energetic hadron-hadron collisions.

  12. Temperatures and metallicities of M giants in the Galactic bulge from low-resolution K-band spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, M.; Ryde, N.; Nandakumar, G.

    2016-05-01

    Context. With the existing and upcoming large multifibre low-resolution spectrographs, the question arises of how precise stellar parameters such as Teff and [Fe/H] can be obtained from low-resolution K-band spectra with respect to traditional photometric temperature measurements. Until now, most of the effective temperatures in Galactic bulge studies come directly from photometric techniques. Uncertainties in interstellar reddening and in the assumed extinction law could lead to large systematic errors (>200 K). Aims: We obtain and calibrate the relation between Teff and the 12CO first overtone bands for M giants in the Galactic bulge covering a wide range in metallicity. Methods: We used low-resolution spectra for 20 M giants with well-studied parameters from photometric measurements covering the temperature range 3200 behaviour of Teff and [Fe/H] on the spectral indices. Results: We find a tight relation between Teff and the 12CO(2-0) band with a dispersion of 95 K and between Teff and the 12CO(3-1) with a dispersion of 120 K. We do not find any dependence of these relations on the metallicity of the star, which makes them attractive for Galactic bulge studies. This relation is also not sensitive to the spectral resolution, which allows this relation to be applied in a more general way. We also find a correlation between the combination of the Na i, Ca i, and the 12CO band with the metallicity of the star. However, this relation is only valid for subsolar metallicities. Conclusions: We show that low-resolution spectra provide a powerful tool for obtaining effective temperatures of M giants. We show that this relation does not depend on the metallicity of the star within the investigated range and is also applicable to different spectral resolutions making this relation in general useful for deriving effective temperatures in high-extinction regions where photometric temperatures are not reliable. Based on observations collected at the European Southern

  13. Ultra-deep GEMINI Near-infrared Observations of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Miocchi, P.; Cohen, R. E.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2016-11-01

    We used ultra-deep J and K s images secured with the near-infrared (NIR) GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a (K s , J - K s ) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate NIR CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching K s ˜ 21.5, approximately 8 mag below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at K s ˜ 20 we detected the so-called MS “knee” in a purely NIR CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 (t age = 12.0 ± 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M ˜ 0.45 M⊙, finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances from the cluster center. This is a clear signature of mass segregation, confirming that NGC 6624 is in an advanced stage of dynamical evolution. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations gathered with ESO-VISTA telescope (program ID 179.B-2002).

  14. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-06-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a box/peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such box/peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models, it has been claimed in the past that box/peanut bulges are supported by `bananas', or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent made-to-measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45 per cent of the stellar mass.

  15. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Metal-rich Bananas in the Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angus A.; Evans, N. W.; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M. C.; Shen, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Francois, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A.; Costado, T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Mikolaitis, Š.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the kinematics of ˜2000 giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region -10^\\circ ≲ {\\ell }≲ 10^\\circ and -11^\\circ ≲ b≲ -3^\\circ . We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal-rich ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\gt 0) and metal-poor ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\lt 0) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy-peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal-rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line of sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy-peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison of the minor axis data with the velocity histograms of resonant orbits generated in simulations of buckled bars. The “banana” or 2:1:2 orbits provide strongly bimodal histograms with narrow velocity peaks that resemble the Gaia-ESO metal-rich data.

  16. The growth of galactic bulges through mergers in LCDM haloes revisited. II. Morphological mix evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Lacerna, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The mass aggregation and merger histories of present-day distinct haloes selected from the cosmological Millennium Simulations I and II are mapped into stellar mass aggregation and galaxy merger histories of central galaxies by using empirical stellar-to-halo and stellar-to-gas mass relations. The growth of bulges driven by the galaxy mergers/interactions is calculated using analytical recipes. The predicted bulge demographics at redshift z~0 is consistent with observations (Zavala+2012). Here we present the evolution of the morphological mix (traced by the bulge-to-total mass ratio, B/T) as a function of mass up to z=3. This mix remains qualitatively the same up to z~1: B/T0.45 at large masses. At z>1, the fractions of disc-dominated and bulgeless galaxies increase strongly, and by z~2 the era of pure disc galaxies is reached. Bulge-dominated galaxies acquire such a morphology, and most of their mass, following a downsizing trend. Since our results are consistent with several recent observational studies of ...

  17. Dynamical Modelling of the Galactic Bulge and Bar: Pattern Speed, Stellar, and Dark Matter Mass Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We construct a large set of dynamical models of the galactic bulge, bar and inner disk using the Made-to-Measure method. Our models are constrained to match the red clump giant density from a combination of the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS infrared surveys together with stellar kinematics in the bulge from the BRAVA and OGLE surveys, and in the entire bar region from the ARGOS survey. We are able to recover the bar pattern speed and the stellar and dark matter mass distributions in the bar region, thus recovering the entire galactic effective potential. We find a bar pattern speed of $39.0 \\pm 3.5 \\,\\rm{km\\,s^{-1}\\,kpc^{-1}}$, placing the bar corotation radius at $6.1 \\pm 0.5 \\, \\rm{kpc}$ and making the Milky Way bar a typical fast rotator. We evaluate the stellar mass of the long bar and bulge structure to be $M_{\\rm{bar/bulge}} = 1.88 \\pm 0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$, larger than the mass of disk in the bar region, $M_{\\rm{inner\\ disk}} = 1.29\\pm0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$. The total dynamical...

  18. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, M; Gerhard, O

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a Box/Peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such Box/Peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well-known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models it has been claimed in the past that Box/Peanut bulges are supported by "bananas", or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent Made-to-Measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45...

  19. A secularly evolved model for the Milky Way bar and bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-03-01

    Bars are strong drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Bars themselves can evolve secularly through angular momentum transport, producing different boxy/peanut and X-shaped bulges. Our Milky Way is an example of a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge. We present a self-consistent N-body simulation of a barred galaxy which matches remarkably well the structure of the inner Milky Way deduced from star counts. In particular, features taken as signatures of a second ``long bar`` can be explained by the interaction between the bar and the spiral arms of the galaxy (Martinez-Valpuesta & Gerhard 2011). Furthermore the structural change in the bulge inside l = 4° measured recently from VVV data can be explained by the high-density near-axisymmetric part of the inner boxy bulge (Gerhard & Martinez-Valpuesta 2012). We also compare this model with kinematic data from recent spectroscopic surveys. We use a modified version of the NMAGIC code (de Lorenzi et al. 2007) to study the properties of the Milky Way bar, obtaining an upper limit for the pattern speed of ~ 42 km/sec/kpc. See Fig. 1 for a comparison of one of our best models with BRAVA data (Kunder et al. 2012).

  20. Stellar density profile and mass of the Milky Way Bulge from VVV data

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, E; Gonzalez, O A; Minniti, D; Alonso-Garcia, J; Marchetti, E; Hempel, M; Renzini, A; Rejkuba, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the first stellar density profile of the Milky Way bulge reaching latitude $b=0^\\circ$. It is derived by counting red clump stars within the colour\\--magnitude diagram constructed with the new PSF-fitting photometry from VISTA Variables in the V\\'\\i a L\\'actea (VVV) survey data. The new stellar density map covers the area between $|l|\\leq 10^\\circ$ and $|b|\\leq 4.5^\\circ$ with unprecedented accuracy, allowing to establish a direct link between the stellar kinematics from the Giraffe Inner Bulge Spectroscopic Survey (GIBS) and the stellar mass density distribution. In particular, the location of the central velocity dispersion peak from GIBS matches a high overdensity in the VVV star count map. By scaling the total luminosity function (LF) obtained from all VVV fields to the LF from Zoccali et al.(2003), we obtain the first fully empirical estimate of the mass in stars and remnants of the Galactic bulge. The Milky Way bulge stellar mass within ($|b|<9.5^\\circ$, $|l|<10^\\circ$) is $2.0\\pm0.3\\ti...

  1. Mapping the outer bulge with RRab stars from the VVV Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gran, F; Saito, R K; Zoccali, M; Gonzalez, O A; Navarrete, C; Catelan, M; Ramos, R Contreras; Elorrieta, F; Eyheramendy, S; Jordán, A

    2016-01-01

    The VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) is a near-IR time-domain survey of the Galactic bulge and southern plane. One of the main goals of this survey is to reveal the 3D structure of the Milky Way through their variable stars. Particularly the RR Lyrae stars have been massively discovered in the inner regions of the bulge ($-8^\\circ \\lesssim b \\lesssim -1^\\circ$) by optical surveys such as OGLE and MACHO but leaving an unexplored window of more than $\\sim 47$ sq deg ($-10.0^\\circ \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim +10.7^\\circ$ and $-10.3^\\circ \\lesssim b \\lesssim -8.0^\\circ$) observed by the VVV Survey. Our goal is to characterize the RR Lyrae stars in the outer bulge in terms of their periods, amplitudes, Fourier coefficients, and distances, in order to evaluate the 3D structure of the bulge in this area. The distance distribution of RR Lyrae stars will be compared to the one of red clump stars that is known to trace a X-shaped structure in order to determine if these two different stellar populations share the...

  2. Stellar Kinematics of Boxy Bulges: Large-Scale Bars and Inner Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, A

    2004-01-01

    Major-axis long-slit stellar kinematics was obtained for 30 edge-on spiral galaxies, 24 with a boxy/peanut-shaped (B/PS) bulge. B/PS bulges are present in >45% of highly inclined systems and much work suggests that they are the edge-on projection of thick bars. Profiles of the mean stellar velocity V, the velocity dispersion sigma, and the asymmetric (h3) and symmetric (h4) deviations from a Gaussian are presented. Comparing those with N-body bar diagnostics, we find bar signatures in 80% of our sample. B/PS bulge galaxies typically show a double-hump rotation curve with an intermediate dip or plateau. They often show a flat central velocity dispersion profile accompanied by a secondary peak or plateau and >=40% have a local central sigma minimum. The h3 profiles display up to 3 slope reversals and h3 is normally correlated with V over the presumed bar length, contrary to expectations from axisymmetric disks. Those characteristic bar signatures strengthen the case for a close link between B/PS bulges and bars...

  3. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, L M; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-01-01

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that the most metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through...

  4. The Mid-Infrared Colours of Galactic Bulge, Disk and Magellanic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J P; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14846.x

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) photometry for 367 Galactic disk, bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) planetary nebulae, determined using GLIMPSE II and SAGE data acquired using the Spitzer Space Telescope. This has permitted us to make a comparison between the luminosity functions of bulge and LMC planetary nebulae, and between the MIR colours of all three categories of source. It is determined that whilst the 3.6 microns luminosity function of the LMC and bulge sources are likely to be closely similar, the [3.6]-[5.8] and [5.8]-[8-0] indices of LMC nebulae are different from those of their disk and bulge counterparts. This may arise because of enhanced 6.2 microns PAH emission within the LMC sources, and/or as a result of differences between the spectra of LMC PNe and those of their Galactic counterparts. We also determine that the more evolved disk sources listed in the MASH catalogues of Parker et al. and Miszalski et al. (2008) have similar colours to those of the less evolved (and higher surface bright...

  5. Two Populations of SiO Masers in the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Adam; Rich, Robert Michael; Morris, Mark; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Sjouwerman, Lorant; Claussen, Mark J.; Stroh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a summary of the kinematics of stellar SiO masers observed in the direction of the galactic bulge with ALMA (885 sources), and the JVLA (2,479 sources). These objects are selected by color from the MSX point source catalog, which has given an SiO detection rate of ~70%. The presented sample, along with the ~24,000 sources still being observed and reduced, enable radial velocity measurements even in regions with extreme optical extinction. These maser stars are compared to the known bulge surveys: APOGEE (~25,000 sources), BRAVA (~8000 sources), and GIBS (~6,400 sources). We have found that BAaDE stars in the direction of the bulge exist in two subpopulations: (1) A kinematically hot population exhibiting cylindrical rotation consistent with the other bulge surveys, and (2) a kinematically cold population more consistent with a disk population. In the ALMA data, we find evidence for a -200 km/s feature at (l,b) = (-9,0), possibly the symmetric complement to a previously proposed +200 km/s feature (Nidever 2012), that we do not confirm with our data.

  6. SDSS-IV MaNGA: bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Evelyn J.; Häußler, Boris; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Merrifield, Michael R.; Bamford, Steven; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Nitschelm, Christian; Thomas, Daniel; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin

    2017-02-01

    With the availability of large integral field unit (IFU) spectral surveys of nearby galaxies, there is now the potential to extract spectral information from across the bulges and discs of galaxies in a systematic way. This information can address questions such as how these components built up with time, how galaxies evolve and whether their evolution depends on other properties of the galaxy such as its mass or environment. We present bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI), a new approach to fit the two-dimensional light profiles of galaxies as a function of wavelength to extract the spectral properties of these galaxies' discs and bulges. The fitting is carried out using GALFITM, a modified form of GALFIT which can fit multiwaveband images simultaneously. The benefit of this technique over traditional multiwaveband fits is that the stellar populations of each component can be constrained using knowledge over the whole image and spectrum available. The decomposition has been developed using commissioning data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey with redshifts z 22 arcsec, but can be applied to any IFU data of a nearby galaxy with similar or better spatial resolution and coverage. We present an overview of the fitting process, the results from our tests, and we finish with example stellar population analyses of early-type galaxies from the MaNGA survey to give an indication of the scientific potential of applying bulge-disc decomposition to IFU data.

  7. Near-Infrared Surface Photometry of Bulges and Disks of Spiral Galaxies : The Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Balcells, M.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness and colour profiles,in bands ranging from U to K, for the disk and bulge components of a complete sample of 30 nearby S0 to Sbc galaxies with inclinations larger than 50 degrees. We describe in detail the observations and the de

  8. The Gaia-ESO survey: Metal-rich bananas in the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Angus A; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M C; Shen, J; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Bensby, T; Francois, P; Koposov, S E; Recio-Blanco, A; Bayo, A; Carraro, G; Casey, A; Costado, T; Franciosini, E; Hourihane, A; de Laverny, P; Lewis, J; Lind, K; Magrini, L; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Worley, C; Zaggia, S; Mikolaitis, S

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics of $\\sim 2000$ giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region $-10^\\circ \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 10^\\circ$ and $-11^\\circ \\lesssim b \\lesssim -3^\\circ$. We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal rich ($\\mathrm{[M/H]}>0$) and metal poor ($\\mathrm{[M/H]}<0$) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy-peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line-of-sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy-peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison ...

  9. COSMIC-LAB: Terzan 5 as a fossil remnant of the Galactic bulge formation epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Massari, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galaxy bulges is one of the most debated topics in the modern astrophysics. One approach to address this issue is to look at the Galactic bulge since it is the closest. According to some theoretical models, our bulge may have built up from the merger of substructures formed from the fragmentation of a gaseous disk in the early phases of Galactic evolution. We may have discovered the remnant of one of these substructures in the stellar system Terzan 5. In fact, Terzan 5 hosts two stellar populations with quite different iron abundances, thus suggesting it once was far more massive than today. Moreover, its peculiar chemistry strikingly resembles that observed in the Galactic bulge. In this Thesis we performed a detailed photometric and spectroscopic analysis of this cluster to determine its formation and evolution. Form the photometric point of view we built a high-resolution differential reddening map in the direction of the system and we measured relative proper motions to sepa...

  10. Ongoing Formation of Bulges and Black Holes in the Local Universe: New Insights from GALEX

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffmann, G; Budavari, T; Charlot, S; Hoopes, C G; Martin, D C; Seibert, M; Barlow, T A; Bianchi, L; Conrow, T; Donas, J; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Lee, Y W; Madore, B F; Milliard, B; Morrissey, P F; Neff, S G; Rich, R M; Schiminovich, D; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Wyder, T K; Yi, S K; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Heckman, Timothy M.; Budavari, Tamas; Charlot, Stephane; Hoopes, Charles G.; Seibert, Mark; Barlow, Tom A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Conrow, Tim; Donas, Jose; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F.; Milliard, Bruno; Morrissey, Patrick F.; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Small, Todd; Szalay, Alex S.; Wyder, Ted K.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a volume-limited sample of massive bulge-dominated galaxies with data from both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite. The galaxies have central velocity dispersions greater than 100 km/s and stellar surface mass densities that lie above the value where galaxies transition from actively star forming to passive systems. The sample is limited to redshifts 0.03bulge-dominated central regions of the galaxies. The GALEX NUV data provide high sensitivity to low rates of global star formation in these systems. Our sample of bulge-dominated galaxies exhibits a much larger dispersion in NUV-r colour than in optical g-r colour. Nearly all of the galaxies with bluer NUV-r colours are AGN. Both GALEX images and SDSS colour profiles demonstrate that the excess UV light is associated with an extended disk. We find that galaxies with red outer regions almost never have a young bulge or a strong...

  11. The evolution of disc galaxies with and without classical bulges since z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak; Singh, Harinder P

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the relative role of internally and externally driven mechanisms responsible for disc and bulge growth is essential to understand the evolution of disc galaxies. In this context, we have studied the physical properties of disc galaxies without classical bulges in comparison to those with classical bulges since z~0.9. Using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have computed both parametric and non-parametric measures, and examined the evolution in size, concentration, stellar mass, effective stellar mass density and asymmetry. We find that both disc galaxies with and without classical bulges have gained more than 50% of their present stellar mass over the last ~8 Gyrs. Also, the increase in disc size is found to be peripheral. While the average total (Petrosian) radius almost doubles from z~0.9 to z~0, the average effective radius undergoes a marginal increase in comparison. Additionally, increase in the density of the inner region is evident through the evolutio...

  12. First Detection of the White-Dwarf Cooling Sequence of the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Calamida, A; Anderson, J; Casertano, S; Cassisi, S; Salaris, M; Brown, T; Sokol, J; Bond, H E; Ferraro, I; Ferguson, H; Livio, M; Valenti, J; Buonanno, R; Clarkson, W; Pietrinferni, A

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope data of the low-reddening Sagittarius window in the Galactic bulge. The Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search field (3'x3'), together with three more Advanced Camera for Surveys and eight Wide Field Camera 3 fields, were observed in the F606W and F814W filters, approximately every two weeks for two years, with the principal aim of detecting a hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars through astrometric microlensing. Proper motions were measured with an accuracy of ~0.1 mas/yr (~4 km/s) at F606W~25.5 mag, and better than ~0.5 mas/yr (20 km/s) at F606W~28 mag, in both axes. Proper-motion measurements allowed us to separate disk and bulge stars and obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. We then identified for the first time a white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the Galactic bulge, together with a dozen candidate extreme horizontal branch stars. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a substantial fraction of the WDs (...

  13. Elements of chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2005-01-01

    This survey of purely thermal data in calculating the position of equilibrium in a chemical reaction highlights the physical content of thermodynamics, as distinct from purely mathematical aspects. 1970 edition.

  14. Workshop on Teaching Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to arrange a meeting of teachers of thermodynamics in the United Kingdom, a meeting held in the pleasant surroundings of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in Sept~mber, 1984. This volume records the ideas put forward by authors, the discussion generated and an account of the action that discussion has initiated. Emphasis was placed on the Teaching of Thermodynamics to degree-level students in their first and second years. The meeting, a workshop for practitioners in which all were expected to take part, was remarkably well supported. This was notable in the representation of essentially every UK university and polytechnic engaged in teaching engineering thermodynamics and has led to a stimulating spread of ideas. By intention, the emphasis for attendance was put on teachers of engineering concerned with thermodynamics, both mechanical and chemical engineering disciplines. Attendance from others was encouraged but limited as follows: non-engineering acad­ emics, 10%, industrialists, 10%. The ...

  15. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  16. Thermodynamics of primary photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, D

    2013-10-01

    The thermodynamics of photosynthesis has been much discussed, but recent articles have pointed to some confusion on the subject. The aim of this review is to clarify a limited part of this state of affairs.

  17. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  18. Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...

  19. Are Bulges and Disks Real? Decomposing Spectral Data Cubes Into Their Astrophysical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Michael; Tabor, Martha; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Cappellari, Michele; Johnston, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Decomposing galaxies photometrically into bulge and disk components is now a well-established technique, but it remains unclear how distinct and real these components are, and how they relate to each other. To address these questions, we have been developing novel techniques to extract the various structural components from integral field unit (IFU) spectral observations of galaxies, in order to study simultaneously their spectral and spatial properties.As a first approach, by spatially decomposing each wavelength in a spectral data cube, we can discover how much light comes from the separate components as a function of wavelength, and hence derive unprecedentedly high quality spectra of bulge and disk for detailed analysis of their stellar populations.In addition, we have decomposed spectral data cubes by fitting the spectrum at each location with the sum of two components, with the spectral properties left entirely free to fit both kinematic and stellar population properties, subject only to the constraint that the relative flux contributions match those of a conventional bulge-disk decomposition.Initial results applied to MaNGA and other IFU surveys show the power of these techniques when applied to such high quality data. The first method allows us to understand the formation sequence of bulges and disks, with, for example, bulges showing the younger stellar populations in S0 galaxies, implying that this was where the last gasp of star formation occurred. The second technique reveals subtle population gradients within individual components, but also confirms that the decomposition into separate components is a credible procedure, as the resulting bulges and disks have entirely plausible kinematic properties that are in no way imposed by the decomposition.Although our initial application of these decomposition techniques has been to studying bulges and disks in S0 galaxies, the methods have much wider application to the spectral data cubes that MaNGA and other

  20. Information theory and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kafri, Oded

    2006-01-01

    A communication theory for a transmitter broadcasting to many receivers is presented. In this case energetic considerations cannot be neglected as in Shannon theory. It is shown that, when energy is assigned to the information bit, information theory complies with classical thermodynamic and is part of it. To provide a thermodynamic theory of communication it is necessary to define equilibrium for informatics systems that are not in thermal equilibrium and to calculate temperature, heat, and ...

  1. Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, M.J.; Shapiro, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides a thorough development of the second law of thermodynamics (featuring the entropy-production concept), an up-to-date discussion of availability analysis (including an introduction to chemical availability), and a sound description of the application areas. Topics covered include control volume energy analysis, vapor power systems, gas power systems, thermodynamic relations for simple compressible substances, nonreacting ideal gas mixtures and psycrometrics, reacting mixtures and combustion, and chemical and phase equilibrium.

  2. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  3. First detection of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamida, A.; Sahu, K. C.; Anderson, J.; Casertano, S.; Brown, T.; Sokol, J.; Bond, H. E.; Ferguson, H.; Livio, M.; Valenti, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Buonanno, R.; Pietrinferni, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo—INAF, Via M. Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Ferraro, I. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma—INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Clarkson, W., E-mail: calamida@stsci.edu [University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope data of the low-reddening Sagittarius window in the Galactic bulge. The Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search field (∼3'× 3'), together with three more Advanced Camera for Surveys and eight Wide-Field Camera 3 fields, were observed in the F606W and F814W filters, approximately every two weeks for 2 yr, with the principal aim of detecting a hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars through astrometric microlensing. Proper motions were measured with an accuracy of ≈0.1 mas yr{sup –1} (≈4 km s{sup –1}) at F606W ≈ 25.5 mag, and better than ≈0.5 mas yr{sup –1} (≈20 km s{sup –1}) at F606W ≈ 28 mag, in both axes. Proper-motion measurements allowed us to separate disk and bulge stars and obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. We then identified for the first time a white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the Galactic bulge, together with a dozen candidate extreme horizontal branch stars. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a substantial fraction of the WDs (≈30%) are systematically redder than the cooling tracks for CO-core H-rich and He-rich envelope WDs. This evidence would suggest the presence of a significant number of low-mass WDs and WD-main-sequence binaries in the bulge. This hypothesis is further supported by the finding of two dwarf novae in outburst, two short-period (P ≲ 1 day) ellipsoidal variables, and a few candidate cataclysmic variables in the same field.

  4. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, Bernard H

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Bernard H. Lavenda has written A New Perspective on Thermodynamics to combine an old look at thermodynamics with a new foundation. The book presents a historical perspective, which unravels the current presentation of thermodynamics found in standard texts, and which emphasizes the fundamental role that Carnot played in the development of thermodynamics. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics will: Chronologically unravel the development of the principles of thermodynamics and how they were conceived by their discoverers Bring the theory of thermodynamics up to the present time and indicate areas of further development with the union of information theory and the theory of means and their inequalities. New areas include nonextensive thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of coding theory, multifractals, and strange attractors. Reintroduce important, yet nearly forgotten, teachings of N.L. Sardi Carnot Highlight conceptual flaws in timely topics such as endoreversible engines, finite-time thermodynamics, geometri...

  5. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Reaction Abilities of Structural Units in Fe-O Binary Melts Based on the Atom-Molecule Coexistence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-min; Li, Jin-yan; Wei, Meng-fang; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    A thermodynamic model for calculating the mass action concentrations Ni of structural units in Fe-O binary melts based on the atom-molecule coexistence theory, i.e., AMCT- Ni model, has been developed and verified to be valid through comparing with the calculated activities a_{R,i} of both O and Fe over a temperature range from 1833 K to 1973 K (1560 °C to 1700 °C). Moreover, activity coefficients γ_{O} or f_{{%,O} or f_{H,O} of O coupled with activity a_{R,O} or a_{%, O} or a_{H,O} of O and the corresponding first-order activity interaction coefficient \\varepsilon_{O}^{O} or e_{O}^{O} or h_{O}^{O} of O to O have also been determined by the developed AMCT- Ni model and verified to be credible. In addition, the molar mixing thermodynamic properties of Fe-O binary melts have been determined to be accurate. Values of the calculated mass action concentration N_{Fe} of free Fe are in good agreement with results of the calculated activity a_{R,Fe} of Fe relative to pure liquid Fe(l) as standard state in Fe-O binary melts. The calculated mass action concentration N_{O} of free O has a closely corresponding relationship with the calculated activity a_{R,O} of O relative to ideal O2 at 101,325 Pa as standard state in Fe-O binary melts. However, values of the calculated mass action concentration N_{O} of free O are much greater than results of the calculated activity a_{R,O} of O in Fe-O binary melts. The converted mass action concentration N_{O}^' of total O relative to ideal O2 at 101,325 Pa as standard state can be obtained through transferring standard state of the calculated mass action concentration N_{O} of free O. The converted mass action concentration N_{O}^' of total O or the converted activity a_{{R,O}^{AMCT} of O can well be matched with the calculated activity a_{R,O} of O in Fe-O binary melts. Although the obtained expression of first-order activity interaction coefficient \\varepsilon_{O}^{O} or e_{O}^{O} or h_{O}^{O} by the developed AMCT- Ni model for

  6. Dynamical modelling of the galactic bulge and bar: the Milky Way's pattern speed, stellar and dark matter mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Matthieu; Gerhard, Ortwin; Wegg, Christopher; Ness, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    We construct a large set of dynamical models of the galactic bulge, bar and inner disc using the made-to-measure method. Our models are constrained to match the red clump giant density from a combination of the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS infrared surveys together with stellar kinematics in the bulge from the BRAVA and OGLE surveys, and in the entire bar region from the ARGOS Survey. We are able to recover the bar pattern speed and the stellar and dark matter mass distributions in the bar region, thus recovering the entire galactic effective potential. We find a bar pattern speed of 39.0 ± 3.5 km s- 1 kpc- 1, placing the bar corotation radius at 6.1 ± 0.5 kpc and making the Milky Way bar a typical fast rotator. We evaluate the stellar mass of the long bar and bulge structure to be Mbar/bulge = 1.88 ± 0.12 × 1010 M⊙, larger than the mass of disc in the bar region, Minner disc = 1.29 ± 0.12 × 1010 M⊙. The total dynamical mass in the bulge volume is 1.85 ± 0.05 × 1010 M⊙. Thanks to more extended kinematic data sets and recent measurement of the bulge initial mass function, our models have a low dark matter fraction in the bulge of 17 ± 2 per cent. We find a dark matter density profile which flattens to a shallow cusp or core in the bulge region. Finally, we find dynamical evidence for an extra central mass of ∼ 0.2 × 1010 M⊙, probably in a nuclear disc or discy pseudo-bulge.

  7. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE INNER 2 DEGREES OF THE MILKY WAY BULGE: [α/Fe] TRENDS AND METALLICITY GRADIENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, N. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund Observatory, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00, Lund (Sweden); Schultheis, M. [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France); Grieco, V.; Matteucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Uttenthaler, S., E-mail: ryde@astro.lu.se [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    The structure, formation, and evolution of the Milky Way bulge is a matter of debate. Important diagnostics for discriminating between models of bulge formation and evolution include α-abundance trends with metallicity, and spatial abundance and metallicity gradients. Due to the severe optical extinction in the inner Bulge region, only a few detailed investigations of this region have been performed. Here we aim at investigating the inner 2 degrees of the Bulge (projected galactocentric distance of approximately 300 pc), rarely investigated before, by observing the [α/Fe] element trends versus metallicity, and by trying to derive the metallicity gradient in the b < 2° region. [α/Fe] and metallicities have been determined by spectral synthesis of 2 μm spectra of 28 M-giants in the Bulge, lying along the southern minor axis at (l, b) = (0, 0), (0, −1°), and (0, −2°). These were observed with the CRIRES spectrometer at the Very Large Telescope, (VLT) at high spectral resolution. Low-resolution K-band spectra, observed with the ISAAC spectrometer at the VLT, are used to determine the effective temperature of the stars. We present the first connection between the Galactic center (GC) and the Bulge using similar stars, high spectral resolution, and analysis techniques. The [α/Fe] trends in all our three fields show a large similarity among each other and with trends further out in the Bulge. All point to a rapid star formation episode in the Bulge. We find that there is a lack of an [α/Fe] gradient in the Bulge all the way into the center, suggesting a homogeneous Bulge when it comes to the enrichment process and star formation history. We find a large range of metallicities from −1.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, with a lower dispersion in the GC: −0.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.3. The derived metallicities of the stars in the three fields get, in the mean, progressively higher the closer to the Galactic plane they lie. We could interpret this as a continuation of the

  8. Prediction of the electronic structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties in manganese doped magnesium-based alloys and their saturated hydrides based on density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziying; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Zhishui; He, Liang; Li, Jin

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structures, electronic structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Mg2Ni alloy and its saturated hydride with different Mn-doping contents are investigated using first-principles density functional theory. The lattice parameters for the Mn-doped Mg2Ni alloys and their saturated hydrides decreased with an increasing Mn-doping content because of the smaller atomic size of Mn compared with that of Mg. Analysis of the formation enthalpies and electronic structures reveal that the partial substitution of Mg with Mn reduces the stability of Mg2Ni alloy and its saturated hydride. The calculated elastic constants indicate that, although the partial substitution of Mg with Mn lowers the toughness of the hexagonal Mg2Ni alloy, the charge/discharge cycles are elevated when the Mn-doping content is high enough to form the predicted intermetallic compound Mg3MnNi2.

  9. Physicochemical attack against solid tumors based on the reversal of direction of entropy flow: an attempt to introduce thermodynamics in anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Xiaogui

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many differences between healthy tissue and growing tumor tissue, including metabolic, structural and thermodynamic differences. Both structural and thermodynamic differences can be used to follow the entropy differences in cancerous and normal tissue. Entropy production is a bilinear form of the rates of irreversible processes and the corresponding "generalized forces". Entropy production due to various dissipation mechanisms based on temperature differences, chemical potential gradient, chemical affinity, viscous stress and exerted force is a promising tool for calculations relating to potential targets for tumor isolation and demarcation. Methods The relative importance of five forms of entropy production was assessed through mathematical estimation. Using our mathematical model we demonstrated that the rate of entropy production by a cancerous cell is always higher than that of a healthy cell apart from the case of the application of external energy. Different rates of entropy production by two kinds of cells influence the direction of entropy flow between the cells. Entropy flow from a cancerous cell to a healthy cell transfers information regarding the cancerous cell and propagates its invasive action to the healthy tissues. To change the direction of entropy flow, in addition to designing certain biochemical pathways to reduce the rate of entropy production by cancerous cells, we suggest supplying external energy to the tumor area, changing the relative rate of entropy production by the two kinds of cells and leading to a higher entropy accumulation in the surrounding normal cells than in the tumorous cells. Conclusion Through the use of mathematical models it was quantitatively demonstrated that when no external force field is applied, the rate of entropy production of cancerous cells is always higher than that of healthy cells. However, when the external energy of square wave electric pulses is applied to

  10. An Analytical Means of Determining Mass Loss from High Velocity Rigid Penetrators based on the Thermodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Penetrator and Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joseph C., Jr.; Jones, S. E.; Rule, William; Toness, Odin

    1999-06-01

    Sub-scale experimentation is commonly used as a cost-effective means of conducting terminal ballistics research. Analytical models of the penetration process focus on calculating the depth of penetration based on target density, target strength represented by the unconfined compressive-strength (f”c), the areal density of the penetrator (W/A), and the impact velocity.1 Forrestal, et. al. have documented the mass loss from the penetrator during the penetration process and employed improved equations of motion.2 Various researchers have investigated the upper limits of rigid body penetration and identified the onset of instabilities.3 In an effort to better understand the physical processes associated with this instability, experimental techniques have been developed to capture the details of the penetrator and target and subject them to microscopic analysis.4 These results have served as motivation to explore new forms for the physics included in the penetration equation as a means of identifying the processes associated with high velocity instability. We have included target shear and nose friction in the formulation of the fundamental load function expressions.5 When the resulting equations of motion are integrated and combined with the thermodynamics indicated by microscopic analysis, methods are identified to calculated penetrator mass loss. A comparison of results with experimental data serves as an indicator of the thermodynamic state variables associated with the quasi-steady state penetrator target interface conditions. 1 Young, C. W. , “Depth Predictions for Earth Penetrating Projectiles,” Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Division of ASCE, May 1998 pp 803-817 2. M.J. Forrestal, D.J. Frew, S.J. Hanchak, amd Brar, “ Pentration of Grout and Concrete Targets with Ogive-Nose Steel Projectiles,” Inrt. J. Impact Engng. Vol 18, pp. 465-476,1996 3. Andrew J. Piekutowski, Michael J. Forrestal, Kevin L. Poormon, and Thomas L. Warren,

  11. Thermodynamics of Fractal Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, Ahmad; Wang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamical properties of the apparent horizon in a fractal universe. We find that one can always rewrite the Friedmann equation of the fractal universe in the form of the entropy balance relation $ \\delta Q=TdS+Td\\tilde{S}$, where $ \\delta Q $ and $ T $ are the energy flux and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerated observer just inside the apparent horizon, and $d\\tilde{S}$ is the entropy production term due to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of fractal universe. This shows that in a fractal universe, a treatment with nonequilibrium thermodynamics of spacetime may be needed. We also study the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the framework of fractal universe. When the temperature of the apparent horizon and the matter fields inside the horizon are equal, i.e. $T=T_h$, the generalized second law of thermodynamics can be fulfilled provided the deceleration and the equation of state parameters ranges either as $-1 \\leq q < 0 $, $- 1 \\leq w < - 1/3$ or as $q<-1$, $w<...

  12. Predictive thermodynamics for ionic solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Leslie; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2016-08-21

    The application of thermodynamics is simple, even if the theory may appear intimidating. We describe tools, developed over recent years, which make it easy to estimate often elusive thermodynamic parameter values, generally (but not exclusively) for ionic materials, both solid and liquid, as well as for their solid hydrates and solvates. The tools are termed volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) and thermodynamic difference rules (TDR), supplemented by the simple salt approximation (SSA) and single-ion values for volume, Vm, heat capacity, , entropy, , formation enthalpy, ΔfH°, and Gibbs formation energy, ΔfG°. These tools can be applied to provide values of thermodynamic and thermomechanical properties such as standard enthalpy of formation, ΔfH°, standard entropy, , heat capacity, Cp, Gibbs function of formation, ΔfG°, lattice potential energy, UPOT, isothermal expansion coefficient, α, and isothermal compressibility, β, and used to suggest the thermodynamic feasibility of reactions among condensed ionic phases. Because many of these methods yield results largely independent of crystal structure, they have been successfully extended to the important and developing class of ionic liquids as well as to new and hypothesised materials. Finally, these predictive methods are illustrated by application to K2SnCl6, for which known experimental results are available for comparison. A selection of applications of VBT and TDR is presented which have enabled input, usually in the form of thermodynamics, to be brought to bear on a range of topical problems. Perhaps the most significant advantage of VBT and TDR methods is their inherent simplicity in that they do not require a high level of computational expertise nor expensive high-performance computation tools - a spreadsheet will usually suffice - yet the techniques are extremely powerful and accessible to non-experts. The connection between formula unit volume, Vm, and standard thermodynamic parameters represents a

  13. HfO_2and ZrO2 : Comparison of Structures and Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties Based on Ab Initio Calculations and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkov, Alexander A.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2001-03-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that the strategy of scaling complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices will come to an abrupt end around the year 2012. The main reason for this will be the unacceptably high leakage current through the silicon dioxide gate with a thickness below 20 ÅFinding a gate insulator alternative to SiO2 has proven to be far from trivial. Hafnium and zirconium dioxides and silicates have been recently considered as gate dielectrics with intermediate dielectric constants. Hafnia and ziconia are important ceramic materials as well, and their phase relations are rather well studied. There is also interest in hafnia as a constituent of ceramic waste forms for plutonium, based on its refractory nature and high neutron absorption cross section. We use a combination of the ab-initio calculations and calorimetry to investigate thermodynamic and electronic properties of hafnia and zirconia. We describe the cubic to tetragonal phase transition in the fluorite structure by computing the total energy surface for zone-edge distortions correct to fourth order in the soft-mode displacement with the strain coupling renormalization included. We compare the two materials using some simple chemical concepts.

  14. Models of Al-, Fe-, Cu- and Zr-alloys corrosion based on thermodynamic estimates of corrosion product solubilities in water coolants of nuclear power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritskij, V.G. [VNIPIET, S.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In this report an effort is made to provide thermodynamic explanation of the data on the corrosion of Fe-, Cu-, Zr- and Al-based construction materials in water-cooled circuits of NPPs at concrete water chemistry conditions. Physicochemical models of corrosion in chemically desalinized water are also presented using a complete set of equilibrium conditions in the system CPs - water coolant. At the 1st stage of the problem solution the solubility was defined for the system `corrosion products (Me{sub n}O{sub m}; Me(OH){sub k})) - water (H{sub 2}O) - gas (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}) - additives (HCl, KOH) for pH correction` in the range of 25-350degC. The 2nd stage of our work includes the formation of the database on the kinetics and rate of metal corrosion in water - parabolic uniform process for Fe-, Cu- and Al-alloys; linear `post-transitional` process for Zr-alloys. The results obtained allow to establish a correlation between the corrosion parameters and the equilibrium solubility of that phase of CPs which remains stable during corrosion tests. (author)

  15. Multi-objective constrained design of nickel-base superalloys using data mining- and thermodynamics-driven genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menou, Edern; Ramstein, Gérard; Bertrand, Emmanuel; Tancret, Franck

    2016-06-01

    A new computational framework for systematic and optimal alloy design is introduced. It is based on a multi-objective genetic algorithm which allows (i) the screening of vast compositional ranges and (ii) the optimisation of the performance of novel alloys. Alloys performance is evaluated on the basis of their predicted constitutional and thermomechanical properties. To this end, the CALPHAD method is used for assessing equilibrium characteristics (such as constitution, stability or processability) while Gaussian processes provide an estimate of thermomechanical properties (such as tensile strength or creep resistance), based on a multi-variable non-linear regression of existing data. These three independently well-assessed tools were unified within a single C++ routine. The method was applied to the design of affordable nickel-base superalloys for service in power plants, providing numerous candidates with superior expected microstructural stability and strength. An overview of the metallurgy of optimised alloys, as well as two detailed examples of optimal alloys, suggest that improvements over current commercial alloys are achievable at lower costs.

  16. Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Schiff Bases Derived from 3,4-Diaminobenzophenone: Synthesis and Thermodynamics of Five Coordinated Tertiaryphosphine Cobalt(III Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Mohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Some new cobalt(III complexes described as [Co(Chel(PBu3]ClO4 × H2O where (Chel is the deprotonated form of a series of symmetric and unsymmetrical Schiff base ligands containing 3,4-diaminobenzophenone (3,4-DABP and substituted salicylaldehyde moieties and [Co(Chel(PMePh2]ClO4 × H2O where (Chel is [N’-(5-BrSalDABP] were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR, UV–Vis spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The formation constants and the thermodynamic parameters were determined spectrophotometrically for 1: 1 adduct formation of the new complexes as acceptor with some aliphatic amines such as benzylamine, n-butylamine, sec-butylamine and tert-butylamine as donors in DMSO solvent in constant ionic strength (I = 0.1 M NaClO4. The formation constants change according to the following trend due to the steric and the electronic factors of the cobalt(III complexes: N’-5-OMe > N’-5-H > N’-5-Br > N’-5-Cl; N,N’-3-OMe > N,N’-4-Ome. The trend of the formation constants of cobalt(III Schiff base complexes toward a given donor according to the axial ligand is as follow: PBu3 > PMePh2. Also, the following binding trend of the donors toward a given cobalt(III Schiff base complex is obtained: benzylamine > n-butylamine > sec-butylamine > tert-butylamine. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  17. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  18. Thermodynamics "beyond" local equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose; Rubi, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics has shown its applicability in a wide variety of different situations pertaining to fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. As successful as it is, however, its current formulation considers only systems close to equilibrium, those satisfying the so-called local equilibrium hypothesis. Here we show that diffusion processes that occur far away from equilibrium can be viewed as at local equilibrium in a space that includes all the relevant variables in addition to the spatial coordinate. In this way, nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be used and the difficulties and ambiguities associated with the lack of a thermodynamic description disappear. We analyze explicitly the inertial effects in diffusion and outline how the main ideas can be applied to other situations. [J.M.G. Vilar and J.M. Rubi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11081-11084 (2001)].

  19. Statistical thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Gokcen, N A

    1986-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists, researchers, and graduate students interested in solutions in general, and solutions of metals in particular. Readers are assumed to have a good background in thermodynamics, presented in such books as those cited at the end of Chapter 1, "Thermo­ dynamic Background." The contents of the book are limited to the solutions of metals + metals, and metals + metalloids, but the results are also appli­ cable to numerous other types of solutions encountered by metallurgists, materials scientists, geologists, ceramists, and chemists. Attempts have been made to cover each topic in depth with numerical examples whenever necessary. Chapter 2 presents phase equilibria and phase diagrams as related to the thermodynamics of solutions. The emphasis is on the binary diagrams since the ternary diagrams can be understood in terms of the binary diagrams coupled with the phase rule, and the Gibbs energies of mixing. The cal­ culation of thermodynamic properties from the phase diagrams is ...

  20. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...