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Sample records for basal woody condition

  1. Woodiness within the Spermacoceae–Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae): retention of the basal woody condition in Rubiaceae or recent innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Groeninkx, I.; Smets, E.; Dessein, S.

    2009-01-01

    † Background and Aims The tribe Spermacoceae is essentially a herbaceous Rubiaceae lineage, except for some species that can be described as ‘woody’ herbs, small shrubs to treelets, or lianas. Its sister tribe Knoxieae contains a large number of herbaceous taxa, but the number of woody taxa is highe

  2. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

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    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  3. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  4. Climate change and future overwintering conditions of horticultural woody-plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laapas, M.; Jylhae, K.; Tuomenvirta, H. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland))

    2012-07-01

    Climate in Finland offers challenging conditions for commercial horticulture. The short and insufficient growing season together with risky overwintering strongly limits species suitable for cultivation. The aim of this study was to examine the climatic conditions around Finland in the aspect of horticulture, focusing on processes relevant to woody plants and species with photoperiod controlled growth cessation, and how these conditions may be expected to change due to the projected global warming. For this, a set of temperature-related indices and threshold events were used. These indices represent the severity of coldness during winter, wintertime thaws, and frost events close to the onset and ending of the growing season. The combined results of 19 GCMs (General Circulation Model) from the CMIP3 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3) multi-model data set under SRES-B1 and SRES-A2 (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission scenarios were used to produce the future projections. By mid-century our results suggest wintertime conditions with reduced cold stress, caused by less frequent and shorter periods of severe frost together with a rise in the extreme minimum temperature. Conversely, an increase in the number and intensity of wintertime thaw events leads to a higher risk in overwintering. Also the risk of spring frost damage is projected to decrease slightly, and the conditions for cold hardening process to improve, as the first autumnal frosts occur later. (orig.)

  5. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  6. Bed Conditions Inferred from Basal Earthquakes Beneath the Whillans Ice Plain, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Boucher, C.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismicity near the bed of fast-moving ice streams informs our understanding of basal controls on fast ice flow and the nature of small scale sources of basal resistance to sliding (sticky spots). Small basal earthquakes (BEQs) occurring at or near the base of ice streams express the current dominant basal stress state and allow observation of bed heterogeneities on spatial scales of 10s to 100s m that are difficult to observe otherwise. Temporal changes in the source mechanisms of these BEQs indicate changing basal conditions, and comparison of basal seismicity with GPS-determined ice velocity allows insight into the interplay between seismically active small basal sticky spots and fast ice motion. We present unique highly local observations of BEQs occurring beneath the Whillans Ice Plain, in West Antarctica, from a network of 13 surface and borehole seismometers overlying the WIP stick-slip cycle high tide initiation area. We record seismicity only 100s-1000s of m from basal seismic sources. We compare the occurrence of these BEQs with co-located GPS observations of ice surface velocity. We detect BEQs by cross correlation, using a catalog of hand-picked events with seismic wave arrivals at multiple sites. We then locate each BEQ and determine source parameters by fitting the S wave spectra: moment magnitude, stress drop, and rupture area. The basal earthquakes occur in families of remarkably repeatable events. The time interval between subsequent events within a BEQ family typically depends on ice velocity, but there is a complex interplay between ice velocity and source parameters. We also search for temporal changes in BEQ source parameters and seek to relate these changes to ice velocity measurements, thereby inferring changing bed conditions. Our preferred interpretation is that BEQs are rupture at or near the surface of an over-consolidated till package, suggesting that changes in basal seismicity may directly indicate changing subglacial till conditions.

  7. Reconstructing basal boundary conditions in a regional ice sheet model: Application to Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Maxwell, D. A.; Truffer, M.

    2012-04-01

    A crucial assumption in all ice sheet models concerns the nature and parametrization of the basal boundary condition. Direct observations on large spatial scales are not possible, but inverse methods can be used to determine the distribution of basal properties from surface measurements. We developed open-source iterative inverse algorithms and applied them to PISM, a hybrid ice sheet model that solves a combination of the Shallow Ice and Shallow Shelf Approximations. In a regional-scale model of Jakobshavn Isbræ, the fastest flowing ice stream of Greenland, we invert for basal stickiness over the entire drainage basin. The sensitivity of the reconstructed basal stickiness to the following modeling choices is evaluated: temperature distribution within the ice, definition of the misfit functional, tolerance for the stopping criterion and initial estimates of basal stickiness. The effects and the management of missing data are analyzed. In 2002 the floating tongue of Jakobshavn Isbræ disintegrated catastrophically, leading to increased speeds and rapid thinning of the inland ice. Detailed velocity maps from before and after this breakup allow us to compare retrieved basal parameters and to track the continuing evolution of the basal boundary condition.

  8. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior and during its 1982–1983 surge

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    O. Gagliardini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-year dataset, consisting in surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wave length changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodical changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. It confirms that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to infer realistic scenarios for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  9. Sensitivity of basal conditions in an inverse model: Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet/Svalbard

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    M. Schäfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Vestfonna ice cap (Svalbard are dominated by fast-flowing outlet glaciers. Its mass balance is poorly known and affected dynamically by these fast-flowing outlet glaciers. Hence, it is a challenging target for ice flow modeling. Precise knowledge of the basal conditions and implementation of a good sliding law are crucial for the modeling of this ice cap. Here we use the full-Stokes finite element code Elmer/Ice to model the 3-D flow over the whole ice cap. We use a Robin inverse method to infer the basal friction from the surface velocities observed in 1995. Our results illustrate the importance of the basal friction parameter in reproducing observed velocity fields. We also show the importance of having variable basal friction as given by the inverse method to reproduce the velocity fields of each outlet glacier – a simple parametrization of basal friction cannot give realistic velocities in a forward model. We study the robustness and sensitivity of this method with respect to different parameters (mesh characteristics, ice temperature, errors in topographic and velocity data. The uncertainty in the observational parameters and input data proved to be sufficiently small as not to adversely affect the fidelity of the model.

  10. Cold basal conditions during surges control flow of fringing Arctic ice caps in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel; Christoffersen, Poul; Todd, Joe; Palmer, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Fringing ice caps separated from larger ice sheets are rarely studied, yet they are an important part of earth's cryosphere, which has become the largest source of global sea-level rise. Understanding marginal ice caps is crucial for being able to predict sea-level change as they are responsible for up to 20% of Greenland's mass loss for 2003-2008. Studies of fringing ice caps can furthermore provide useful insights into processes operating on glaciers that surge. Surging has been the focus of much recent glaciological work, especially with reference to thermal evolution of polythermal glaciers in High Mountain Asia and the High Arctic. This has shown that the classic divide between hydrologically-controlled surges ('hard-bed') in Alaska and thermally-regulated ('soft-bed') surges elsewhere is less stark than previously assumed. Studying marginal ice caps can therefore be valuable in several ways. The largest fringing ice cap in Greenland is Flade Isblink. Previous work has established that this ice cap is showing a range of dynamic behaviour, including subglacial lake drainage and varied patterns of mass-balance change. In particular, a substantial surge, assumed to be caused by a version of the thermally-regulated mechanism, occurred between 1996 and 2000, making the ice cap a useful case study for investigating this process. Here we investigate the surge on Flade Isblink using the open-source, Full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice to invert for basal conditions and englacial temperatures using the adjoint method. We specifically study steady-state conditions representative of the active surge phase in 2000, and the subsequent quiescent phase, using patterns of surface velocity observed in 2000, 2005, 2008 and 2015. Under constant geometry, temperature and geothermal heat, it is shown that surging increases basal freezing rates by over 60% across an area that is twice as large as the area over which the bed freezes in the quiescent phase. The process responsible for this

  11. Improvement of Basal Conditions in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica, Using Data Assimilation

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    Mosbeux, C.; Gillet-chaulet, F.; Gagliardini, O.

    2015-12-01

    The current global warming seems to have direct consequences on ice-sheet mass loss. Reproducing the responsible mechanisms and forecasting the potential ice-sheets contribution to 21st century sea level rise is one of the major challenges in ice-sheet and ice flow modelling. Such short term projections are very sensitive to model initial state which is usually build from field observations. However, some parameters are not observable on the field, such as the basal drag at the interface between the ice-sheet and the bedrock. Data assimilation methods are widely used to constrain this parameter, using ice surface velocities. However, other parameters remain poorly known, especially the bedrock elevation which is only known along fight tracks often distant from several tens of kilometres from each other. These remaining uncertainties lead to ice flux divergence anomalies affecting the free surface evolution and consequently the model projections. In this study, we developed two different assimilation algorithms to better constrain both basal drag and bedrock elevation parameters in the Wilkes Land region, East Antarctica. These two algorithms have been implemented in Elmer/Ice and tested beforehand in a twin experiment showing a clear improvement of both parameters knowledge. The application of these algorithms to Wilkes Land reduces the uncertainty on basal conditions in this region showing more accuracy through below outlet glaciers when compared to usually used DEM of bedrock. Reconstruction of both bedrock elevation and basal drag significantly decreases ice flux divergence anomalies and allows to better constrain future contribution to sea level rise.

  12. Stratified basal diamicts and their implications for subglacial conditions in deeply incised bedrock troughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechi, Marius W.; Menzies, John; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    deposition scenario. The combined macro- and microscopic evidence suggests that the diamicts originate from a soft deformable glacier-bed, while the sorted interbeds indicate depositional periods of meltwater flow and ponding during local decoupling at the ice-bed interface. The accretionary character of the stacking pattern suggests a repeated switching between a coupled and decoupled state with partial sediment preservation. Decoupling may occur during flotation of the glacier due to insufficient drainage of the glacier bed, or may be initiated by obstacles on the glacier bed. High basal water pressures are in agreement with the large hydrological catchment in the distal portion of the paleo-glacier, paired with the topographic low formed by the overdeepened subglacial basin. The sediments are thus excellent records of subglacial conditions in overdeepened basins.

  13. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior to and during its 1982–1983 surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jay-Allemand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-yr dataset, consisting of surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior to and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundsson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wavelength changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodic changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. Our results support that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to propose a scenario for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  14. Diagnostics of basal conditions - the formation of extensive zones of surface ribs in ice-sheets and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Creyts, Timothy T.

    2015-04-01

    Most if not all current predictions of the evolution of ice-streams to changes induced by global change assume static basal conditions. This is a result of current restrictions in the remote sensing of the ice-sheet basal physical environment, which cannot resolve the small-scale phenomena believed to control the basal traction. The search therefore is on for observable structures or features that are the result of the operation of basal processes. Any successful theory of ice-sheet basal processes would need to be able to explain such phenomena associated with or caused by special properties of the basal environment. We present one class of these phenomena, and also present tentative hypotheses as to their formation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets topography, the computed driving stress and the inferred basal traction reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both quantities. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales. The formation mechanism for these bands contains information about the operation of the sub-glacial system. There are three possible, non-exclusive causes of these ribs which we examine from a theoretical and evidential point-of-view (i) They are the surface response to similar bands in the basal topography, whose regularity would equally require an explanation in terms of basal processes. (ii) They are translating surface waves in the ice, supported by membrane stress gradients rather than by gradients in the basal resistance. (iii) The ribs are due to the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the result of a pattern-forming instability in sub-glacial till and water flow, perhaps related to

  15. Effects of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat′s gastric acid output at basal, vagotomized, and vagal-stimulated conditions

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    S Niazmand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achillea is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. There are some reports on gastrointestinal effects of Achillea, such as antiulcer, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, choleretic, and antispasmodic. To investigate the effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat′s gastric acid output in basal, vagotomized (VX, and vagal-stimulated conditions. Materials and Methods: 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and test. Gastroduodenostomy was performed for each rat. Gastric content was collected for 30 min by washout technique. One milliliter of 3 doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg was introduced into the stomach of each rat in the test group and the same volume of saline was used in the control group. Total titratable acid was measured by a titrator. Results: The extract inhibited acid output significantly in basal condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses (P < 0.05 but in VX condition this inhibitory effect on acid output disappeared and the 1 and 2 mg/kg doses increased acid output significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively. The extract showed a reduction in the acid output in vagal-stimulated condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses, which were not statistically significant. Conclusion: These results showed an inhibitory effect of A. wilhelmsii extract on acid output in basal condition. The inhibitory effect of the extract was exerted via gastric vagal parasympathetic nerve.

  16. The Inhibitory Effect of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on Gastric Acid Output at Basal, Vagotomized and Vagal Stimulated Conditions in Rat

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    Saeed Niazmand

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sZiziphora clinopodioides Lam. is a plant widely used in Iranian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Several reports have demonstrated antibacterial (Helicobacteria pylori, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Z. clinopodioides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Z. clinopodioides on rat’s gastric acid output in basal, vagotomized (VX and vagal stimulated conditions.Materials and MethodsA total of 24 male Wistar rats weighed 200-250 g were randomly divided into two groups: control and test. Tracheostomy and gastroduodenostomy procedures were performed for each rat. In the vagotomized condition the vagus nerve in the cervical region was dissected and in the vagal stimulation condition the distal portion of the vogues nerve stimulated. Gastric content was collected for 15 min by wash out technique. A volume of 1 ml of three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg was introduced into the stomach (i.g. of each rat in the test group and the same volume of saline was used in the control group. Total titratable acid was measured by a titrator.ResultsThe extract inhibited acid secretion significantly at basal condition. At VX condition not only this inhibitory effect on acid secretion disappeared but also a stimulatory effect at the dose of 2 mg/kg was shown. In vagal stimulation condition the extract showed a significant inhibitory effect at 1 mg/kg dose. ConclusionTaking together our data resulted from comparison of three conditions showed that the extract exerted an inhibitory effect on acid secretion in basal and vagal stimulation. Also, according to our results this inhibitory effect of the extract could be exerted via gastric vagal parasympathetic nerve.

  17. Pre-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Basal Amygdala (BA Disrupts Contextual, but Not Auditory, Fear Conditioning, in Rats.

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    Elisa Mari Akagi Jordão

    Full Text Available The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA, including the lateral (LA, basal (BA and accessory basal (AB nuclei, is involved in acquisition of contextual and auditory fear conditioning. The BA is one of the main targets for hippocampal information, a brain structure critical for contextual learning, which integrates several discrete stimuli into a single configural representation. Congruent with the hodology, selective neurotoxic damage to the BA results in impairments in contextual, but not auditory, fear conditioning, similarly to the behavioral impairments found after hippocampal damage. This study evaluated the effects of muscimol-induced reversible inactivation of the BA during a simultaneous contextual and auditory fear conditioning training on later fear responses to both the context and the tone, tested separately, without muscimol administration. As compared to control rats micro-infused with vehicle, subjects micro-infused with muscimol before training exhibited, during testing without muscimol, significant reduction of freezing responses to the conditioned context, but not to the conditioned tone. Therefore, reversible inactivation of the BA during training impaired contextual, but not auditory fear conditioning, thus confirming and extending similar behavioral observations following selective neurotoxic damage to the BA and, in addition, revealing that this effect is not related to the lack of a functional BA during testing.

  18. Motor thalamus integration of cortical, cerebellar and basal ganglia information: implications for normal and parkinsonian conditions

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    Clémentine eBosch-Bouju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor thalamus (Mthal is implicated in the control of movement because it is strategically located between motor areas of the cerebral cortex and motor-related subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia (BG. The role of BG and cerebellum in motor control has been extensively studied but how Mthal processes inputs from these two networks is unclear. Specifically, there is considerable debate about the role of BG inputs on Mthal activity. This review summarises anatomical and physiological knowledge of the Mthal and its afferents and reviews current theories of Mthal function by discussing the impact of cortical, BG and cerebellar inputs on Mthal activity. One view is that Mthal activity in BG and cerebellar-receiving territories is primarily driven by glutamatergic inputs from the cortex or cerebellum, respectively, whereas BG inputs are modulatory and do not strongly determine Mthal activity. This theory is steeped in the assumption that the Mthal processes information in the same way as sensory thalamus, through interactions of modulatory inputs with a single driver input. Another view, from BG models, is that BG exert primary control on the BG-receiving Mthal so it effectively relays information from BG to cortex. We propose a new super-integrator theory where each Mthal territory processes multiple driver or driver-like inputs (cortex and BG, cortex and cerebellum, which are the result of considerable integrative processing. Thus, BG and cerebellar Mthal territories assimilate motivational and proprioceptive motor information previously integrated in cortico-BG and cortico-cerebellar networks, respectively, to develop sophisticated motor signals that are transmitted in parallel pathways to cortical areas for optimal generation of motor programmes. Finally, we briefly review the pathophysiological changes that occur in the BG in parkinsonism and generate testable hypotheses about how these may affect processing of inputs

  19. Cytosolic BNIP3 Dimer Interacts with Mitochondrial BAX Forming Heterodimers in the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane under Basal Conditions.

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    Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Esfeld, Sonja; Rudi, Katharina; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Klare, Johann P; Rassaf, Tienush

    2017-03-23

    The primary function of mitochondria is energy production, a task of particular importance especially for cells with a high energy demand like cardiomyocytes. The B-cell lymphoma (BCL-2) family member BCL-2 adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is linked to mitochondrial targeting after homodimerization, where it functions in inner membrane depolarization and permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) mediating cell death. We investigated the basal distribution of cardiac BNIP3 in vivo and its physical interaction with the pro-death protein BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator (BAX) and with mitochondria using immunoblot analysis, co-immunoprecipitation, and continuous wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques. We found that BNIP3 is present as a dimer in the cytosol and in the outer membrane of cardiac mitochondria under basal conditions. It forms disulfide-bridged, but mainly non-covalent dimers in the cytosol. Heterodimers with BAX are formed exclusively in the MOM. Furthermore, our results suggest that BNIP3 interacts with the MOM directly via mitochondrial BAX. However, the physical interactions with BAX and the MOM did not affect the membrane potential and cell viability. These findings suggest that another stimulus other than the mere existence of the BNIP3/BAX dimer in the MOM is required to promote BNIP3 cell-death activity; this could be a potential disturbance of the BNIP3 distribution homeostasis, namely in the direction of the mitochondria.

  20. Success Factor of Woody Biomass Supply Chains in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahl, Amanda; Eklund, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    There is an abundance of forest in Japan, yet a lack of utilization of woody biomass in energy systems. Small-scale woody biomass can enable a supply chain based on domestic forest integrated with local industry and demands, in turn facilitating local vitalization. Successful creation of collective energy systems is strongly connected to supply chain design based on local conditions and stakeholder integration. A supply chain perspective is key in enabling woody biomass energy systems. In the...

  1. Characterization of Deep Internal Layers and Basal Conditions Around the WAIS Divide Drill Site by Surface-Based Radar

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    Laird, C. M.; Blake, W. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Allen, C. T.; Leuschen, C. J.; Braaten, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    We used an ultra-wideband, very high frequency (120 to 300 MHz) surface-based radar to simultaneously map ice thickness, deep internal layers and the ice-bed interface around the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep drill site at a fine resolution. The radar was built by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project with the main goal of developing and testing surface-operated radars to characterize ice thickness and bedrock conditions in Antarctica and Greenland. The system was fine-tuned in the field to a center frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz to produce greater sensitivity. The survey covered a 30 km by 8 km area with 1-km line spacing along a polar stereographic grid that overlapped both the drill site and the WAIS Divide. The data have been processed for general use and are available on the CReSIS website (www.cresis.ku.edu). Echograms and digital ice thickness, bed elevation and bed reflectivity maps have been produced while analysis continues. Our major findings to date include: 1) internal layers are observed nearly continuously to 2800 m depth, as much as 500 m below the deepest previously mapped layers in this region, 2) internal layers have been detected to within 350 m of the bed, covering about 90% of the ice thickness, 3) ice thickness varies between approximately 3100 m and 3550 m over the grid and is about 3500 m at the drill site, 4) basal returns were mapped nearly continuously along grid lines and vary by more than 30 dB, indicating a wet bed at the drill site and frozen conditions elsewhere. The data will aid rigorous interpretations of the WAIS ice cores (including impurity records and the depth/age scale) and the morphology and evolution of the WAIS (mean annual accumulation rates, spatial extent, divide migration and volcanism). Fine-resolution information on deep internal layers, basal conditions and ice thickness/bed elevation will help

  2. Frost resistance in alpine woody plants.

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    Neuner, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of key findings related to frost resistance in alpine woody plant species, summarizes data on their frost resistance, highlights the importance of freeze avoidance mechanisms, and indicates areas of future research. Freezing temperatures are possible throughout the whole growing period in the alpine life zone. Frost severity, comprised of both intensity and duration, becomes greater with increasing elevation and, there is also a greater probability, that small statured woody plants, may be insulated by snow cover. Several frost survival mechanisms have evolved in woody alpine plants in response to these environmental conditions. Examples of tolerance to extracellular freezing and freeze dehydration, life cycles that allow species to escape frost, and freeze avoidance mechanisms can all be found. Despite their specific adaption to the alpine environment, frost damage can occur in spring, while all alpine woody plants have a low risk of frost damage in winter. Experimental evidence indicates that premature deacclimation in Pinus cembra in the spring, and a limited ability of many species of alpine woody shrubs to rapidly reacclimate when they lose snow cover, resulting in reduced levels of frost resistance in the spring, may be particularly critical under the projected changes in climate. In this review, frost resistance and specific frost survival mechanisms of different organs (leaves, stems, vegetative and reproductive over-wintering buds, flowers, and fruits) and tissues are compared. The seasonal dynamics of frost resistance of leaves of trees, as opposed to woody shrubs, is also discussed. The ability of some tissues and organs to avoid freezing by supercooling, as visualized by high resolution infrared thermography, are also provided. Collectively, the report provides a review of the complex and diverse ways that woody plants survive in the frost dominated environment of the alpine life zone.

  3. Toward more accurate basal boundary conditions: a new 2-D model of distributed and channelised subglacial drainage

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    Werder, M. A.; Hewitt, I. J.; Schoof, C.; Flowers, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Basal boundary conditions are one of the least constrained components of today's ice sheet models. To get at these one needs to know the distributed basal water pressure. We present a new glacier drainage system model to contribute to this missing piece of the puzzle. This two dimensional mathematical/numerical model combines distributed and channelised drainage at the ice-bed interface coupled to a water storage component. Notably the model determines the location of the channels as part of the solution. This is achieved by allowing channels (modelled as R-channels) to form on any of the edges of the unstructured triangular grid used to discretise the model. The distributed system is represented by a water sheet which is a continuum description of a linked-cavity system and exchanges water with the channels along their length. Water storage is parameterised as a function of the subglacial water pressure, which can be interpreted as storage in an englacial aquifer or due to elastic processes. The parabolic equation that determines the water pressure is solved using finite elements, the time evolution of the water sheet thickness and channel diameter are governed by local differential equations that are integrated using explicit methods. To explore the model's properties, we apply it to synthetic ice sheet catchments with areas up to 3000km2. We present steady state drainage system configurations and evaluate their channel-network properties (fractal dimensions, channel spacing). We find that an arborescent channel network forms whose density depends on the water sheet conductivity relative to water input. As a further experiment, we force the model with a seasonally and diurnally varying melt water input to investigate how the modelled drainage system evolves on these time scales: a channelised system grows up glacier as meltwater is delivered to the bed in spring and collapses in autumn. Water pressure is highest just before the formation of channels and then

  4. Measuring Biomass and Carbon Stock in Resprouting Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Radim; Damborská, Lenka; Nečasová, Monika; Geršl, Milan; Šrámek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Resprouting multi-stemmed woody plants form an important component of the woody vegetation in many ecosystems, but a clear methodology for reliable measurement of their size and quick, non-destructive estimation of their woody biomass and carbon stock is lacking. Our goal was to find a minimum number of sprouts, i.e., the most easily obtainable, and sprout parameters that should be measured for accurate sprout biomass and carbon stock estimates. Using data for 5 common temperate woody species, we modelled carbon stock and sprout biomass as a function of an increasing number of sprouts in an interaction with different sprout parameters. The mean basal diameter of only two to five of the thickest sprouts and the basal diameter and DBH of the thickest sprouts per stump proved to be accurate estimators for the total sprout biomass of the individual resprouters and the populations of resprouters, respectively. Carbon stock estimates were strongly correlated with biomass estimates, but relative carbon content varied among species. Our study demonstrated that the size of the resprouters can be easily measured, and their biomass and carbon stock estimated; therefore, resprouters can be simply incorporated into studies of woody vegetation. PMID:25719601

  5. Basal conditions at the grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica, from ice-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Knut; Jacobel, Robert W.; Horgan, Huw J.; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Holland, David M.; DallaSanta, Kevin J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comprehensive ice-penetrating radar survey of a subglacial embayment and adjacent peninsula along the grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Through basal waveform and reflectivity analysis, we identify four distinct basal interfaces: (1) an ice-water-saturated till interface inland of grounding; (2) a complex interface in the grounding zone with variations in reflectivity and waveforms caused by reflections from fluting, sediment deposits, and crevasses; (3) an interface of anomalously low-reflectivity downstream of grounding in unambiguously floating areas of the embayment due to basal roughness and entrained debris; and (4) a high-reflectivity ice-seawater interface that occurs immediately seaward of grounding at the subglacial peninsula and several kilometers seaward of grounding in the embayment, occurring after basal debris and grounding zone flutes have melted off the ice bottom. Sediment deposition via basal debris melt-out occurs in both locations. The higher basal melt rate at the peninsula contributes to greater grounding line stability by enabling faster construction of a stabilizing sediment wedge. In the embayment, the low slopes of the ice bottom and bed prevent development of a strong thermohaline circulation leading to a lower basal melt rate and less rapid sediment deposition. Thus, grounding lines in subglacial embayments are more likely to lack stabilizing sediment deposits and are more prone to external forcing, whether from the ocean, the subglacial water system, or large-scale ice dynamics. Our conclusions indicate that subglacial peninsulas and embayments should be treated differently in ice sheet-ocean models if these models are to accurately simulate grounding line response to external forcing.

  6. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  7. Effects of chlordiazepoxide and buspirone on plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in rats under basal and stress conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    The effects of the classical benzodiazepine (BDZ) anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and the non-BDZ anxiolytic agent buspirone (BUSP) on basal and stress-induced plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) release were investigated. Male Wistar rats provided with a

  8. Woody plants and woody plant management: ecology, safety, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Wise and effective woody plant management is an increasing necessity for many land uses and conservation practices, especially on forests and rangelands where native or exotic plants are affecting productivity, access, or critical habitat. Tools and approaches for managing woody plants have been under concerted development for the past 50 years, integrating mechanical...

  9. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, H.; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are import...

  10. Woody biomass logistics [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Keefe; Nathaniel Anderson; John Hogland; Ken Muhlenfeld

    2014-01-01

    The economics of using woody biomass as a fuel or feedstock for bioenergy applications is often driven by logistical considerations. Depending on the source of the woody biomass, the acquisition cost of the material is often quite low, sometimes near zero. However, the cost of harvesting, collection, processing, storage, and transportation from the harvest site to end...

  11. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Greg C. Liknes

    2008-01-01

    Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be...

  12. Behavioral effects of saredutant, a tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, in experimental models of mood disorders under basal and stress-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Vincenzo; Tamburella, Alessandra; Leggio, Gian Marco; Mazzola, Carmen; Li Volsi, Valentina; Drago, Filippo

    2008-09-01

    The present study was made to investigate the role of tachykinin NK2 receptors in the expression of stress-related behaviors in animals. Under basal conditions, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, saredutant (1 and 3 mg/kg) or diazepam (1 mg/kg) exerted anxiolytic-like effects in rodents, as they reduced grooming score of Wistar male rats tested in the novelty-induced grooming sampling test (NGT) and increased percentage of time and entries in open arms of Swiss male mice tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. After previous exposure to stress-related conditions, as induced by a 2-min forced swim made 5 min prior to the EPM test, saredutant but not diazepam, exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mice. To study the antidepressant-like activity of tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist under basal conditions, different groups of rats were injected i.p. with saredutant (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) or the tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine (50 mg/kg) and tested in the forced swim test (FST), a widely used antidepressant-responsive test. The influence of stress-related conditions was studied in rats subjected to electric foot-shocks (1 mA, 1 s) 24, 5 and 1 h prior to FST, after drugs injection. In the FST, clomipramine decreased the immobility time only under basal conditions, but not after application of acute foot-shocks. To the contrary, saredutant-treated rats also exhibited more active behavior in FST after previous exposure to stressors. These results give further support to the hypothesis that tachykinin NK2 receptors may be a therapeutic target for pharmacological treatment of stress-related diseases, such as anxiety and depression.

  13. Woody plant encroachment into grasslands: spatial patterns of functional group distribution and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Archer, Steven R; Gelwick, Frances; Bai, Edith; Boutton, Thomas W; Wu, Xinyuan Ben

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been globally widespread. The woody species invading grasslands represent a variety of contrasting plant functional groups and growth forms. Are some woody plant functional types (PFTs) better suited to invade grasslands than others? To what extent do local patterns of distribution and abundance of woody PFTs invading grasslands reflect intrinsic topoedaphic properties versus plant-induced changes in soil properties? We addressed these questions in the Southern Great Plains, United States at a subtropical grassland known to have been encroached upon by woody species over the past 50-100 years. A total of 20 woody species (9 tree-statured; 11 shrub-statured) were encountered along a transect extending from an upland into a playa basin. About half of the encroaching woody plants were potential N2-fixers (55% of species), but they contributed only 7% to 16 % of the total basal area. Most species and the PFTs they represent were ubiquitously distributed along the topoedaphic gradient, but with varying abundances. Overstory-understory comparisons suggest that while future species composition of these woody communities is likely to change, PFT composition is not. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination and variance partitioning (Partial CCA) indicated that woody species and PFT composition in developing woody communities was primarily influenced by intrinsic landscape location variables (e.g., soil texture) and secondarily by plant-induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The ubiquitous distribution of species and PFTs suggests that woody plants are generally well-suited to a broad range of grassland topoedaphic settings. However, here we only examined categorical and non-quantitative functional traits. Although intrinsic soil properties exerted more control over the floristics of grassland-to-woodland succession did plant modifications of soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, the latter

  14. Woody plant encroachment into grasslands: spatial patterns of functional group distribution and community development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been globally widespread. The woody species invading grasslands represent a variety of contrasting plant functional groups and growth forms. Are some woody plant functional types (PFTs better suited to invade grasslands than others? To what extent do local patterns of distribution and abundance of woody PFTs invading grasslands reflect intrinsic topoedaphic properties versus plant-induced changes in soil properties? We addressed these questions in the Southern Great Plains, United States at a subtropical grassland known to have been encroached upon by woody species over the past 50-100 years. A total of 20 woody species (9 tree-statured; 11 shrub-statured were encountered along a transect extending from an upland into a playa basin. About half of the encroaching woody plants were potential N2-fixers (55% of species, but they contributed only 7% to 16 % of the total basal area. Most species and the PFTs they represent were ubiquitously distributed along the topoedaphic gradient, but with varying abundances. Overstory-understory comparisons suggest that while future species composition of these woody communities is likely to change, PFT composition is not. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA ordination and variance partitioning (Partial CCA indicated that woody species and PFT composition in developing woody communities was primarily influenced by intrinsic landscape location variables (e.g., soil texture and secondarily by plant-induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The ubiquitous distribution of species and PFTs suggests that woody plants are generally well-suited to a broad range of grassland topoedaphic settings. However, here we only examined categorical and non-quantitative functional traits. Although intrinsic soil properties exerted more control over the floristics of grassland-to-woodland succession did plant modifications of soil carbon and nitrogen

  15. Comparison of the Transcriptional Profiles of Melanocytes from Dark and Light Skinned Individuals under Basal Conditions and Following Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Saioa; Smith-Zubiaga, Isabel; García de Galdeano, Alicia; Boyano, María Dolores; García, Oscar; Gardeazábal, Jesús; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Izagirre, Neskuts; de la Rúa, Concepción; Alonso, Santos

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the whole-genome transcriptional profile of 6 cell lines of dark melanocytes (DM) and 6 of light melanocytes (LM) at basal conditions and after ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation at different time points to investigate the mechanisms by which melanocytes protect human skin from the damaging effects of UVB. Further, we assessed the effect of different keratinocyte-conditioned media (KCM+ and KCM-) on melanocytes. Our results suggest that an interaction between ribosomal proteins and the P53 signaling pathway may occur in response to UVB in both DM and LM. We also observed that DM and LM show differentially expressed genes after irradiation, in particular at the first 6h after UVB. These are mainly associated with inflammatory reactions, cell survival or melanoma. Furthermore, the culture with KCM+ compared with KCM- had a noticeable effect on LM. This effect includes the activation of various signaling pathways such as the mTOR pathway, involved in the regulation of cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Finally, the comparison of the transcriptional profiles between LM and DM under basal conditions, and the application of natural selection tests in human populations allowed us to support the significant evolutionary role of MIF and ATP6V0B in the pigmentary phenotype.

  16. Comparison of the Transcriptional Profiles of Melanocytes from Dark and Light Skinned Individuals under Basal Conditions and Following Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Saioa; Smith-Zubiaga, Isabel; García de Galdeano, Alicia; Boyano, María Dolores; García, Oscar; Gardeazábal, Jesús; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Izagirre, Neskuts; de la Rúa, Concepción; Alonso, Santos

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the whole-genome transcriptional profile of 6 cell lines of dark melanocytes (DM) and 6 of light melanocytes (LM) at basal conditions and after ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation at different time points to investigate the mechanisms by which melanocytes protect human skin from the damaging effects of UVB. Further, we assessed the effect of different keratinocyte-conditioned media (KCM+ and KCM-) on melanocytes. Our results suggest that an interaction between ribosomal proteins and the P53 signaling pathway may occur in response to UVB in both DM and LM. We also observed that DM and LM show differentially expressed genes after irradiation, in particular at the first 6h after UVB. These are mainly associated with inflammatory reactions, cell survival or melanoma. Furthermore, the culture with KCM+ compared with KCM- had a noticeable effect on LM. This effect includes the activation of various signaling pathways such as the mTOR pathway, involved in the regulation of cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Finally, the comparison of the transcriptional profiles between LM and DM under basal conditions, and the application of natural selection tests in human populations allowed us to support the significant evolutionary role of MIF and ATP6V0B in the pigmentary phenotype. PMID:26244334

  17. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  18. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  19. Transgenic woody plants for biofuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Anna Y.Tang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic trees as a new source for biofuel have brought a great interest in tree biotechnology. Genetically modifying forest trees for ethanol production have advantages in technical challenges, costs, environmental concerns, and financial problems over some of crops. Genetic engineering of forest trees can be used to reduce the level of lignin, to produce the fast-growing trees, to develop trees with higher cellulose, and to allow the trees to be grown more widely. Trees can establish themselves in the field with less care of farmers, compared to most of crops. Transgenic crops as a new source for biofuel have been recently reviewed in several reviews. Here, we overview transgenic woody plants as a new source for biofuel including genetically modified woody plants and environment; main focus of woody plants genetic modifications;solar to chemical energy transfer; cellulose biosynthesis;lignin biosynthesis;and cellulosic ethanol as biofuel.

  20. A fully coupled transient thermomechanical ice-flow/permafrost model of the Rhine Glacier, Switzerland: effects of permafrost on basal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Zwinger, T.; Haeberli, W.; Fischer, U. H.

    2016-12-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories requires their containment and isolation for up to one million years. Over that time period, the performance of the repositories in mid- and high-latitude regions can be impacted by future ice-age conditions which may cause deep glacial erosion, permafrost development, and changes in groundwater fluxes. In Switzerland, repositories are planned in the northern Swiss lowlands near the marginal zone of the former Rhine Glacier that repeatedly formed two extensive piedmont lobes (the Rhine and Linth lobes) over the Swiss Plateau. There, overdeepenings formed by glacial erosion indicate that the glacier was warm-based. Yet the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) occurred under cold conditions: central Europe experienced extremely cold and dry conditions caused by the penetration of winter sea ice to low latitudes in the Atlantic Ocean and the corresponding closure of the primary humidity source north of the Alps. At the LGM, flat and extended lobes of large piedmont glaciers spreading out over much of the Swiss Plateau were polythermal, characterized by low driving stresses (typically around 30 kPa) and surrounded by continuous periglacial permafrost up to 150 m thick. Subsurface temperatures and groundwater flow conditions were strongly influenced by the presence of extended surface and subsurface ice. Using numerical models we explore the effects of permafrost on basal conditions of the piedmont lobes during the build-up of the Rhine Glacier. We apply a two-dimensional transient fully coupled thermomechanical full stress ice-flow and permafrost model along a flowline characterizing the Rhine lobe. The energy equation is solved in both ice and rock and permafrost is modeled using an effective heat capacity formulation to account for phase transitions. Transient effects during ice advances and permafrost build-up up to the LGM are resolved by modeling the full glacial cycle using reconstructed temperature

  1. A sustainable woody biomass biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Houfang; Hu, Ruofei; Shupe, Alan; Lin, Lu; Liang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Woody biomass is renewable only if sustainable production is imposed. An optimum and sustainable biomass stand production rate is found to be one with the incremental growth rate at harvest equal to the average overall growth rate. Utilization of woody biomass leads to a sustainable economy. Woody biomass is comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. While extractives and hemicellulose are least resistant to chemical and thermal degradation, cellulose is most resistant to chemical, thermal, and biological attack. The difference or heterogeneity in reactivity leads to the recalcitrance of woody biomass at conversion. A selection of processes is presented together as a biorefinery based on incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. A preference is given to a biorefinery absent of pretreatment and detoxification process that produce waste byproducts. While numerous biorefinery approaches are known, a focused review on the integrated studies of water-based biorefinery processes is presented. Hot-water extraction is the first process step to extract value from woody biomass while improving the quality of the remaining solid material. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers, aromatics and acetic acid in the hardwood extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Higher temperature and longer residence time lead to higher mass removal. While high temperature (>200°C) can lead to nearly total dissolution, the amount of sugars present in the extraction liquor decreases rapidly with temperature. Dilute acid hydrolysis of concentrated wood extracts renders the wood extract with monomeric sugars

  2. Spermine oxidase maintains basal skeletal muscle gene expression and fiber size and is strongly repressed by conditions that cause skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Kale S; Fox, Daniel K; Kunkel, Steven D; Stebounova, Larissa V; Murry, Daryl J; Pufall, Miles A; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2015-01-15

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  3. Spermine oxidase maintains basal skeletal muscle gene expression and fiber size and is strongly repressed by conditions that cause skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Kale S.; Fox, Daniel K.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Stebounova, Larissa V.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pufall, Miles A.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25406264

  4. The evolution of jumping in frogs: morphological evidence for the basal anuran locomotor condition and the radiation of locomotor systems in crown group anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Stephen M; Jorgensen, Michael E

    2011-02-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of frog locomotion follows from the work of Emerson in which anurans are proposed to possess one of three different iliosacral configurations: 1) a lateral-bending system found in walking and hopping frogs; 2) a fore-aft sliding mechanism found in several locomotor modes; and 3) a sagittal-hinge-type pelvis posited to be related to long-distance jumping performance. The most basal living (Ascaphus) and fossil (Prosalirus) frogs are described as sagittal-hinge pelvic types, and it has been proposed that long-distance jumping with a sagittal-hinge pelvis arose early in frog evolution. We revisited osteological traits of the pelvic region to conduct a phylogenetic analysis of the relationships between pelvic systems and locomotor modes in frogs. Using two of Emerson's diagnostic traits from the sacrum and ilium and two new traits from the urostyle, we resampled the taxa originally studied by Emerson and key paleotaxa and conducted an analysis of ancestral-character state evolution in relation to locomotor mode. We present a new pattern for the evolution of pelvic systems and locomotor modes in frogs. Character analysis shows that the lateral-bender, walker/hopper condition is both basal and generally conserved across the Anura. Long-distance jumping frogs do not appear until well within the Neobatrachia. The sagittal-hinge morphology is correlated with long-distance jumping in terrestrial frogs; however, it evolved convergently multiple times in crown group anurans with the same four pelvic traits described herein. Arboreal jumping has appeared in multiple crown lineages as well, but with divergent patterns of evolution involving each of the three pelvic types. The fore-aft slider morph appears independently in three different locomotor modes and, thus, is a more complex system than previously thought. Finally, it appears that the advent of a bicondylar sacro-urostylic articulation was originally related to providing axial rigidity

  5. Changes in catalase activity in leaves of woody and bushy plants in the conditions of air pollution by compounds of fluorine, sulfur and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prysedskyj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently environmental pollution by industrial waste products has become a significant environmental factor that essentially limits the vital functions of plants and reduces their species diversity. The antioxidant system is of special importance for tolerance reactions of plants to stressful environmental conditions, in particular, contamination by industrial pollutants. One of the constituents of this system is oxidoreductase, including catalase. Consequently, we have conducted experiments to determine how the nature of the complex compounds of fluorine, nitrogen and sulfur influences catalase activity in leaves of selected species of trees and shrubs. The investigation was made according to the complete factorial experiment that allowed us to study the effect of these pollutants both individually and in combination. We used the iodometric method to determine the level of catalase activity. Statistical analysis of the obtained results was performed by means of dispersion analysis with the comparison according to the Duncan method. The results of the research showed the possible impact of pollutants on the activity of catalase, which depends on the resilience of the plants, structure and duration of potency of the pollutants. With less resilient plant species (Sorbus aucuparia L., Fraxinus lanceolata Borkh. air pollution with a combination of fluorine, sulfur and nitrogen in most cases caused a reduction of catalase activity. Thus, in S. aucuparia a 5-hour exposure to low concentrations of pollutants (HF – 0.2 ml/m3, NH3 – 1.2 ml/m3, SO2 and H2SO4 – 0.9–1.0 ml/m3 caused an inhibition of catalase activity by 40.5%, and a ten-hour exposure caused a 61.4% inhibition compared with the control plants. With increased concentrations of pollutants  catalase function was inhibited by 35.8–73.6%, depending on the duration of their fumigation. For F. lanceolata, the pollutants’ effect on catalase activity caused a decrease in function of this

  6. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, Audrey G.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Michael G.; Tissue, David T.; Baggett, Scott L.; Adams, Henry D.; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R.L.; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S.; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W.; Dickman, Turin L.; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S.; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E.; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G.; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G.; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Joanis, Brigitte Saint; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A.; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R.; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent lite

  7. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey G. Quentin; Elizabeth A. Pinkard; Michael G. Ryan; David T. Tissue; L. Scott Baggett; Henry D. Adams; Pascale Maillard; Jacqueline Marchand; Simon M. Landhausser; Andre Lacointe; Yves Gibon; William R. L. Anderegg; Shinichi Asao; Owen K. Atkin; Marc Bonhomme; Caroline Claye; Pak S. Chow; Anne Clement-Vidal; Noel W. Davies; L. Turin Dickman; Rita Dumbur; David S. Ellsworth; Kristen Falk; Lucía Galiano; Jose M. Grunzweig; Henrik Hartmann; Gunter Hoch; Sharon Hood; Joanna E. Jones; Takayoshi Koike; Iris Kuhlmann; Francisco Lloret; Melchor Maestro; Shawn D. Mansfield; Jordi Martinez-Vilalta; Mickael Maucourt; Nathan G. McDowell; Annick Moing; Bertrand Muller; Sergio G. Nebauer; Ulo Niinemets; Sara Palacio; Frida Piper; Eran Raveh; Andreas Richter; Gaelle Rolland; Teresa Rosas; Brigitte Saint Joanis; Anna Sala; Renee A. Smith; Frank Sterck; Joseph R. Stinziano; Mari Tobias; Faride Unda; Makoto Watanabe; Danielle A. Way; Lasantha K. Weerasinghe; Birgit Wild; Erin Wiley; David R. Woodruff

    2016-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also...

  8. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, Audrey G.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Michael G.; Tissue, David T.; Baggett, Scott L.; Adams, Henry D.; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R.L.; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S.; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W.; Dickman, Turin L.; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S.; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E.; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G.; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G.; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Joanis, Brigitte Saint; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A.; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R.; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent lite

  9. The secret life of woody species. A study on woody species establishment, interactions with herbivores and vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.

    2002-01-01

    Woody species are generally known to be among the most successful plant strategist in the world. They play a prominent role in vegetation dynamics because of their size, longevity and ability to survive under stressful conditions. Nevertheless, the establishment stage, i

  10. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  11. Obtaining biophysical measurements of woody vegetation from high resolution digital aerial photography in tropical and arid environments: Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staben, G. W.; Lucieer, A.; Evans, K. G.; Scarth, P.; Cook, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    Biophysical parameters obtained from woody vegetation are commonly measured using field based techniques which require significant investment in resources. Quantitative measurements of woody vegetation provide important information for ecological studies investigating landscape change. The fine spatial resolution of aerial photography enables identification of features such as trees and shrubs. Improvements in spatial and spectral resolution of digital aerial photographic sensors have increased the possibility of using these data in quantitative remote sensing. Obtaining biophysical measurements from aerial photography has the potential to enable it to be used as a surrogate for the collection of field data. In this study quantitative measurements obtained from digital aerial photography captured at ground sampling distance (GSD) of 15 cm (n = 50) and 30 cm (n = 52) were compared to woody biophysical parameters measured from 1 ha field plots. Supervised classification of the aerial photography using object based image analysis was used to quantify woody and non-woody vegetation components in the imagery. There was a high correlation (r ≥ 0.92) between all field measured woody canopy parameters and aerial derived green woody cover measurements, however only foliage projective cover (FPC) was found to be statistically significant (paired t-test; α = 0.01). There was no significant difference between measurements derived from imagery captured at either GSD of 15 cm and 30 cm over the same field site (n = 20). Live stand basal area (SBA) (m2 ha-1) was predicted from the aerial photographs by applying an allometric equation developed between field-measured live SBA and woody FPC. The results show that there was very little difference between live SBA predicted from FPC measured in the field or from aerial photography. The results of this study show that accurate woody biophysical parameters can be obtained from aerial photography from a range of woody vegetation

  12. Yield prediction of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. plantations for woody biomass production using allometric relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Böhm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree species for the production of woody biomass for bioenergy generation with short rotation coppices. Due to its potential to produce large amounts of biomass yields even under unfavourable growth conditions, this tree species is especially suitable for marginal sites, such as can be found in the post mining area of NE-Germany. Current research aims to reliably predict the yield potential of black locust short rotation coppices, but suffers from a lack of sufficient exact allometric functions until recently. This is especially true for the early growth years, which are of special importance for short rotation coppices. The objective of this study was to develop allometric equations based on tree height and shoot basal diameter (SBD for estimating yields of young black locust plantations. Therefore, dendrometric data were collected in a two, three, four and fourteen years old black locust short rotation forest located in the reclamation area of an opencast-lignite mining area in the Lower Lusatian region (Germany and used for equation developing. Until measurement, none of the plantations had been harvested. Closed correlations between SBD and tree height were observed, as well as between these parameters and single tree mass. The scattering of single tree masses could be explained slightly better by the SBD than by the tree height. In the year before a harvest an even better prediction probability of woody biomass was obtainable when both parameters were simultaneously interrelated with the single tree mass. The results illustrate that the woody above ground biomass of young black locust plantations can be estimated sufficiently precisely based on the easy determinable parameters tree height and particularly SBD.

  13. Yield prediction of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. plantations for woody biomass production using allometric relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Böhm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree species for the production of woody biomass for bioenergy generation with short rotation coppices. Due to its potential to produce large amounts of biomass yields even under unfavourable growth conditions, this tree species is especially suitable for marginal sites, such as can be found in the post mining area of NE-Germany. Current research aims to reliably predict the yield potential of black locust short rotation coppices, but suffers from a lack of sufficient exact allometric functions until recently. This is especially true for the early growth years, which are of special importance for short rotation coppices. The objective of this study was to develop allometric equations based on tree height and shoot basal diameter (SBD for estimating yields of young black locust plantations. Therefore, dendrometric data were collected in a two, three, four and fourteen years old black locust short rotation forest located in the reclamation area of an opencast-lignite mining area in the Lower Lusatian region (Germany and used for equation developing. Until measurement, none of the plantations had been harvested. Closed correlations between SBD and tree height were observed, as well as between these parameters and single tree mass. The scattering of single tree masses could be explained slightly better by the SBD than by the tree height. In the year before a harvest an even better prediction probability of woody biomass was obtainable when both parameters were simultaneously interrelated with the single tree mass. The results illustrate that the woody above ground biomass of young black locust plantations can be estimated sufficiently precisely based on the easy determinable parameters tree height and particularly SBD.

  14. Yield prediction of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. plantations for woody biomass production using allometric relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Böhm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree species for the production of woody biomass for bioenergy generation with short rotation coppices. Due to its potential to produce large amounts of biomass yields even under unfavourable growth conditions, this tree species is especially suitable for marginal sites, such as can be found in the post mining area of NE-Germany. Current research aims to reliably predict the yield potential of black locust short rotation coppices, but suffers from a lack of sufficient exact allometric functions until recently. This is especially true for the early growth years, which are of special importance for short rotation coppices. The objective of this study was to develop allometric equations based on tree height and shoot basal diameter (SBD for estimating yields of young black locust plantations. Therefore, dendrometric data were collected in a two, three, four and fourteen years old black locust short rotation forest located in the reclamation area of an opencast-lignite mining area in the Lower Lusatian region (Germany and used for equation developing. Until measurement, none of the plantations had been harvested. Closed correlations between SBD and tree height were observed, as well as between these parameters and single tree mass. The scattering of single tree masses could be explained slightly better by the SBD than by the tree height. In the year before a harvest an even better prediction probability of woody biomass was obtainable when both parameters were simultaneously interrelated with the single tree mass. The results illustrate that the woody above ground biomass of young black locust plantations can be estimated sufficiently precisely based on the easy determinable parameters tree height and particularly SBD.

  15. A protocol for axenic liquid cell cultures of a woody leguminous mangrove, Caesalpinia crista, and their amino acids profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Ogita, Shinjiro; Tsuchiya, Shinpei; Minagawa, Reiko; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    Callus induction, maintenance and protoplast cultures were achieved from immature seeds of a woody leguminous mangrove, Caesalpinia crista. Axenic cultures were possible during 1.5 months of pod storage in 0.1% benzalkonium chloride solution. Callus induction was achieved using 1 mL liquid medium in a 10 mL flat-bottomed culture tube. Protoplasts were isolated using Cellulase R10, Hemicellulase, and Driselase 20 in 0.6 M mannitol solution and sub-culturable calluses were obtained in 50 μL liquid medium using a 96-microplate method. The optimal hormonal concentration was 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzyladenine in liquid Murashige and Skoog's basal medium for both callus induction and maintenance, and protoplast cultures. Similarities and differences in amino acid profiles and culture conditions are discussed among woody mangrove species and non-mangrove leguminous species. Caesalpinia crista cultures were unique as they secreted a large amount of amino acids, including proline, into the liquid culture medium.

  16. Woody Vegetation Die off and Regeneration in Response to Rainfall Variability in the West African Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brandt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The greening in the Senegalese Sahel has been linked to an increase in net primary productivity, with significant long-term trends being closely related to the woody strata. This study investigates woody plant growth and mortality within greening areas in the pastoral areas of Senegal, and how these dynamics are linked to species diversity, climate, soil and human management. We analyse woody cover dynamics by means of multi-temporal and multi-scale Earth Observation, satellite based rainfall and in situ data sets covering the period 1994 to 2015. We find that favourable conditions (forest reserves, low human population density, sufficient rainfall led to a rapid growth of Combretaceae and Balanites aegyptiaca between 2000 and 2013 with an average increase of 4% woody cover. However, the increasing dominance and low drought resistance of drought prone species bears the risk of substantial woody cover losses following drought years. This was observed in 2014–2015, with a die off of Guiera senegalensis in most places of the study area. We show that woody cover and woody cover trends are closely related to mean annual rainfall, but no clear relationship with rainfall trends was found over the entire study period. The observed spatial and temporal variation contrasts with the simplified labels of “greening” or “degradation”. While in principal a low woody plant diversity negatively impacts regional resilience, the Sahelian system is showing signs of resilience at decadal time scales through widespread increases in woody cover and high regeneration rates after periodic droughts. We have reaffirmed that the woody cover in Sahel responds to its inherent climatic variability and does not follow a linear trend.

  17. Degranulation, density, and distribution of mast cells in the rat thalamus: a light and electron microscopic study in basal conditions and after intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenzano, F; Bentivoglio, M

    2000-09-04

    In the adult rat brain mast cells reside selectively in the thalamus. We investigated thalamic mast cells stained by acidic toluidine blue or pinacyanol, and with histamine immunocytochemistry, focusing on their state of activity revealed by degranulation. Mast cells exhibited perivascular prevalence and high quantitative variability, between cases and in different sections, with no asymmetry or topographical selectivity in thalamic nuclei. Pinacyanol, alone or with erythrosine, stained mast cells with higher sensitivity than toluidine blue. However, toluidine blue was highly predictive of pinacyanol staining and provided the best resolution of mast cell cytoplasmic features. Histamine immunocytochemistry labeled 61% of pinacyanol-stained mast cells. Intensely toluidine blue-stained granulated cells, as well as cells exhibiting different degrees of degranulation that paralleled lighter staining, were observed. The response of thalamic mast cells to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) and control cytochrome-c injections was evaluated after 2, 24, and 72 hours. No obvious changes in mast cell number or distribution were found after treatment, but massive degranulation was frequently observed after NGF administration. Significant decrease of staining intensity of mast cells, supporting enhanced degranulation, was documented in NGF-treated animals by quantitative image analysis. Ultrastructural features of mast cell degranulation, with granule coalescence and matrix dissolution, were detected in untreated and NGF-treated cases. The findings point out that mast cells are active in the thalamus in basal conditions and that NGF has the potential to elicit long-lasting degranulation of thalamic mast cells in vivo, exerting a direct effect and/or priming these cells to react to endogenous stimuli.

  18. Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; M.W. Cunningham; R.B. Hall; J. Mirck; D.L. Rockwood; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are ideal for woody biomass production and management systems because they are renewable energy feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts that can be strategically placed in the landscape to conserve soil and water, recycle nutrients, and sequester carbon. This chapter is a synthesis of the regional implications of producing...

  19. [Bibliometrics of woody medical plants in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoquan; Si, Jinping; Zhu, Yuqiu

    2010-03-01

    Using the theory and method of bibliometrics, this paper made statistical analysis on the research papers of 16 main woody medical plants published in the period of 1998-2007, from aspects of years distribution, journals distribution, themes distribution, authors distribution and research institutes distribution, and so on. The results showed the studies, status quto and development potential of woody medical plants.

  20. Sustainable Biofuels from Forests: Woody Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin H. White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts involves multiple sources of material that together create year round supplies. The main sources of woody biomass include residues from wood manufacturing industries, low value trees including logging slash in forests that are currently underutilized and dedicated short-rotation woody crops. Conceptually a ton of woody biomass feedstocks can replace a barrel of oil as the wood is processed (refined through a biorefinery. As oil is refined only part of the barrel is used for liquid fuel, e.g., gasoline, while much of the carbon in oil is refined into higher value chemical products-carbon in woody biomass can be refined into the same value-added products.

  1. The Impact Analysis of Changes in Woody Plants Phenology and Meteorological Conditions in Weifang Area%潍坊地区木本植物物候期变化与气象条件影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 刘艳红

    2013-01-01

    利用2001 ~ 2010年潍坊几种木本植物物候期观测资料,分析了木本植物物候期变化对气温、降水、日照变化的响应.结果表明,近10年年平均气温逐渐升高,说明潍坊气候逐渐变暖,年降水量年变化较大,总体呈逐渐减少的趋势,年累计日照时数变化不明显;在各种气候因子相关分析中,气温的影响最显著,日照时数次之,降水量最弱.%Using several woody plants phenophase observation data in Weifang during 2001-2010,the response of woody plants phenophase change to temperature,precipitation,sunshine variation was analyzed.The results showed that,the average annual temperature in recent 10 years is gradually increased,indicating Weifang climate is gradually warming,the annual precipitation variation is significant,general indicating gradually decreasing trend,annual accumulative sunshine hours did not change significantly.In relevant analysis of various climatic factors,the impact of temperature is the most significant,sunshine hours take the second place,precipitation is the weakest.

  2. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak P J Smit

    Full Text Available With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65% across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii reduced grass biomass, and (iii reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  3. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-01-01

    With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65%) across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i) changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii) reduced grass biomass, and (iii) reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants) remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  4. Involvement of lignin and hormones in the response of woody poplar taproots to mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupiano, Dalila; Di Iorio, Antonino; Montagnoli, Antonio; Lasserre, Bruno; Rocco, Mariapina; Grosso, Alessandro; Scaloni, Andrea; Marra, Mauro; Chiatante, Donato; Scippa, Gabriella S

    2012-09-01

    Mechanical stress is a widespread condition caused by numerous environmental factors that severely affect plant stability. In response to mechanical stress, plants have evolved complex response pathways able to detect mechanical perturbations and inducing a suite of modifications in order to improve anchorage. The response of woody roots to mechanical stresses has been studied mainly at the morphological and biomechanical level, whereas investigations on the factors triggering these important alterations are still at the initial stage. Populus has been widely used to study the response of stem to different mechanical stresses and, since it has the first forest tree genome to be decoded, represents a model woody plant for addressing questions on the mechanisms controlling adaptation of woody roots to changing environments. In this study, a morphological and physiological analysis was used to investigate factors controlling modifications in Populus nigra woody taproots subjected to mechanical stress. An experimental model analyzing spatial and temporal mechanical force distribution along the woody taproot axis enabled us to compare the events occurring in its above-, central- and below-bending sectors. Different morphogenetic responses and local variations of lignin and plant hormones content have been observed, and a relation with the distribution of the mechanical forces along the stressed woody taproots is hypothesized. We investigated the differences of the response to mechanical stress induction during the time; in this regard, we present data referring to the effect of mechanical stress on plant transition from its condition of winter dormancy to that of full vegetative activity.

  5. New market potential: Torrefaction of Woody Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J. Richard Hess

    2015-07-01

    According to researchers in Idaho National Laboratory’s Bioenergy Program, torrefaction of woody biomass could reduce variability in biomass feedstock and enable development of a commodity-type product for green energy generation and usage.

  6. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sankaran, M

    2005-12-08

    Full Text Available Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties (1...

  7. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  8. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different form

  9. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, A.; Lovett, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different form

  10. Survival, regeneration and leaf biomass changes in woody plants following spring burns in Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rutherford

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two intensities of spring burn on various aspects of woody plants of a Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna after one growth season are given. Mortality of woody plants was very low with, for example, that of individuals of Ochna pulchra being between 1 and 5%. Some species where the above-ground parts were often burned away completely, as in  Grewia flavescens, no mortality of individuals occurred. Basal regeneration shoot mass was found to depend parabolically on plant height while the ratio of leaf to twig mass in basal shoot regeneration varied inversely with plant height in  Ochna pulchra. The ability of  Ochna pulchra plants to produce new basal shoots appeared to not only depend on size of the plant but also on the number of basal shoots present prior to the fire. In live Ochna pulchra plants basal regeneration shoot biomass per individual was found to increase exponentially with greater reduction in canopy leaf biomass. This relation was also affected by possible direct heat effects. Basal shoot regeneration mass was found to vary greatly with species and varied from 0,7 g/individual for  Dichapetalum cymosum to 285,6 g/individual for Euclea natalensis. There was a clear tendency for non-suffrutex shrub species to have greater mean basal regeneration shoot mass per plant than that of most tree species. There was a compensatory effect in  Ochna pulchra between number and size of basal regeneration shoots. Standing dead woody plant individuals (before the burn were either felled by fire or apparently unaffected by fire and there was no selectivity by species. Results of the present study are generally supported by other work on the effects of fire in savanna and some other vegetation types.

  11. Trade-offs between savanna woody plant diversity and carbon storage in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Socolar, Jacob B; Elsen, Paul R; Giam, Xingli

    2016-10-01

    Incentivizing carbon storage can be a win-win pathway to conserving biodiversity and mitigating climate change. In savannas, however, the situation is more complex. Promoting carbon storage through woody encroachment may reduce plant diversity of savanna endemics, even as the diversity of encroaching forest species increases. This trade-off has important implications for the management of biodiversity and carbon in savanna habitats, but has rarely been evaluated empirically. We quantified the nature of carbon-diversity relationships in the Brazilian Cerrado by analyzing how woody plant species richness changed with carbon storage in 206 sites across the 2.2 million km(2) region at two spatial scales. We show that total woody plant species diversity increases with carbon storage, as expected, but that the richness of endemic savanna woody plant species declines with carbon storage both at the local scale, as woody biomass accumulates within plots, and at the landscape scale, as forest replaces savanna. The sharpest trade-offs between carbon storage and savanna diversity occurred at the early stages of carbon accumulation at the local scale but the final stages of forest encroachment at the landscape scale. Furthermore, the loss of savanna species quickens in the final stages of forest encroachment, and beyond a point, savanna species losses outpace forest species gains with increasing carbon accumulation. Our results suggest that although woody encroachment in savanna ecosystems may provide substantial carbon benefits, it comes at the rapidly accruing cost of woody plant species adapted to the open savanna environment. Moreover, the dependence of carbon-diversity trade-offs on the amount of savanna area remaining requires land managers to carefully consider local conditions. Widespread woody encroachment in both Australian and African savannas and grasslands may present similar threats to biodiversity.

  12. Woody plant encroachment of grasslands: a comparison of terrestrial and wetland settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, Neil; Rogers, Kerrylee

    2015-02-01

    A global trend of woody plant encroachment of terrestrial grasslands is co-incident with woody plant encroachment of wetland in freshwater and saline intertidal settings. There are several arguments for considering tree encroachment of wetlands in the context of woody shrub encroachment of grassland biomes. In both cases, delimitation of woody shrubs at regional scales is set by temperature thresholds for poleward extent, and by aridity within temperature limits. Latitudinal expansion has been observed for terrestrial woody shrubs and mangroves, following recent warming, but most expansion and thickening has been due to the occupation of previously water-limited grassland/saltmarsh environments. Increases in atmospheric CO₂, may facilitate the recruitment of trees in terrestrial and wetland settings. Improved water relations, a mechanism that would predict higher soil moisture in grasslands and saltmarshes, and also an enhanced capacity to survive arid conditions, reinforces local mechanisms of change. The expansion of woody shrubs and mangroves provides a negative feedback on elevated atmospheric CO₂ by increasing carbon sequestration in grassland and saltmarsh, and is a significant carbon sink globally. These broad-scale vegetation shifts may represent a new stable state, reinforced by positive feedbacks between global change drivers and endogenic mechanisms of persistence in the landscape.

  13. Using Radar and Seismic Methods for the Determination of Ice Column Properties and Basal Conditions at Jakobshavn Isbrae and the NEEM Drill Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez Gonzalez, Jose A.

    The development of preferred crystal orientation fabrics (COF) within the ice column can have a strong influence on the flow behavior of an ice sheet or glacier. Typically, COF information comes from ice cores. Observations of anisotropic seismic wave propagation and backscatter variation as a function of antenna orientation in GPR measurements have been proposed as methods to detect COF. For this investigation I evaluate the effectiveness of the GPR and seismic methods to detect COF by conducting a seismic and GPR experiment at the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling facility (NEEM) ice core location, where COF data is available. The seismic experiment was conducted 6.5 km North West of the NEEM facility and consisted of three multi-offset seismic gathers. The results of the anisotropy analysis conducted at NEEM yielded mean c-axes distributed over a conical region of I angle of 30 to 32 degrees. No internal ice reflectors were imaged. Direct COF measurements collected in the ice core are in agreement with the results from the seismic anisotropy analysis. The GPR experiment covered an area of 100 km2 and consisted of parallel, perpendicular, oblique and circular (radius: 35 m) acquisition patterns. Results show evidence for COF for the entire 100 km2 area. Furthermore, for the first time it was possible to image three different COF (random, disk and single maxima) and their respective transition zones. The interpretation of the GPR experiment showed a strong correlation with the ice core measurements. Glacier basal drag is also an important, and difficult to predict, property that influences glacier flow. For this investigation I re-processed a 10 km-long high-resolution reflection seismic line at Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, using an iterative velocity determination approach for optimizing sub-glacier imaging. The resultant line imaged a sub-glacier sediment layer ranging in thickness between 35 and 200 meters. I interpret three distinct seismic facies based on

  14. Sensitivity to zinc of Mediterranean woody species important for restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disante, Karen B; Fuentes, David; Cortina, Jordi

    2010-04-15

    Heavy metals have increased in natural woodlands and shrublands over the last several decades as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. However, our knowledge of the effects of these elements on woody species is scarce. In this study, we examined the responses of six Mediterranean woody species to increasing levels of zinc in hydroponic culture and discussed the possible implications for the restoration of contaminated sites. The species used, Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster Ait., Pinus halepensis Mill., Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast., Rhamnus alaternus L. and Quercus suber L. represent a climatic gradient from dry sub-humid to semi-arid conditions. Zinc concentrations in shoots ranged from 53 microg g(-1) in Q. suber to 382 microg g(-1) in T. articulata and were well below the levels found in roots. Zinc inhibited root elongation and root biomass and changed the root length distribution per diameter class, but the magnitude of the effects was species-specific. Only P. halepensis and Q. suber showed toxicity symptoms in aboveground parts. Species more characteristic from xeric environments (T. articulata, R. alaternus and P. halepensis) were more sensitive to zinc than species from mesic environments (Q. suber, P. pinaster and P. pinea). According to the Zn responses and bioaccumulation, Q. suber P. pinea and P. halepensis are the best candidates for field trials to test the value of woody species to restore contaminated sites. None of the species tested seemed suitable for phytoremediation.

  15. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknes Greg C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. This study used a nationwide inventory of coarse and fine woody debris in the United States to examine how these carbon stocks vary by climatic regions and variables. Results Mean coarse and fine woody debris forest carbon stocks vary by Köppen's climatic regions across the United States. The highest carbon stocks were found in regions with cool summers while the lowest carbon stocks were found in arid desert/steppes or temperate humid regions. Coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks were found to be positively correlated with available moisture and negatively correlated with maximum temperature. Conclusion It was concluded with only medium confidence that coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks may be at risk of becoming net emitter of carbon under a global climate warming scenario as increases in coarse or fine woody debris production (sinks may be more than offset by increases in forest woody detritus decay rates (emission. Given the preliminary results of this study and the rather tenuous status of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks as either a source or sink of CO2, further research is suggested in the areas of forest detritus decay and production.

  16. Overstory and understory relationships in longleaf pine plantations 14 years after thinning and woody control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy, B.

    2011-09-09

    To develop silvicultural strategies for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas, mortality and growth of overstory pines and midstory hardwoods and abundance and species richness of herbs were studied for 14 years after pine thinning and nonpine woody control. Pine cover in thinned stands was about half of that in nonthinned stands through year 5, but it lagged by only 8% and 3% in years 9 and 14, respectively, because of vigorous crown responses. Despite a cumulative mortality of 64% of hardwood stems from prescribed fires in years 0, 4, and 9, hardwood basal area in thinned stands (2.1 m2/ha) was three times that in nonthinned stands (0.7 m2/ha) in year 14. Thinning was associated with 13%-22% more cover and six to eight more species of herbs in years 3-8 but only 6% more cover and two more species in year 14 because of accelerated growth of pine cover and hardwood basal area. However, similar increases in cover and richness of herb species in the woody control treatment were retained through year 14 because it had sustained reductions in hardwood and shrub abundance. Silvicultural strategies that substantially delay encroachment by pines, hardwoods, and shrubs will be those most effective at retaining herb species in longleaf pine savannas, including planting pines at wide spacing, periodic thinning and woody control, and frequent burning.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  18. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal

  19. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  20. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  1. Thirty-eight years of autogenic, woody understory dynamics in a mature, temperature pine-oak forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, M.D.; Shelton, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1935, 32 ha of a pine-hardwood forest were set aside from future timber management in southern Arkansas, U.S.A. Old-growth timber had been cut to a 36-cm stump diameter before 1915. During 38 years of assessment, no catastrophic disturbances occurred within the 32-ha forest. Although loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) dominated the overstory (64% of basal area in 1954 and 63% in 1993), pines were absent from the understory in all but seedling size classes for the last 38 years. Woody understory diversity indices were essentially stable for 38 years, but the similarity of understory species tended to decline as the time between inventories increased. Relative importance values for woody understory species tended to increase for the more shade-tolerant genera and decrease for less tolerant genera. Survival and height growth for woody understory species were also found to be positively correlated with shade tolerance.

  2. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  3. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  4. Floristic diversity and regeneration status of woody plants in Zengena Forest, a remnant montane forest patch in northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desalegn Tadele; Ermias Lulekal; Destaw Damtie; Adane Assefa

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted at Zengena forest, a fragmented remnant montane forest in northwestern Ethiopia, which surrounds Lake Zengena. The purpose was to assess the species composition, diversity and the regeneration status of woody plants. A total of 27 plots of 20 m × 20 m were sampled along the line transects laid down the altitudinal gradient from the edge of the forest encompassing the lake to the edge of the lake in eight aspects. In each plot, woody species were counted and the diameter at breast height and the height of trees and shrubs were measured. A total of 50 woody species belonging to 31 families were found, of which 17 (34%) were trees, 7 (14%) trees or shrubs, 23 (46%) shrubs and 3 (6%) lianas. The overall Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices of woody species were 2.74 and 0.7, respectively. Clausena anisata had the highest relative density (23.5%), Rapanea rhododendroides the highest relative frequency (6.5%) and Prunus afri-cana the highest relative dominance (45%) and importance value index (IVI, 51.6). The total basal area and density of woody plants were 22.3 m2⋅ha-1 and 2,202 individuals⋅ha-1, respectively. The population structure showed variations among woody plants and revealed varied regeneration patterns of different species. The importance value index and population structure revealed that some species are threatened and need prioritiza-tion for conservation measures. The results suggest that remnant forest patches in the highlands of northern Ethiopia host several woody plant species that are almost disappearing in other areas due to deforestation.

  5. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  6. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  7. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Selene; Malizia, Agustina; Carilla, Julieta; Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Duque, Álvaro; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Homeier, Jürgen; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Phillips, Oliver L; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  8. SURVEY OF WOODY FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE BAHIR DAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .telecom.net.et), were to train multipurpose primary education ... development. ... The study on fauna was conducted both in dry and wet seasons. The dry ... 63 woody species (woody climbers not included) belonging to 34 families is recorded.

  9. Relative Radiosensitivities of Woody and Herbaceous Spermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, R C; Sparrow, A H

    1965-03-19

    The sensitivities of several woody and herbaceous species to single acute exposures to cobalt-60 gamma rays have been determined. Within each group the sensitivity of each species is largely determined by its average interphase chromosome volume (interphase nuclear volume divided by chromosome number) of shoot apical meristem cells. On the basis of the calculated amounts of energy absorbed (in kiloelectron volts) per interphase chromosome at an exposure necessary to produce a given biological effect, woody species were approximately twice as sensitive as herbaceous species.

  10. Allochthonous woody taxa in Zasavica ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavlović, D.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Special Nature Reserve Zasavica is an important wetland in Serbia. Therefore, it was designated as “Special Nature Reserve of the First Category“ in 1997. Moreover, it has been included in the national network of Ramsar sites (the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, in 2006. Considering importance of Special Nature Reserve Zasavica and the fact that stability of ecosystems can be disturbed by introducing alien species, we analyzed extent and coverage of allochthonous woody taxa within the Reserve region. Researching area comprised 1821 hectares. We found 21 allochthonous woody taxa that belong to Magnoliophyta subdivision. The most individuals are located within the first zone of protection.

  11. Causes and consequences of woody plant encroachment into western North American grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Auken, O W

    2009-07-01

    As woody plants encroach into grasslands, grass biomass, density and cover decline as wood plant biomass, density and cover increase. There is also a shift in location of the biomass from mostly belowground in the grasslands to aboveground in the woodlands. In addition, species richness and diversity change as herbaceous species are replaced by woody species. This is not a new phenomenon, but has been going on continually as the climate of the Planet has changed. However, in the past 160 years the changes have been unparalleled. The process is encroachment not invasion because woody species that have been increasing in density are native species and have been present in these communities for thousands of years. These indigenous or native woody species have increased in density, cover and biomass because of changes in one or more abiotic or biotic factors or conditions. Woody species that have increased in density and cover are not the cause of the encroachment, but the result of changes of other factors. Globally, the orbit of the Earth is becoming more circular and less elliptical, causing moderation of the climate. Additional global climate changing factors including elevated levels of CO2 and parallel increases in temperature are background factors and probably not the principal causes directing the current wave of encroachment. There is probably not a single reason for encroachment, but a combination of factors that are difficult to disentangle. The prime cause of the current and recent encroachment appears to be high and constant levels of grass herbivory by domestic animals. This herbivory reduces fine fuel with a concomitant reduction in fire frequency or in some cases a complete elimination of fire from these communities. Conditions would now favor the woody plants over the grasses. Reduced grass competition, woody plant seed dispersal and changes in animal populations seem to modify the rate of encroachment rather than being the cause. High concentrations

  12. Determinants of patchiness of woody vegetation in an African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Michiel P.; Rozen-Rechels, David; le Roux, Elizabeth; Cromsigt, Joris P.G.M.; Berg, Matheus P.; Olff, Han

    2016-01-01

    How is woody vegetation patchiness affected by rainfall, fire and large herbivore biomass? Can we predict woody patchiness and cover over large-scale environmental gradients? We quantified variation in local patchiness as the lacunarity of woody cover on satellite-derived images. Using Random Forest

  13. 48 CFR 1452.237-71 - Utilization of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Biomass. 1452.237-71 Section 1452.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Utilization of Woody Biomass. As prescribed in § 1437.7202, insert the following clause: Utilization of Woody Biomass (MAY 2005) (a) The contractor may remove and utilize woody biomass, if: (1) Project work...

  14. Woody biomass production lags stem-girth increase by over one month in coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Mäkinen, Harri; Prislan, Peter; Rossi, Sergio; Del Castillo, Edurne Martinez; Campelo, Filipe; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Bryukhanova, Marina V; Jyske, Tuula; Gričar, Jožica; Gryc, Vladimír; De Luis, Martin; Vieira, Joana; Čufar, Katarina; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Oberhuber, Walter; Treml, Vaclav; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Xiaoxia; Swidrak, Irene; Deslauriers, Annie; Liang, Eryuan; Nöjd, Pekka; Gruber, Andreas; Nabais, Cristina; Morin, Hubert; Krause, Cornelia; King, Gregory; Fournier, Meriem

    2015-10-26

    Wood is the main terrestrial biotic reservoir for long-term carbon sequestration(1), and its formation in trees consumes around 15% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions each year(2). However, the seasonal dynamics of woody biomass production cannot be quantified from eddy covariance or satellite observations. As such, our understanding of this key carbon cycle component, and its sensitivity to climate, remains limited. Here, we present high-resolution cellular based measurements of wood formation dynamics in three coniferous forest sites in northeastern France, performed over a period of 3 years. We show that stem woody biomass production lags behind stem-girth increase by over 1 month. We also analyse more general phenological observations of xylem tissue formation in Northern Hemisphere forests and find similar time lags in boreal, temperate, subalpine and Mediterranean forests. These time lags question the extension of the equivalence between stem size increase and woody biomass production to intra-annual time scales(3, 4, 5, 6). They also suggest that these two growth processes exhibit differential sensitivities to local environmental conditions. Indeed, in the well-watered French sites the seasonal dynamics of stem-girth increase matched the photoperiod cycle, whereas those of woody biomass production closely followed the seasonal course of temperature. We suggest that forecasted changes in the annual cycle of climatic factors(7) may shift the phase timing of stem size increase and woody biomass production in the future.

  15. Forest biodiversity and woody biomass harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; T. Bently Wigley; Darren A. Miller

    2017-01-01

    With the expected increase in demand for woody biomass to help meet renewable energy needs, one principal sustainability question has been whether this material can be removed from forest stands while still conserving biological diversity and retaining ecosystem functioning (Hecht et al. 2009; Berch, Morris, and Malcolm 2011; Ridley et al. 2013). In general,...

  16. Parlin Creek large woody debris placement project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry W. Collins

    1999-01-01

    In August 1996 the Jackson Demonstration State Forest (JSDF) completed a fish habitat rehabilitation project in a 2.5 mile reach of Parlin Creek, a tributary to the Noyo River in Mendocino County, California. The purse of the project was to introduce large woody material to the stream channel to determine if higher quality habitat could be produced for anadromous...

  17. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, R.J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Roux, Le X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bicini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance

  18. [Effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test under conditions of altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu; Zamorskiĭ, I I

    2011-03-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei (the nucleus caudatus, globus pallidus. nucleus accumbens. amygdaloid complex) of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test has been studied under conditions of altered photoperiod. It has been shown that constant darkness levels the effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of lipid peroxidation, preserves the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase at a higher level, lowers the activity of glutathione peroxidase. Under light, the sensitivity of basal nuclei neurons to acute hypoxia is enhanced, the latter being reflected in intensification of lipid peroxidation at the expense of increased formation of dien conjugates. The activity of catalase at that considerably exceeds the level of even intact rats in all the structures. It has been established that an altered photoperiod modulates the effect of acute hypoxia on the parameters of rat's activity in the open field, the character of their change depending on the nature of a photophase change.

  19. Decline of woody vegetation in a saline landscape in the Groundnut Basin, Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambou, Antoine; Theilade, Ida; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have documented that vegetation in the Sahel is highly dynamic and is affected by the prevailing climatic conditions, as well as by human use of the areas. However, little is known about vegetation dynamics in the large saline areas bordering the rivers of West Africa. Combining...... cover, herbaceous cover and tans (highly saline areas with sparse vegetation). Although the trend was the same, the three villages had different vegetation histories. A survey of the woody vegetation showed that shrubs and young trees were dominating with relatively few large trees. Local people...... perceived a general decline of woody plants from 1993 to 2013. Among 60 species mentioned by local people, 90 % were declining and 10 % increasing. Together the three methods documented a decrease in density and diversity of the woody vegetation, mainly influenced by salinity and land use. The large numbers...

  20. Modeling wave effects on limits of woody vegetation in Catahoula Lake, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. L.; Curcic, M.; Keim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to water waves in lakes is an important control on the structure and distribution of both submerged and shoreline vegetative communities. Wave exposure incident on the shoreline limits the distribution of shrubs on both lake and coastal margins by preventing establishment of seedlings via bed disturbance and uprooting. The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between bed stress due to wave action and the spatial distribution of woody seedling establishment in Catahoula Lake, Louisiana, USA. The lake bed consists of a broad, seasonally inundated flat bordered by a band of woody shrubs. Annual summer de-watering of the lake allows the lake bed to support a moist-soil herbaceous vegetation community, but recent encroachment by woody shrubs over the past ~70 years threatens ecosystem conversion. We use the University of Miami Wave Model (UMWM) to simulate surface wave evolution and bed shear stress for a range of dominant wind conditions and water levels. UMWM is a 3rdgeneration ocean wave model that solves the wave energy balance equation given wind forcing input. While the model has been previously validated in deep water and coastal ocean applications, this study validates the model in very shallow water where bed-induced wave dissipation is a significant process. Model results show that waves of sufficient energy to prevent establishment or to uproot seedlings are common in areas of the lake that are experiencing the least woody encroachment. Areas of the lake bed that are experiencing encroachment are often sheltered from the strongest waves due to the lakes orientation with respect to dominant winds and prior establishment of woody growth, which dissipates wave energy significantly. Results are consistent with some otherwise-unexplained conditions at the lake such as spatially inconsistent relationships between elevation and vegetation communities. We use model results to investigate feedbacks between woody encoachment (both new and

  1. An investigation of the influence of heating modes on ignition and pyrolysis of woody wildland fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Yashwanth; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2015-01-01

    The ignition of woody wildland fuel modeled as a one-dimensional slab subject to various modes of heating was investigated using a general pyrolysis code, Gpyro. The heating mode was varied by applying different convective and/or radiative, time-dependent heat flux boundary conditions on one end of the slab while keeping the other end insulated. Dry wood properties...

  2. Nutrition and adventitious rooting in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bortolanza Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation success of commercial genotypes via cutting techniques is related to several factors, including nutritional status of mother trees and of propagation material. The nutritional status determines the carbohydrate quantities, auxins and other compounds of plant essential metabolism for root initiation and development. Each nutrient has specific functions in plant, acting on plant structure or on plant physiology. Although the importance of mineral nutrition for success of woody plants vegetative propagation and its relation with adventitious rooting is recognized, the role of some mineral nutrients is still unknown. Due to biochemical and physiological complexity of adventitious rooting process, there are few researches to determine de role of nutrients on development of adventitious roots. This review intends to explore de state of the art about the effect of mineral nutrition on adventitious rooting of woody plants.

  3. Ecosystem services of woody crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; James H. Perdue; Timothy M. Young; David R. Coyle; William L. Headlee; Gary S. Ba??uelos; Amir Hass

    2016-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops are an integral component of regional and national energy portfolios, as well as providing essential ecosystem services such as biomass supplies, carbon sinks, clean water, and healthy soils. We review recent USDA Forest Service Research and Development efforts from the USDA Biomass Research Centers on the provisioning of these ecosystem...

  4. Exotic woody plant invaders of the Transvaal

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; K. J. Musil

    1984-01-01

    The frequency and abundance o ;f exotic, woody plant invaders were recorded in 60% of the quarter degree squares in the study area. Sixty-one invaders were encountered o f which the most important and aggressive were Acacia dealbaia, Populus spp.,  Melia azedarach, Opuntia ficus-indica, Salix babylonica and  Acacia mearnsii. Invasion patterns are discussed and an attempt is made to correlate distribution with environmental factors. Attention is drawn to the areas of greatest invasion and the ...

  5. The assessment of data mining algorithms for modelling Savannah woody cover using multi-frequency (X-, C- and L-band) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) datasets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available needs to be estimated over large areas. Woody canopy cover (i.e. the percentage area occupied by woody canopy or CC) is a simple and key parameter of the woody component and is used for the estimation of above ground biomass by combining it with tree... predominant height range of 2 to 5m and biomass below 60T/ha [9]. The SAR imagery was acquired in winter when it is dry with the lowest moisture levels and leaf-off conditions. Dry conditions allow for minimal SAR signal noise from moisture variability [9...

  6. Carbonization behaviour of woody biomass and resulting metallurgical coke properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, T.; Ichida, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Kato, K. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School for Environmental Studies

    2008-07-01

    The technology using waste wood from construction and thinned wood that are not recycled in the woody biomass as one of raw materials for producing metallurgical coke was examined in detail by adding them to coal and carbonizing them. In the carbonization tests, four types of woody biomasses showed substantially almost the same results in respect to material balance and composition of carbonized products. Compared with raw woods, woody biomasses compressively formed to not smaller than 10 mm permit an increase in the addition rate to 1.5% while inhibiting the lowering of coke strength. Hot compressive forming at 200-350 degrees C where pyrolysis of woody biomass occurs inhibits the lowering of coke strength and will therefore permit an increase in the use of woody biomasses. As a result, the possibility to use as a raw material for the coke manufacturing by adding the compressively formed woody biomass was found.

  7. Peculiarities of the Woody Plants Re-Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Olga Anatolievna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data of literary sources concerning the bloom of angiosperm plants and deviation in the development of a flower and inflorescence, in particular untimely flowering, was generalized; our observation results of some peculiarities of re-bloom of woody plants in the National Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka” of NAS of Ukraine (NDP “Sofiyivka” were discussed. The flowering process was formed during a long-term evolution of a propagation system of angiosperm plants as a basis of fertilization and further fruit and seed development. As a result of vernalization and photoperiodism reactions, flowering (under regular conditions occurs in the most favorable period for pollination and fertilization of every plant. However, various deviations, in particular, the untimely (most frequently double, sometimes three- and four-fold flowering occurs in this perfect process of generative organ formation of angiosperm plants. An increased number of reports about re-bloom (at the end of summer – at the beginning of fall of the representatives of various woody plant species whose flowers usually blossom in May-June prompts the analysis of the available information concerning the mechanisms of flowering and the causes which lead to deviation of flowering processes. Flowering of the woody plant representatives of the collection fund of the NDP “Sofiyivka” was studied; statistics about re-bloom in different cities of Ukraine were monitored. The classification of re-bloom facts was carried out according to V.L. Vitkovskiy (1984. Although this classification has mostly a stated nature, it was good enough when being formulated and, with certain conditions, it can be applied nowadays. Accordingly, using this classification, abnormal cases can include facts of early summer-fall flowering and early winter flowering. A late spring flowering can be adaptive response of damaged plants to exogenous stresses, due to which the probability of sexual propagation remains

  8. Increasing Woody Species Diversity for Sustainable Limestone Quarry Reclamation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anne Naeth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability of post mined limestone quarries often requires reclamation to a diverse woody plant community. Woody species diversity may be severely limited if only nursery stock is relied on for propagation material; thus other sources must be evaluated. To address woody species establishment and survival from different propagule sources at a limestone quarry in western Canada, native trees (4 and shrubs (3 were seeded and transplanted into amended substrates (wood shavings, clean fill, unamended control in two seasons (spring, fall. Plant sources were nursery stock, local forest wildlings, seeds and forest soil (LFH mineral soil mix. Plant emergence, survival, height, health and browsing were evaluated over four years. Survival was greater with fall transplanted seedlings than with spring transplanted. Survival was greater for Picea glauca, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides from nursery than local source stock. Seedlings from seeds and LFH did not survive for any of the species. Growth and survival were affected by bighorn sheep. Amendments did not improve plant establishment. Diversity of the woody plant community was increased at the quarry in spite of the severe conditions.

  9. Development and field performance of a woody biomass harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Frederic; D' Amours, Luc [McGill University (Canada). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Savoie, Philippe [Universite Laval (Canada). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

    2008-07-01

    A novel harvester using a round baler platform was developed to collect woody biomass with stems up to 75 mm in diameter in a single pass. Two cutter heads were developed to optimize cutting, perform light shredding and feed the woody biomass into the bale chamber. The first header was designed to harvest willow plantations in rows. Four rotary saws with a total cutting width of 1.97 m were integrated in a disc mower frame and were installed in front of the baler. A modified hammer type shredder was placed between the saws and the baler to break the willow stems and make them more flexible. The narrow compression chamber belts were replaced by a single full-width belt to better contain long stems within the chamber. A swing-pivot tongue was added to offset the baler from the tractor's drive line. Five field trials were carried out in 2006 using the four-saw header; a total of 92 bales were harvested and several functional components of the willow harvester were improved. The second header developed in 2007 used a wider shredder of 2.3 m without saws; it cut and shredded brushes or stems in the same action. The second header was tested in various conditions: on abandoned agricultural land, in a willow plantation, on wetland and in a natural forest. More than 250 bales were harvested in 2007, of which 98 were monitored for baling capacity. The harvesting rates achieved during trials ranged from 2 to 17 t/h according to yield and field conditions. (author)

  10. Differential physiological responses to environmental change promote woody shrub expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary; Greaves, Heather; Kornfeld, Ari; Gough, Laura; Atkin, Owen K; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaver, Gaius; Griffin, Kevin L

    2013-05-01

    Direct and indirect effects of warming are increasingly modifying the carbon-rich vegetation and soils of the Arctic tundra, with important implications for the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the biological and environmental influences on the processes that regulate foliar carbon cycling in tundra species is essential for predicting the future terrestrial carbon balance in this region. To determine the effect of climate change impacts on gas exchange in tundra, we quantified foliar photosynthesis (A net), respiration in the dark and light (R D and R L, determined using the Kok method), photorespiration (PR), carbon gain efficiency (CGE, the ratio of photosynthetic CO2 uptake to total CO2 exchange of photosynthesis, PR, and respiration), and leaf traits of three dominant species - Betula nana, a woody shrub; Eriophorum vaginatum, a graminoid; and Rubus chamaemorus, a forb - grown under long-term warming and fertilization treatments since 1989 at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Under warming, B. nana exhibited the highest rates of A net and strongest light inhibition of respiration, increasing CGE nearly 50% compared with leaves grown in ambient conditions, which corresponded to a 52% increase in relative abundance. Gas exchange did not shift under fertilization in B. nana despite increases in leaf N and P and near-complete dominance at the community scale, suggesting a morphological rather than physiological response. Rubus chamaemorus, exhibited minimal shifts in foliar gas exchange, and responded similarly to B. nana under treatment conditions. By contrast, E. vaginatum, did not significantly alter its gas exchange physiology under treatments and exhibited dramatic decreases in relative cover (warming: -19.7%; fertilization: -79.7%; warming with fertilization: -91.1%). Our findings suggest a foliar physiological advantage in the woody shrub B. nana that is further mediated by warming and increased soil nutrient availability, which may facilitate shrub expansion and

  11. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brisset

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  12. Exotic woody plant invaders of the Transvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance o ;f exotic, woody plant invaders were recorded in 60% of the quarter degree squares in the study area. Sixty-one invaders were encountered o f which the most important and aggressive were Acacia dealbaia, Populus spp.,  Melia azedarach, Opuntia ficus-indica, Salix babylonica and  Acacia mearnsii. Invasion patterns are discussed and an attempt is made to correlate distribution with environmental factors. Attention is drawn to the areas of greatest invasion and the areas that are liable to show the greatest expansion in the future.

  13. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Audrey G; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Ryan, Michael G; Tissue, David T; Baggett, L Scott; Adams, Henry D; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R L; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W; Dickman, L Turin; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Saint Joanis, Brigitte; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R

    2015-11-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also asked whether any differences among laboratories were related to the extraction and quantification methods used to determine starch and sugar concentrations. These questions were addressed by sending sub-samples collected from five woody plant tissues, which varied in NSC content and chemical composition, to 29 laboratories. Each laboratory analyzed the samples with their laboratory-specific protocols, based on recent publications, to determine concentrations of soluble sugars, starch and their sum, total NSC. Laboratory estimates differed substantially for all samples. For example, estimates for Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EGL) varied from 23 to 116 (mean = 56) mg g(-1) for soluble sugars, 6-533 (mean = 94) mg g(-1) for starch and 53-649 (mean = 153) mg g(-1) for total NSC. Mixed model analysis of variance showed that much of the variability among laboratories was unrelated to the categories we used for extraction and quantification methods (method category R(2) = 0.05-0.12 for soluble sugars, 0.10-0.33 for starch and 0.01-0.09 for total NSC). For EGL, the difference between the highest and lowest least squares means for categories in the mixed model analysis was 33 mg g(-1) for total NSC, compared with the range of laboratory estimates of 596 mg g(-1). Laboratories were reasonably consistent in their ranks of estimates among tissues for starch (r = 0.41-0.91), but less so for total NSC (r = 0.45-0.84) and soluble sugars (r = 0.11-0.83). Our results show that NSC estimates for woody plant tissues cannot be compared among laboratories. The relative changes in NSC between treatments measured within a laboratory

  14. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S., Jr. Zalesny Jr.; M.W. Cunningham; R.B. Hall; J. Mirck; D.L. Rockwood; J.A. Stanturf; T.A. Volk

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are ideal for woody biomass production and management systems because they are renewable energy feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts that can be strategically placed in the landscape to conserve soil and water, recycle nutrients, and sequester carbon. This chapter is a synthesis of the regional implications of producing...

  16. Savanna woody vegetation classification – now in 3-D

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, JT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available patterns of 3-D structure of woody vegetation, these patterns need to be explained over large areas to capture the context. Is there a spatially explicit, ecologically meaningful way to capture the patterns and context of 3-D woody vegetation structure?...

  17. Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevřelová Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus. The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7% of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%.

  18. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.

    1999-02-16

    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  19. Post-fire dynamics of the woody vegetation of a savanna forest (Cerradão in the Cerrado-Amazon transition zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Matias Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFire can change the species composition, diversity, and structure of savanna vegetation, thus altering growth and mortality rates. Such changes in the woody vegetation of burned savanna forest were evaluated over four years in comparison to unburned savanna forest. All woody plants with a diameter at breast height > 10 cm were measured in 100 permanent plots. Six months later, 38 of these plots were burned. Three and a half years later, all surviving individuals were re-sampled. Species richness, diversity, and the number of individuals did not change in the burned plots, although they had significantly higher (p < 0.05 increases in basal area and mortality rates (5.1% year-1 than the unburned plots (3.0% year-1.Tachigali vulgarishad the greatest post-fire increase in basal area (53%. The results indicate that fire alters the dynamics and structure of the savanna forest, excluding the less fire-tolerant species and smaller individuals (? 15cm. Tachigali vulgaris is a key species for the recovery of savanna forest biomass due to its considerable post-fire gains in basal area, at least over the short term due to its short life cycle. It follows that frequent burning of savanna forest would result in a marked change in the species composition and structure of its woody vegetation.

  20. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  1. Influence of ozone on selected woody ornamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, F.A.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1971-01-01

    Approximately 900 plants of 24 woody ornamental species were exposed to 25 pphm ozone for 8 hr at 24 C, 75% relative humidity, and 1400 ft-c of light. Cercis canadensis, Cotoneaster divaricata, C. horizontalis, Forsythia intermedia spectabilis Lynwood Gold, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Rhododendron kaempheri Camp fire, R. kurume Snow, R. catawbiense album, R. nova zembla, R. roseium elegans, Sorbus aucuparia, Syringa vulgaris, and Viburnum carlesi were sensitive. The most common symptoms were brown to black necrotic stipples on the upper leaf surface and premature defoliation. Interveinal necrotic and chlorotic flecks occurred infrequently. Current leaves of intermediate age were most sensitive. Euonymous alatus compacta, Hedra helix, Juniperus communis depressa plumosa, Pachysandra terminalis, Pieris japonica, Pyracantha coccinea lalandi, Rhododendron caroliniana, R. mollis, Taxus cuspidata, T. media hicksi, and Vinca minor were resistant.

  2. Woody biomass production systems for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pathak, N.N.; Satapathy, P.C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    Woody biomass production research in Florida has addressed genetic improvement, coppice productivity, clonal propagation, biomass properties, and economics of Eucalyptus and other species in short rotation, intensive culture systems. Improved E. grandis seedlings could more than double productivity, but exceptional clones offer more immediate potential in southern Florida. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis appear to have frost-resistance and good growth in central and southern Florida. For northern Florida, E. amplifolia has good frost-resilience and coppicing ability. Eucalytpus species are suitable for fermentation processes. Other promising species include Casuarina glauca and Taxodium distichum in southern Florida, and Sapium sebiferum state-wide. Break-even costs for biomass production systems with Eucalyptus range from approximately $2.00 to $4.00 GJ[sup -1]; short rotation culture appears feasible for slash pine in northern and central Florida but cannot yet be advised for sand pine. (author)

  3. Woody-Herbaceous Species Coexistence in Mulga Hillslopes: Modelling Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanjalili, M. J.; Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental processes underlying the coexistence of woody and herbaceous species in arid and semi-arid areas have been a topic of intense research during the last few decades. Experimental and modelling studies have both supported and disputed alternative hypotheses explaining this phenomenon. Vegetation models including the key processes that drive coexistence can be used to understand vegetation pattern dynamics and structure under current climate conditions, and to predict changes under future conditions. Here we present work done towards linking the observations to modelling. The model captures woody-herbaceous coexistence along a rainfall gradient characteristic of typical conditions on Mulga ecosystems in Australia. The dynamic vegetation model simulates the spatial dynamics of overland flow, soil moisture and vegetation growth of two species. It incorporates key mechanisms for coexistence and pattern formation, including facilitation by evaporation reduction through shading, and infiltration feedbacks, local and non-local seed dispersal, competition for water uptake. Model outcomes, obtained including diflerent mechanisms, are qualitatively compared to typical vegetation cover patterns in the Australian Mulga bioregion where bush fire is very infrequent and the fate of vegetation cover is mostly determined by intra- and interspecies interactions. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the dynamics of such ecosystems, we identify main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the dynamic vegetation models. We show that a realistic parameterization of the model leads to results which are aligned with the observations reported in the literature. At the lower end of the rainfall gradient woody species coexist with herbaceous species within a sparse banded pattern, while at higher rainfall woody species tend to dominate the landscape.

  4. Effects of fire on woody vegetation structure in African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Asner, Gregory P; Govender, Navashni; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Jacobson, James

    2010-10-01

    Despite the importance of fire in shaping savannas, it remains poorly understood how the frequency, seasonality, and intensity of fire interact to influence woody vegetation structure, which is a key determinant of savanna biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive analysis of vertical and horizontal woody vegetation structure across one of the oldest savanna fire experiments, using new airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. We developed and compared high-resolution woody vegetation height surfaces for a series of large experimental burn plots in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These 7-ha plots (total area approximately 1500 ha) have been subjected to fire in different seasons and at different frequencies, as well as no-burn areas, for 54 years. Long-term exposure to fire caused a reduction in woody vegetation up to the 5.0-7.5 m height class, although most reduction was observed up to 4 m. Average fire intensity was positively correlated with changes in woody vegetation structure. More frequent fires reduced woody vegetation cover more than less frequent fires, and dry-season fires reduced woody vegetation more than wet-season fires. Spring fires from the late dry season reduced woody vegetation cover the most, and summer fires from the wet season reduced it the least. Fire had a large effect on structure in the densely wooded granitic landscapes as compared to the more open basaltic landscapes, although proportionally, the woody vegetation was more reduced in the drier than in the wetter landscapes. We show that fire frequency and fire season influence patterns of vegetation three-dimensional structure, which may have cascading consequences for biodiversity. Managers of savannas can therefore use fire frequency and season in concert to achieve specific vegetation structural objectives.

  5. DC and AC voltammetry of a free-base porphyrin adsorbed onto basal-plane graphite under acidic conditions: An example of a close to ideal reversible two-electron surface-confined redox process at sub-monolayer coverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Barry D. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: barry.fleming@sci.monash.edu.au; Bond, Alan M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: alan.bond@sci.monash.edu.au

    2009-04-01

    The free-base porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (H{sub 2}TMPyP), adsorbs onto a basal-plane graphite electrode. Under DC cyclic voltammetric conditions, the fully protonated dication, [H{sub 4}TMPyP(0)]{sup 2+}, undergoes an apparently close to ideal surface-confined two-electron reduction to the neutral [H{sub 4}TMPyP(-II)] species when the supporting electrolyte consists of aqueous 1 M HCl and 1 M NaCl and coverages are sub-monolayer. The reversible potential calculated from the average of the oxidation and reduction peak potentials is 0.138 {+-} 0.002 V (vs Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl) whilst their separation {delta}E{sub p}, approaches 0 mV at slow scan rates, as expected theoretically for an ideal surface-confined electron transfer process. Comparisons of simulated and experimental data imply that the increase in {delta}E{sub p} observed at scan rates above 10 V s{sup -1} is consistent with uncompensated Ohmic IR{sub u} drop effects, and not limitations imposed by electron transfer kinetics. Analysis of fundamental and higher harmonic components derived from large-amplitude sine-wave AC voltammetry is consistent with a very fast electron transfer rate constant, k{sup 0}, in excess of 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} for the overall two-electron process. However, careful comparison with AC theory highlights minor levels of non-ideality not attributable to purely capacitative background or uncompensated resistance effects. These are particularly evident when greater than monolayer surface coverages are employed. It is likely that subtle contributions from heterogeneity in the adsorbed layer and complexities in the reaction mechanism are present in this close to ideal surface-confined process, but they are more readily detected under conditions of large-amplitude Fourier transformed AC cyclic voltammetry than with the conventionally used DC cyclic format.

  6. Measuring and partitioning soil respiration in sharkey shrink-swell clays under plantation grown short-rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson G. Hood; Michael C. Tyree; Dylan N. Dillaway Dillaway; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) offers an ecological niche for short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) production by mating marginal agricultural land with optimal growing conditions. Approximately 1.7 million ha within the LMAV consist of Sharkey shrink-swell clays. They are considered marginal in terms of traditional agricultural productivity due to their...

  7. Patterns in woody vegetation structure across African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Christoffer R.; Hanan, Niall P.

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation structure in water-limited systems is to a large degree controlled by ecohydrological processes, including mean annual precipitation (MAP) modulated by the characteristics of precipitation and geomorphology that collectively determine how rainfall is distributed vertically into soils or horizontally in the landscape. We anticipate that woody canopy cover, crown density, crown size, and the level of spatial aggregation among woody plants in the landscape will vary across environmental gradients. A high level of woody plant aggregation is most distinct in periodic vegetation patterns (PVPs), which emerge as a result of ecohydrological processes such as runoff generation and increased infiltration close to plants. Similar, albeit weaker, forces may influence the spatial distribution of woody plants elsewhere in savannas. Exploring these trends can extend our knowledge of how semi-arid vegetation structure is constrained by rainfall regime, soil type, topography, and disturbance processes such as fire. Using high-spatial-resolution imagery, a flexible classification framework, and a crown delineation method, we extracted woody vegetation properties from 876 sites spread over African savannas. At each site, we estimated woody cover, mean crown size, crown density, and the degree of aggregation among woody plants. This enabled us to elucidate the effects of rainfall regimes (MAP and seasonality), soil texture, slope, and fire frequency on woody vegetation properties. We found that previously documented increases in woody cover with rainfall is more consistently a result of increasing crown size than increasing density of woody plants. Along a gradient of mean annual precipitation from the driest (< 200 mm yr-1) to the wettest (1200-1400 mm yr-1) end, mean estimates of crown size, crown density, and woody cover increased by 233, 73, and 491 % respectively. We also found a unimodal relationship between mean crown size and sand content suggesting that maximal

  8. Woody biomass for bioenergy and biofuels in the United States -- a briefing paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White

    2010-01-01

    Woody biomass can be used for the generation of heat, electricity, and biofuels. In many cases, the technology for converting woody biomass into energy has been established for decades, but because the price of woody biomass energy has not been competitive with traditional fossil fuels, bioenergy production from woody biomass has not been widely adopted. However,...

  9. Development of practical stirling engine for co-generation system using woody biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Akira; Sasaki, Seizi [Ichinoseki National Coll. of Tech., Iwate (Japan); Tezuka, Nobutoshi [Stirling Engine Co., Ltd., Kawasaki-City (Japan); Fujimoto, Isao [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Hyogo (Japan); Yamada, Noboru [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas have become limited resources. In addition, global warming due to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission has become a serious environmental issue. Since current living and economical standards depend strongly on fossil energy sources, it is necessary to realize a new society that utilizes biomass as a source of energy. With this background, in 2005, we manufactured a practical Stirling engine using biomass fuels. And we proposed a unique co-generation system using a practical Stirling engine that utilizes woody biomass fuel such as sawdust, firewood, and wood pellets. A burner uses the woody biomass fuel to heat the air in the expansion room to about 650 C and a water cooling system cools the air in the compression room to about 40 C. Under these operating conditions, the new engine generated about 3kW of electricity. (orig.)

  10. Transient catchment hydrology after wildfires in a Mediterranean basin: runoff, sediment and woody debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient effect of forest fires on runoff, erosion and yield of woody biomass has been investigated by combining the experimental approach with mathematical models of hydrological processes. The case study is the Branega creek in Liguria, Italy, where a forest fire in August 2003 caused substantial changes to soil and vegetation, and left a considerable amount of woody debris on the ground. Immediately after the fire, rainfall simulator experiments in adjacent burned and unburned plots showed the extent to which fire had increased runoff and erosion rates. A distributed hydrological model using the tube-flux approach, calibrated on experimental measurements, has been used to investigate hill slope and channel erosion in a small sub-catchment, 1.5 ha in area, nested in the Branega basin. Simulation runs show that the model accommodates the observed variability of runoff and erosion under disturbed and undisturbed conditions. A model component describing the delivery of wood from hill slopes to the channel in post-fire conditions, validated against local survey data, showed that the removal and transport of woody biomass can be reproduced using an integrated hydrological approach. Hence, transient complexity after wildfires can be addressed by such an approach with empirically determined physically-based parameters.

  11. The impact of the provision of water for game on the basal cover of the herbaceous vegetation around a dam in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Thrash

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available A line intercept survey was done on the herbaceous vegetation in permanently marked plots at distance intervals from the Wik-en-Weeg Dam, Kruger National Park, in 1973. The survey was repeated in 1990 so that changes in basal cover could be determined in relation to distance from the dam. Positive relationships with distance from the dam were found for the relative total percentage basal cover of the herbaceous vegetation, as well as for the relative basal cover of, respectively, grasses, forbs, decreasers and increasers. It was concluded that the provision of a permanent supply of drinking water for game in the Wik-en-Weeg Dam has had an impact on the nearby herbaceous community basal cover composition, as well as a negative impact on the basal cover of the herbaceous vegetation in the vicinity. The basal cover of the herbaceous stratum was more sensitive to the effect of the dam than parameters of the woody stratum.

  12. Quantifying Savanna Woody Cover in the Field and on Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jed1z

    woody encroachment on savanna rangelands using historical high spatial ..... On the colour aerial photographs that were used in this study, tree shadow was .... Witkowski, ETF & Garner, RD 2000, 'Spatial distribution of soil seed banks of ...

  13. Malheur NWR: Woody Riparian Landbird Point Count [PRIMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the survey is to assess trend in relative abundance and composition of landbird species in woody riparian habitats in Unit 12. We will monitor all...

  14. Woody vegetation stocking, composition and diversity in Miombo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory forest management (PFM) model is aimed at improving both forest resources ... woody stocking, and species composition and diversity at Mgori Forest Reserve, in Tanzania. ... DBH distribution followed an inverse 'J' shape.

  15. Historical climates explain contrasting dormancy-breaking requirements in North American, Asian, and European woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M.; Benito, Blas M.; Fridley, Jason D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-04-01

    Leaf-out times in temperate woody species are determined by winter chilling and spring warming, with day length playing a minor role. The species-specific relative importance of these phenological cues determines the sensitivity of leaf unfolding to climate warming in the globe's temperate forests. Using experimental and monitoring data on leaf-out cues in 495 woody species [about 1/3rd each from Asia, Europe, and North America (NA)], we show that NA species have higher winter chilling and spring warming requirements than do European and Asian species of similar genetic stock. The continent effect remained significant when controlling for the modern climates that species are adapted to, suggesting that contrasting historic climate conditions led to the differentiation of leaf-out strategies among NA, European, and Asian plants. The NA flora experienced more and longer periods of climatic instability and harshness (esp. since the Pliocene) than did southern Europe and East Asia, which may explain why NA species have higher dormancy requirements and leaf-out later than Asian species, which are characterized by a more shallow dormancy. That species from Asia require significantly less chilling than their NA relatives suggests contrasting responses of NA and Asian temperate forests to continued climate warming. Earlier leaf-out in NA trees and shrubs will be constrained by unmet chilling requirements as winters get warmer, whereas Asian woody species generally lack such temperature limitations.

  16. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides, is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose towards improved saccharification. In this review we: 1 summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, 2 present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, 3 describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, 4 give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and 5 discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation.

  17. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Richard Strimbeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40˚C and minimum temperatures below -60˚C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196˚C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature. Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at extreme low temperature: 1. Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to 30˚C, preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. 2. High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. 3. Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane-membrane interactions.

  18. Topo-edaphic Controls over Woody Biomass in South African Savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, M.; Asner, G. P.; Levick, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    The influence of substrate type on woody plant growth is well documented in the granite and basalt savannas of Kruger National Park, South Africa. Over the past two decades field studies and airborne photography have shown the gradually undulating granitic landscapes support higher woody cover than the basaltic plains. Yet nested within these broader trends are significant variations in biomass at the hillslope scale (0.5-1km), and it is debated to what extent the gradual slopes and subtle relief exert a catena influence on woody biomass. These trends have been qualitatively observed in the field, especially on the granite substrates, but drawing clear correlations between vegetation and terrain is hampered in the field by limited visibility due to relatively gradual (1-2°) and long (hundreds of meters) hillslopes. Here airborne LiDAR reveals clear, quantifiable biomass trends at the hillslope spatial scale and at the resolution (~1m) necessary to resolve the heterogeneity inherent in an open-canopy system. Our aim is to investigate the importance of hillslope topographic and soil properties in controlling woody biomass relative to regional differences in parent material. Aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) was estimated using airborne LiDAR over seven sites in Kruger National Park (KNP) in April-May 2008. Sites were selected to encompass the park’s range of substrate types, as well as variation in precipitation, topography, and dominant vegetation types. Throughout these seven sites 202 field plots were collected during the same period to inform and validate airborne biomass estimates. Basal diameter, height, and species of 4,500+ trees spanning 50+ woody species were recorded, and existing field allometry was applied to estimate dry AGWB. When regressed individually, canopy height and canopy cover each explained approximately the same variation in biomass (R2=0.60). Using canopy cover from three height classes significantly improved goodness of fit (R2=0.80) and

  19. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  20. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  1. Distorted Froude-scaled Flume Analysis of Large Woody Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, N. P.; Alonso, C. V.; Bennett, S. J.; Thorne, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a movable-boundary, distorted, Froude-scaled hydraulic model based on Abiaca Creek, a sand-bedded channel in northern Mississippi. The model was used to examine the geomorphic and hydraulic impact of simplified Large Woody Debris (LWD) elements. The theory of physical scale models is discussed and the method used to construct the LWD test channel is developed. The channel model had bed and banks molded from 0.8 mm sand, and flow conditions were just below the threshold of motion so that any sediment transport and channel adjustment were the result of the debris element. Dimensions and positions of LWD elements were determined using a Debris Jam Classification Model (Wallerstein et al., 1997). Elements were attached to a dynamometer to measure element drag forces, and channel adjustment was determined through detailed topographic surveys. The fluid drag force on the element decreased asymptotically over time as the channel boundary eroded around the element due to locally increased boundary shear stress. Total time for geomorphic adjustment computed for the prototype channel at the Q2 discharge (discharge occurring once every two years on average) was as short as 45 hours. The size, depth and position of scour holes, bank erosion and bars created by flow acceleration past the elements were found to be related to element length and position within the channel cross-section. Morphologies created by each debris element in the model channel were comparable with similar jams observed in the prototype channel.

  2. Volume calculations of coarse woody debris; evaluation of coarse woody debris volume calculations and consequences for coarse woody debris volume estimates in forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Vaessen, O.H.B.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Olsthoorn, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dead wood is recognized as one of the key indicators for sustainable forest management and biodiversity. Accurate assessments of dead wood volume are thus necessary. In this study New volume models were designed based on actual volume measurements of coarse woody debris. The New generic model accura

  3. Soil Nutrient, Woody Understory and Shoot and Root Growth Responses of Pinus brutia Ten. Saplings to Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Petros GANATSAS; Spanos, Ioannis; Marianthi TSAKALDIMI; Gerasimos GOUDELIS

    2012-01-01

    Nine years after a wildfire, above- and below-ground morphology of Pinus brutia Ten. saplings and the microsite factors prevailing in understorey (unburned area) and postfire conditions (burned area) of the Forest Park of Thessaloniki were studied. Major stand characteristics (density, tree canopy cover, tree height, crown height, and diameter) were measured in the unburned area. Light and soil conditions as well as plant cover of woody species were recorded in both areas (burned and unburned...

  4. Can lemmings control the expansion of woody plants on tundra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Olofsson, Johan; Virtanen, Risto; Hoset, Katrine; Tuomi, Maria; Kyrö, Kukka

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing expansion of woody vegetation in the arctic, due to global warming, creates a positive feed back loop. Increasing abundance of woody plants reduces surface albedo both directly and via speeding up snow melt. Thus a successively greater fraction of incoming solar radiation is absorbed and converted to heat. Browsing mammals - both big and small - can prevent this by consuming woody plants. However, the grazer/browser community of many tundra areas is dominated by brown/Norwegian lemmings (Lemmus spp.) which eat graminoids and mosses and cannot use woody plants as forage. It would seem a priori likely that in such areas, mammalian herbivores speed up the expansion of woody plants by improving the chances of their seedlings to get established. We studied the impact of lemmings on woody plants by constructing lemming proof exclosures within piece high-altitude tundra at Joatkanjávri, northernmost Norway. The exclosures were constructed in 1998, during a period of low lemming densities, in snow-beds, where Norwegian lemmings (L. lemmus) were the only ecologically significant herbivorous mammals. (Reindeer migrate through the area in May, when snow-beds are inaccessible for them; during the fall migration, the area represents a dead end and is therefore avoided.) We chose pairs of maximally similar vegetation patches of 0.5 by 0.5 m and randomly assigned one of each pair to become an exclosure while the other plot was left open. The initial state of the vegetation was documented by the point frequency method. In 2008, after the 2007 lemming outbreak, the same documentation was repeated; thereafter the plots were harvested, the vegetation was sorted to species, oven dried and weighed. Exclusion of lemmings resulted to pronounced increase in community level plant biomass. Evergreen woody plants were especially favored by the exclusion of lemming: their above-ground biomass in exclosures was 14 times as great as their biomass on open reference plots. The

  5. Evaluating ecohydrological theories of woody root distribution in the Kalahari.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Bhattachan

    Full Text Available The contribution of savannas to global carbon storage is poorly understood, in part due to lack of knowledge of the amount of belowground biomass. In these ecosystems, the coexistence of woody and herbaceous life forms is often explained on the basis of belowground interactions among roots. However, the distribution of root biomass in savannas has seldom been investigated, and the dependence of root biomass on rainfall regime remains unclear, particularly for woody plants. Here we investigate patterns of belowground woody biomass along a rainfall gradient in the Kalahari of southern Africa, a region with consistent sandy soils. We test the hypotheses that (1 the root depth increases with mean annual precipitation (root optimality and plant hydrotropism hypothesis, and (2 the root-to-shoot ratio increases with decreasing mean annual rainfall (functional equilibrium hypothesis. Both hypotheses have been previously assessed for herbaceous vegetation using global root data sets. Our data do not support these hypotheses for the case of woody plants in savannas. We find that in the Kalahari, the root profiles of woody plants do not become deeper with increasing mean annual precipitation, whereas the root-to-shoot ratios decrease along a gradient of increasing aridity.

  6. Effects of flooding duration, -frequency and -depth on the presence of saplings of six woody species in north-west Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, S.J.; Kramer, K.; Pelsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Under natural conditions the zonation of woody species in floodplains is to a large extent determined by hydrological conditions. Flood survival varies even among closely related species of the same genus. Most studies that quantify flood survival of seedlings and saplings of European floodplain

  7. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  8. Basal Organelles of Bacterial Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Bazire, Germaine; London, Jack

    1967-01-01

    Liberated by enzymatic lysis of the cells, the flagella of Rhodospirillum rubrum, R. molischianum, and R. fulvum all have a similar structure. The hook at the base of the flagellum is connected by a short, narrow collar to a paired disc in the basal organelle. This paired disc is in turn connected to a second paired disc. The disposition of flagella to which fragments of the cell membrane still adhere suggests that the narrow collar at the base of the hook traverses both the wall and the membrane, and that the upper pair of discs in the basal organelle lies just beneath the surface of the membrane. Images PMID:6039362

  9. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  10. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  11. Multiple strategies for drought survival among woody plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Pivovaroff, AL; Pasquini, SC; De Guzman, ME; Alstad, KP; Stemke, JS; Santiago, LS

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 British Ecological Society Drought-induced mortality and regional dieback of woody vegetation are reported from numerous locations around the world. Yet within any one site, predicting which species are most likely to survive global change-type drought is a challenge. We studied the diversity of drought survival traits of a community of 15 woody plant species in a desert-chaparral ecotone. The vegetation was a mix of chaparral and desert shrubs, as well as endemic species that only occ...

  12. Riparian woody vegetation history in the campos region, southeastern South America, during two time windows: late Pleistocene and late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourelle, Dominique; Prieto, Aldo R.; García-Rodríguez, Felipe

    2017-07-01

    A detailed palynological record from Laguna Formosa (northeastern campos region, 31°S; 54°W) documents the dynamic balance between grasslands and riparian forests during the late Pleistocene (14,570 to 13,500 cal yr BP) and late Holocene (3280 cal yr BP to the present). Modern pollen-vegetation relationships and the woody pollen dispersal capacity analyses were used to improve the vegetation reconstruction. Grasslands were regionally dominant throughout the record. However, at 14,570 cal yr BP hydrophilous taxa reflect the development of riparian hydrophilous shrublands along freshwater bodies, promoting the fixation of the riverbanks, maintaining shallow, calm and clear water conditions under a relatively wet and not so cool climate. This is the first evidence of woody riparian vegetation development along freshwater bodies for the lowlands of the northern campos during the late glacial period. At 3280 cal yr BP riparian forests consisted of both hydrophilous and mesophilous woody taxa. Since 2270 cal yr BP woody vegetation gradually increased, accompanied by the incorporation of other taxa by 940 cal yr BP, and achieving a composition similar to that of the contemporary time at ca. 540 cal yr BP. The increased woody vegetation since ca. 2270 cal yr BP, and the more frequent and intense flooding events between 1800 and 1200 cal yr BP, could be related to higher precipitation over La Plata Drainage Basin, related with the high ENSO amplitude. In addition, pollen from taxa that currently no longer develops in the study area suggests connections between southern Brazil and Uruguay, and between the campos and the Chaco phytogeographic province.

  13. Harvest of woody crops with a bio-baler in eight different environments in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Current, D. [Minnesota Univ., MN (United States); Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Hebert, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Robert, F.S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Sols et environnement; Gillitzdr, P.

    2010-07-01

    The biobaler was originally developed for short-rotation willow plantations, but can currently harvest a wide range of woody crops with a basal diameter up to 150 mm. The biobaler is an alternate approach to harvest woody crops as round bales, generally 1.2 m wide by 1.5 m diameter. In addition to harvesting trees, it can improve management of wild brush, forest understory vegetation and encroaching small trees on abandoned land. It allows easy handling, storage and transportation to sites where the biomass can be used for energy use or other applications. This paper reported on a study that was conducted in the fall of 2009 in which a third generation biobaler was used on 8 different sites across Minnesota, notably Waseca, Madelia, Faribault, Afton, Ogilvie, Hinckley, Aurora and Hibbing. A total of 160 bales were harvested from these sites. The average bale mass was 466 kg and average bale density was 296 kg/m{sup 3}. The moisture content averaged 44.9 per cent and the bale dry matter density averaged 163 kg DM/m{sup 3}. The harvested biomass per unit area ranged from 2.49 t/ha on lightly covered land to 55.24 t/ha on densely covered land. The harvested or recovered biomass was 72.3 per cent of the original cottonwood in Madelia; 75.8 per cent of the original oak and maple shrubs in Afton; and 73.5 per cent of the poplar regeneration in Hibbing. The actual harvest rate averaged 17.40 bales/h.

  14. Modelling trends in woody vegetation structure in semi-arid Australia as determined from aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Roderick John; Low Choy, Sama J; Fairfax, Russell James; Cavallaro, Paul C

    2003-08-01

    Accounting of carbon stocks in woody vegetation for greenhouse purposes requires definition of medium term trends with accurate error assessment. Tree and shrub cover was sampled through time at randomly located sites over a large area of central Queensland, Australia using aerial photography from 1945 to 1999. Calibration models developed from field data for the same land types as those represented within the study area allowed for the extrapolation of overstorey and understorey cover, basal area and biomass values and these were modelled as trends over the latter half of the 20th century. These structural attributes have declined over the region because of land clearing with values for biomass changing from a mean of 58.0(+/-1.2)t/ha in 1953 to 41.1(+/-1.0)t/ha in 1991. The biomass of Acacia on clay and Eucalypt on texture contrast soils land types has declined most dramatically. Within uncleared vegetation there was an overall trend of increase from 56.1(+/-1.2)t/ha in 1951 to 67.6(+/-1.3)t/ha in 1995. The increase in structural attributes within uncleared vegetation was most pronounced for the Eucalypt on texture contrast soils and Eucalypt on clay land types. It was demonstrated that the sites sampled were representative of their land types and that spatial bias of the photography, undetected tree-killing, sampling error, inherent variability of structural attributes and measurement error should not have impacted greatly on bias or precision of trend estimates for well-sampled land types. Certainly the errors are not likely to be substantial for trends averaged over all land types and they provide an accurate assessment of the magnitude and direction of change. The technique presented here would appear to be a robust means of accounting for the above-ground woody component of woodlands and open forests and will also contribute to a broader understanding of savanna dynamics.

  15. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  16. Diversity and regeneration status of woody species in Tara Gedam and Abebaye forests, northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haileab Zegeye; Demel Teketay; Ensermu Kelbessa

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in Tara Gedam and Abebaye forests 1,northwestern Ethiopia to investigate the diversity, regeneration status,socio-economic importance and the factors causing destruction of theforests. A total of 30 plots, measuring 20 m x20 m, were establishedalong line transects laid across the forests. Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA) method was employed to generate the socio-economic data. Pri-mary data were collected by field observation, semi-structured interviewwith key informants and discussion with relevant stakeholders. A total of143 woody species belonging to 114 genera and 57 families were re-corded, and of all the species 44 (30.8%) were trees, 57 (39.9%)trees/shrubs, 33 (23.1%) shrubs and 9 (6.3%) lianas. The diversity andevenness of woody species in Tara Gedam forest are 2.98 and 0.65, re-spectively, and in Abebaye forest they are 1.31 and 0.31, respectively.The total density and basal area of woody species in Tara Gedam forestare 3001 individuals.ha and 115.36 m·ha, respectively, and in Abe-baye forest the values are 2850 individuals·ha and 49.45 m.ha, re-spectively. The results on the importance value index (IVI) and DBHclass distributions suggest that the species with low IVI value and poorregeneration status need to be prioritized for conservation. In thesocio-economic survey, the responses from the key informants indicatedthat the forests are the major sources of fuelwood (90%), constructionmaterial (80%), timber (75%) and farm implements (55%). The forestsare also sources of medicines, animal fodder, bee forage and edible fruits.Tara Gedam monastery, assisted by the local people who have strongreligious belief and high respect to the monastery, has played a great rolein the maintenance of the sacred forest since a long time. At present, theconservation efforts are made jointly by the monastery and institutionsconcerned with conservation. The major factors that cause destruction of the forests are livestock grazing, tree cutting for

  17. High fat diet promotes prostatic basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate epithelial hyperplasia originated from basal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Joon Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent lineage tracing studies showed that the prostate basal and luminal cells in adult mice are two independent lineages under the physiological condition, but basal cells are capable of generating luminal progenies during bacterial infection-induced prostatitis. Because acute bacterial infection in human prostate tissues is relatively rare, the disease relevance of the bacterial infection-induced basal-to-luminal differentiation is uncertain. Herein we employ a high fat diet-induced sterile prostate inflammation model to determine whether basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by inflammation irrespective of the underlying etiologies. A K14-CreER model and a fluorescent report line are utilized to specifically label basal cells with the green fluorescent protein. We show that high fat diet promotes immune cell infiltration into the prostate tissues and basal-to-luminal differentiation. Increased cell proliferation accompanies basal-to-luminal differentiation, suggesting a concurrent regulation of basal cell proliferation and differentiation. This study demonstrates that basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by different types of prostate inflammation evolved with distinct etiologies. Finally, high fat diet also accelerates initiation and progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia that are originated from basal cells with loss-of-function of the tumor suppressor Pten. Because prostate cancer originated from basal cells tends to be invasive, our study also provides an alternative explanation for the association between obesity and aggressive prostate cancer.

  18. Postscript: Problems With the Security Motivation Model Remain Largely Unresolved: Response to Woody and Szechtman (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper comments on the response offered by Szechtman and Woody to Taylor et al's initial comments on Szechtman and Woody's original article. Taylor et al highlight one problem with their model that Woody and Szechtman seem to think is unimportant: the treatment relevance of their model. The analogy of aspirin and colds was used, suggesting…

  19. Insular woodiness on the Canary Islands: a remarkable case of convergent evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Davin, N.; Smets, E.; Arco, del M.

    2013-01-01

    Premise of research. One of the most conspicuous aspects of island floras is the relatively high proportion of woody species. Often, but not always, these woody species have developed wood on the islands and have evolved from herbaceous continental ancestors, a phenomenon known as insular woodiness.

  20. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  1. Woody and grassy vegetation development in different landscape elements of the Curonian spit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Mečislovas Olšausaks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of woody and grassy establish on seashore sands and wastes. These plants are adapted for less favorable existence conditions some of them growing in littoral habitats of excessive moisture and salinity. Other tolerates infertile and dry sand. The purpose of the study have been analyzed the dispersion vegetation in different relief elements of the coastal protective dune look for a relation between woody and grassy plant species to foresee the tendencies of further seashore landscape development. It has been established that in locations with intensive flow of visitors a net of trodden paths is formed where the plants cover is disappearing very fast as there are suitable conditions for the springtime and autumn winds to erode the coastal protective dune of the seashore of the Curonian spit. The trodden path in a couple of years turn into 2 – 3 m. vides sand drifting corridors, but the lies of the holiday makers become there 4 – 5 m. wide pit and hollow. After these formations have interconnected they shape deflations of different size. The drifting sand carried by the prevailing western direction winds swamp the beyond coastal dune plains and the outskirts of the forest and sandy meadows. The statistical analysis of projection cover of plant shows that during the last 27 years (from 1982 the conditions for vegetation survival on the Curonian spit seashore sand dunes are gradually deteriorating.

  2. Nutrient allocation strategies of woody plants: an approach from the scaling of nitrogen and phosphorus between twig stems and leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengbing Yan; Peng Li; Yahan Chen; Wenxuan Han; Jingyun Fang

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), among plant organs reflects the influences of evolutionary and ecological processes on functional traits of plants, and thus is related to functional groups and environmental conditions. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by exploring the stoichiometric scaling of N and P concentrations between twig stems and leaves of 335 woody species from 12 forest sites across eastern China. Scaling exponents of twig stem N (o...

  3. Determination of native woody landscape plants in Bursa and Uludag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Around Bursa and Uludag is a wide range of native woody plants of which are commonly used for landscape planning ... such as wet or dry, sun or shade, high or low fertility soils ... role on rural and urban landscape planning.

  4. Woody Alleni komöödia Rakveres / Peeter Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Peeter, 1974-

    1999-01-01

    Rakvere Teatris esietendub 15. okt "Suveöö seksikomöödia", Woody Alleni filmistsenaariumi on näidendiks kirjutanud Jürgen Fischer, lavastab külalisena Rednar Annus, kunstnikud on Ene -Liis Semper ja Raoul Kurvitz, muusikaline kujundaja Tamur Tohver.

  5. A distance limited method for sampling downed coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine; Michael S. Williams

    2012-01-01

    A new sampling method for down coarse woody debris is proposed based on limiting the perpendicular distance from individual pieces to a randomly chosen sample point. Two approaches are presented that allow different protocols to be used to determine field measurements; estimators for each protocol are also developed. Both protocols are compared via simulation against...

  6. Dynamic aspects of large woody debris in river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Alexandra; Caporali, Enrica; Becchi, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Large Woody Debris (LWD) are an integral component of the fluvial environment. They represent an environmental resource, but without doubt they represent also a risk factor for the amplification that could give to the destructive power of a flood event. While countless intervention in river channels have reintroduced wood in rivers with restoration and banks protection aims, during several flash flood events LWD have had a great part in catastrophic consequences, pointing out the urgency of an adequate risk assessment procedure. At present wood dynamics in rivers is not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps resulting in loss of prediction accuracy and underestimation of hazard impacts. The assessment inconsistency comes from the complexity of the question: several aspects in wood processes are not yet well known and the superposition of different physical phenomena results in great difficulty to predict critical scenarios. The presented research activity has been aimed to improve management skills for the assessment of the hydrologic risk associated to the presence of large woody debris in rivers, improving knowledge about LWD dynamic processes and proposing effective tools for monitoring and mapping river catchments vulnerability. Utilizing critical review of the published works, field surveys and experimental investigations LWD damaging potential has been analysed to support the identification of the exposed sites and the redaction of hazard maps, taking into account that a comprehensive procedure has to involve: a) Identification of the critical cross sections; b) Evaluation of wood availability in the river catchment; c) Prediction of hazard scenarios through the estimation of water discharge, wood recruitment and entrainment, wood transport and destination. Particularly, a survey sheets form for direct measurements has been implemented and tested in field to provide an investigation instruments for wood and river

  7. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  8. Dynamic response of woody vegetation on fencing protection in semi-arid areas; Case study: Pilot exclosure on the Firmihin Plateau, Socotra Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Habrova; Jindrich Pavlis

    2017-01-01

    Woody vegetation dynamics and Dracaena cinnabari regeneration have been studied for five years in the conditions of Socotra Island. Woody plants were measured regularly inside and outside the exclosure area, and the growth and survival of D. cinnabari seedlings were observed. In the exclosure of about 1000 m2 a total of 49 species were identified, including 23 endemics, growing in the average density of 3.82 specimens per m2. The fenced area was overgrown relatively rapidly by dense grass cov...

  9. Woody plant encroachment reduces annual runoff and shifts runoff mechanisms in the tallgrass prairie, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Zou, Chris B.; Stebler, Elaine; Will, Rodney E.

    2017-06-01

    Woody plant encroachment into semiarid and subhumid rangelands is a global phenomenon with important hydrological implications. Observational and experimental results reported both increases and decreases in annual runoff for encroached watersheds and little is known regarding the underlying runoff generation mechanisms. To systematically study the effect of woody plant encroachment on runoff generation processes, seven experimental watersheds were instrumented in 2010, three on grassland sites and four on adjacent sites that were heavily encroached by eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the southern Great Plains, USA. Results showed that the runoff coefficient was 1.4 ± 0.6% in eastern redcedar encroached watersheds, significantly lower than 4.4 ± 0.7% in grassland watersheds for the four water years from 2011 to 2014. Eastern redcedar encroachment resulted in reduction of both surface and subsurface flows and the magnitude of reduction depended on annual precipitation. While there were nearly equal contributions between overland flow and subsurface flow, 87% of the total runoff from grassland watersheds occurred under saturated or nearly saturated soil condition, while 86% of runoff under encroached watersheds was generated under unsaturated soil condition, suggesting a shift from saturation excess overland flow to infiltration excess overland flow. These results permitted reconciliation of observed difference of streamflow responses associated with Juniperus spp. encroachment in the region and provided insights to better predict change in water resources under vegetation changes in subhumid regions of the south-central USA.

  10. Interactions of Woody Biofuel Feedstock Production Systems with Water Resources: Considerations for Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, Carl C. [US Forest Service Center for Forested Wetlands Research, Cordesville, SC (United States); Amatya, Devendra [US Forest Service Center for Forested Wetlands Research, Cordesville, SC (United States); Coleman, Mark [US Forest Service Center for Forested Wetlands Research, Cordesville, SC (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Finally, given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive.

  11. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  12. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (k(max)) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants' vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of k(max) are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of k(max) are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that k(max) declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in k(max) under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of k(max) were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining k(max) values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and

  13. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  14. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [SUNY ESF; Volk, Timothy [SUNY ESF

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  15. Long term effects of fire frequency and season on the woody vegetation dynamics of the Sclerocarya birrea/Acacia nigrescens savanna of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Enslin

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A lack of knowledge together with vacillating fire management approaches in the Kruger National Park until the mid 1950s, gave rise to a long term fire research experiment aimed at shedding light on savanna responses to various combinations of fire fre- quencies and seasons. This trial was laid out in 1954 in four of the six major vegetation zones of the park. With the future of the experiment now being reconsidered, full scale vegetation surveys have been conducted on all the plots and compared to the surveys done in 1954. This paper examines the woody vegetation responses to fourteen fire treatments in the Knobthorn/Marula savanna. Parameters of interest were woody species composition responses, together with tree & shrub density and structural changes. The results indicate that no significant changes in woody species had occurred for the peri- od 1954 vs 1998, while density decreased on biennial and increased on triennial treatments. The proportion of single stemmed plants increased over the period. Season of burn has a marked effect on structure, with April and August burns giving rise to the largest basal areas but the lowest heights. Environmental parameters such as climate, varying herbivory and differing soils, and their respective interactions on vegetation morphology, together with fire behaviour, further influenced results.

  16. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  17. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  18. Review on the decomposition and influence factors of coarse woody debris in forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Li-min; GU Hui-yan; ZHONG Lei

    2007-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important and particular component of forest ecosystems and is extremely important to forest health. This review describes the decomposition process, decomposition model and influence factors. CWD decomposition is a complex and continuous process and characterizes many biological and physical processes, including biological respiration, leaching, and fragmentation.All these processes have closed relationships between each other and work synergistically. During decomposition, there are many controlling factors mainly including site conditions (temperature, humidity, and O2/CO2 concentration), woody substrate quality (diameter, species and compound) and organism in CWD. The decomposition rate is generally expresses through a constant k which indicate the percent mass,volume or density loss over time, and can be determined by long-term monitoring, chronosequence approach and the radio between input and the total mass. Now using mathematical models to simulate decomposition patterns and estimate the decomposition rate is widely applied, especially the exponential model. We brought forward that managing and utilizing for the CWD in forest was a primary objective on all forest lands. And it is should be intensified to integrate many related research subjects and to carry a comprehensive, long-term and multi-scale research which mainly focus on seven sections.

  19. Suitable utilization of woody plants for hibitation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been investigating the usefulness of woody plants for habitation on Mars. During our research, we have found that woody plants have several properties which can be utilized for therapy and materials for enrage and construction even on Mars. Japanese people traditionally believe that "Bonsai" have therapeudic properties. Trees can become carbon fuel which can be used as energy on Mars. Tree materials could be used as a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as for the purification and/or separation of solutions in an environment in space. Here, we will show some results of their abilities, the water leakage and vacuum seal test, separation of solutions using carbon materials made from trees. At the initiation of this research, we named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments "CosmoBon", small bonsai tree. To establish our research, as the first step, we will try to do the experiment using "CosmoBon".

  20. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  1. Spatial vegetation patterns and neighborhood competition among woody plants in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Justin; Augustine, David J; Hanan, Niall P; Ratnam, Jayashree; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    The majority of research on savanna vegetation dynamics has focused on the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation. Interactions among woody plants in savannas are relatively poorly understood. We present data from a 10-yr longitudinal study of spatially explicit growth patterns of woody vegetation in an East African savanna following exclusion of large herbivores and in the absence of fire. We examined plant spatial patterns and quantified the degree of competition among woody individuals. Woody plants in this semiarid savanna exhibit strongly clumped spatial distributions at scales of 1-5 m. However, analysis of woody plant growth rates relative to their conspecific and heterospecific neighbors revealed evidence for strong competitive interactions at neighborhood scales of up to 5 m for most woody plant species. Thus, woody plants were aggregated in clumps despite significantly decreased growth rates in close proximity to neighbors, indicating that the spatial distribution of woody plants in this region depends on dispersal and establishment processes rather than on competitive, density-dependent mortality. However, our documentation of suppressive effects of woody plants on neighbors also suggests a potentially important role for tree-tree competition in controlling vegetation structure and indicates that the balanced-competition hypothesis may contribute to well-known patterns in maximum tree cover across rainfall gradients in Africa. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Concept and Classification of Coarse Woody Debris in Forest Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Enrong; Wang Xihua; Huang Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is generally considered as dead woody materials in various stages of decomposition,including sound and rotting logs,snags,and large branches.CWD is an important functional and structural component of forested ecosystems and plays an important role in nutrient cycling,long-term carbon storage,tree regeneration,and maintenance of heterogeneous environmental and biological diversity.However,the definition and classification of CWD have been the subject of a long debate in forest ecology.CWD has not been precisely defined.Recently,with the rapid development of landscape ecology in CWD,the USDA Forest Service and the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)have provided a standardized definition and classification for CWD,which makes data comparison in landscape scale possible.Important characteristics of their definition include:(1) a minimum diameter (or an equivalent crosssection) of CWD≥10 cm at the widest point (the woody debris with a diameter from 1 to 10 cm should be defined as fine woody debris,and the rest is litterfall);and (2) sound and rotting logs,snags,stumps,and large branches (located above the soil),and coarse root debris (larger than 1 cm in diameter).This classification has greatly facilitated CWD studies.Therefore,it has been widely applied in some countries (particularly in North America).However,this classification has long been a source of confusion for forest ecologists in China.Furthermore,different definitions and criteria are still adopted in individual studies,which makes the interpretation and generalization of their work difficult.This article reviewed recent progress in classifying CWD,with an emphasis on introducing the classification system of the USDA Forest Service and the LTER.It is expected that this review will help facilitate the development of standardized definition and classification suitable to forest ecosystems in China.

  3. The ‘unreel’ in Woody Allen’s Zelig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nas

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available By presenting Zelig (1983 in the form of a historical documentary using archival film footage, film - director Woody Allen breaks down the conventional distinction between documentary and fiction film. Through metacinematic self-consciousness Zelig hybridly 'chameleonizes’ recorded historical 'truth' exposing this truth to be ‘unreal’: it explodes the notion of the cinematic ‘real’, turning it into the ‘unreel’.

  4. Reuse of Woody Biomass Ash Waste in Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Vrbos, N.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the reuse of ash waste from biomass combustion, being a sustainable source of energy. This paper investigates the partial replacement of cement and sand in building materials with fly ash waste generated from combustion of woody biomass waste. The results show that the ash widens the particle size distribution of cement and has minerals complementary to portland cement, thus justifying its application as cement replacement, but with a relatively high amoun...

  5. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  6. [Research advance in seed germination of desert woody plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Wu, Jian-guo; Liu, Yan-hong

    2007-02-01

    This paper reviewed the research methods of desert woody plants seed germination, and the effects of internal and external ecological factors on it. Most researchers use incubator and artificial climate chamber to dispose the seeds, while field investigation was few involved. Seed dormancy is the important physiological factor affecting germination, while seed size, mass and color are closely correlated with its maturity and vigor. The poor permeability of seed capsule is a barrier that restrains the germination, which can be weakened or eliminated by shaving, cutting, treating with low temperature, and dipping in chemical reagent, etc. Seed water content has a close correlation with its storage life and water-absorbing capability. Suitable temperature is the prerequisite of seed germination, while changing temperature can accelerate the germination. Soil moisture content is a limiting factor, while illumination is not so essential to the seed germination of most desert woody plants. Sand-burying plays an important role in the seed germination through regulating illumination, temperature, and soil moisture content. Salinity stress restrains the seed germination of desert woody plants observably. In further studies, the effects of multi-factors and the eco-physiological and molecular biological mechanisms of germination should be more concerned.

  7. Renewable energy benefits with conversion of woody residues to pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giacomo, G.; Taglieri, L. [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Monteluco di Roio, I-67040 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    In the frame of an Interreg IIIC Network-Operation named RegEnergy, that unites 18 partners from 11 countries of Europe, the feasibility of using the woody by-products for heating purpose in a typical Mediterranean region was investigated. Focusing on the Abruzzo Region as representative sample area, it came out that a significant amount of the above mentioned renewable energetic material is annually available as a consequence of well-consolidated and economically significant agro-industrial activities, forest maintenance and industrial wood production and transformation. In particular, it was found that the total amount of woody residues, as dry substance, are more than 700 kt/a, with 30% resulting from pruning activities related to the cultivation of about 360 km{sup 2} of vineyards and 450 km{sup 2} of olive-groves; these residues are concentrated in the hilly part of the region close to the Adriatic sea coast. Starting by this pleasant situation, the feasibility of a properly localized wood pellets production plant was supported by both the economic and energetic analysis. Additional suggestions related to optimal plant localization and to the best use of the woody pellets as substitute of natural gas for heating purposes were reported along with the positive impact of the whole action on the quality of the environment and on the recovery of soil fertility. (author)

  8. High temperature air-blown woody biomass gasification model for the estimation of an entrained down-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobusuke; Tanaka, Miku; Piao, Guilin; Kobayashi, Jun; Hatano, Shigenobu; Itaya, Yoshinori; Mori, Shigekatsu

    2009-01-01

    A high temperature air-blown gasification model for woody biomass is developed based on an air-blown gasification experiment. A high temperature air-blown gasification experiment on woody biomass in an entrained down-flow gasifier is carried out, and then the simple gasification model is developed based on the experimental results. In the experiment, air-blown gasification is conducted to demonstrate the behavior of this process. Pulverized wood is used as the gasification fuel, which is injected directly into the entrained down-flow gasifier by the pulverized wood banner. The pulverized wood is sieved through 60 mesh and supplied at rates of 19 and 27kg/h. The oxygen-carbon molar ratio (O/C) is employed as the operational condition instead of the air ratio. The maximum temperature achievable is over 1400K when the O/C is from 1.26 to 1.84. The results show that the gas composition is followed by the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. Therefore, the air-blown gasification model is developed based on the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. The simple gasification model agrees well with the experimental results. From calculations in large-scale units, the cold gas is able to achieve 80% efficiency in the air-blown gasification, when the woody biomass feedrate is over 1000kg/h and input air temperature is 700K.

  9. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  10. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  11. Optimization of the basal medium for improving production and secretion of taxanes from suspension cell culture of Taxus baccata L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajani Abolghasem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study Taxol is one of the most effective anticancer drugs that isolated from Taxus sp. due to the slow growth of Taxus trees and low concentration of Taxol in the tissues, the biotechnological approaches especially plant cell culture have been considered to produce Taxol in commercial scale. Methods We investigated the effects of basal medium type used in culture media on production of Taxol and other taxane compounds from cell suspension culture of T. baccata L. Briefly, five commonly basal media including Gamborg, Murashige and Skoog, Woody Plant, Schenk and Hildebrandt, and Driver and Kuniyuki medium were used for preparing separate suspension culture media. The intra- and extra-cellular yields of taxanes were analyzed by using HPLC after 21 days period of culturing. Results The yields of taxanes were significantly different for the cultures prepared by different basal media. Moreover, the effects of basal medium on the yield of products differed for varius taxane compounds. Maximum yields of Baccatin III (10.03 mgl-1 and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (4.2 mgl-1 were achieved from the DKW basal media, but the yield of Taxol was maximum (16.58 mgl-1 in the WPM basal media. Furthermore, the secretion of taxanes from the cells into medium was also considerably affected by the type of basal medium. The maximum extra-cellular yield of Taxol (7.81 mgl-1, Baccatin III (5.0 mgl-1, and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (1.45 mgl-1 were also obtained by using DKW basal medium that were significantly higher than those obtained from other culture media.

  12. Optimization of the basal medium for improving production and secretion of taxanes from suspension cell culture of Taxus baccata L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study Taxol is one of the most effective anticancer drugs that isolated from Taxus sp. due to the slow growth of Taxus trees and low concentration of Taxol in the tissues, the biotechnological approaches especially plant cell culture have been considered to produce Taxol in commercial scale.MethodsWe investigated the effects of basal medium type used in culture media on production of Taxol and other taxane compounds from cell suspension culture of T. baccata L. Briefly, five commonly basal media including Gamborg, Murashige and Skoog, Woody Plant, Schenk and Hildebrandt, and Driver and Kuniyuki medium were used for preparing separate suspension culture media. The intra- and extra-cellular yields of taxanes were analyzed by using HPLC after 21 days period of culturing.ResultsThe yields of taxanes were significantly different for the cultures prepared by different basal media. Moreover, the effects of basal medium on the yield of products differed for varius taxane compounds. Maximum yields of Baccatin III (10.03 mgl-1 and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (4.2 mgl-1 were achieved from the DKW basal media, but the yield of Taxol was maximum (16.58 mgl-1 in the WPM basal media. Furthermore, the secretion of taxanes from the cells into medium was also considerably affected by the type of basal medium. The maximum extra-cellular yield of Taxol (7.81 mgl-1, Baccatin III (5.0 mgl-1, and 10-deacetyl baccatin III (1.45 mgl-1 were also obtained by using DKW basal medium that were significantly higher than those obtained from other culture media.

  13. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  14. Woody encroachment over 70 years in South African savannahs: overgrazing, global change or extinction aftershock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nicola; Erasmus, B F N; Archibald, S; Bond, W J

    2016-09-19

    Woody encroachment in 'open' biomes like grasslands and savannahs is occurring globally. Both local and global drivers, including elevated CO2, have been implicated in these increases. The relative importance of different processes is unresolved as there are few multi-site, multi-land-use evaluations of woody plant encroachment. We measured 70 years of woody cover changes over a 1020 km(2) area covering four land uses (commercial ranching, conservation with elephants, conservation without elephants and communal rangelands) across a rainfall gradient in South African savannahs. Different directions of woody cover change would be expected for each different land use, unless a global factor is causing the increases. Woody cover change was measured between 1940 and 2010 using the aerial photo record. Detection of woody cover from each aerial photograph was automated using eCognitions' Object-based image analysis (OBIA). Woody cover doubled in all land uses across the rainfall gradient, except in conservation areas with elephants in low-rainfall savannahs. Woody cover in 2010 in low-rainfall savannahs frequently exceeded the maximum woody cover threshold predicted for African savannahs. The results indicate that a global factor, of which elevated CO2 is the likely candidate, may be driving encroachment. Elephants in low-rainfall savannahs prevent encroachment and localized megafaunal extinction is a probable additional cause of encroachment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  15. Analysis of the pattern of potential woody cover in Texas savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuebin; Crews, Kelley A.; Yan, Bowei

    2016-10-01

    While woody plant encroachment has been observed worldwide in savannas and adversely affected the ecosystem structure and function, a thorough understanding of the nature of this phenomenon is urgently required for savanna management and restoration. Among others, potential woody cover (the maximum realizable woody cover that a given site can support), especially its variation over environment has huge implication on the encroachment management in particular, and on tree-grass interactions in general. This project was designed to explore the pattern of potential woody cover in Texas savanna, an ecosystem with a large rainfall gradient in west-east direction. Substantial random pixels were sampled across the study area from MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) tree cover layer (250 m). Since potential woody cover is suggested to be limited by water availability, a nonlinear 99th quantile regression was performed between the observed woody cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP) to model the pattern of potential woody cover. Research result suggests a segmented relationship between potential woody cover and MAP at MODIS scale. Potential biases as well as the practical and theoretical implications were discussed. Through this study, the hypothesis about the primary role of water availability in determining savanna woody cover was further confirmed in a relatively understudied US-located savanna.

  16. The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, Henk J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia and their relationships with the thalamocortical system. The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits. These circuits support a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional-motivational brain functions. A main role of the basal ganglia is the learning and selection of the mos...

  17. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  18. Species screening and biomass trials of woody plants in the semi-arid Southwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirmse, R.D.; Fisher, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Species screening and selection trials are being conducted to identify appropriate woody species and technology for biofuel farming in the southwest United States. During the initial phase of the program, 26 native and exotic species have been tested at sites in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Second season biomass estimates indicate that initial yields of 3.2-8.5 dry Mg ha/sup -1/ year/sup -1/ are possible without post-establishment irrigation. The species Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt., Prosopis alba Griseb. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit reached canopy closure within two seasons of growth and are identified as rapid initial biomass producers under the semi-arid conditions of the study area. (author).

  19. Rapid and solvent-saving liquefaction of woody biomass using microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zexiang; Wu, Zhengguo; Fan, Liwei; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Yiqiang; Zheng, Deyong; Wang, Siqun

    2016-01-01

    A novel process to rapidly liquefy sawdust using reduced quantities of solvent, was successfully carried out via microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology (MUAT) in a sulphuric acid/polyethylene glycol 400-glycerol catalytic system. The influences of some key parameters on the liquefaction yield were investigated. The results showed that compared with traditional liquefaction, the introduction of MUAT allowed the solvent dosage to be halved and shortened the liquefaction time from 60 to 20 min. The liquefaction yield reached 91% under the optimal conditions. However, the influence on the yield of some parameters such as catalyst concentration, was similar to that of traditional liquefaction, indicating that the application of MUAT possibly only intensified heat and mass transfer rather than altering either the degradation mechanism or pathway. The introduction of MUAT as a process intensification technology has good industrial application potential for woody biomass liquefaction.

  20. An empirical test of Woody and Bowers's dissociated-control theory of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Graham A; Sheehan, Peter W

    2004-07-01

    Woody and Bowers's dissociated-control theory predicts impaired performance on tasks indexing frontally mediated supervisory attentional functions during hypnosis, especially for high susceptibles. This prediction is tested using Stroop task behavioral performance to measure aspects of anterior-mediated supervisory attentional function. All measures of anterior-mediated attentional functions significantly declined during hypnosis. Interactions be-tween susceptibility and hypnosis condition showed specific changes among hypnotized high susceptibles. Total Stroop errors (failures of attentional suppression) were significantly higher in hypnosis for high, but not low, susceptibles. Tellegen's experiential mental set was highest for hypnotized highs. Use of rehearsal strategy (instrumental set) decreased significantly in hypnosis but more so for highs than lows. Results suggest that "absorption" in hypnosis may be a consequence of dissociated anterior attentional control. It is proposed that dissociated control emerges from the functional disconnection of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

  1. Managing woody bamboos for carbon farming and carbon trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jyoti Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on identifying cost-effective managed ecosystems that can substantially remove atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2 while providing essential societal benefits has gained momentum since the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. Carbon farming allows farmers and investors to generate tradable carbon offsets from farmlands and forestry projects through carbon trading. Carbon trading is pertinent to climate negotiations by decelerating the climate change phenomenon. Thus, the objective of this article is to describe the potential of woody bamboos in biomass carbon storage and as an option for carbon farming and carbon trading. Bamboo is an important agroforestry and forest plant managed and used by the rural communities in several countries of the Asia-Pacific region for generating diverse economic and socio-environmental needs. Mean carbon storage and sequestration rate in woody bamboos range from 30–121 Mg ha−1 and 6–13 Mg ha−1  yr−1, respectively. Bamboo has vigorous growth, with completion of the growth cycle between 120 and 150 days. Because of its rapid biomass accumulation and effective fixation of CO2, it has a high carbon sequestration capacity. Over and above the high biomass carbon storage, bamboo also has a high net primary productivity (12–26 Mg ha−1  yr−1 even with regular selective harvesting, thus making it a standing carbon stock and a living ecosystem that continues to grow. Despite its high potential in carbon storage and sequestration and its important role in livelihood of millions of rural poor’s worldwide, prospects of bamboo ecosystems in CDM (Clean Development Mechanism and REDD (Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes remain to be explored. Thus, there is an urgent need to recognize ecosystem services that woody bamboo provides for well-being of rural communities and nature conservancy. Present synthesis suggests that bamboo offers tremendous opportunity for carbon farming and

  2. Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael [CRC Development, LLC, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    CRC Development LLC is pursuing commercialization of shrub willow crops to evaluate and confirm estimates of yield, harvesting, transportation and renewable energy conversion costs and to provide a diverse resource in its supply portfolio.The goal of Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops is supply expansion in Central New York to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops as part of the mix of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts. CRC Development LLC established the first commercial willow biomass plantation acreage in North America was established on the Tug Hill in the spring of 2006 and expanded in 2007. This was the first 230- acres toward the goal of 10,000 regional acres. This project replaces some 2007-drought damaged acreage and installs a total of 630-acre new planting acres in order to demonstrate to regional agricultural producers and rural land-owners the economic vitality of closed loop short rotation woody biomass energy crops when deployed commercially in order to motivate new grower entry into the market-place. The willow biomass will directly help stabilize the fuel supply for the Lyonsdale Biomass facility, which produces 19 MWe of power and exports 15,000 pph of process steam to Burrows Paper. This project will also provide feedstock to The Biorefinery in New York for the manufacture of renewable, CO2-neutral liquid transportation fuels, chemicals and polymers. This project helps end dependency on imported fossil fuels, adds to region economic and environmental vitality and contributes to national security through improved energy independence.

  3. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  4. Distributed Modeling Reveals the Ecohydrological Dynamics Linked with Woody Plant Encroachment in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, N. A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Anderson, C.; Saripalli, S.; Robles-Morua, A.

    2012-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment is an important issue facing semiarid ecosystems in the southwestern United States that is associated with grazing pressures, fire suppression, and the invasion of shrub species into historical grasslands. In this study, we present observational and distributed modeling activities conducted in two small rangeland watersheds of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, Arizona. This Sonoran Desert landscape is representative of the vegetation shift from grasslands to a woody savanna due to the encroachment of velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina). The paired basins are similar in size and in close proximity, leading to equivalent meteorological and soil conditions. Nevertheless, they vary substantially in mesquite cover, with one basin having undergone a removal treatment several decades ago, while the other watershed represents the regional encroachment process. This distinction presents an excellent case study for analyzing the effects of mesquite encroachment on dryland ecohydrological dynamics. Observational datasets are obtained from a high-resolution environmental sensor network consisting of six rain gauges, twenty-one soil moisture and temperature profiles, five channel runoff flumes and an eddy covariance tower with a complete set of radiation, energy, carbon and water fluxes. In addition, high-resolution digital terrain models and image orthomosaics were obtained from a piloted aircraft with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) measurements and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a digital camera. These two remote sensing platforms allowed characterizing the topography, stream network and plant species distributions at a high resolution (<1 m) in both basins. Using the sensor network, we present comparative analyses of watershed rainfall-runoff transformation in the paired basins, illustrating the role that mesquite trees have in runoff generation at the two outlet flumes. We further explore the impact of mesquite trees on the soil

  5. Botryosphaeria dothidea: a latent pathogen of global importance to woody plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsberg, Angelica; Kemler, Martin; Jami, Fahimeh; Nagel, Jan H; Postma-Smidt, Alisa; Naidoo, Sanushka; Wingfield, Michael J; Crous, Pedro W; Spatafora, Joseph W; Hesse, Cedar N; Robbertse, Barbara; Slippers, Bernard

    2017-05-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. Its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name B. dothidea. This pathogen profile synthesizes the current understanding of B. dothidea pertaining to its distribution, host associations and role as a pathogen in managed and natural woody environments. The prolonged latent infection or endophytic phase is of particular importance, as it implies that the fungus can easily pass undetected by quarantine systems in traded living plants, fruits and other plant parts. Infections typically become obvious only under conditions of host stress, when disease symptoms develop. This study also considers the knowledge emerging from the recently sequenced B. dothidea genome, elucidating previously unknown aspects of the species, including mating and host infection strategies. Despite more than 150 years of research on B. dothidea, there is clearly much to be learned regarding this global tree pathogen. This is increasingly important given the stresses imposed on various woody hosts as a result of climate change. Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr) Ces. & De Not, 1863. Kingdom Fungi, Phylum Ascomycota, Class Dothideomycetes, Order Botryosphaeriales, Family Botryosphaeriaceae, Genus Botryosphaeria, Species dothidea. Confirmed on more than 24 host genera, including woody plants, such as Acacia (= Vachellia), Eucalyptus, Vitis and Pistachio. Associated with twig, branch and stem cankers, tip and branch dieback, fruit rot, blue stain and plant death. The Botryosphaeria site for detailed morphological descriptions (http

  6. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  7. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  8. Extension of apparent devolatilization kinetics from thermally thin to thermally thick particles in zero dimensions for woody biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim M.; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional heat transport model coupled with a drying and a devolatilization model. The model output has been used to generate pyrolysis kinetics corrected for non-isothermal effects, i.e. intraparticle heat transport limitations. Analysis of the modeling results indicate that heat transport corrections of even....... This approach allows for significantly more accurate devolatilization predictions of any particle size distribution to be described by simple kinetic mechanisms and isothermal particle heat balances. Such an approach is easily implemented into most commercial CFD (computationalfluid dynamics) codes without......This work aims to provide an accurate and simple model, predicting the time dependent devolatilization of woody biomass at conditions (Tgas

  9. Woody plants in dry sands : life history traits and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304849324

    2010-01-01

    Inland dune ecosystems are harsh environment for long-lived woody plants because of poor water and nutrient availability and frequent sand. As a result, long-lived woody plants have a high risk of being killed by sand movement or a long period of drought and this may occur even before they reach rep

  10. Pathogenicity and virulence of the two Dutch VCGs of Verticillium dahliae to woody ornamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in two consecutive years to test whether isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differ in their ability to cause disease in woody ornamentals, to study the host specificity of the isolates and to get an insight into disease development in woody

  11. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  12. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: considerations for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Devendra Amatya; Mark Coleman

    2008-01-01

    Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and...

  13. Woody encroachment in northern Great Plains grasslands: Perceptions, actions, and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy; Leis, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Northern Great Plains (NGP) has a high potential for landscape-scale conservation, but this grassland landscape is threatened by encroachment of woody species. We surveyed NGP land managers to identify patterns in, and illustrate a broad range of, individual managers' perceptions on (1) the threat of woody encroachment to grasslands they manage, and (2) what management practices they use that may influence woody encroachment in this region. In the 34 surveys returned, which came from predominantly public lands in the study area, 79% of responses reported moderate or substantial woody encroachment. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) were the most problematic encroachers. Thirty-one survey respondents said that prescribed fire was used on the lands they manage, and 64% of these responses reported that controlling woody encroachment was a fire management objective. However, only 18% of survey respondents using prescribed fire were achieving their desired fire return interval. Most respondents reported using mechanical and/or chemical methods to control woody species. In contrast to evidence from the central and southern Great Plains, few survey respondents viewed grazing as affecting encroachment. Although the NGP public land managers we surveyed clearly recognize woody encroachment as a problem and are taking steps to address it, many feel that the rate of their management is not keeping pace with the rate of encroachment. Developing strategies for effective woody plant control in a variety of NGP management contexts requires filling ecological science gaps and overcoming societal barriers to using prescribed fire.

  14. Woody plants in dry sands : life history traits and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.

    2010-01-01

    Inland dune ecosystems are harsh environment for long-lived woody plants because of poor water and nutrient availability and frequent sand. As a result, long-lived woody plants have a high risk of being killed by sand movement or a long period of drought and this may occur even before they reach

  15. Characterization of fast pyrolysis products generated from several western USA woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline M. Jarvis; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Yuri Corilo; Ryan P. Rodgers

    2014-01-01

    Woody biomass has the potential to be utilized at an alternative fuel source through its pyrolytic conversion. Here, fast pyrolysis bio-oils derived from several western USA woody species are characterized by negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) to determine molecular-level composition. The...

  16. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  17. Diversity and structure of woody vegetation across areas with different soils in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Goza, D.; Mashapa, C.; Muboko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of edaphic factors in influencing woody vegetation diversity and structure in savannas, there is still limited research on the topic across most savanna ecosystems. Here we investigate the differences and/or similarities of woody vegetation diversity and structure across areas

  18. Diversity and structure of woody vegetation across areas with different soils in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Goza, D.; Mashapa, C.; Muboko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of edaphic factors in influencing woody vegetation diversity and structure in savannas, there is still limited research on the topic across most savanna ecosystems. Here we investigate the differences and/or similarities of woody vegetation diversity and structure across areas

  19. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  20. Genetic landmarks through philately: Woodrow Wilson 'Woody' Guthrie and Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, A M; Chudley, A E

    2002-04-01

    This brief account of Woody Guthrie is instructive to clinical geneticists. It tells the story of one famous man's understanding of, and struggle with, Huntington's disease. The philatelic illustration depicts Woody Guthrie playing his guitar in the years before advancement of the disease.

  1. Hyper-temporal c-band SAR for baseline woody structural assessments in deciduous savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathieu, Renaud SA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ) in generating large-scale woody resources maps. Using airborne LiDAR as calibration, we investigated the relationships between hyper-temporal C-band ASAR data and woody structural parameters, namely total canopy cover (TCC) and total canopy volume (TCV), in a...

  2. A review of pathologies associated with high T1W signal intensity in the basal ganglia on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ga...

  3. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  4. Allelopathic Effects of Invasive Woody Plant Species in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSISZÁR, Ágnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy may play an important role in the invasion success of adventive plant species.The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive woody plant species occurringin Hungary. Juglone index of fourteen invasive woody plant species in Hungary was determined by themethod of Szabó (1997, comparing the effects of juglone and substance extracted of plant species withunknown allelopathic potential on the germination rate, shoot length and rooth length of white mustard(Sinapis alba L. used as receiver species. Results have proven a more or less expressed allelopathicpotential in case of all species. The juglone index at higher concentration extracts (5 g dry plant materialextracted with 100 ml distilled water of almost every studied species approaches to 1 or is above 1, thismeans the effect of the extracts is similar to juglone or surpasses it. In terms of juglone index, theallelopathic potential of false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L., tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.Swingle and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. were the highest. Besides these species the treatment withthe extracts of black walnut (Juglans nigra L., black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. and green ash(Fraxinus pennsylvanica MARSH. var. subintegerrima (Vahl Fern. reduced extremely significantly thegermination rate, shoot and root length, compared to the control.

  5. Diversity, regeneration status and population structure of gum- and resin-bearing woody species in south Omo zone, southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhamed Adem; Adefires Worku; Mulugeta Lemenih; Wubalem Tadesse; Jürgen Pretzsch

    2014-01-01

    South Omo Administrative Zone in Ethiopia is home to 18 indigenous ethnic groups whose livelihood is vulnerable due to recurrent drought and degradation. Despite the preliminary observation showing the rich dry-forest resource base that, if sustainably managed could enhance livelihoods and biodiversity conservation, there is lack of empirical data on its current status. We conducted a study aiming at quantifying the population status of gum- and resin-bearing species in two randomly selected districts, Hamer and Bena-Tsemay. Seventy-five quadrats (35 at Hamer and 40 at Bena-Tsemay) each measuring 400 m2 were established along line transects to assess species diversity and equitability, density, frequency, dominance, importance value and population structure. We recorded a total of 27 woody species of 12 families and 14 genera. Fifteen species (9 at Hamer and 14 at Bena-Tsemay) of the genera Acacia, Boswellia, Commiphora and Sterculia, were identified as either major sources of commercial gums and resins or their adulterants. Gum-and resin-bearing species comprised 56%and 57%of species richness, 48%and 50%of total density per ha, 95%and 98%of basal area, and 64%and 56%of importance values at Hamer and Bena-Tsemay, respectively. Diversity of the entire woody species assemblage and of the gum- and resin-bearing species was slightly higher at Bena-Tsemay (H=2.61, 1.4) than at Hamer (H′=2.48, 1.28), respectively. The diversity and abundance of the resource base suggest potential for development of value-added commercialization of gum and resins to enhance livelihoods and encourage sustainable management of the forest at these study areas. We recorded, however, declining natural regeneration of most gum- and resin-bearing species, and this calls for integrated and participatory species management and landscape rehabilitation.

  6. An Integrated Assessment of Basal Scattering and Topographic Roughness Information Derived from Greenland Radar-Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet-chaulet, F.; Jordan, T.; Cooper, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Schroeder, D. M.; Williams, C.; Paden, J. D.; Siegert, M. J.; Huybrechts, P.; Gagliardini, O.; Price, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the basal roughness of ice sheets is important for understanding and constraining the role of basal traction on ice dynamics. Numerical model simulations demonstrate high sensitivity to the parametrisation of the lower boundary condition, which is governed by both basal roughness and the thermal state of the bed. In terms of ice dynamics history, basal roughness can reveal aspects of past behaviour as well as provide insight towards more recent flow distribution of marine sediments. Basal roughness information, defined here in general terms as the irregularity of the basal interface relative to a reference surface, can be obtained from radar-sounding data in two physically different ways. Firstly, via the statistical properties of along-track topography (e.g. from spectral analysis); and secondly via the electromagnetic scattering properties of the radar pulse (e.g. by quantifying the spread of the distribution of scattered energy). In general, the basal roughness of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been little studied, and the vast increase in recent Operation Ice Bridge radar-sounding data presents an opportunity for comprehensive, quantitative ice-sheet-wide analysis. Here we present a synthesis of basal scattering and topographic based roughness information for the Greenland Ice Sheet, along with a comparison to present day numerical model output including ice velocity, basal traction, and basal temperature. One central topic which we address is the scale dependence of basal roughness information that is inferred from both analysis methods, and the relationship with basal sliding physics. Consideration of scale is important since basal sliding is primarily controlled by higher frequency roughness. The other topic that we consider is identifying whether there are any defined and unambiguous roughness characteristics in regions where there is suspected to be a thawed basal interface. An overall goal of this work is to integrate basal roughness information

  7. Effects of woody species encroachment and fire on the soil seed bank of Transylvanian dry basiphilous grasslands - perspectives for their restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görzen, Eugen; Borisova, Karina; Ruprecht, Eszter; Fenesi, Annamária; Lukács, Katalin; Bertram, Anna; Donath, Tobias W.

    2017-04-01

    Background: Semi-natural dry basiphilous grasslands in the Transylvanian Basin of Romania are among the most species-rich grasslands worldwide and protected according to the Habitats Directive of the European Union. They evolved in response to human impact over millennia (grazing and cutting) and to prevailing environmental conditions. Currently, they are under threat due to land use changes: abandonment and intensification of sheep farming. As soon as the management of the grassland ceases, litter accumulation begins, followed by the invasion and establishment of native and non-native shrubs and trees. In order to halt secondary succession, the deliberate burning of shrub-encroached grasslands has progressively been applied. Questions: The establishment of woody species in grassland as well as the application of fire management to prevent the further spread of shrubs has recently increased in Transylvania. Still, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and the specific effects of encroachment by native and non-native woody species as well as fire on plant species and functional diversity of these grasslands. Likewise, there is a lack in efficient measures in Transylvania to restore grassland already invaded by woody plants. Consequently, we ask: (i) In which ways does woody species encroachment affect plant species and functional diversity, (ii) do native and non-native woody species differ with respect to their impact on grassland species composition and structure, (iii) is controlled burning a useful management tool to control shrub encroachment and to preserve biodiversity of these grasslands, and (iv) can soil seed banks contribute to the restoration of dry basiphilous grasslands in Transylvania? Methods: We collected data on plant species richness, composition and structure, topsoil conditions and soil seed bank composition in 16 shrub encroached grassland sites in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania, from June to August 2016. We compared uninvaded

  8. Large woody debris input and its influence on channel structure in agricultural lands of Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Felipe Rossetti; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Gerhard, Pedro; Vettorazzi, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Anderson

    2011-10-01

    Riparian forests are important for the structure and functioning of stream ecosystems, providing structural components such as large woody debris (LWD). Changes in these forests will cause modifications in the LWD input to streams, affecting their structure. In order to assess the influence of riparian forests changes in LWD supply, 15 catchments (third and fourth order) with riparian forests at different conservation levels were selected for sampling. In each catchment we quantified the abundance, volume and diameter of LWD in stream channels; the number, area and volume of pools formed by LWD and basal area and tree diameter of riparian forest. We found that riparian forests were at a secondary successional stage with predominantly young trees (diameter at breast height diameter of riparian forest differed between the stream groups (forested and non-forested), but tree density did not differ between groups. Differences were also observed in LWD abundance, volume, frequency of LWD pools with subunits and area and volume of LWD pools. LWD diameter, LWD that form pools diameter and frequency of LWD pools without subunits did not differ between stream groups. Regression analyses showed that LWD abundance and volume, and frequency of LWD pools (with and without subunits) were positively related with the proportion of riparian forest. LWD diameter was not correlated to riparian tree diameter. The frequency of LWD pools was correlated to the abundance and volume of LWD, but characteristics of these pools (area and volume) were not correlated to the diameter of LWD that formed the pools. These results show that alterations in riparian forest cause modifications in the LWD abundance and volume in the stream channel, affecting mainly the structural complexity of these ecosystems (reduction in the number and structural characteristics of LWD pools). Our results also demonstrate that riparian forest conservation actions must consider not only its extension, but also

  9. Woody species composition, diversity and structure of riparian forests of four watercourses types in Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oumarou Sambaré; Fidèle Bognounou; Rüdiger Wittig; Adjima Thiombiano

    2011-01-01

    Riparian forests are classified as endangered ecosystems in general, particularly in sahelian countries like Burkina Faso because of human-induced alterations and civil engineering works. The modification of this important habitat is continuing, with little attention being paid to the ecological or human consequences of these changes. The objective of this study is to describe the variation of woody species diversity and dynamic in riparian forests on different type of watercourse banks along phytogeographical gradient in Burkina Faso. All woody species were systematically measured in 90 sample plots with sides of 50 m × 20 m.Density, dominance, frequency and species and family importance values were computed to characterize the species composition. Different diversity indices were calculated to examine the heterogeneity of riparian forests. A total of 196 species representing 139 genera and 51 families were recorded in the overall riparian forests. The species richness of individuals with dbh ≥ 5cm increased significantly from the North to the South along the phytogeographical gradient and varied significantly between the different types of riparian forests. Similarity in tree species composition between riparian forests was low, which indicates high beta diversity and reflects differences in habitat conditions and topography.The structural characteristics varied significantly along the phytogeographical gradient and between the different types of riparian forests.The diameter class distribution of trees in all riparian forests showed a reverse “J” shaped curve except riparian forest of stream indicating vegetation dominated by juvenile individuals. Considering the ecological importance of riparian forest, there is a need to delineate and classify them along watercourses throughout the country.

  10. Regional assessment of woody biomass physical availability as an energy feedstock for combined combustion in the US northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Patrick Miles; Stephen Shifley; Nianfu Song; Hank Stelzer

    2012-01-01

    Woody biomass is a renewable energy feedstock with the potential to reduce current use of nonrenewable fossil fuels. We estimated the physical availability of woody biomass for cocombustion at coal-fired electricity plants in the 20-state US northern region. First, we estimated the total amount of woody biomass needed to replace total annual coal-based electricity...

  11. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  12. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  13. Savannah woody structure modelling and mapping using multi-frequency (X-, C- and L-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Laven; Mathieu, Renaud; Main, Russell; Kleynhans, Waldo; Wessels, Konrad; Asner, Gregory; Leblon, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    Structural parameters of the woody component in African savannahs provide estimates of carbon stocks that are vital to the understanding of fuelwood reserves, which is the primary source of energy for 90% of households in South Africa (80% in Sub-Saharan Africa) and are at risk of over utilisation. The woody component can be characterised by various quantifiable woody structural parameters, such as tree cover, tree height, above ground biomass (AGB) or canopy volume, each been useful for different purposes. In contrast to the limited spatial coverage of ground-based approaches, remote sensing has the ability to sense the high spatio-temporal variability of e.g. woody canopy height, cover and biomass, as well as species diversity and phenological status - a defining but challenging set of characteristics typical of African savannahs. Active remote sensing systems (e.g. Light Detection and Ranging - LiDAR; Synthetic Aperture Radar - SAR), on the other hand, may be more effective in quantifying the savannah woody component because of their ability to sense within-canopy properties of the vegetation and its insensitivity to atmosphere and clouds and shadows. Additionally, the various components of a particular target's structure can be sensed differently with SAR depending on the frequency or wavelength of the sensor being utilised. This study sought to test and compare the accuracy of modelling, in a Random Forest machine learning environment, woody above ground biomass (AGB), canopy cover (CC) and total canopy volume (TCV) in South African savannahs using a combination of X-band (TerraSAR-X), C-band (RADARSAT-2) and L-band (ALOS PALSAR) radar datasets. Training and validation data were derived from airborne LiDAR data to evaluate the SAR modelling accuracies. It was concluded that the L-band SAR frequency was more effective in the modelling of the CC (coefficient of determination or R2 of 0.77), TCV (R2 of 0.79) and AGB (R2 of 0.78) metrics in Southern African

  14. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  15. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  16. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  18. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  19. Insulin pumps: Beyond basal-bolus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millstein, Richard; Becerra, Nancy Mora; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-01-01

    Insulin pumps are a major advance in diabetes management, making insulin dosing easier and more accurate and providing great flexibility, safety, and efficacy for people who need basal-bolus insulin therapy...

  20. Invasive alien woody plants of the Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 66% (151/230 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 64 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  Salix babylonica, Populus x  canescens, Acacia dealbata and  Salix fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle pers. comm . The most prominent species (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opunlia ficus-indica, Prunus persica, Eucalyptus spp..  Rosa eglanteria, Pyracantha angustifolia and Acacia dealbata.Little invasion was recorded for most of the province. The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded along the perennial rivers and rocky hillsides in the moist grassland of the eastern mountain region bordering on Lesotho and Natal.

  1. Ozone susceptibility of selected woody shrubs and vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1976-10-01

    Thirteen species of woody shrubs and vines were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone for 8 hours at biweekly intervals throughout the 1975 growing season. A different set of plants was utilized in each biweekly exposure. The most susceptible species was staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), followed in descending order of susceptibility by Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), Indian currant (coral berry) (Symphoricarpus orbiculatus), American elder (Sambucus canadensis), dwarf ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), redosier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), autumn olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), white snowberry (Symphoricarpus albus), bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and Morrow honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowi). The latter three species were very resistant. The most common symptom induced by ozone was a dark pigmented stipple on the upper leaf surface. The foliage of all species became increasingly resistant toward the end of the growing season.

  2. Hydrothermal fractionation of woody biomass: Lignin effect on sugars recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedro, Florencia M; Cantero, Danilo A; Pascual, Marcos; García-Serna, Juan; Cocero, M José

    2015-09-01

    Subcritical water was employed to fractionate woody biomass into carbohydrates and lignin. Nine urban trees species (hardwood and softwood) from Spain were studied. The experiments were carried out in a semi-continuous reactor at 250 °C for 64 min. The hemicellulose and cellulose recovery yields were between 30%wt. and 80%wt. while the lignin content in the solid product ranged between 32%wt. and 92%wt. It was observed that an increment of solubilized lignin disfavored the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. It was determined that the maximum extraction of hemicellulose was achieved at 20 min of solid reaction time while the extraction of celluloses not exhibited a maximum value. The hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose would be governed by the hydrolysis kinetic and the polymers accessibility. In addition, the extraction of hemicellulose was negatively affected by the lignin content in the raw material while cellulose hydrolysis was not affected by this parameter.

  3. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  4. Invasive alien woody plants of the Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 66% (151/230 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 64 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  Salix babylonica, Populus x  canescens, Acacia dealbata and  Salix fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle pers. comm . The most prominent species (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opunlia ficus-indica, Prunus persica, Eucalyptus spp..  Rosa eglanteria, Pyracantha angustifolia and Acacia dealbata.Little invasion was recorded for most of the province. The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded along the perennial rivers and rocky hillsides in the moist grassland of the eastern mountain region bordering on Lesotho and Natal.

  5. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosango, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  6. Woody biomass potential of the Chinese tallow tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheld, H.W.; Cowles, J.R.

    1981-10-01

    The Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb.) ia a rapid-growing species that has become naturalized along the Gulf and southern Atlantic coasts. The tree is particularly well adapted to poorly-drained and saline soils. Chinese tallow seedlings planted at 2' x 2' spacing produced over 5 dry tons of biomass/acre at the end of the second growing season, while the biomass accumulation on coppiced plots was more than 7 dry tons/acre at the end of the second year. The Chinese tallow tree has considerable promise as a woody biomass species in the southern coastal regions of the United States. 4 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  7. Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Woody Odorants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Goeke

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Woody odorants constitute an important olfactory family in perfumery[1]. Essential wood oils, traditionally being obtained by steam distillation of plant materials, are extensively being used in a variety of perfumes.Patchouli oil (e. g. in "Gentlemen", Givenchy), vetiver oil ("Vetiver", J. P. Guerlain) and cedar wood oil ("Déclaration", Cartier) are classics in this field. On the other hand, many terpenic hydrocarbons which are perse not particularly useful as perfume ingredients, have been functionalized in order to obtain more sophisticated scents. Javanol(R), Belambre(R), Ysamber K(R) and Ambrocenide(R) (prepared from pinene, camphor,logifolene and cedrene) are the names of potent and recently commercialized wood odorants. However, due to variable qualities of the natural starting materials, it has been an important task in fragrance research to find inexpensive but fully synthetic alternatives which, in light of the complexity of the structures, remains challenging. See Fig. 1.

  8. Invasive alien woody plants of the eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 69.9% (151/216 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 101 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opuntia ficus-indica, Acacia meamsii and A. cyclops. The most prominent species (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  A. meamsii, Populus x  canescens, Salix babylonica and  S. fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle.The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded in the wetter eastern parts and particularly in the vicinity of Port Elizabeth. Uitenhage, East London, Grahamstown, Hogsback and Stutterheim. There was relatively little invasion in the central and western dry interior except along watercourses.

  9. Geographical patterns in the beta diversity of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    with their environmental niches due to dispersal limitation induced by China’s topography and/or their low dispersal ability. The projected rapid climatic changes will likely endanger such species. Species dispersal processes should be taken into account in future conservation strategies in China.......Beta diversity (i.e. species turnover rate across space) is fundamental for understanding mechanisms controlling large-scale species richness patterns. However, the influences on beta diversity are still a matter of debate. In particular, the relative role of environmental and spatial processes (e.......g. environmental niche versus dispersal limitation of species) remains elusive, and the influence of species range size has been poorly tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11 405 woody species in China (ca 9.6 ¿ 106 km2), we investigated 1) the geographical and directional patterns of beta diversity for all...

  10. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  11. Biomarkers for Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Jennifer R.; Torsten O. Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification of breast cancer through identification of subtype-specific biomarkers. This review aims to present an in depth summary and analysis of the current status of basal...

  12. Relationship Between Woody Plant Colonization and Typha L. Encroachment in Stormwater Detention Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Priscilla Bocskor; Day, Susan D.; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa M.; Seiler, John R.

    2013-10-01

    We studied stormwater detention basins where woody vegetation removal was suspended for 2 years in Virginia, USA to determine if woody vegetation can control Typha populations and how early woody plant succession interacts with Typha, other herbaceous vegetation, and site factors. Distribution and composition of woody vegetation, Typha and non- Typha herbaceous vegetation biomass, and site factors were assessed at 100 plots in four basins ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. A greenhouse study examined the interaction of shade and soil moisture on Typha biomass and persistence. Principal component analysis identified an environmental gradient associated with greater water table depths and decreased elevation that favored Typha but negatively influenced woody vegetation. Elevation was correlated with litter layer distribution, suggesting that initial topography influences subsequent environmental characteristics and thus plant communities. Soil organic matter at 0-10 cm ranged from 5.4 to 12.7 %. Woody plants present were native species with the exception of Ailanthus altissima and Pyrus calleryana. In the greenhouse, shade and reduced soil moisture decreased Typha biomass and rhizome length. The shade effect was strongest in flooded plants and the soil moisture effect was strongest for plants in full sun. Typha in dry soil and heavy shade had 95 % less total biomass and 83 % smaller rhizomes than Typha in flooded soil and full sun, but even moderate soil moisture reductions decreased above- and below-ground biomass by 63 and 56 %, respectively. Suspending maintenance allows restoration of woody vegetation dominated by native species and may suppress Typha invasion.

  13. BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falster, Daniel; Duursma, Remko; Ishihara, Masae; Barneche, Diego; Fitzjohn, Richard; Varhammar, Angelica; Aiba, Masahiro; Ando, M.; Anten, Niels; Aspinwall, Michael J.; Baltzer, Jennifer; Baraloto, Christopher; Battaglia, Michael; Battles, John; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; van Breugel, Michiel; Camac, James; Claveau, Yves; Coll Mir, Llus; Dannoura, Dannoura; Delagrange, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Cristophe; Fatemi, Farrah; Feng, Wang; Gargaglione, Veronica; Goto, Yoshiaki; Hagihara, Akio; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hamilton, Steve; Harja, Degi; Hiura, Tsutom; Holdaway, Robert; Hutley, L. B.; Ichie, Tomoaki; Jokela, Eric; Kantola, Anu; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Kenzo, Tanaka; King, David A.; Kloeppel, Brian; Kohyama, Takashi; Komiyama, Akira; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Lusk, Christopher; Maguire, Doug; le Maire, Guerric; Makela, Annikki; Markesteijn, Lars; Marshall, John; McCulloh, Kate; Miyata, Itsuo; Mokany, Karen; Mori, Shigeta; Myster, Randall; Nagano, Masahiro; Naidu, Shawna; Nouvellon, Yann; O' Grady, Anthony; O' Hara, Kevin; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Osada, Noriyuki; Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Luis Peri, Pablo; Petritan, Mary; Poorter, Lourens; Portsmuth, Angelika; Potvin, Catherine; Ransijn, Johannes; Reid, Douglas; Ribeiro, Sabina C.; Roberts, Scott; Rodriguez, Rolando; Saldana-Acosta, Angela; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Sasa, Kaichiro; Gailia Selaya, Nadezhda; Sillett, Stephen; Sterck, Frank; Takagi, Kentaro; Tange, Takeshi; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Tissue, David; Umehara, Tohru; Utsugi, Hajime; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew; Valladares, Fernando; Vanninen, Petteri; Wang, Jian; Wenk, Elizabeth; Williams, Dick; Ximenes, Fabiano de Aquino; Yamaba, Atsushi; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamakura, Takuo; Yanai, Ruth; York, Robert

    2015-05-07

    Quantifying the amount of mass or energy invested in plant tissues is of fundamental interest across a range of disciplines, including ecology, forestry, ecosystem science, and climate change science (Niklas, 1994; Chave et al. 2005; Falster et al. 2011). The allocation of net primary production into different plant components is an important process affecting the lifetime of carbon in ecosystems, and resource use and productivity by plants (Cannell & Dewar, 1994; Litton et al. 2007; Poorter et al. 2012). While many studies in have destructively harvested woody plants in the name of science, most of these data have only been made available in the form of summary tables or figures included in publications. Until now, the raw data has resided piecemeal on the hard drives of individual scientists spread around the world. Several studies have gathered together the fitted (allometric) equations for separate datasets (Ter-Mikaelian & Korzukhin, 1997; Jenkins et al. 2003; Zianis et al. 2005; Henry et al. 2013), but none have previously attempted to organize and share the raw individual plant data underpinning these equations on a large scale. Gathered together, such data would represent an important resource for the community, meeting a widely recognised need for rich, open data resources to solve ecological problems (Costello et al. 2013; Fady et al. 2014; Harfoot & Roberts, 2014; Costello et al. 2013). We (D.S. Falster and R.A. Duursma, with the help of D.R. Barneche, R.G. FitzJohn and A. Vårhammar) set out to create such a resource, by asking authors directly whether they would be willing to make their raw data files freely available. The response was overwhelming: nearly everyone we contacted was interested to contribute their raw data. Moreover, we were invited to incorporate another compilation led by M. Ishihara and focussing on Japanese literature. As a result, we present BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants, comprising data collected in 174

  14. Woody crops conference 2013; Agrarholz-Kongress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Within the Guelzow expert discussions at 19th and 20th February 2013 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Research funding of the BMELV in the field of the production of woody crops (Andreas Schuette); (2) ELKE - Development of extensive concepts of land use for the production of renewable raw materials as possible compensatory measures and substitute measures (Frank Wegener); (3) Knowledge transfer to the realm of practice, experiences of the DLG (Frank Setzer); (4) Results of the tests with fast growing tree species after 18 years of cultivation in Guelzow (Andreas Gurgel); (5) Latest findings on the production of woody crops in Brandenburg (D. Murach); (6) Phytosanitary situation in short-rotation coppices in Germany - Current state of knowledge and prognoses for the future (Christiane Helbig); (7) Evaluation of alternative delivery procedures in short-rotation coppices (Janine Schweier); (8) With a short-rotation coppice shredder through Germany (Wolfram Kudlich); (9) Changes of land-use of traditional crops rotation systems to short-rotation coppices consisting of poplar trees and willow trees, which sites are suitable? - Selected results from the ProLoc association (Martin Hofmann); (10) Cultivation of populus tremula for short-rotation coppices at agricultural areas (Mirko Liesebach); (11) Investigations of the resistance behaviour of newly developed black poplar clones and balsam poplar clones against the poplar leave rust Melampsora larici-populina (Christina Fey-Wagner); (12) A agri-forestry system for ligneous energy production in the organic farming - First results from cultivation experiments in Bavaria (Klaus Wiesinger); (13) Implementation of agri-forestry systems with energy wood in the rural area - the project AgroForstEnergie (Armin Vetter); (14) Impact of agroforestry land utilization on microclimate, soil fertility and quality of water (Christian Boehm).

  15. Phytoliths in woody plants from the Miombo woodlands of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Esselmont, Chris; Simpson, Steven; Walde, Dale

    2009-07-01

    There are no descriptions of phytoliths produced by plants from the 'Zambezian' zone, where Miombo woodlands are the dominant element of the largest single phytochorion in sub-Saharan Africa. The preservation of phytoliths in fossil records of Africa makes phytoliths a tool to study early plant communities. Paleo-ethnobotanical interpretation of phytoliths relies on the comparison of ancient types with morphotypes extracted from living reference collections. Phytoliths were extracted from plant samples representing 41 families, 77 genera and 90 species through sonic cleaning, dry ashing and acid treatment; and phytoliths thus extracted were quantified. For each species, an average of 216 phytoliths were counted. The percentage of each morphotype identified per species was calculated, and types were described according to the descriptors from the International Code for Phytolith Nomenclature. Phytolith assemblages were subject to discriminant analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Phytoliths were grouped into 57 morphotypes (two were articulated forms and 55 were discrete shapes), and provide a reference collection of phytolith assemblages produced by Miombo woody species. Common and unique morphotypes are described and taxonomic and grouping variables are looked into from a statistical perspective. The first quantitative taxonomy of phytoliths from Miombos is presented here, including new types and constituting the most extensive phytolith key for any African ecoregion. Evidence is presented that local woody species are hypervariable silica producers and their phytolith morphotypes are highly polymorphic. The taxonomic significance of these phytoliths is largely poor, but there are important exceptions that include the morphotypes produced by members from >10 families and orders. The typical phytolithic signal that would allow scientists to identify ancient woodlands of 'Zambezian' affiliation comprises only half of the original number of

  16. Mosses Like It Rough—Growth Form Specific Responses of Mosses, Herbaceous and Woody Plants to Micro-Relief Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-relief heterogeneity can lead to substantial variability in microclimate and hence niche opportunities on a small scale. We explored the relationship between plant species richness and small-scale heterogeneity of micro-relief on the subtropical island of La Palma, Canary Islands. Overall, we sampled 40 plots in laurel and pine forests at four altitudinal bands. Species richness was recorded separately for various growth forms (i.e., mosses, herbaceous and woody plants. Site conditions such as altitude, slope, aspect, and tree density were measured. Micro-relief heterogeneity was characterized by surface structure and a subsequently derived surface heterogeneity index. The effect of micro-relief heterogeneity on species richness was analysed by means of linear mixed effect models and variance partitioning. Effects of micro-relief heterogeneity on species richness varied considerably between growth forms. While moss richness was affected significantly by micro-relief heterogeneity, herbaceous and woody plants richness responded mainly to larger-scale site conditions such as aspect and tree density. Our results stress the importance of small-scale relief heterogeneity for the explanation of spatial patterns of species richness. This poses new challenges as small-scale heterogeneity is largely underrepresented, e.g. with regard to its application in species distribution models.

  17. Planting woody crops on dredged contaminated sediment provides both positive and negative effects in terms of remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@salford.ac.uk [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Riby, Philip [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury (New Zealand); Shutes, Brian [Urban Pollution Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Middlesex University, Hendon, London NW4 4BT (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Scholz, Miklas [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    There is currently a requirement for studies focusing on the long-term sustainability of phytoremediation technologies. Trace element uptake by Salix, Populus and Alnus species planted in dredged contaminated canal sediment and concentrations in sediment and pore waters were investigated, eight years after a phytoremediation trial was initiated in NW England. Soil biological activity was also measured using invertebrate and microbial assays to determine soil quality improvements. Zinc was the dominant trace metal in foliage and woody stems, and the most mobile trace element in sediment pore water ({approx}14 mg l{sup -1}). Biological activity had improved; earthworm numbers had increased from 5 to 24, and the QBS index (an index of microarthropod groups in soil) had increased from 70 to 88. It is concluded that biological conditions had improved and natural processes appear to be enhancing soil quality, but there remains a potential risk of trace element transfer to the wider environment. - Highlights: > Trees provide positive and negative effects for remediation of dredged sediment. > Biological conditions had improved and natural processes enhance soil quality. > Zinc was the dominant trace metal in foliage and sediment pore waters. > Metal contaminants remain a problem in relation to their wider environmental fate. > A sustainable environment appears to be forming as a result of natural attenuation. - Soil biological quality improves in a woody crop stand eight years after a phytoremediation trial.

  18. Environmentally friendly technologies for obtaining high sugars concentrations from invasive woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gullón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficient utilization and conversion of inexpensive invasive raw materials into bioethanol following a biorefinery approach is a priority in the research field of renewable fuel. With this purpose, Acacia dealbata wood samples were pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate under optimized conditions, and the resulting solids were employed as a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic assays were performed according to a complete factorial experimental design, in which the effects of two independent variables (liquor to solid ratio and enzyme to substrate ratio on the kinetics and yields of the xylan and cellulose saccharification were assessed. The Response Surface Methodology was employed for optimizing the experimental conditions. High sugar concentrations (around 80 g/L, and favorable polysaccharide conversions (CCG = 79.4% and XnCX = 77.9%. were predicted by the model under the selected operational conditions (6 g liquor/g substrate, 22 FPU/g. The results reported in this work compare well with other studies dealing with either other ionic liquids or classical pretreatments, using the same raw material or other woody substrates.

  19. Mapping gains and losses in woody vegetation across global tropical drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y

    2017-01-01

    Woody vegetation in global tropical drylands is of significant importance for both the interannual variability of the carbon cycle and local livelihoods. Satellite observations over the past decades provide a unique way to assess the vegetation long-term dynamics across biomes worldwide. Yet...... in VODwood and changes in ground observed woody cover (r(2) = 0.78). Reliability of the obtained woody component trends is also supported by a review of relevant literatures for eight hot spot regions of change. The proposed approach is expected to contribute to an improved assessment of, for example...

  20. Basal autophagy is required for the efficient catabolism of sialyloligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2013-09-13

    Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5(-/-) cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans.

  1. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  2. Investing carbon offsets in woody forests - the best solution for California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Houlton, B. Z.; Warlind, D.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from fossil fuel combustion, land conversion and biomass burning are principal to climate change and its manifolds risks on human health, the environment and the global economy. Effective mitigation of climate change thereby involves cutting fossil-fuel emissions at the source or capturing CO2 in engineered or natural ecosystem stocks, or both. The lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere exceeds 100 years; thus, in the case of CO2 sequestration by natural ecosystems, the residence time of soil and vegetation carbon(C) is a critical component of the efficacy of C offsets in the marketplace, particularly in local to global Cap and Trade frameworks. Here we use a land-surface model to analyze trade-offs in C investment into natural forest vs. grassland sinks and the role of fire in driving the most sustained pathways of CO2 sequestration under Cap and Trade policies. We focus on the California Climate Exchange and AB32 as the model system for examining risks of CO2 offset investments by considering model-based scenarios of (a.) natural woody forests (mixture of trees, shrubs and grasslands) or (b.) pure grasslands (no woody vegetation allowed) under conditions of drought and changes in fire frequency. While forests capture more carbon than grasslands, the latter stores a greater fraction of C in below ground stocks, making it less vulnerable to climate-driven disturbances. Preliminary results for simulations carried out for the last century for the state of California corroborate this hypothesis: while trees capture 100 GgCyr-1 more than grasses, CO2 emissions due to fire is less by 20 GgCyr-1 from grasslands when compared to forest environments. Since policies need to regard potential future scenarios, we present results that investigate how the alternate systems of trees and grasses respond to (i.) the environmental conditions of the no-mitigation scenario (RCP 8.5) through the year 2100, (ii.) periods of extended

  3. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.

  4. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  5. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  6. IMPACT OF HOT COMPRESSED WATER PRETREATMENT ON THE STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF WOODY BIOMASS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ping Xiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As an initial step in an alternative use of woody biomass to produce bioethanol, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of hot compressed water (HCW pretreatment within the temperature range 100 to 200 °C in a batch-type reactor on the structural changes of Tamarix ramosissima. The untreated and pretreated solid residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, as well as chemical methods. The results showed that HCW pretreatment solubilized mainly hemicelluloses and resulted in enriched cellulose and lignin content in the pretreated solids. It was found that the deposition of lignin droplets on the residual surfaces was produced during pretreatment under the hot water conditions above 140 °C. In addition, the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin re-localisation as a result of condensation reactions under the severe pretreatment condition may lead to an increase in cellulose crystallinity and thermal stability of biomass solid residues, thus consequently influencing the downstream digestibility of biomass for sugars and bioethanol production.

  7. Estimation of above ground biomass for multi-stemmed short-rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Byrd; Wilson G. Hood; Michael C. Tyree; Dylan N. Dillaway

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing interest in short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems, an accurate yet quick, non-destructive means for determining aboveground biomass is necessary from both management and research perspectives.

  8. Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody...... an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km2), mostly in humid zones. Increases in woody cover were associated with low population growth, and were driven by increases in CO2 in the humid zones and by increases in precipitation in drylands, whereas decreases in woody...... cover were associated with high population growth. The spatially distinct pattern of these opposing trends reflects, first, the natural response of vegetation to precipitation and atmospheric CO2, and second, deforestation in humid areas, minor in size but important for ecosystem services...

  9. Leaf habit and woodiness regulate different leaf economy traits at a given nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, J.C.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Witte, J.P.M.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Dobben, van H.F.; Aerts, R.

    2010-01-01

    The large variation in the relationships between environmental factors and plant traits observed in natural communities exemplifies the alternative solutions that plants have developed in response to the same environmental limitations. Qualitative attributes, such as growth form, woodiness, and leaf

  10. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  11. The Woody Flora of Presquile National Wildlife Refuge Chesterfield County, Virginia 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Woody flora species were collected during the 1973, 1974, and 1975 growing seasons at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge. This report lists those field collections...

  12. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production. Energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.Y. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Pan, Xuejun [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zalesny, Ronald S. Jr. [USDA Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Northern Research Station

    2010-07-15

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature. (orig.)

  13. Woody Plant Cover Dynamics in Sahelian Drylands from Earth Observation Based Seasonal Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M.; Hiernaux, P.; Fensholt, R.; Tagesson, T.; Rasmussen, K.; Mbow, C.

    2015-12-01

    Woody plants play an important role in drylands primary productivity and peoples' livelihood, however, due to their scattered appearance, quantifying and monitoring their abundance over a large area is challenging. From in situ measured woody cover we develop a phenology driven model to estimate the canopy cover of woody species in the Sahelian drylands. Annual maps are applied to monitor dynamics of woody populations in relation to climate and anthropogenic interference. The model estimates the total canopy cover of all woody phanerophytes and the concept is based on the significant difference in phenophases of dryland trees, shrubs and bushes as compared to that of the herbaceous plants. Whereas annual herbaceous are only green during the rainy season and senescence occurs shortly after flowering towards the last rains, most woody plants remain photosynthetically active over large parts of the year. We use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) seasonal metrics representing the dry season to reproduce in situ woody cover at 77 field sites (178 observations in 3x3 km plots between 2000 and 2014) in Niger, Mali and Senegal. The extrapolation to Sahel scale shows agreement between VGT and MODIS at an almost nine times higher woody cover than in the global tree cover product MOD44B which only captures trees of a certain minimum size. Trends over 15 years show that the pattern is closely related to population density and land cover/use. A negative woody cover change can be observed in densely populated areas, but a positive change is seen in sparsely populated regions. Whereas woody cover in cropland is generally stable, it is strongly positive in savannas and woodland. Discrepancies between the countries are huge and also deforestation can be observed at a more local scale. The method is applicable and derived woody cover maps of the Sahel are freely available. They represent an improvement of existing products and a

  14. Multi-locus plastid phylogenetic biogeography supports the Asian hypothesis of the temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Ma, Peng-Fei; Haevermans, Thomas; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Na; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the biogeography of the temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) using a densely-sampled phylogenetic tree of Bambusoideae based on six plastid DNA loci, which corroborates the previously discovered 12 lineages (I-XII) and places Kuruna as sister to the Chimonocalamus clade. Biogeographic analyses revealed that the Arundinarieae diversified from an estimated 12 to 14Mya, and this was followed by rapid radiation within the lineages, particularly lineages IV, V and VI, starting from c. 7-8Mya. It is suggested that the late Miocene intensification of East Asian monsoon may have contributed to this burst of diversification. The possibilities of the extant Sri Lankan and African temperate bamboo lineages representing 'basal elements' could be excluded, indicating that there is no evidence to support the Indian or African route for migration of temperate bamboo ancestors to Asia. Radiations from eastern Asia to Africa, Sri Lanka, and to North America all are likely to have occurred during the Pliocene, to form the disjunct distribution of Arundinarieae we observe today. The two African lineages are inferred as being derived independently from Asian ancestors, either by overland migrations or long-distance dispersals. Beringian migration may explain the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Mature Overstory Trees on Adjacent 12-Year Regeneration and the Woody Understory: Aggregated Retention versus Intact Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda T. Curzon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retention harvesting, an approach that intentionally retains legacy features such as mature overstory trees, provides options for achieving ecological objectives. At the same time, retained overstory trees may compete with the nearby recovering understory for resources, and much remains to be learned about potential trade-offs with regeneration objectives, particularly over extended time periods. We assessed the influence of aggregated retention (reserved mature overstory and understory patches versus intact forest on structure and productivity (standing biomass of the adjacent woody understory and regeneration 12 years after harvest in northern Minnesota, USA. Each site was dominated by Populus tremuloides Michx., a species that regenerates prolifically via root sprouts following disturbance. Overall, fewer differences than expected occurred between the effects of intact forest and aggregated retention on regeneration, despite the small size (0.1 ha of aggregates. Instead, harvest status and distance from harvest edge had a greater influence on structure and standing woody biomass. Proximity to aggregates reduced large sapling biomass (all species, combined relative to open conditions, but only up to 5 m into harvested areas. This suggests the trade-off for achieving productivity objectives might be minimal if managers use retention aggregates in this region to achieve ecological objectives and meet management guidelines.

  16. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  17. Mapping gains and losses in woody vegetation across global tropical drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y

    2017-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to remove the interannual fluctuations of the woody leaf component. We revealed significant trends (P ... trend in the leaf component (VODleaf modeled from NDVI), indicating pronounced gradual growth/decline in woody vegetation not captured by traditional assessments. The method is validated using a unique record of ground measurements from the semiarid Sahel and shows a strong agreement between changes...

  18. About the species composition of microscopic fungi in soils and woody plant roots in urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukharina Irina,

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The living state and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of woody plants in relation to the level of soil pollution in the urban environment have been studied. The DNA analysis of the roots and soil revealed that in a more severe pollution in the roots of woody plants in a good living state the DNA of end trophic mycorrhizal fungi was detected.

  19. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Straigytė; Tadas Vaidelys

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Materials and methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala...

  20. Assessing woody vegetation trends in Sahelian drylands using MODIS based seasonal metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Hiernaux, Pierre; Rasmussen, Kjeld;

    2016-01-01

    increase of 1.7 (±5.0) woody cover (%) with large spatial differences: No clear change can be observed in densely populated areas (0.2 ± 4.2), whereas a positive change is seen in sparsely populated areas (2.1 ± 5.2). Woody cover is generally stable in cropland areas (0.9 ± 4.6), reflecting the protective...

  1. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  2. Woody pretzels: spirocycles from vetiver to patchouli and Georgywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Philip

    2008-06-01

    This review, including new experimental results, is the summary of a talk at the RSC/SCI conference 'flavours & fragrances 2007' in London, Imperial College, 24-26 September, 2007. Though the third dimension of the receptor models of J. E. Amoore rarely was exceeding 4 A, the world of woody odorants such as (+)-cedrol (3; cedarwood), (-)-khusimone (4; vetiver), and (-)-patchoulol (5; patchouli) is anything but flat. Any tricyclic skeleton with a zero-bridge contains a spirocyclic ring system determining its 3D structure, so spirocycles (spira, Lat. pretzel) are the fastest access to the third dimension. In the vetiver family, a spirocyclic mimic 9 of (-)-khusimone (4) was first discovered by chance by Büchi in 1976, and also by chance, we obtained another system, 12, with a characteristic vetiver smell by tandem-Rupe-Nazarov reaction of alkyne diols. A 5-A distance between a quaternary C-atom and a carbonyl group (or alternative HB acceptor) with an alpha-methyl or methylene branching is proposed to be the key to their vetiver odor. Upon scale-up of one of these odorants, 24, we discovered a very powerful (0.067 ng/l) impurity with a most typical patchouli scent: the spirocyclic, sterically crowded hydroxy ketone 33--a most unusual structure for a patchouli odorant. Several spirocyclic hydroxy ketone analogs, also with inverted ring systems such as in 70 and 84, provided new insights into the structure-odor correlation of this family. A superposition analysis indicated the carbonyl function of the hydroxy ketone to overlay on the geminal dimethyl motive of (-)-patchoulol. And indeed, the corresponding hydroxy ketone of patchoulol, 59, synthesized in 13 steps from Cyclal C (63), also emanated a patchouli odor. Finally, the synthesis and olfactory properties of twelve rigid spirocyclic analogs, 95-97, 99-102, and 106-110, of Georgywood (91) are presented that highlight stereochemical requirements for woody odorants and raise doubts about an alpha-helical binding

  3. Boron deficiency in woody plants: various responses and tolerance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B is an essential microelement for higher plants, and its deficiency is widespread around the world and constrains the productivity of both agriculture and forestry. In the last decades, accumulating studies on model or herbaceous plants have contributed greatly to our understanding of the complex network of B-deficiency responses and mechanisms for tolerance. In woody plants, however, only a few studies have been conducted and they are not well synthesised. Trees have a larger body size, longer lifespan and more B reserves than do herbaceous plants, indicating that woody species might undergo long-term or mild B deficiency more commonly and that a more complicated B reserves must accordingly be developed to cope with B deficiency. In addition, the highly heterozygous genetic background of tree species suggests that they may have a more complicated mechanism of response and tolerance to B deficiency than do model plants.B-deficient trees usually exhibit two key visible symptoms: depression of growing points (root tip, bud, flower, and young leaf and deformity of organs (root, shoot, leaf, and fruit. These symptoms may be ascribed to B functioning in the cell wall and membrane, and B deficiency results in damage to vascular tissues and the suppression of both B and water transport. B deficiency also affects metabolic processes, such as increased lignin and phenol, and decreased leaf photosynthesis. These negative effects will influence the quality and quantity of wood, fruit and other agricultural products.B efficiency probably originates from a combined effect of three processes: B uptake, B translocation and retranslocation, and B utilization. Root morphology and mycorrhiza can affect the B uptake efficiency of trees. During B translocation from the root to shoot, differences in B concentration between root cell saps and xylem exudates, as well as water use efficiency, may play key roles in tolerance to B deficiency. In addition, B

  4. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  5. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest.

  6. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  7. Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

  8. Assessing woody vegetation trends in Sahelian drylands using MODIS based seasonal metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Hiernaux, Pierre; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    management of parkland trees by the farmers. Positive changes are observed in savannas (2.5 ± 5.4) and woodland areas (3.9 ± 7.3). The major pattern of woody cover change reveals strong increases in the sparsely populated Sahel zones of eastern Senegal, western Mali and central Chad, but a decreasing trend......Woody plants play a major role for the resilience of drylands and in peoples' livelihoods. However, due to their scattered distribution, quantifying and monitoring woody cover over space and time is challenging. We develop a phenology driven model and train/validate MODIS (MCD43A4, 500 m) derived...... metrics with 178 ground observations from Niger, Senegal and Mali to estimate woody cover trends from 2000 to 2014 over the entire Sahel. The annual woody cover estimation at 500 m scale is fairly accurate with an RMSE of 4.3 (woody cover %) and r2 = 0.74. Over the 15 year period we observed an average...

  9. Distribution and drivers of woody cover change in Southern African savannahs, 1984-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Thomas; Symeonakis, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Savannah ecosystems cover 20% of the Earth's surface, and 65% of the African continent. These systems, comprised of a dynamic mosaic of open-canopy woody coverage and grasses, provide important ecosystem services and livelihoods to some of the poorest World's communities. Yet there is concern over the stability of many savannah regions. In particular, increases in the coverage and density of woody species at the expense of grasses poses a pronounced threat in southern Africa. Yet quantified estimates on the extent and drivers of this phenomenon remain elusive, inhibiting effective remediation efforts and incurring uncertainty in global carbon accounting systems. In this study, we use batch processing of the Landsat archive to map the fractional woody cover of a cross border section of the Limpopo catchment over 40 years. We quantified the change in woody coverage between 1984 and 2014, and used a series of Generalised Additive Models to ascertain the drivers of the observed change. Results show that woody encroachment is best explained by regional changes in rainfall, with land use or tenure playing only a minor role. Furthermore, the presence of large herbivores stabilises woody cover levels, helping to maintain national parks. These results contribute to understanding the drivers of poorly understood processes that have a widespread impact on ecosystem Carbon budgets, in southern Africa and beyond.

  10. Mapping gains and losses in woody vegetation across global tropical drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin; Liu, Yi Y; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-04-01

    Woody vegetation in global tropical drylands is of significant importance for both the interannual variability of the carbon cycle and local livelihoods. Satellite observations over the past decades provide a unique way to assess the vegetation long-term dynamics across biomes worldwide. Yet, the actual changes in the woody vegetation are always hidden by interannual fluctuations of the leaf density, because the most widely used remote sensing data are primarily related to the photosynthetically active vegetation components. Here, we quantify the temporal trends of the nonphotosynthetic woody components (i.e., stems and branches) in global tropical drylands during 2000-2012 using the vegetation optical depth (VOD), retrieved from passive microwave observations. This is achieved by a novel method focusing on the dry season period to minimize the influence of herbaceous vegetation and using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to remove the interannual fluctuations of the woody leaf component. We revealed significant trends (P vegetation not captured by traditional assessments. The method is validated using a unique record of ground measurements from the semiarid Sahel and shows a strong agreement between changes in VODwood and changes in ground observed woody cover (r(2)  = 0.78). Reliability of the obtained woody component trends is also supported by a review of relevant literatures for eight hot spot regions of change. The proposed approach is expected to contribute to an improved assessment of, for example, changes in dryland carbon pools.

  11. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  12. Diversity of winter photoinhibitory responses: A case study in co-occurring lichens, mosses, herbs and woody plants from subalpine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Fátima; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José-María; García-Plazaola, José-Ignacio

    2017-02-14

    Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens; (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups; and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery. With this aim, WPI was analyzed in 50 species in the field and recovery kinetics were studied in one model species from each functional group. Results showed that high levels of WPI are much more frequent among woody plants than in any other group, but are also present in some herbs, lichens and mosses. Winter conditions almost always led to the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Nevertheless, changes in the de-epoxidation level were not associated with the activation/deactivation of WPI in the field and did not match changes in photochemical efficiency during recovery treatments. Seasonal changes in thylakoid proteins (mainly D1 and PsbS) were dependent on the functional group. The results highlight the diversity of physiological solutions and suggest a physical-mechanical reason for the more conservative strategy of woody species compared to other groups.

  13. Woody riparian vegetation of Great Basin National Park. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, C.L.; Smith, S.D.; Murray, K.J.; Landau, F.H.; Sala, A.

    1994-07-01

    The community composition and population structure of the woody riparian vegetation in Great Basin National Park are described. Community analyses were accomplished by sampling 229 plots placed in a systematic random fashion along elevational gradients of 8 major stream systems (Baker, Big Wash, Lehman, Pine, Pole, Shingle, Snake, and Strawberry Creeks) in the Park using the releve method. Stand demographics were determined for the four dominant tree species in the Park, based on absolute stem counts at 15 sites along 6 major watersheds. Elevational ranges of the dominant tree and shrub species along 8 major streams were determined via transect analysis and systematic reconnaissance efforts. TWINSPAN (two-way indicator analysis) indentified 4 primary species groups and 8 stand groups in the Park. Because of the homogeneity of riparian zones, both presence and abundance of species were important parameters in determining species groups. Although species such as Populus tremuloides (aspen), Abies concolor (white fir) and Rosa woodsii (Woods rose) are very common throughout the Park, they are particularly abundant at higher, upper intermediate, and lower intermediate elevations.

  14. Coarse woody material has value as habitat for saproxylic beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.M.; Spence, J.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources; Langor, D.W. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Biomass harvesting practices are expected to alter the abundance and natural range of variation in coarse woody material (CWM), which in turn may change soil productivity as well as the hydrological balance and structure of tree stands and habitats needed to ensure forest biodiversity. Ecosystem sustainability should be a main criterion for the development of biomass energy production schemes. Studies in northern Europe indicate that the hyperdiverse saproxylic fauna is sensitive to changes in CWM. Saproxylic beetles are dependent on decaying wood, and play an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Approximately 11 per cent of European saproxylic beetles are at risk of regional extirpation. This study sampled saproxylic beetle species from CWM in mature trembling aspen stands in Alberta. Over 150 species were collected, including 4 species new to science. The study showed that the beetles use numerous CWM habitats and exhibit high habitat specificity. A diversity of CWM substrates are needed to maintain saproxylic beetle habitats. Further research is needed to minimize the loss of species and their ecosystem functions.

  15. Feedbacks between woody plant encroachment and microclimate in desert grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; He, Y.; De Wekker, S.; Fuentes, J. D.; Collins, S. L.; Pockman, W.

    2011-12-01

    The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands is a global phenomenon that results from a variety of drivers related to land use and global environmental change. In the southwestern U.S., shrub encroachment can be associated with land degradation, soil erosion, and the formation of coppice dunes. In this region, the relatively abrupt character of grassland-to-shrubland transitions - both in time and in space - suggests that arid and semiarid rangelands may exhibit two alternative stable states characterized by either grass or shrub dominance. In these bistable landscapes, even small changes in environmental drivers may cause abrupt state transitions from grassland to shrubland, sustained by positive feedbacks with environmental drivers. We show that positive feedbacks between land cover change and microclimate may contribute to shrub encroachment in the southwestern US. Thus, we investigate changes in surface air temperature and energy balance resulting from grass-to-shrub transitions in the northern Chiuhuahuan desert. We find that the encroachment of native shrubs into desert grasslands modifies the surface energy balance with the overall net effect of increasing nighttime air temperatures, thereby favoring the establishment and growth of freeze-sensitive Larrea plants.

  16. Laser Capture Microdissection Protocol for Xylem Tissues of Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhina, Olga; Valerio, Concetta; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Zhao, Lei; Kärkönen, Anna; Niittylä, Totte; Fagerstedt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables precise dissection and collection of individual cell types from complex tissues. When applied to plant cells, and especially to woody tissues, LCM requires extensive optimization to overcome such factors as rigid cell walls, large central vacuoles, intercellular spaces, and technical issues with thickness and flatness of the sections. Here we present an optimized protocol for the laser-assisted microdissection of developing xylem from mature trees: a gymnosperm (Norway spruce, Picea abies) and an angiosperm (aspen, Populus tremula) tree. Different cell types of spruce and aspen wood (i.e., ray cells, tracheary elements, and fibers) were successfully microdissected from tangential, cross and radial cryosections of the current year’s growth ring. Two approaches were applied to achieve satisfactory flatness and anatomical integrity of the spruce and aspen specimens. The commonly used membrane slides were ineffective as a mounting surface for the wood cryosections. Instead, in the present protocol we use glass slides, and introduce a glass slide sandwich assembly for the preparation of aspen sections. To ascertain that not only the anatomical integrity of the plant tissue, but also the molecular features were not compromised during the whole LCM procedure, good quality total RNA could be extracted from the microdissected cells. This showed the efficiency of the protocol and established that our methodology can be integrated in transcriptome analyses to elucidate cell-specific molecular events regulating wood formation in trees. PMID:28101088

  17. Soil respiration responses to variation in temperature and moisture availability under woody plants and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravalprukskul, P.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands, such as in the southwestern US, is thought to have altered regional carbon fluxes due to the differences in structure and function between grasses and woody plants. It is unknown how climate change predictions for such areas, particularly warmer temperatures and fewer but larger precipitation events, might further acerbate our ability to estimate flux dynamics. Soil respiration, a key flux affecting ecosystem carbon balance, has been increasingly studied, but the exact effects of temperature and precipitation changes on flux rates have not been fully determined, particularly their interactive effects. The goal of this study was to compare soil respiration responses to different temperatures in soils under native southwestern mesquites and grasses undergoing a precipitation pulse, whilst removing other confounding factors, such as soil history, through the controlled environments within Biosphere 2. Mesquites and grasses were transplanted into ground basalt within two environments maintained at a 4°C temperature difference, the projected temperature increase from climate change. Post-transplant soil samples were incubated between 10 and 40°C to determine the temperature sensitivities of soils from each microhabitat within a month of this transplant. A single-peak, best-fit model for grass soils suggested a weak temperature sensitivity, while mesquite soils showed little to no sensitivity. Additionally, all plants underwent a drought treatment prior to the precipitation event, and soil respiration rates were tracked over several days using the collar technique. This portion of the study allowed for an estimation of the sensitivity of soil respiration to precipitation pulses under a variety of antecedent moisture conditions. Initial results illustrate that soils under mesquites tend to respire significantly more than soil under grasses or in bare soils over the course of a precipitation event. Together, these results suggest

  18. The structure and function of roots of woody species on the Edwards Plateau, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockman, W. T.; McElrone, A. J.; Bleby, T. M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2008-05-01

    The Edwards Plateau in central Texas USA, supports woody vegetation in savannas and woodlands despite characteristically shallow soils. Surveys using caves to access greater depths have shown that roots of all dominant woody species can reach 7 m below the surface while some species reliably reach depths as great as 20 m. Comparative studies showed that deep roots were structurally distinct from shallow roots of similar diameter. Deep roots had larger xylem conducting elements resulting in more than 2-fold greater hydraulic conductance than their shallow counterparts. To understand the relationship between environmental fluctuations and deep root function in these species, we directly measured water transport in deep roots accessed via caves for comparison with similar measurements in shallow roots and stems. Long term measurements of Juniperus ashei, one of the most abundant species on the Edwards plateau, showed that the contribution of roots 7 m below the surface fluctuated with the volumetric water content (VWC) of surface soils. During prolonged drought, upward flow in deep roots accounted for as much as 60% of total daily transpiration and occurred not only during the day when the canopy was transpiring but also throughout the night when hydraulic redistribution from deep to shallow soil maintained flow through the roots. Hydraulic redistribution was suppressed immediately after precipitation until nocturnal flow gradually increased as VWC decreased. In a cave system where roots reach a stream 18-20 m below the surface, hydraulic redistribution was observed year-round in all measured individuals of three additional dominant species (Quercus fusiformis, Bumelia lanuginosa and Prosopis glandulosa). Like J. ashei, upward hydraulic redistribution was observed when surface soils were dry. More complex patterns of redistribution were also observed, including downward redistribution of soil water following precipitation, and continuing redistribution of soil water

  19. Multiethnic Literature; Supplements for Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez-Tighe, Viola; And Others

    Children's literature can be used effectively to enrich the reading content of basal reading materials with stories and information by and about ethnic minorities. Developing an ethnic cultural web for a literary selection can stimulate language and enhance the thought processes of students. Using the webbing process, elementary school students…

  20. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil

    2003-01-01

    lokaliseres. Skadesmekanismen er omdiskuteret. Karrupturen kan opstå i forbindelse med brud af processus transversus atlantis eller subluksationer i halscolumna og kan indtræffe i både normale og abnorme kar. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidalblødning kan tilsyneladende opstå ved ret lette traumer, hvilket...

  1. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  2. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje H; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R;

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  4. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  5. Carbon dioxide laser surgery of basal meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, A D; Heilbronn, Y D; Avram, J; Razon, N

    1982-02-01

    This preliminary report summarizes our results with laser surgery in patients with basal meningiomas (8 basilar and 1 intraventricular extending also into the third ventricle). Illustrative preoperative and postoperative CT scans are included. The advantages and limitations of this surgical technique are discussed briefly.

  6. Nitrogen trace gas fluxes from a semiarid subtropical savanna under woody legume encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Fiona M.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Groffman, Peter M.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2016-05-01

    Savanna ecosystems are a major source of nitrogen (N) trace gases that influence air quality and climate. These systems are experiencing widespread encroachment by woody plants, frequently associated with large increases in soil N, with no consensus on implications for trace gas emissions. We investigated the impact of encroachment by N-fixing tree Prosopis glandulosa on total reactive N gas flux (Nt = NO + N2O + NOy + NH3) from south Texas savanna soils over 2 years. Contrary to expectations, upland Prosopis groves did not have greater Nt fluxes than adjacent unencroached grasslands. However, abiotic conditions (temperature, rainfall, and topography) were strong drivers. Emissions from moist, low-lying Prosopis playas were up to 3 times higher than from Prosopis uplands. Though NO dominated emissions, NH3 and NOy (non-NO oxidized N) comprised 12-16% of the total summer N flux (up to 7.9 µg N m-2 h-1). Flux responses to soil wetting were temperature dependent for NO, NH3, and NOy: a 15 mm rainfall event increased flux 3-fold to 22-fold after 24 h in summer but had no effect in winter. Repeated soil wetting reduced N flux responses, indicating substrate depletion as a likely control. Rapid (soils suggested that abiotic chemodenitrification contributes to pulse emissions. We conclude that temperature and wetting dynamics, rather than encroachment, are primary drivers of N flux from these upland savannas, with implications for future emission patterns under altered precipitation regimes.

  7. Improvement of acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from woody biomass using organosolv pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2015-10-01

    A suitable pretreatment is a prerequisite of efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from wood by Clostridia. In this study, organosolv fractionation, an effective pretreatment with ability to separate lignin as a co-product, was evaluated for ABE production from softwood pine and hardwood elm. ABE production from untreated woods was limited to the yield of 81 g ABE/kg wood and concentration of 5.5 g ABE/L. Thus, the woods were pretreated with aqueous ethanol at elevated temperatures before hydrolysis and fermentation to ABE by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Hydrolysis of pine and elm pretreated at 180 °C for 60 min resulted in the highest sugar concentrations of 16.8 and 23.2 g/L, respectively. The hydrolysate obtained from elm was fermented to ABE with the highest yield of 121.1 g/kg and concentration of 11.6 g/L. The maximum yield of 87.9 g/kg was obtained from pine pretreated for 30 min at 150 °C. Moreover, structural modifications in the woods were investigated and related to the improvements. The woody biomasses are suitable feedstocks for ABE production after the organosolv pretreatment. Effects of the pretreatment conditions on ABE production might be related to the reduced cellulose crystallinity, reduced lignin and hemicellulose content, and lower total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates.

  8. Using high resolution imagery to detect woody vegetation and land-cover change over 50 years in the Sahel of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Raphael; Brandt, Martin; Samimi, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    The Sahel region has been acclaimed as one of the "hot spots" of global environmental change in the last decades. The degradation of the environmental conditions was accelerated by prolonged droughts in the region during the 1970s and 1980s and an overall decrease in annual precipitation. The resulting loss of woody vegetation cover was often considered as irreversible desertification. Recent findings, based on small-scaled analyses of satellite images, show an increase of vegetation greenness over most parts of the Sahel since the mid-1980s. However, due to a lack of detailed regional studies, it remains largely unclear if this is a return to pre-drought conditions or a transformation of land cover to a new equilibrium state. This study intends to use remote sensing techniques, supplemented by ground truth data to compare the pre-drought woody vegetation and land cover with the current situation. High resolution panchromatic Corona imagery of 1967 and multispectral RapidEye imagery of 2011 form the basis of this regional scaled study, which includes parts of the Dogon Plateau and the Seno Plains in the Sahel of Mali. The feature extraction and classification operations included in ERDAS Imagine Objective are used in an object-oriented approach in combination with spectral properties to analyse the datasets and map millions of individual trees and large shrubs. Results indicate number of trees per hectare as well as woody vegetation coverage in percent per hectare for both 1967 and 2011. Additionally, the land-cover change during the past half century is assessed followed by an analysis of current and past woody vegetation densities in relation to land-cover classes. Results show a significant increase of cultivated land, in particular in the Seno Plains, a reduction of dense natural woody vegetation as well as an increase of trees on farmer's fields on the Dogon Plateau. Our results show that neither the desertification paradigm nor the greening paradigm can be

  9. Soil organic carbon responses to grazing and woody plant encroachment in a semi-desert grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, H. L.; Archer, S. R.; McClaran, M.; Ojima, D.; Keough, C.; Parton, W.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of carbon (C) in grassland and savanna ecosystems is belowground. Recent estimates suggest the historic and ongoing proliferation of woody plants in these systems may account for a significant fraction of the Northern Hemisphere carbon (C) sink. A large degree of uncertainty in the direction and magnitude of soil C pool response to woody encroachment exists, however. Soil organic C (SOC) response to woody encroachment may be modified by current and historical land management patterns, but the nature of these relationships is poorly understood. We used CENTURY, a process-based ecosystem model, to explore historical patterns and project future changes in SOC in response to Prosopis velutina encroachment and livestock grazing in a southern Arizona semi-desert grassland. We parameterized and adapted CENTURY for our study site using woody and herbaceous biomass data and P. velutina growth rate estimates. Modeled contemporary SOC levels were +/- 15% of measured levels. Simulations of historical grazing management suggest that grassland SOC dropped nearly 50% (from 1020 to 530 g C m-2) in response to heavy, continuous livestock grazing initiated around 1850. SOC recovery varied with the degree of relaxation of grazing intensity, with nearly full recovery occurring in areas where grazing was excluded between 1903 and 2005 (modeled SOC = 930 g C m-2 in 2005). Woody encroachment, beginning around 1900, had a strong positive influence on modeled SOC, with the greatest accumulations associated with plants greater than 60 years old. Grazing mediated this response, such that sub-canopy SOC in grazed areas was 200-300 g C m-2 less than that in ungrazed areas. Forward simulations suggest that SOC will continue to increase until woody plant stands reach ca. 130 years of age, at which point SOC will stabilize around 3300 g C m^{- 2} for grazed sites and 3000 g C m-2 for ungrazed sites. Results indicate that woody plant encroachment has strong positive influence on SOC

  10. Larvae of Lutrochus germari (Lutrochidae: Coleoptera and Stegoelmis sp. (Elmidae: Coleoptera: bore submerged woody debris in Neotropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Valente-Neto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report boring activity of larval Lutrochus germari Grouvelle, 1889 and Stegoelmis sp. in submerged woody debris and describe the resulting grooves and faecal pellet production. This ability of the larvae was shown by three types of evidence: 1 examination of collected woody debris, 2 rearing of larvae and 3 gut content analysis. The larvae excavated galleries deep into the submerged woody debris. This is the first record of gallery-forming behaviour in submerged woody debris by aquatic beetles, adding larval Lutrochus germari and Stegoelmis sp. to the list of borers in Neotropical aquatic systems.

  11. Seeing through the Canopy: Relationship between Coarse Woody Debris and Forest Structure measured by Airborne Lidar in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaranello, M. A., Sr.; Keller, M. M.; dos-Santos, M. N.; Longo, M.; Pinagé, E. R.; Leitold, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coarse woody debris is an important but infrequently quantified carbon pool in tropical forests. Based on studies at 12 sites spread across the Brazilian Amazon, we quantified coarse woody debris stocks in intact forests and forests affected by different intensities of degradation by logging and/or fire. Measurement were made in-situ and for the first time field measurements of coarse woody debris were related to structural metrics derived from airborne lidar. Using the line-intercept method we established 84 transects for sampling fallen coarse woody debris and associated inventory plots for sampling standing dead wood in intact, conventional logging, reduced impact logging, burned and burned after logging forests. Overall mean and standard deviation of total coarse woody debris were 50.0 Mg ha-1 and 26.4 Mg ha-1 respectively. Forest degradation increased coarse woody debris stocks compared to intact forests by a factor of 1.7 in reduced impact logging forests and up to 3-fold in burned forests, in a side-by-side comparison of nearby areas. The ratio between coarse woody debris and biomass increased linearly with number of degradation events (R²: 0.67, plevels in the Brazilian Amazon. The strong relation of coarse woody debris with lidar derived structural variables suggests an approach for quantifying infrequently measured coarse woody debris over large areas.

  12. Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia

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    Gurusidheshwar M Wali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute movement disorder associated with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions occurring in the background of diabetic end stage renal disease is a recently described condition. It has distinct clinico-radiological features and is commonly described in Asian patients. We report the first Indian case report of this potentially reversible condition and discuss its various clinico-radiological aspects.

  13. Electrophysiological assessment of water stress in fruit-bearing woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Tapia, Franco; Gurovich, Luis A

    2014-06-15

    Development and evaluation of a real-time plant water stress sensor, based on the electrophysiological behavior of fruit-bearing woody plants is presented. Continuous electric potentials are measured in tree trunks for different irrigation schedules, inducing variable water stress conditions; results are discussed in relation to soil water content and micro-atmospheric evaporative demand, determined continuously by conventional sensors, correlating this information with tree electric potential measurements. Systematic and differentiable patterns of electric potentials for water-stressed and no-stressed trees in 2 fruit species are presented. Early detection and recovery dynamics of water stress conditions can also be monitored with these electrophysiology sensors, which enable continuous and non-destructive measurements for efficient irrigation scheduling throughout the year. The experiment is developed under controlled conditions, in Faraday cages located at a greenhouse area, both in Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants. Soil moisture evolution is controlled using capacitance sensors and solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind intensity and direction are continuously registered with accurate weather sensors, in a micro-agrometeorological automatic station located at the experimental site. The electrophysiological sensor has two stainless steel electrodes (measuring/reference), inserted on the stem; a high precision Keithley 2701 digital multimeter is used to measure plant electrical signals; an algorithm written in MatLab(®), allows correlating the signal to environmental variables. An electric cyclic behavior is observed (circadian cycle) in the experimental plants. For non-irrigated plants, the electrical signal shows a time positive slope and then, a negative slope after restarting irrigation throughout a rather extended recovery process, before reaching a stable electrical signal with zero slope. Well-watered plants presented a

  14. West Antarctic Mantle Plume Hypothesis and Basal Water Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Erik; Seroussi, Helene; Wiens, Doug; Bondzio, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of a deep mantle plume that manifests Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism and present-day seismicity in West Antarctica has been speculated for more than 30 years. Recent seismic images support the plume hypothesis as the cause of Marie Byrd Land (MBL) volcanism and geophysical structure [ Lloyd et al., 2015; Ramirez et al., 2016]. Mantle plumes can more that double the geothermal heat flux, qGHF, above nominal continental values at their axial peak position and raise qGHF in the surrounding plume head to 60 mW/m2 or higher. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of in-situ basal ice sheet data that sample the heat flux. Consequently, we examine a realistic distribution of heat flux associated with a late-Cenozoic mantle plume in West Antarctica and explore its impact on thermal and melt conditions near the ice sheet base. The solid Earth model assumes a parameterized deep mantle plume and head. The 3-D ice flow model includes an enthalpy framework and full-Stokes stress balance. Both the putative plume location and extent are uncertain. Therefore, we perform broadly scoped experiments to characterize plume related basal conditions. The experiments show that mantle plumes have an important local impact on the ice sheet, with basal melting rates reaching several centimeters per year directly above the hotspot. The downstream active lake system of Whillans Ice Stream suggests a rift-related source of anomalous mantle heat. However, the lack of lake and stream activity in MBL suggests a relatively weak plume: one that delivers less flux by 35% below the heat flux to the crustal surface at the site of the Yellowstone hotspot [e.g., DeNosaquo et al., 2009], with peak value no higher than about 145 mW/m2.

  15. Photosynthetic pathway alters hydraulic structure and function in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocacinar, Ferit; Sage, Rowan F

    2004-04-01

    Xylem structure and function is proposed to reflect an evolutionary balance between demands for efficient movement of water to the leaf canopy and resistance to cavitation during high xylem tension. Water use efficiency (WUE) affects this balance by altering the water cost of photosynthesis. Therefore species of greater WUE, such as C(4) plants, should have altered xylem properties. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assessed the hydraulic and anatomical properties of 19 C(3) and C(4) woody species from arid regions of the American west and central Asia. Specific conductivity of stem xylem ( K(s) ) was 16%-98% lower in the C(4) than C(3) shrubs from the American west. In the Asian species, the C(3) Nitraria schoberi had similar and Halimodendron halodendron higher K(s) values compared with three C(4) species. Leaf specific conductivity ( K(L); hydraulic conductivity per leaf area) was 60%-98% lower in the C(4) than C(3) species, demonstrating that the presence of the C(4) pathway alters the relationship between leaf area and the ability of the xylem to transport water. C(4) species produced similar or smaller vessels than the C(3) shrubs except in Calligonum, and most C(4) shrubs exhibited higher wood densities than the C(3) species. Together, smaller conduit size and higher wood density indicate that in most cases, the C(4) shrubs exploited higher WUE by altering xylem structure to enhance safety from cavitation. In a minority of cases, the C(4) shrubs maintained similar xylem properties but enhanced the canopy area per branch. By establishing a link between C(4) photosynthesis and xylem structure, this study indicates that other phenomena that affect WUE, such as atmospheric CO(2) variation, may also affect the evolution of wood structure and function.

  16. Reed as a gasification fuel: a comparison with woody fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Link

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reed and coniferous wood can be used for energy production via thermochemical conversion, for instance by gasification. The rate-determining step of the gasification process is the reaction between the char and the gaseous environment in the gasifier, whose rate depends on variables such as pressure, temperature, particle size, mineral matter content, porosity, etc. It is known that reactivity can be improved by increasing the temperature, but on the other hand the temperature achieved in the reactor is limited due to the ash fusion characteristics. Usually, the availability of reed as a fuel is locally modest and, therefore, it must be blended with other fuels such as wood. Blending of fuels brings together several problems relating to ash behaviour, i.e. ash fusion issues. Because there is no correlation between the ash fusion characteristics of biomass blends and their individual components, it is essential to carry out prior laboratory-scale ash fusion tests on the blends. This study compares the reactivity of reed and coniferous wood, and the ash fusion characteristics of blends of reed and coniferous wood ashes. When compared with Douglas fir and reed chars, pine pellets have the highest reactivity. Reed char exhibits the lowest reactivity and, therefore, it is advantageous to gasify reed alone at higher gasification temperatures because the ash fusion temperatures of reed are higher than those of woody fuels. The ash produced by reed and wood blends can melt at lower temperatures than ash from both reed and wood gasified separately. Due to this circumstance the gasification temperature should be chosen carefully when gasification of blends is carried out.

  17. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Takahashi, N.; Furusawa, T.; Sakai, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Dentistry (Japan); Morii, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan); Yamada, M. [Department of Pathology, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  18. DETERMINATION OF CRYSTALLINITY INDEX OF CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS IN HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L. WOODY CORE BY MEANS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it was investigated chemical compositions of hemp woody core and changes in crystallinity index of its carbohydrate components by using FT-IR spectroscopy was investigated. It was determined that carbohyrate components ratio in hemp woody core were similar to that in hard wood, but lignin content in hemp woody core was higher than in hard wood. Crystallinity index of carbohydrate components in hemp woody core increased by removing amorphous components. It was designated that monoclinic structure in hemp woody core and its carbohydrate components was dominant, but triclinic ratio increased by treated chemical isolation of carbohydrate from hemp woody core.

  19. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: An integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eHelie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 basal ganglia models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the basal ganglia that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the basal ganglia in behavioral functions.

  20. Adding prandial GLP-1 receptor agonists to basal insulin: a promising option for type 2 diabetes therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Ronald M; Berard, Lori

    2017-08-24

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasingly prevalent condition in Canada and around the world. Treatment strategies have become increasingly complex, with a widening array of pharmacological agents available for glycemic management in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). New therapies that act in concert with available basal insulins may represent alternatives to basal insulin intensification with prandial or premixed insulin. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have recently shown promise as useful additions to basal insulin, with significant reductions in glycated hemoglobin and potentially beneficial effects on body weight. This review will focus on pivotal clinical trials to assess the potential benefits of adding prandial GLP-1 RAs to basal insulin in patients with T2DM. Clinical studies combining prandial GLP-1 RAs and basal insulin (published between 2011 and July 2017) were identified and reviewed in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials (Issue 6, June 2017) and clinicaltrials.gov. Most of the studies presented in this review show that the addition of a prandial GLP-1 RA to basal insulin results in equal or slightly superior efficacy compared to the addition of prandial insulin, together with weight loss and less hypoglycemia. The results of the studies suggest that a prandial GLP-1 RA as an add-on to basal insulin may be a safe and effective treatment intensification option (vs basal-plus or basal-bolus insulin).

  1. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  2. Engineering developments for small-scale harvest, storage and combustion of woody crops in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, P.; Ouellet-Plamondon, C.; Morissette, R.; Preto, F. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although wood remains an important source of energy for cooking and heating in developing countries, it has been largely replaced by fossil fuels, nuclear energy and hydroelectric power in developed countries. Given the need to diversify sources of energy, wood energy is being revitalized in developed countries. This paper reported on a current research program on woody crops at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The research involves the development of a woody crop harvester to collect small size trees in plantations as well as in natural growth. The harvested package is a small round bale that enables natural drying from about 50 per cent moisture at harvest, down to 30 and 20 per cent after 4 to 6 months of storage outside and under shelter, respectively. The combustion value of woody crops averaged 19.4 GJ/t on a dry matter basis with little variation. The woody crops can be pulverized into fine particles, dried artificially to 10 per cent moisture content and processed into pellets for combustion. In a practical trial, more than 7.5 MJ/t DM were needed to produce pellets without providing more energy than coarse wood chips. The rural applications for this biomass include heating community and farm buildings and drying crops. These applications can use locally grown woody crops such as willow, or forest residues such as branches and bark in the form of chips to replace fossil energy sources.

  3. Grass competition surpasses the effect of defoliation on a woody plant invader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Melina J.; Tognetti, Pedro M.; Mazía, Noemí

    2015-10-01

    Woody encroachment in grasslands represents a global phenomenon with strong consequences on ecosystem functioning. While the causes triggering this process can be multiple, there is consensus on the fact that anthropogenic activities play a central role in woody expansion. In particular, the loss of grass cover increases the chances of woody invasion, whereas the role of defoliation is less known. In this study our objective was to assess the simultaneous effect of competition generated by resident vegetation and woody seedling defoliation on the growth and survival of Gleditsia triacanthos seedlings, a woody invader in Argentina. We established a factorial pot experiment with two main factors: Gleditsia defoliation (2 levels: with and without defoliation) and pasture competition (3 levels: without pasture, clipped pasture and intact pasture). Our results showed that pasture competition reduced Gleditsia survival and tree growth, but that the effect of tree defoliation on tree growth depended on the magnitude of pasture competition. More widely, our results stress the existence of a hierarchy order of factors controlling Gleditsia establishment (survival + growth): grass competition was the main control and tree defoliation became important only in the absence of competition. This evidence suggests that maintaining a competitive grass cover along with a frequency of tree defoliation could diminish tree establishment in herbaceous communities.

  4. Induced somatic sector analysis of cellulose synthase (CesA) promoter regions in woody stem tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creux, Nicky M; Bossinger, Gerd; Myburg, Alexander A; Spokevicius, Antanas V

    2013-03-01

    The increasing focus on plantation forestry as a renewable source of cellulosic biomass has emphasized the need for tools to study the unique biology of woody genera such as Eucalyptus, Populus and Pinus. The domestication of these woody crops is hampered by long generation times, and breeders are now looking to molecular approaches such as marker-assisted breeding and genetic modification to accelerate tree improvement. Much of what is known about genes involved in the growth and development of plants has come from studies of herbaceous models such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, transferring this information to woody plants often proves difficult, especially for genes expressed in woody stems. Here we report the use of induced somatic sector analysis (ISSA) for characterization of promoter expression patterns directly in the stems of Populus and Eucalyptus trees. As a case study, we used previously characterized primary and secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase (CesA) promoters cloned from Eucalyptus grandis. We show that ISSA can be used to elucidate the phloem and xylem expression patterns of the CesA genes in Eucalyptus and Populus stems and also show that the staining patterns differ in Eucalyptus and Populus stems. These findings show that ISSA is an efficient approach to investigate promoter function in the developmental context of woody plant tissues and raise questions about the suitability of heterologous promoters for genetic manipulation in plant species.

  5. Bryophyte species associations with coarse woody debris and stand ages in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, T.; Muir, Patricia S.

    1998-01-01

    We quantified the relationships of 93 forest floor bryophyte species, including epiphytes from incorporated litterfall, to substrate and stand age in Pseudotsuga menziesii-Tsuga heterophylla stands at two sites in western Oregon. We used the method of Dufr??ne and Legendre that combines a species' relative abundance and relative frequency, to calculate that species' importance in relation to environmental variables. The resulting 'indicator value' describes a species' reliability for indicating the given environmental parameter. Thirty-nine species were indicative of either humus, a decay class of coarse woody debris, or stand age. Bryophyte community composition changed along the continuum of coarse woody debris decomposition from recently fallen trees with intact bark to forest floor humus. Richness of forest floor bryophytes will be enhanced when a full range of coarse woody debris decay classes is present. A suite of bryophytes indicated old-growth forest. These were mainly either epiphytes associated with older conifers or liverworts associated with coarse woody debris. Hardwood-associated epiphytes mainly indicated young stands. Mature conifers, hardwoods, and coarse woody debris are biological legacies that can be protected when thinning managed stands to foster habitat complexity and biodiversity, consistent with an ecosystem approach to forest management.

  6. Neurochemical oscillations in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid Reza; Jäger, Willi

    2010-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to elucidate the neurochemical processes in the basal ganglia by mathematical modelling. The correlation between neurochemistry and electrophysiology has been used to construct a dynamical system based on the basal ganglia's network structure. Mathematical models were constructed for different physical scales to reformulate the neurochemical and electrophysiological behaviour from synapses up to multi-compartment systems. Transformation functions have been developed to transit between the different scales. We show through numerical simulations that this network produces oscillations in the electrical potentials as well as in neurotransmitter concentrations. In agreement with pharmacological experiments, a parameter sensitivity analysis reveals temporary changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological systems after single exposure to antipsychotic drugs. This behaviour states the structural stability of the system. The correlation between the neurochemical dynamics and drug-induced behaviour provides the perspective for novel neurobiological hypotheses.

  7. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  8. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  9. Long-term changes in the woody vegetation of the Kruger National Park, with special reference to the effects of elephants and fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S.W. Trollope

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the investigation reviewing the South African National Parks policy on the management of elephants in the Kruger National Park in South Africa it was decided to assess the current density and structural diversity of the woody vegetation in the park as it is affected by elephants and fire. The management policy used till recently, limited the population to approximately 7000 elephants, based on a conclusion that 6000 elephants (1 per 1.94 km2 was the highest number of elephants that could be carried in the Kruger National Park. The inclusion of the effects and interaction of fire in the investigation arises from the general recognition that elephants and fire can have a highly significant impact on the species and structural diversity of tree and shrub vegetation in African savannas. In the absence of quantitative data describing the condition of the woody vegetation in the Kruger National Park, subjective comparisons of changes in the density of large trees were made for the periods 1940 vs 1960 and 1960 vs 1986/89 using aerial photographs based on four of the major vegetation landscape units in the park. The results indicate that in the vegetation landscapes in areas with granitic soils there were no significant changes in the density of large trees between 1940 vs 1960 whereas a moderate decline occurred in the vegetation in the areas with basaltic soils. Conversely during the period 1960 to 1986/89 there was a dramatic decline in the density of large trees in all four major vegetation landscape units. On-site inspections and botanical surveys suggest that the decline in the density of large trees is the result of the effects of the interaction of elephants and fire. This had arisen because during the period 1960 to 1986/89 systematic burning programs had been introduced at the same time as elephant numbers had risen sharply. The results presented suggest that the changes in the woody vegetation do not involve a decrease in species

  10. Leaf structural traits of tropical woody species resistant to cement dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2016-08-01

    Cement industries located nearby limestone outcrops in Brazil have contributed to the coating of cement dust over native plant species. However, little is known about the extent of the response of tropical woody plants to such environmental pollutant particularly during the first stages of plant development and establishment. This work focused on the investigation of possible alterations in leaf structural and ultrastructural traits of 5-month-old Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), 6-month-old Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae), and 9-month-old Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) challenged superficially with cement dust during new leaf development. Leaf surface of plants, the soil or both (leaf plus soil), were treated (or not) for 60 days, under controlled conditions, with cement dust at 2.5 or 5.0 mg cm(-2). After exposure, no significant structural changes were observed in plant leaves. Also, no plant death was recorded by the end of the experiment. There was also some evidence of localized leaf necrosis in G. ulmifolia and T. hirta, leaf curling in M. urundeuva and T. hirta, and bulges formation on epidermal surface of T. hirta, after cement dust contact with plant shoots. All species studied exhibited stomata obliteration while T. hirta, in particular, presented early leaf abscission, changes in cellular relief, and organization and content of midrib cells. No significant ultrastructural alterations were detected under the experimental conditions studied. Indeed, mesophyll cells presented plastids with intact membrane systems. The high plant survival rates, together with mild morphoanatomic traits alterations in leaves, indicate that G. ulmifolia is more resistant to cement dust pollutant, followed by M. urundeuva and T. hirta. Thus, the three plant species are promising for being used to revegetate areas impacted by cement industries activities.

  11. The influence of woody encroachment on the nitrogen cycle: fixation, storage and gas loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, F.; Sparks, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Woody encroachment is a pervasive land cover change throughout the tropics and subtropics. Encroachment is frequently catalyzed by nitrogen (N)-fixing trees and the resulting N inputs potentially alter whole-ecosystem N cycling, accumulation and loss. In the southern US, widespread encroachment by legume Prosopis glandulosa is associated with increased soil total N storage, inorganic N concentrations, and net mineralization and nitrification rates. To better understand the effects of this process on ecosystem N cycling, we investigated patterns of symbiotic N fixation, N accrual and soil N trace gas and N2 emissions during Prosopis encroachment into the southern Rio Grande Plains. Analyses of d15N in foliage, xylem sap and plant-available soil N suggested that N fixation rates increase with tree age and are influenced by abiotic conditions. A model of soil N accrual around individual trees, accounting for atmospheric inputs and gas losses, generates lifetimes N fixation estimates of up to 9 kg for a 100-year-old tree and current rates of 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, these N inputs and increased soil cycling rates do not translate into increased N gas losses. Two years of field measurements of a complete suite of N trace gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and other oxidized N compounds) found no difference in flux between upland Prosopis groves and adjacent unencroached grasslands. Total emissions for both land cover types average 0.56-0.65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, comparable to other southern US grasslands. Additional lab experiments suggested that N2 losses are low and that field oxygen conditions are not usually conducive to denitrification. Taken together, results suggest that this ecosystem is currently experiencing a period of net N accrual under ongoing encroachment.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks.

  13. Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mice disrupt idiothetic navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Hamlin

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer's disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic or uncued (idiothetic recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze, and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Woody plant diversity in sacred forests and fallows in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junsongduang, A.; Balslev, Henrik; Jampeetong, Arunothai;

    2014-01-01

    ; old fallow, 5-6 years old). All woody plant species were identified and counted in three transects (20 x 40 m) . Seedlings were inventoried in 12 circular (5 m diam.) plots. The highest species richness of all woody species and seedlings were found in the sacred forests in both villages. The highest......All woody plant and seedling diversity was compared in a Karen and a Lawa hill-tribe village in northern Thailand in four different habitats: sacred forests and fallow fields of three ages derived from rotational shifting cultivation (young fallows, 1–2 years old; medium-age fallow, 3-4 years old...... values of the Shannon-Wiener index for both trees and seedlings were in the sacred forest of the Karen village. There were significant differences in species richness between the four studied habitats surrounding both villages (pplant and seedlings species compositions in the sacred...

  15. Rapid and effective oxidative pretreatment of woody biomass at mild reaction conditions and low oxidant loadings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Zhenglun; Chen, Charles H; Hegg, Eric L; Hodge, David B

    2013-01-01

    One route for producing cellulosic biofuels is by the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars generated from a pretreatment that can be effectively coupled with an enzymatic hydrolysis of the plant cell wall...

  16. Soil Nutrient Condition of Coffee Cultivation with Industrial Woody-crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  18. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  19. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Pamela; Doiron, Brent; Rubin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  20. Using Flume Experiments to Model Large Woody Debris Transport Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braudrick, C. A.; Grant, G. E.

    2001-05-01

    In the last decade there has been increasing interest in quantifying the transport dynamics of large woody debris in a variety of stream types. We used flume experiments to test theoretical models of wood entrainment, transport, and deposition in streams. Because wood moves infrequently during high flows where direct measurement and observation can be difficult and dangerous. Flume experiments provide an excellent setting to study wood dynamics because channel types, flow, log size, and other parameters can be varied relatively easily and extensive data can be collected over a short time period. Our flume experiments verified theoretical model predictions that piece movement is dependent on the diameter of the log and its orientation in large rivers (where piece length is less than channel width). Piece length, often reported as the most important factor in determining piece movement in field studies, was not a factor in these simulated large channels. This is likely due to the importance of banks and vegetation on inhibiting log movement in the field, particularly for pieces longer than channel width. Logs are often at least partially lodged on the banks sometimes upstream of vegetation or other logs which anchors the piece, and increases the force required for entrainment. Rootwads also increased the flow depth required to move individual logs. By raising logs off the channel bed, rootwads decrease the buoyant and drag forces acting on the log. We also developed a theoretical model of wood transport and deposition based upon the ratios of the piece length to channel width, piece length to the radius of curvature of the channel, and piece diameter to water depth. In these experiments we noted that individual logs tend to move down the channel parallel to the channel margin, and deposited on the outside of bends, heads of shallow and exposed bars, and bar crossovers. Our theoretical model was not borne out by the experiments, likely because there were few potential

  1. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  2. Lidar-derived estimate and uncertainty of carbon sink in successional phases of woody encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Temuulen; Shrestha, Rupesh; Sankey, Joel B.; Hardgree, Stuart; Strand, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Woody encroachment is a globally occurring phenomenon that contributes to the global carbon sink. The magnitude of this contribution needs to be estimated at regional and local scales to address uncertainties present in the global- and continental-scale estimates, and guide regional policy and management in balancing restoration activities, including removal of woody plants, with greenhouse gas mitigation goals. The objective of this study was to estimate carbon stored in various successional phases of woody encroachment. Using lidar measurements of individual trees, we present high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon storage in juniper woodlands. Segmentation analysis of lidar point cloud data identified a total of 60,628 juniper tree crowns across four watersheds. Tree heights, canopy cover, and density derived from lidar were strongly correlated with field measurements of 2613 juniper stems measured in 85 plots (30 × 30 m). Aboveground total biomass of individual trees was estimated using a regression model with lidar-derived height and crown area as predictors (Adj. R2 = 0.76, p 2. Uncertainty in carbon storage estimates was examined with a Monte Carlo approach that addressed major error sources. Ranges predicted with uncertainty analysis in the mean, individual tree, aboveground woody C, and associated standard deviation were 0.35 – 143.6 kg and 0.5 – 1.25 kg, respectively. Later successional phases of woody encroachment had, on average, twice the aboveground carbon relative to earlier phases. Woody encroachment might be more successfully managed and balanced with carbon storage goals by identifying priority areas in earlier phases of encroachment where intensive treatments are most effective.

  3. Landsat-Based Woody Vegetation Cover Monitoring in Southern African Savannahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, E.; Petroulaki, K.; Higginbottom, T.

    2016-06-01

    Mapping woody cover over large areas can only be effectively achieved using remote sensing data and techniques. The longest continuously operating Earth-observation program, the Landsat series, is now freely-available as an atmospherically corrected, cloud masked surface reflectance product. The availability and length of the Landsat archive is thus an unparalleled Earth-observation resource, particularly for long-term change detection and monitoring. Here, we map and monitor woody vegetation cover in the Northwest Province of South Africa, an area of more than 100,000 km2 covered by 11 Landsat scenes. We employ a multi-temporal approach with dry-season data from 7 epochs between 1990 to 2015. We use 0.5 m-pixel colour aerial photography to collect > 15,000 point samples for training and validating Random Forest classifications of (i) woody vegetation cover, (ii) other vegetation types (including grasses and agricultural land), and (iii) non-vegetated areas (i.e. urban areas and bare land). Overall accuracies for all years are around 80 % and overall kappa between 0.45 and 0.66. Woody vegetation covers a quarter of the Province and is the most accurately mapped class (balanced accuracies between 0.74-0.84 for the 7 epochs). There is a steady increase in woody vegetation cover over the 25-year-long period of study in the expense of the other vegetation types. We identify potential woody vegetation encroachment 'hot-spots' where mitigation measures might be required and thus provide a management tool for the prioritisation of such measures in degraded and food-insecure areas.

  4. Dynamic Characteristics of PEM-FC/Woody Biomass Engine Hybrid Micro Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kito, Shunsuke; Hoshi, Akira; Sasaki, Seizi

    The combustion exhaust heat of woody biomass engine using Stirling cycle is high temperature. This exhaust heat is used for the city gas reforming reaction of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) system. The woody biomass engine generator has the characteristic that the greenhouse gas amount of emission with power generation is greatly reducible. In this paper, the micro grid system that introduces PEM-FC/woody biomass engine hybrid cogeneration (PWHC) is proposed. It depends on the dynamic characteristics of the grid for the power quality at the time of load fluctuation being added to the micro grid. Especially, the dynamic characteristics of the independent micro grid are important on security of power quality. So, in this paper, the response characteristic of PEM-FC and woody biomass engine was investigated by the experiment and the numerical analysis. Furthermore, the response characteristic of the PWHC independent micro grid including auxiliary machinery was investigated by the numerical simulation. Moreover, an improvement of dynamic characteristics is proposed using the method of adding proportional-plus-integral control to PWHC. If woody biomass engine is introduced into a house, 10.2s will be required to stabilize power quality at the maximum. On the other hand, when woody biomass engine corresponds to a base load and PEM-FC corresponds to the load exceeding the base load, settling time is less than 1.6 s. In this study, relation between the system configuration of the PWHC micro grid and the dynamic characteristics of the power was clarified.

  5. LANDSAT-BASED WOODY VEGETATION COVER MONITORING IN SOUTHERN AFRICAN SAVANNAHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Symeonakis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping woody cover over large areas can only be effectively achieved using remote sensing data and techniques. The longest continuously operating Earth-observation program, the Landsat series, is now freely-available as an atmospherically corrected, cloud masked surface reflectance product. The availability and length of the Landsat archive is thus an unparalleled Earth-observation resource, particularly for long-term change detection and monitoring. Here, we map and monitor woody vegetation cover in the Northwest Province of South Africa, an area of more than 100,000 km2 covered by 11 Landsat scenes. We employ a multi-temporal approach with dry-season data from 7 epochs between 1990 to 2015. We use 0.5 m-pixel colour aerial photography to collect > 15,000 point samples for training and validating Random Forest classifications of (i woody vegetation cover, (ii other vegetation types (including grasses and agricultural land, and (iii non-vegetated areas (i.e. urban areas and bare land. Overall accuracies for all years are around 80 % and overall kappa between 0.45 and 0.66. Woody vegetation covers a quarter of the Province and is the most accurately mapped class (balanced accuracies between 0.74-0.84 for the 7 epochs. There is a steady increase in woody vegetation cover over the 25-year-long period of study in the expense of the other vegetation types. We identify potential woody vegetation encroachment 'hot-spots' where mitigation measures might be required and thus provide a management tool for the prioritisation of such measures in degraded and food-insecure areas.

  6. Structure Measurements of Leaf and Woody Components of Forests with Dual-Wavelength Lidar Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Wang, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L. B.; Schaefer, M.; Newnham, G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest structure plays a critical role in the exchange of energy, carbon and water between land and atmosphere and nutrient cycle. We can provide detailed forest structure measurements of leaf and woody components with the Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), which acquires full-waveform scans at both near-infrared (NIR, 1064 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1548 nm) wavelengths from simultaneous laser pulses. We collected DWEL scans at a broadleaf forest stand and a conifer forest stand at Harvard Forest in June 2014. Power returned from leaves is much lower than from woody materials such as trunks and branches at the SWIR wavelength due to the liquid water absorption by leaves, whereas returned power at the NIR wavelength is similar from both leaves and woody materials. We threshold a normalized difference index (NDI), defined as the difference between returned power at the two wavelengths divided by their sum, to classify each return pulse as a leaf or trunk/branch hit. We obtain leaf area index (LAI), woody area index (WAI) and vertical profiles of leaf and woody components directly from classified lidar hits without empirical wood-to-total ratios as are commonly used in optical methods of LAI estimation. Tree heights, diameter at breast height (DBH), and stem count density are the other forest structure parameters estimated from our DWEL scans. The separation of leaf and woody components in tandem with fine-scale forest structure measurements will benefit studies on carbon allocation of forest ecosystems and improve our understanding of the effects of forest structure on ecosystem functions. This research is supported by NSF grant, MRI-0923389

  7. Effects of gaps on regeneration of woody plants:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojun Zhu; Deliang Lu; Weidong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Forest gaps, openings in the canopy caused by death of one or more trees, have a profound effect on forest regeneration and drive the forest growth cycle. It is therefore necessary to understand the effects of forest gaps on regeneration for modern forest management. In order to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of forest gaps on regen-eration of woody plants, we conducted this review of gap effects on woody plant regeneration on the basis of 527 observations from 42 indi-vidual papers, and reported the results of these data in a meta-analysis. Overall, densities of regenerated woody plants were significantly greater (359%) in forest gaps than on the closed-canopy forest floor. The regen-eration density in gaps of plantation forests was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that of natural forest because the regeneration in gaps of plan-tation forests was improved by both gap effects and experimental meas-ures. Similarly, in comparison to natural gaps, regeneration was better enhanced in artificial gaps. Regeneration density exhibited a significantly positive correlation with gap size, but a negative correlation with gap age because the gap size decreased with increasing gap age. Shade tolerance of woody plants affected regeneration density in gaps and understory. Average regeneration density of shade-tolerant species exhibited a sig-nificantly positive response to gaps but densities remained lower in total than those of intermediate and shade-intolerant species. Gap effects on regeneration decreased in response to increasing temperature and pre-cipitation because of the limiting effects of lower temperature and moisture on woody plant regeneration. In summary, forest gaps enhance woody plant regeneration, and the effects of gaps varied by forest type, gap characteristics, environmental factors and plant traits. The results of this meta-analysis are useful for better understanding the effects and roles of gaps on forest regeneration and forest

  8. Availability of local woody biomass for large-scale energy production in the Netherlands. Case study : Vattenfall biomass plant in Utrecht.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several potential studies have demonstrated that there is a relatively high potential for the combustion of local woody biomass. Vattenfall investigates the feasibility of building a plant in Utrecht, which will fully run on woody biomass. The pl

  9. Availability of local woody biomass for large-scale energy production in the Netherlands. Case study : Vattenfall biomass plant in Utrecht.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several potential studies have demonstrated that there is a relatively high potential for the combustion of local woody biomass. Vattenfall investigates the feasibility of building a plant in Utrecht, which will fully run on woody biomass. The pl

  10. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  11. Transition of a Sambucus nigra L. dominated woody vegetation into grassland by a self regulating multi-species herbivore assemblage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, P.; Gresnigt, M.C.; Vermeulen, R.A.; Bokdam, J.; Smit, R.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and analyse how large herbivores strongly diminished a woody vegetation, dominated by the unpalatable shrub Sambucus nigra L. and changed it into grassland. Density of woody species and cover of vegetation were measured in 1996, 2002 and 2012 in the grazed Oostvaardersplassen. In 2002 an

  12. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  13. Savannah woody structure modelling and mapping using multifrequency (X-, C- and L-band) synthetic aperture radar data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L:

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available -Saharan Africa) and are at risk of over utilisation. The woody component can be characterized by various quantifiable woody structural parameters, such as tree cover, tree height, above ground biomass (AGB) or canopy volume, each been useful for different...

  14. A STELLA model to estimate water and nitrogen dynamics in a short-rotation woody crop plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Jiaen Zhang; Theodor D. Leininger; Brent R. Frey

    2015-01-01

    Although short-rotation woody crop biomass production technology has demonstrated a promising potential to supply feedstocks for bioenergy production, the water and nutrient processes in the woody crop planation ecosystem are poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to estimate the dynamics of water and nitrogen (N) species (e.g., NH4...

  15. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  16. Long-term effects of burning on woody plant species sprouting on the False thornveld of Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ratsele, C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting allows woody plant species to persist in a site after a wide range of disturbances (e.g. prolonged fire), where opportunities for seedling establishment are limited. A study to investigate long-term effects of fire sprouting of woody...

  17. Basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Schacht, R.A.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1982-11-01

    Four cases of basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging are presented. Bilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two patients were probably related to methanol intoxication and meningoencephalitis, and unilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two other patients were presumably due to cerebral atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Various causes and mechanisms of basal ganglia infarction as well as positive findings of radionuclide brain imaging are briefly reviewed.

  18. Woody hardness - a novel classification for the radiotherapy-treated neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, S D; Mitchell, D A; Brennan, P A

    2015-04-01

    The term 'woody neck' is widely used by surgeons and oncologists to describe the fibrosis that can occur following radiotherapy for head and neck malignancy. These soft tissue and skin changes can be compounded by neck dissection, either before or after radiotherapy. To our knowledge, there is no classification published in the literature to describe the degree of woody hardness following treatment. We propose a simple ABC classification for varying degrees of indurated oedema and neck fibrosis secondary to radiotherapy or long-standing pathology, using the hardness of different woods to enable a suitable description to be made of severity.

  19. Invertebrate community response to coarse woody debris removal for bioenergy production from intensively managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, Steven M; Moorman, Christopher E; Fritts, Sarah R; Campbell, Joshua W; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bertone, Matthew A; Castleberry, Steven B; Wigley, T Bently

    2017-09-26

    Increased market viability of harvest residues as forest bioenergy feedstock may escalate removal of coarse woody debris in managed forests. Meanwhile, many forest invertebrates use coarse woody debris for cover, food, and reproduction. Few studies have explicitly addressed effects of operational-scale woody biomass harvesting on invertebrates following clearcutting. Therefore, we measured invertebrate community response to large-scale harvest residue removal and micro-site manipulations of harvest residue availability in recently clearcut, intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in North Carolina (NC; n = 4) and Georgia (GA; n = 4), USA. We captured 39,794 surface-active invertebrates representing 171 taxonomic groups using pitfall traps situated among micro-site locations (i.e., purposefully retained piles of hardwood stems and piles of conifer stems and areas without coarse woody debris in NC; windrows and no windrows in GA). Micro-site locations were located within six, large-scale treatments (7.16 - 14.3 ha) in clearcuts. Large-scale treatments represented intensive harvest residue removal, 15% and 30% harvest residue retention, and no harvest residue removal. In NC, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were three times more abundant in treatments with no harvest residue removal than those with the most intensive harvest residue removal and were reduced in treatments that retained 15% or 30% of harvest residues, although not significantly. Invertebrate taxa richness was greater at micro-site locations with retained hardwood and pine (Pinus spp.) harvest residues than those with minimal amounts of coarse woody debris. In both states, relative abundances of several invertebrate taxa, including cave crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae), fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae and Sciaridae), millipedes (Diplopoda), and wood roaches (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), were greater at micro-site locations with retained

  20. The Flora of Woody Plants and Vegetation on the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    There are about one thousand species of woody plants that occur naturally on the Horn of Africa, including trees and large shrubs, and they have many functions in the highly varied ecosystem on the Horn, including soil conservation and the prevention of flooding during tropical rainstorms....... For historical reasons, the woody flora and the vegetation types they form have been less studied than in most other parts of Africa, and new species of even rather large shrubs or trees are still discovered, named and described. This project, which is part of an involvement with the flora and vegetation...

  1. BRCA1 dysfunction in sporadic basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N C; Reis-Filho, J S; Russell, A M; Springall, R J; Ryder, K; Steele, D; Savage, K; Gillett, C E; Schmitt, F C; Ashworth, A; Tutt, A N

    2007-03-29

    Basal-like breast cancers form a distinct subtype of breast cancer characterized by the expression of markers expressed in normal basal/myoepithelial cells. Breast cancers arising in carriers of germline BRCA1 mutations are predominately of basal-like type, suggesting that BRCA1 dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic basal-like cancers. We analysed 37 sporadic breast cancers expressing the basal marker cytokeratin 5/6, and age- and grade-matched controls, for downregulation of BRCA1. Although BRCA1 promoter methylation was no more common in basal-like cancers (basal 14% vs controls 11%, P=0.72), BRCA1 messenger RNA expression was twofold lower in basal-like breast cancers compared to matched controls (P=0.008). ID4, a negative regulator of BRCA1, was expressed at 9.1-fold higher levels in basal-like breast cancer (Prevealing heterogeneity in the basal-like phenotype. Finally, we found that 63% of metaplastic breast cancers, a rare type of basal-like cancers, had BRCA1 methylation, in comparison to 12% of controls (P<0.0001). The high prevalence of BRCA1 dysfunction identified in this study could be exploited in the development of novel approaches to targeted treatment of basal-like breast cancer.

  2. Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelaide, J.; Finetti, P.; Bekhouche, I.; Repellini, L.; Geneix, J.; Sircoulomb, F.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Cervera, N.; Desplans, J.; Parzy, D.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Viens, P.; Jacquemier, J.; Birnbaum, D.; Bertucci, F.; Chaffanet, M.

    2007-01-01

    Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal

  3. Soil Nutrient, Woody Understory and Shoot and Root Growth Responses of Pinus brutia Ten. Saplings to Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros GANATSAS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nine years after a wildfire, above- and below-ground morphology of Pinus brutia Ten. saplings and the microsite factors prevailing in understorey (unburned area and postfire conditions (burned area of the Forest Park of Thessaloniki were studied. Major stand characteristics (density, tree canopy cover, tree height, crown height, and diameter were measured in the unburned area. Light and soil conditions as well as plant cover of woody species were recorded in both areas (burned and unburned. A random sample of pine saplings, of uniform age, was taken from both burned and unburned areas, and their above-ground (height, diameter, number and total length of branches, needle biomass and below-ground morphological characteristics (taproot length, total length of coarse and fine roots, and number of coarse roots were measured. Data analysis showed that above- and below-ground morphology of pine saplings was adversely affected in saplings grown in understorey conditions, compared to those grown in postfire conditions. P. brutia is a shade-intolerant tree species and thus the light conditions seem to be the critical factor affecting the growth of pine saplings. Light is not a limiting factor in the burned area compared to the understorey, where density of the tree canopy limits available light.

  4. Selected mild strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV fail to protect pre-immunized vines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Quelmo Silva de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV is the most important virus affecting passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. crops in Brazil. The main purpose of this work was to select mild strains of PWV and to evaluate their protective effect against a severe strain of the virus. Three mild strains were selected from outstanding plants found in orchards severely affected by the virus (F-101, F-102 and F-103 and three others were obtained from blisters formed in passion fruit vine leaves showing mosaic (F-99, F-144 and F-145. The protective effect of the mild strains was evaluated for vines under greenhouse and field conditions. Plants pre-immunized with mild strains F-101, F-102 and F-144, in a greenhouse, had partial protection against the severe strain PWV-SP. In a first field experiment, all passion fruit vines pre-immunized with the six selected mild strains showed severe symptoms of the disease, approximately four months after the challenge inoculation with the PWV-SP strain. Results from a second field experiment, with vines pre-immunized with strains F-101 and F-144, followed by a quantitative evaluation of the mild strains in different leaves of the protected plants, indicated that breakdown in protection seems to be related to the low concentration and/or irregular distribution of the mild strains in leaves, which allows the existence of infection sites available for the establishment of the severe strain. Pre-immunization was not an appropriate alternative for the control of the passion fruit woodiness disease.

  5. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  6. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  7. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  8. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  9. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma and its mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80% is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

  10. Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Ji, Qiang; Dilcher, David L; Zheng, Shaolin; Nixon, Kevin C; Wang, Xinfu

    2002-05-03

    Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their characters are included in a combined three-gene molecular and morphological analysis. Their reproductive axes lack petals and sepals and bear stamens in pairs below conduplicate carpels.

  11. Functional traits predict drought performance and distribution of Mediterranean woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iglesias, Bárbara; Villar, Rafael; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-04-01

    Water availability is one of the key environmental factors that affect plant establishment and distribution. In many regions water availability will decline with climate change, exposing small seedlings to a greater likelihood of drought. In this study, 17 leaves, stem, root, and whole-plant traits of ten woody Mediterranean species were measured under favourable growing conditions and seedling drought survival was evaluated during a simulated dry-down episode. The aims of this study were: i) to assess drought survival of different species, ii) to analyse which functional traits predict drought survival time, and iii) to explain species distribution in the field, based on species drought survival and drought strategies. Drought survival time varied ten-fold across species, from 19 to 192 days. Across species, drought survival was positively related to the rooting depth per leaf area, i.e., the ability to acquire water from deeper soil layers while reducing transpiring leaf area. Drought survival time was negatively related to species ability to grow quickly, as indicated by high relative growth and net assimilation rates. Drought survival also explained species distribution in the field. It was found that species were sorted along a continuum, ranging between two contrasting species functional extremes based on functional traits and drought performance. One extreme consisted of acquisitive fast-growing deciduous species, with thin, soft metabolically active leaves, with high resource use and vulnerability to drought. The opposite extreme consisted of conservative slow-growing evergreen species with sclerophyllous leaves, deep roots, a low transpiring area, and low water use, resulting in high drought survival and drought tolerance. The results show that these drought strategies shape species distribution in this Mediterranean area.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Young Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Horoz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common type of skin cancer and has a direct relationship with chronic sun exposure. Other risk factors include fair skin and eyes, freckling, family history, genetic disorders, immunosuppression, ionizing radiation, arsenic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. BCC usually progresses slowly. Lesions are usually seen over sun-exposed areas, which are most commonly on the face and neck. Local invasion may occur, but it rarely metastasizes. The incidence of BCC peaks in the seventh decade of life. BCC is an uncommon lesion during childhood, youth, and pregnancy. It has rarely been reported during childhood. BCC seen during childhood can be inherited with diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism, Bazex syndrome, and basal cell nevus syndrome or after high-dose radiotherapy. In this study, we present the cases of a 14-year-old girl with BCC on the right popliteal region and a 23-year-old pregnant woman with BCC on the nasal tip. Both patients underwent total excision, and there were neither recurrence nor any complication during the follow-up

  13. Estimating relationships among water use, nitrogen uptake and biomass production in a short-rotation woody crop plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Short-rotation woody crop has been identified as one of the best feedstocks for bioenergy production due to their fast-growth rates. However, the biomass production, nutrient uptake, and water use efficiency under adverse environmental condition are still poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to undertake these issues using STELLA (Structural Thinking and Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation) software. Two simulation scenarios were employed: one was to quantify the mechanisms of water use, nitrogen uptake and biomass production in a eucalypt plantation under the normal soil conditions, the other was to estimate the same mechanisms under the wet and dry soil conditions. In general, the rates of evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration (ET), and root water uptake were in the following order: ET > root uptake > leaf transpiration > soil evaporation. A profound discrepancy in water use was observed between the wet and dry soil conditions. Leaching of nitrate-N and soluble organic N depended not only on soil N content but also on rainfall rate and duration. The yield of biomass from the eucalypt was primarily regulated by water availability in a fertilized plantation.

  14. Screening the Resilience of Short-Rotation Woody Crops to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable woody biofeedstock production systems require a reliable supply of woody biomass that could be affected by future climate change. However, there is limited understanding of the climatic sensitivity of short rotation woody crops, such as hybrid aspens. The general objective of this study is to identify climatically resilient hybrid aspen clones for woody biomass feedstock development. Specifically, tree-ring analysis methods (dendrochronology were used to quantify the influence of climate on stem growth rates of hybrid aspens by measuring year-to-year changes in tree-ring width from different cultivars of hybrid aspen and relating annual growth patterns with past instrumental climate records (i.e., temperature and moisture index. Tree-ring analysis was conducted on a full-sib progeny plantation of different cultivars of hybrid aspens (Populus × smithii derived from different geographical variants of aspen parents: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides and bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata located on Michigan State University property in the Sandhill Research Area (42.7°N latitude; 84.5°W longitude. Overall, the hybrid aspen families examined in this study were more sensitive to moisture related stressors compared to a weaker or no response to temperature stressors. By the end of the 21st century (2071–2100, 11 out of the 18 hybrid aspen families will be vulnerable to future changes in moisture stress, while the remaining families were screened to be resilient to future changes in moisture stress.

  15. A Computer-Based Simulation for Teaching Heat Transfer across a Woody Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixner, Michael R.; Noyd, Robert K.; Krueger, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    To assist student understanding of heat transfer through woody stems, we developed an instructional package that included an Excel-based, one-dimensional simulation model and a companion instructional worksheet. Guiding undergraduate botany students to applying principles of thermodynamics to plants in nature is fraught with two main obstacles:…

  16. Photosynthetic acclimation to light changes in tropical monsoon forest woody species differing in adult stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Rijkers, A.J.M.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We studied morphological and physiological leaf and whole-plant features of seedlings of six late-successional woody species common in the Xishuangbanna lowland rain forest in southwest China. Study species differed in adult stature and shade tolerance and included the shrubs Lasianthus attenuatus J

  17. The genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.

    2008-01-01

    A collection of Sinularia specimens from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia) is presented; thirteen different species were recognized, six of which are new to science and are described and figured: S. bremerensis, S. confusa, S. diffusa, S. linnei, S. papula and S. woodyen

  18. The genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ofwegen, van, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    A collection of Sinularia specimens from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia) is presented; thirteen different species were recognized, six of which are new to science and are described and figured: S. bremerensis, S. confusa, S. diffusa, S. linnei, S. papula and S. woodyensis.

  19. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  20. Woody cover in wet and dry African savannas after six decades of experimental fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devine, Aisling P.; Stott, Iain; Mcdonald, Robbie A.;

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Fire is an integral process in savannas because it plays a crucial role in altering woody cover of this globally important biome. In this study, we examine the long-term effects of varying fire frequencies over a 60-year time period in South Africa. We analyse the effects of fire exclusi...

  1. Automated detection of branch dimensions in woody skeletons of leafless fruit tree canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Fleck, S.

    2009-01-01

    Light driven physiological processes of tree canopies need to be modelled based on detailed 3Dcanopy structure – we explore the possibilities offered by terrestrial LIDAR to automatically represent woody skeletons of leafless trees as a basis for adequate models of canopy structure. The automatic ev

  2. Modeling Woody Biomass Procurement for Bioenergy Production at the Atikokan Generating Station in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Upadhyay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient procurement and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy production requires a good understanding of biomass supply chains. In this paper, a dynamic optimization model has been developed and applied to estimate monthly supply and procurement costs of woody biomass required for the Atikokan Generating Station (AGS in northwestern Ontario, based on its monthly electricity production schedule. The decision variables in the model are monthly harvest levels of two types of woody biomass, forest harvest residues and unutilized biomass, from 19,315 forest depletion cells (each 1 km2 for a one year planning horizon. Sixteen scenarios are tested to examine the sensitivity of the cost minimization model to changing economic and technological parameters. Reduction in moisture content and improvement of conversion efficiency showed relatively higher reductions in monthly and total costs of woody biomass feedstock for the AGS. The results of this study help in understanding and designing decision support systems for optimal biomass supply chains under dynamic operational frameworks.

  3. Development of a downed woody debris forecasting tool using strategic-scale multiresource forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall

    2017-01-01

    The increasing interest in forest biomass for energy or carbon cycle purposes has raised the need for forest resource managers to refine their understanding of downed woody debris (DWD) dynamics. We developed a DWD forecasting tool using field measurements (mean size and stage of stage of decay) for three common forest types across the eastern United States using field...

  4. Native and exotic woody vegetation communities in domestic gardens in relation to social and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda M. van Heezik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation in private gardens contributes significantly to plant species richness and vegetation volume across urban areas. Drivers of garden diversity and structure are complex, reflecting the diversity of social, cultural, and socioeconomic characteristics of the householders who manage their gardens, as well as their predecessors. Here we investigate the woodiness of gardens, and focus on (1 the prevalence of native versus exotic woody plants and (2 the influence of characteristics of garden owners, the gardens, and their proximity to neighborhood green spaces to identify the degree to which these factors explain patterns in native and exotic woody species communities in entire (back and front gardens in southern temperate New Zealand. We found few consistent patterns in structure in woody species community composition. Outlying gardens were characterized by low species richness and abundance. Thirty-seven species commonly occurred across most gardens: most of these were exotic. Twelve native species were common throughout most gardens. There was significant but weak matching to social and environmental variables: vegetated area, species knowledge, and education explained pattern in native communities, whereas vegetated area, species knowledge, and householder age explained variation in exotic communities. Native trees > 5 m tall occurred in only 58% of gardens. Tall tree density was 10/ha, and 29% of gardens lacked any trees > 5 m. Tree presence was weakly (positively associated with extent and proximity of neighborhood green space. We suggest that the legacy of previous owners' gardening practices is important to consider when identifying drivers of garden plant community structure.

  5. Aboveground biomass subdivisions in woody species of the savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rutherford, MC

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground peak season biomass is given for 11 woody species in each of five belt transects under study. Mean aerial biomass for all species was 16 273 kg ha, made up of 14 937 kg ha wood, 236 kg ha current season's twigs and 1 100 kg ha leaves...

  6. Woody plants and the prediction of climate-change impacts on bird diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Field, R.; Korntheuer, H.;

    2010-01-01

    Current methods of assessing climate-induced shifts of species distributions rarely account for species interactions and usually ignore potential differences in response times of interacting taxa to climate change. Here, we used species-richness data from 1005 breeding bird and 1417 woody plant s...... even stronger effects for more specialized plant-animal associations. Given the slow response time of woody plant distributions to climate change, current estimates of future biodiversity of many animal taxa may be both biased and too optimistic.......Current methods of assessing climate-induced shifts of species distributions rarely account for species interactions and usually ignore potential differences in response times of interacting taxa to climate change. Here, we used species-richness data from 1005 breeding bird and 1417 woody plant...... species in Kenya and employed model-averaged coefficients from regression models and median climatic forecasts assembled across 15 climate-change scenarios to predict bird species richness under climate change. Forecasts assuming an instantaneous response of woody plants and birds to climate change...

  7. Woody vegetation and land cover changes in the Sahel of Mali (1967–2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekermann, Raphael; Brandt, Martin; Samimi, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    In the past 50 years, the Sahel has experienced significant tree- and land cover changes accelerated by human expansion and prolonged droughts during the 1970s and 1980s. This study uses remote sensing techniques, supplemented by ground-truth data to compare pre-drought woody vegetation and land...

  8. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014. The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforestation at a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, in Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo State. All specimens with height > 30 cm and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH < 5 cm were evaluated. The woody regenerating diversity was smaller than the overstory diversity and the species composition was similar to the overstory. The Simpson index (1-D was 0.85, Shannon index (H' was 2.46 and the Pielou index (J' was 0.60. The zoochoric dispersion syndrome was major among the species. Our results suggest that the use of high diversity of native seedlings in a reforestation leads to high diversity of species in woody regeneration stratum, after one decade of planting.

  9. 78 FR 11622 - Request for Proposals: 2013 Hazardous Fuels Woody Biomass Utilization Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... that target and help remove economic and market barriers to using woody biomass for renewable energy... target market(s), extent of competition for supply and delivered costs and general characterization of... retained on a full-time equivalent basis). Also required in the economic analysis is a market feasibility...

  10. Lidar-derived estimate and uncertainty of carbon sink in successional phases of woody encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody encroachment is a globally occurring phenomenon that is thought to contribute significantly to the global carbon (C) sink. The C contribution needs to be estimated at regional and local scales to address large uncertainties present in the global- and continental-scale estimates and guide regio...

  11. Future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander N. Moiseyev; Daniel G. de la Torre Ugarte; Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    The North American Pulp And Paper (NAPAP) model and USDA POLYSYS agricultural policy analysis model were linked to project future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops in the United States. Results suggest that pulpwood supply from fast- growing hybrid poplars and cottonwoods will become marginally economical but fairly...

  12. Comparing three sampling techniques for estimating fine woody down dead biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Kathy Gray

    2013-01-01

    Designing woody fuel sampling methods that quickly, accurately and efficiently assess biomass at relevant spatial scales requires extensive knowledge of each sampling method's strengths, weaknesses and tradeoffs. In this study, we compared various modifications of three common sampling methods (planar intercept, fixed-area microplot and photoload) for estimating...

  13. Case studies on sugar production from underutilized woody biomass using sulfite chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Roland Gleisner; William Gilles; Johnway Gao; Gevan Marrs; Dwight Anderson; John Sessions

    2015-01-01

    We examined two case studies to demonstrate the advantages of sulfite chemistry for pretreating underutilized woody biomass to produce sugars through enzymatic saccharification. In the first case study, we evaluated knot rejects from a magnesium-basedsulfite mill for direct enzymatic sugar production.We found that the sulfite mill rejects are an excellent feedstock for...

  14. Capabilities and limitations of Landsat and land cover data for aboveground woody biomass estimation of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avitabile, V.; Baccini, A.; Friedl, M.A.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground woody biomass for circa-2000 is mapped at national scale in Uganda at 30-m spatial resolution on the basis of Landsat ETM + images, a National land cover dataset and field data using an object-oriented approach. A regression tree-based model (Random Forest) produces good results (cross-v

  15. Changes to soil organic N dynamics with leguminous woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The encroachment of nitrogen-fixing trees and shrubs into grasslands and savannas occurs worldwide. In the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas, previous studies have shown that woody encroachment by leguminous Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite) trees increases soil and microbial biomass nitrogen ...

  16. Hyper-Temporal C-Band SAR for Baseline Woody Structural Assessments in Deciduous Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Main

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems and their woody vegetation provide valuable resources and ecosystem services. Locally calibrated and cost effective estimates of these resources are required in order to satisfy commitments to monitor and manage change within them. Baseline maps of woody resources are important for analyzing change over time. Freely available, and highly repetitive, C-band data has the potential to be a viable alternative to high-resolution commercial SAR imagery (e.g., RADARSAT-2, ALOS2 in generating large-scale woody resources maps. Using airborne LiDAR as calibration, we investigated the relationships between hyper-temporal C-band ASAR data and woody structural parameters, namely total canopy cover (TCC and total canopy volume (TCV, in a deciduous savanna environment. Results showed that: the temporal filter reduced image variance; the random forest model out-performed the linear model; while the TCV metric consistently showed marginally higher accuracies than the TCC metric. Combinations of between 6 and 10 images could produce results comparable to high resolution commercial (C- & L-band SAR imagery. The approach showed promise for producing a regional scale, locally calibrated, baseline maps for the management of deciduous savanna resources, and lay a foundation for monitoring using time series of data from newer C-band SAR sensors (e.g., Sentinel1.

  17. Woody debris volume depletion through decay: Implications for biomass and carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Fraver; Amy M. Milo; John B. Bradford; Anthony W. D’Amato; Laura Kenefic; Brian J. Palik; Christopher W. Woodall; John. Brissette

    2013-01-01

    Woody debris decay rates have recently received much attention because of the need to quantify temporal changes in forest carbon stocks. Published decay rates, available for many species, are commonly used to characterize deadwood biomass and carbon depletion. However, decay rates are often derived from reductions in wood density through time, which when used to model...

  18. Patterns of Genetic Variation in Woody Plant Species in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria L. Sork; Anthony Koop; Marie Ann de la Fuente; Paul Foster; Jay. Raveill

    1997-01-01

    We quantified current patterns of genetic variation of three woody plant species—Carya tomentosa (Juglandaceae), Quercus alba (Fagaceae), and Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)—distributed throughout the nine Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites and evaluated the data in light of the MOFEP...

  19. Biomass and carbon attributes of downed woody materials in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; B.F. Walters; S.N. Oswalt; G.M. Domke; C. Toney; A.N. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Due to burgeoning interest in the biomass/carbon attributes of forest downed and dead woody materials (DWMs) attributable to its fundamental role in the carbon cycle, stand structure/diversity, bioenergy resources, and fuel loadings, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has conducted a nationwide field-based inventory of DWM. Using the national DWM inventory, attributes...

  20. Human-modified landscapes: patterns of fine-scale woody vegetation structure in communal savannah rangelands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available precipitation at one site, and human population density and intensity of use at the other four sites. Size class distributions of woody vegetation revealed human disturbance gradients around settlements. Intensity of use affected the amplitude, not the shape...

  1. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping : impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.

    It is known that

  2. Effects of alien woody plant invasion on the birds of Mountain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-04-18

    Apr 18, 1989 ... Effects of alien woody plant invasion on the birds of Mountain Fynbos in the Cape of Good ..... and Cape white-eye (Zosterops pal/idus) which are associated with the ... plot (Table 3) where Cape sugarbirds, sun birds and red-.

  3. Energy product options for Eucalyptus species grown as short rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Rockwood; Alan W. Rudie; Sally A. Ralph; J.Y. Zhu; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are native to Australia but grown extensively worldwide as short rotation hardwoods for a variety of products and as ornamentals. We describe their general importance with specific emphasis on existing and emerging markets as energy products and the potential to maximize their productivity as short rotation woody crops. Using experience in Florida...

  4. Evaluation of short-rotation woody crops to stabilize a decommissioned swine lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.C. Dipesh; Rodney E. Will; Thomas C. Hennessey; Chad J. Penn

    2012-01-01

    Fast growing tree stands represent an environmentally friendly, less expensive method for stabilization of decommissioned animal production lagoons than traditional lagoon closure. We tested the feasibility of using short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) in central Oklahoma to close a decommissioned swine lagoon by evaluating the growth performance and nutrient uptake of...

  5. From Nehemiah Grew to Genomics: the emerging field of evo-devo research for woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Groover; Quentin Cronk

    2013-01-01

    Wood has played a primary role in the evolution of land plants (Spicer and Groover 2010), but our understanding of the genes and mechanisms underlying wood evolution and development has been limited until recently. Importantly, many of the fundamental questions of woody plant evolution and development are now tractable using genomics and high-capacity sequencing...

  6. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  7. Changes in the woody component of an East African savanna during 25 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Claudius A.D.M. van de; Foley, Charles A.; Olff, Han

    1999-01-01

    Changes in density, structure and species composition of the woody component of the two predominant savanna types in Tarangire National Park, northern Tanzania, during a period of 25 y were investigated. The park is known for its large, increasing elephant numbers and high frequency of fires. In 199

  8. A comprehensive comparison of perpendicular distance sampling methods for sampling downed coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine; Michael S. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Many new methods for sampling down coarse woody debris have been proposed in the last dozen or so years. One of the most promising in terms of field application, perpendicular distance sampling (PDS), has several variants that have been progressively introduced in the literature. In this study, we provide an overview of the different PDS variants and comprehensive...

  9. Critical length sampling: a method to estimate the volume of downed coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    G& #246; ran St& #229; hl; Jeffrey H. Gove; Michael S. Williams; Mark J. Ducey

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, critical length sampling for estimating the volume of downed coarse woody debris is presented. Using this method, the volume of downed wood in a stand can be estimated by summing the critical lengths of down logs included in a sample obtained using a relascope or wedge prism; typically, the instrument should be tilted 90° from its usual...

  10. Perpendicular distance sampling: an alternative method for sampling downed coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2003-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) plays an important role in many forest ecosystem processes. In recent years, a number of new methods have been proposed to sample CWD. These methods select individual logs into the sample using some form of unequal probability sampling. One concern with most of these methods is the difficulty in estimating the volume of each log. A new method...

  11. Nutrient concentration of down woody debris in mixedwood forests in central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike R. Saunders; Shawn Fraver; Robert G. Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Both nutrient concentrations and pre- and post-harvest pool sizes were determined across down woody debris decay classes of several hardwood and softwood species in a long-term, natural disturbance based, silvicultural experiment in central Maine. Concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn generally increased 2- to 5-fold with increasing decay class. Concentrations...

  12. Use of financial and economic analyses by federal forest managers for woody biomass removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; John D. Baldridge; Dan R. Loeffler

    2011-01-01

    This study was sponsored by the Joint Fire Science Program to understand and enhance the ability of federal land managers to address financial and economic (F&E) aspects of woody biomass removal as a component of fire hazard reduction. Focus groups were conducted with nearly 100 federal land managers throughout the western United States. Several issues and...

  13. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis M. Hinkelman; John L. Orrock; Susan C Loeb

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs, but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used giving-up densities to quantify...

  14. Promise of combined hydrothermal/chemical and mechanical refining for pretreatment of woody and herbaceous biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of advanced biofuels from woody and herbaceous feedstocks is moving into commercialization. Biomass needs to be pretreated to overcome the physicochemical properties of biomass that hinder enzyme accessibility, impeding the conversion of the plant cell walls to fermentable sugars. Pretrea...

  15. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping: impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.It is known that the outer part of the fibre he

  16. Basal metabolic rate and the rate of senescence in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon; Koteja, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    1. Between-individual variation in rates of senescence has recently been found to relate to natal and early-life conditions in several natural populations. Mechanistic theories of senescence have predicted between-individual variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) to also underlie such variation in

  17. Basal metabolic rate and the rate of senescence in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon; Koteja, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    1. Between-individual variation in rates of senescence has recently been found to relate to natal and early-life conditions in several natural populations. Mechanistic theories of senescence have predicted between-individual variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) to also underlie such variation in

  18. Basal-cell carcinoma resulting from radiation therapy for hypertrophic tonsils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, C.W.; O' Brian, J.J.; Shidnia, H.; Becker, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Benign dermatologic conditions are no longer treated with therapeutic radiation because of the late complications that can result. One of the most serious complications that may occur is the development of skin cancer of various types. In this report, a patient received radiation for hypertrophic tonsils and later developed basal-cell carcinomas in the irradiated areas.

  19. Basal metabolic rate and the rate of senescence in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon; Koteja, Pawel

    1. Between-individual variation in rates of senescence has recently been found to relate to natal and early-life conditions in several natural populations. Mechanistic theories of senescence have predicted between-individual variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) to also underlie such variation in

  20. Woody-to-total area ratio determination with a multispectral canopy imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Yan, Guangjian; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Wuming

    2009-08-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) - defined as one half of the total green leaf area per unit ground surface area - can be determined by direct or indirect methods. Three major sources of errors exist in indirect LAI measurements: within-shoot clumping, beyond-shoot clumping and non-photosynthetic components. The effect of non-photosynthetic components on LAI measurements can be described by the woody-to-total area ratio, alpha; however, no convenient and efficient indirect methods have been developed to estimate alpha, especially the variations in alpha with zenith angle , alpha(theta). We describe the development and use of a multispectral canopy imager (MCI) to estimate alpha and alpha(theta) by considering the effects of non-random distributions of canopy elements and woody components and the overestimation of needle-to-shoot area ratio on woody components. The MCI, which mainly comprises a near-infrared band camera (Fujifilm IS-1), two visible band cameras (Canon 40D), filters and a pan tilt, was developed to measure clumping index, woody-to-total area ratio and geometric parameters of isolated trees. Two typical sampling plots (Plots 1 and 5) chosen from among 16 permanent forest experiment plots were selected for the estimation of alpha and alpha(theta). The non-random distributions of canopy elements and woody components were estimated separately at eight zenith angles (from 0 degrees to 70 degrees in increments of 10 degrees) using MCI images based on the gap size distribution theory. The visible/near-infrared image pairs captured by the MCI were able to discriminate among sky, leaves, cloud and woody components. Based on three methods of estimation, we obtained woody-to-total area ratios of 0.24, 0.19, 0.19 for Plot 1 and 0.23, 0.18, 0.17 for Plot 5. If clumping effects were ignored, alpha values were overestimated by as much as 21% and 24% at Plots 1 and 5, respectively. We demonstrated that alpha(theta) varied with the zenith angle, with variations in the range of

  1. Changes in Soil Phosphorus Fractions Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutton, T. W.; Kantola, I. B.; Filley, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Many grass-dominated ecosystems around the world have experienced woody plant encroachment over the last century due to livestock grazing, fire suppression, and/or changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry. In the Rio Grande Plains of Texas, subtropical thorn woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands and altered the biogeochemistry of this region. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of this grassland-to-woodland transition on the size, distribution, and availability of soil P pools. A modified Hedley method was employed to fractionate soil P into pools based on organic and inorganic forms and relative plant-availability. Soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands and near the centers of woody plant clusters ranging in age from 14 to 86 yrs in a subtropical savanna parkland in southern Texas. Soil P was fractionated into resin-extractable inorganic P, bicarbonate-extractable organic and inorganic P, hydroxide-extractable organic and inorganic P, acid-extractable inorganic P, and residual inorganic P forms. P concentrations in these fractions were determined by colorimetry, and soil total P was determined by lithium fusion. Organic P was calculated from the difference between total and inorganic P. Total P in whole soils increased dramatically from 98 mg P kg-1 soil in remnant grasslands to 168 mg P kg-1 soil in the oldest woody plant stands (70-85 yrs). P concentrations in all pools increased linearly with increasing woody plant stand age except acid-extractable phosphorus. The most dramatic increases were observed in the resin-extractable fraction (plant-available P), which increased from 3 to 13 mg P kg-1 soil, and in hydroxide-extractable P (the majority of the organic P in the system), which increased from 15 mg P kg-1 soil in grasslands to 26 mg P kg-1 soil in the wooded clusters. Although the exact mechanisms by which soil P increases following woody invasion remain unknown, we suggest that

  2. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  3. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...... of BCC (2) . Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are observed in approximately 10% of Northern Europeans and are strongly associated with AD (3) . FLG mutations lead to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein and metabolite levels, including the chromophore trans-urocanic acid (UCA) (4......) . Mice with knockdown of filaggrin, or lack of functional histidase, show decreased epidermal trans-UCA levels and increased UVB-induced skin damage (5) . FLG mutation carriers also have 10% increased serum vitamin D levels suggesting increased penetration of UVB (6) . We evaluated the prevalence of FLG...

  4. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  5. Multiple basal cell carcinomas arising in a port-wine stain with a remote history of therapeutic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Jae-Bong; Jang, Ho-Sun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kwon, Kyung-Sool; Oh, Chang-Keun

    2004-10-01

    The coexistence of a basal cell carcinoma and a port-wine stain is a very rare condition that may be associated with previous treatments. We present a case of multiple basal cell carcinomas developing within the boundaries of a port-wine stain, which had been treated with a tholium X and argon laser. Our case suggests that port-wine stains which were previously treated with irradiation or argon laser should be examined carefully and regularly by both physician and patient, because they may hide basal cell carcinomas.

  6. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelenik, Stephanie G.; DiManno, Nicole; D’Antonio, Carla M.

    2015-01-01

    Harsh habitats dominated by invasive species are difficult to restore. Invasive grasses in arid environments slow succession toward more desired composition, yet grass removal exacerbates high light and temperature, making the use of “nurse plants” an appealing strategy. In this study of degraded subtropical woodlands dominated by alien grasses in Hawai'i, we evaluated whether individuals of two native (Dodonaea viscosa, Leptocophylla tameiameia) and one non-native (Morella faya) woody species (1) act as natural nodes of recruitment for native woody species and (2) can be used to enhance survivorship of outplanted native woody species. To address these questions, we quantified the presence and persistence of seedlings naturally recruiting beneath adult nurse shrubs and compared survival and growth of experimentally outplanted seedlings of seven native woody species under the nurse species compared to intact and cleared alien-grass plots. We found that the two native nurse shrubs recruit their own offspring, but do not act as establishment nodes for other species. Morella faya recruited even fewer seedlings than native shrubs. Thus, outplanting will be necessary to increase abundance and diversity of native woody species. Outplant survival was the highest under shrubs compared to away from them with few differences between nurse species. The worst habitat for native seedling survival and growth was within the unmanaged invasive grass matrix. Although the two native nurse species did not differentially affect outplant survival, D. viscosa is the most widespread and easily propagated and is thus more likely to be useful as an initial nurse species. The outplanted species showed variable responses to nurse habitats that we attribute to resource requirements resulting from their typical successional stage and nitrogen fixation capability.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Storage Following Woody Plant Encroachment Into Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S.; Boutton, T. W.; Wu, X. B.; Liu, F.; Bai, E.

    2004-12-01

    Encroachment of woody plants into drylands during the past century may have significantly influenced the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the magnitude and sign of change in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools accompanying this vegetation change is highly uncertain, ranging from positive to neutral to negative. Some of the controversy over woody plant impacts on SOC pools may be an artifact how soil properties determined from point samples are area-weighted and extrapolated. If there is substantial spatial structure in properties of soils associated with woody and herbaceous communities, extrapolations from limited point samples that do not account for this may over- or underestimate actual SOC pools. To test this possibility, we quantified near surface (0-15 cm) soil properties (bulk density, SOC, total N [TN], root biomass) at seven locations along transects extending from the tree bole to canopy edge and into adjoining herbaceous zones in replicated woody communities known to have developed on grasslands over the past 100 y. A strong gradient was found to occur: root biomass, SOC, and TN decreased exponentially with distance from tree boles, while bulk density increased. These spatial changes are consistent with temporal changes expected to occur as shrub establish and their canopies grow through time. Given the strong spatial structure of the data, it appears that area-weighted extrapolations of SOC based on near-bole samples would overestimate woody plant influences, whereas sampling soils away from boles would tend to underestimate impacts. Implications for sampling strategies to efficiently and effectively represent this non-linear spatial variation will be discussed.

  8. Net changes in aboveground woody carbon stock in western juniper woodlands, 1946-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Eva K.; Vierling, Lee A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Bunting, Stephen C.

    2008-03-01

    Although regional increases in woody plant cover in semiarid ecosystems have been identified as a worldwide phenomenon affecting the global carbon budget, quantifying the impact of these vegetation shifts on C pools and fluxes is challenging. Challenges arise because woody encroachment is governed by ecological processes that occur at fine spatial resolutions (1-10 m) and, in many cases, at slow (decadal-scale) temporal rates over large areas. We therefore analyzed time series aerial photography, which exhibits both the necessary spatial precision and temporal extent, to quantify the expansion of western juniper into sagebrush steppe landscapes in southwestern Idaho. We established upper and lower bounds of aboveground woody carbon change across the landscape via two-dimensional spatial wavelet analysis, image texture analysis, and field data collection. Forty-eight 100-ha blocks across a 330,000-ha region were stratified by topography, soil characteristics, and land stewardship for analyses. Across the area we estimate aboveground woody carbon accumulation rates of 3.3 gCm-2yr-1 and 10.0 gCm-2yr-1 using the wavelet and texture method, respectively, during the time period 1946-1998. Carbon accumulation rates were significantly affected by soil properties and were highly dependent on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. For example, at a 100-ha scale the aboveground carbon accumulation varied from -1.7 to 9.9 gCm-2yr-1, while at the 1-ha scale the range of variability increased to -11 to 22 gCm-2yr-1. These values are an order of magnitude lower than those previously suggested due to woody encroachment, highlighting the need for examining multiple spatial scales when accounting for changes in terrestrial carbon storage.

  9. Seasonal Selection Preferences for Woody Plants by Breeding Herds of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana in a Woodland Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Viljoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate dynamics of elephant herbivory, we assessed seasonal preferences for woody plants by African elephant breeding herds in the southeastern part of Kruger National Park (KNP between 2002 and 2005. Breeding herds had access to a variety of woody plants, and, of the 98 woody plant species that were recorded in the elephant's feeding areas, 63 species were utilized by observed animals. Data were recorded at 948 circular feeding sites (radius 5 m during wet and dry seasons. Seasonal preference was measured by comparing selection of woody species in proportion to their estimated availability and then ranked according to the Manly alpha (α index of preference. Animals demonstrated a selection preference in feeding on woody vegetation, and Grewia hexamita, Grewia bicolor, Grewia flavescens, and Grewia monticola were selected consistently more over all seasons. In addition, our results indicate that elephant herds have a low preference for at least some of the woody species prone to extirpation and that feeding preferences for woody plants do not account for the association of elephants and riparian fringe habitat.

  10. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  11. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  12. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouzadeh Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

  13. Long Noncoding RNA PURPL Suppresses Basal p53 Levels and Promotes Tumorigenicity in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal p53 levels are tightly suppressed under normal conditions. Disrupting this regulation results in elevated p53 levels to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. Here, we report the suppression of basal p53 levels by a nuclear, p53-regulated long noncoding RNA that we termed PURPL (p53 upregulated regulator of p53 levels. Targeted depletion of PURPL in colorectal cancer cells results in elevated basal p53 levels and induces growth defects in cell culture and in mouse xenografts. PURPL associates with MYBBP1A, a protein that binds to and stabilizes p53, and inhibits the formation of the p53-MYBBP1A complex. In the absence of PURPL, MYBBP1A interacts with and stabilizes p53. Silencing MYBBP1A significantly rescues basal p53 levels and proliferation in PURPL-deficient cells, suggesting that MYBBP1A mediates the effect of PURPL in regulating p53. These results reveal a p53-PURPL auto-regulatory feedback loop and demonstrate a role for PURPL in maintaining basal p53 levels.

  14. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H

    1976-01-01

    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  15. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  16. Regulation of Neuronal Gene Expression and Survival by Basal NMDA Receptor Activity: A Role for Histone Deacetylase 4

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yelin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Modrusan, Zora; Sheng, Morgan; Kaminker, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal gene expression is modulated by activity via calcium-permeable receptors such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs). While gene expression changes downstream of evoked NMDAR activity have been well studied, much less is known about gene expression changes that occur under conditions of basal neuronal activity. In mouse dissociated hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found that a broad NMDAR antagonist, AP5, induced robust gene expression changes under basal activity, but subtype-specific antagoni...

  17. Exploring an extensive dataset to establish woody vegetation cover and composition in Kruger National Park for the late 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Kiker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Woody plant cover and species composition play an important role in defining the type and function of savanna ecosystems. Approximately 2000 sites in the Kruger National Park (KNP were surveyed by F.J. Venter over a period from 1985 to 1989, recording vegetation, soil and topological characteristics. At each of these sites (approximately 20 m × 20 m each, woody vegetation cover and species were recorded using a rapid, Braun-Blanquet classification for three height classes: shrub (0.75 m – 2.50 m, brush (2.50 m – 5.50 m and tree (> 5.50 m. The objective of this study was to re-analyse the vegetation component of the field data, with a specific focus to provide a spatially explicit, height-differentiated, benchmark dataset in terms of species occurrence, species richness and structural canopy cover. Overall, 145 different woody species were recorded in the dataset out of the 458 species documented to occur in the park. The dataset describes a woody layer dominated by a relatively small number of widely occurring species, as 24 of the most common woody species accounted for all woody species found on over 80% of all sites. The less common woody species (101 were each recorded on 20 sites or less. Species richness varied from 12 to 1 species per site. Structural canopy cover averaged 9.34%, 8.16% and 2.89% for shrub, brush and tree cover, respectively. The dataset provides a useful benchmark for woody species distribution in KNP and can be used to explore woody species and height class distributions, as well as comparison with more recent or future woody vegetation surveys.Conservation implications: The results provided evidence that large-scale, woody vegetation surveys conducted along roads offer useful ecosystem level information. However, such an approach fails to pick up less common species. The data presented here provided a useful snapshot of KNP woody vegetation structure and composition and could provide excellent opportunities for

  18. Reclamation of coppice forests in order to increase the potential of woody biomass in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanovic, I.; Krstic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass makes 63% of the total renewable energy potential of Serbia. Here, the biomass from forests together with wood processing industry waste represent the second most important renewable source for energy production. The Action Plan for Biomass of Serbia (2010) shows that the technically exploitable biomass in the Republic of Serbia amounts annually 2.7 Mtoe. Here, the woody biomass (fuelwood, forest residue, wood processing industry residue, wood from trees outside the forest) accounts for 1.0 Mtoe while the rest originates from agricultural sources. According to the national forest inventory (2008), forest cover in Serbia accounts for 29% of the country area, having standing volume of 362.5 mil. m3 and annual increment of 9.1 mil. m3. More than half is state-owned and the rest 47% is in the private ownership. Coppice forests dominate in the forest stock (65%). According to Glavonjić (2010), northeastern and southwestern Serbia are the regions with greatest spatial forest distribution. The general forest condition is characterised by insufficient production volume, unsatisfactory stock density and forest cover, high percentage of degraded forests, unfavorable age structure, unfavorable health condition and weeded areas. Herewith, the basic measures for the improvement of forest fund (Forestry Development Strategy for Serbia, 2006) represent conversion of coppice forests, increase of forest cover and productivity of forest ecosystems by the ecologically, economically and socially acceptable methods. The actions include reclamation of degraded forests, re- and afforestation activities on abandoned agricultural, degraded and other treeless lands. The average standing volume of high forests is 254 m3·ha-1 with an annual increment of 5.5 m3·ha-1. On the contrary, coppice forests dispose 124 m3·ha-1 of standing volume, having an annual increment of 3.1 m3·ha-1. Here, estimated losses from coppice forests amount up to 3.5 mil. m3 wood annually. These data

  19. Woody plant encroachment effect on soil organic carbon dynamics: results from a latitudinal gradient in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Guido; Chiti, Tommaso; Moscatelli, Maria Cristina; Marinari, Sara; Papale, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Woody plant encroachment into pastures and grasslands represents a significant land cover change phenomenon, with a considerable impact on carbon dynamics at an ecosystem level. It was estimated that 7.64% of the Southern Europe land was subject to that process between 1950 to 2010. As a result of woody encroachment, changes in vegetation composition can produce substantial changes to the soil organic carbon (SOC) cycle. Despite the numerous papers published on land-use change, an evaluation of the IPCC terrestrial carbon pools changes occurring during woody encroachment on abandoned pastures and grasslands is still lacking, particularly for the Italian territory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of woody encroachment on carbon sequestration over abandoned pastures and grasslands in Alpine and Apennine ecosystems, with a particular focus on the SOC. We applied a chronosequence approach to seven selected sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Italy. Each chronosequence consisted of a pasture currently managed, three sites abandoned at different times in the past and, finally, a mature forest stand representing the last phase of the succession. The European Commission sampling protocols to certify SOC changes was adopted to estimate the variations following woody encroachment. Soil samples were collected at different depths in the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-70 cm), despite the original protocol formulation being limited to the topsoil only. In addition, aboveground living biomass (AGB), dead wood and litter were also measured following international protocols. Considering all C pools together, woody plant encroachment leads to a progressive C stock accumulation in all the chronosequences. The total C stock of mature forest stands ranges from 1.78±0.11 times (Eastern Alps) to 2.48±0.31 times (central Apennine) the initial value on pastures. Unsurprisingly, the C stocks of AGB, dead wood and litter all increase during the

  20. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  1. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Volk, Timothy [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Abrahamson, Lawrence [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shuren, Richard [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Stanton, Brian [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Posselius, John [Case New Holland, New Holland, PA (United States); McArdle, Matt [Mesa Reduction Engineering and Processing, Inc., Auburn, NY (United States); Karapetyan, Samvel [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Patel, Aayushi [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shi, Shun [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Zerpa, Jose [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Biomass for biofuels, bioproducts and bioenergy can be sourced from forests, agricultural crops, various residue streams, and dedicated woody or herbaceous crops. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC), like willow and hybrid poplar, are perennial cropping systems that produce a number of environmental and economic development benefits in addition to being a renewable source of biomass that can be produced on marginal land. Both hybrid poplar and willow have several characteristics that make them an ideal feedstock for biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy; these include high yields that can be obtained in three to four years, ease of cultivar propagation from dormant cuttings, a broad underutilized genetic base, ease of breeding, ability to resprout after multiple harvests, and feedstock composition similar to other sources of woody biomass. Despite the range of benefits associated with SRWC systems, their deployment has been restricted by high costs, low market acceptance associated with inconsistent chip quality (see below for further explanation), and misperceptions about other feedstock characteristics (see below for further explanation). Harvesting of SRWC is the largest single cost factor (~1/3 of the final delivered cost) in the feedstock supply system. Harvesting is also the second largest input of primary fossil energy in the system after commercial N fertilizer, accounting for about one third of the input. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the harvesting system has the potential to reduce both cost and environmental impact. At the start of this project, we projected that improving the overall efficiency of the harvesting system by 25% would reduce the delivered cost of SRWC by approximately $0.50/MMBtu (or about $7.50/dry ton). This goal was exceeded over the duration of this project, as noted below.

  2. Stem growth of woody species at the Nkuhlu exclosures, Kruger National Park: 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Scogings

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of managing African conservation areas involves understanding how large herbivores affect woody plant growth. Yet, data on growth rates of woody species in savannas are scarce, despite its critical importance for developing models to guide ecosystem management. What effect do browsing and season have on woody stem growth? Assuming no growth happens in the dry season, browsing should reduce stem growth in the wet season only. Secondly, do functional species groups differ in stem growth? For example, assuming fine-leaved, spiny species’ growth is not compromised by carbon-based chemical defences, they should grow faster than broad-leaved, chemically defended species. Dendrometers were fixed at 20 cm in height on the main stems of 244 random plants of six woody species in three plots (all large herbivores excluded, partial exclusion, and control and observed from late 2006 to early 2010. Average monthly increment (AMI per dendrometer and season (dry, wet was calculated and the interaction between plot and season tested per species, controlling for initial stem girth. AMIs of Combretum apiculatum, Dichrostachys cinerea and Grewia flavescens were zero in the dry season, whilst those of Acacia exuvialis, Acacia grandicornuta and Euclea divinorum were either positive or negative in the dry season. Wet-season AMI of D. cinerea and dry-season AMI of G. flavescens tended to be reduced by browser exclusion. Net AMI (sum of the seasonal AMIs was tested per species, but results suggested that only D. cinerea tended to be affected by browser exclusion. The results also suggested that stem radial growth of some fast-growing species is more prone to reduction by browser exclusion than the growth of other species, potentially reducing their competitiveness and increasing their risk of extirpation. Finally, the usefulness of grouping woody species into simple functional groups (e.g. fine-leaved vs. broad-leaved for ecosystem management

  3. Controls on microbial accessibility to soil organic carbon following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Courtney; Boutton, Thomas; Olk, Dan; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and hydrology. To elucidate the controls on microbial accessibility to SOC, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas Agrilife La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, and plant biopolymer chemistry in SOC were tracked. Respiration rates declined exponentially over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total SOC was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (pproductivity. Despite documented SOC accrual following WPE at La Copita, we observed no evidence of enhanced SOC stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total SOC was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting SOC accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. Compound-specific analyses indicated there was a significant (pamino acids, and amino sugars during the incubation. Amino nitrogen tended to become more concentrated during the incubation, although the trend was not significant. Relatively few significant trends of these compounds in response to woody stand age were observed, indicating that these compounds were generally degraded to the same extent during the incubation. We hypothesize that biochemical recalcitrance is not an important mechanism for the stabilization of SOC at this site. By day 184 of the incubation, CO2 respired from older woody clusters (34-86 years) was significantly (p<0.05) less 13C-depleted with respect to bulk SOC than CO2 respired from younger woody clusters (14

  4. Biodiversity of Soil Microbial Communities Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland: An Assessment Using Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Gentry, T. J.; Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    Woody plants have encroached into grasslands, savannas, and other grass-dominated ecosystems throughout the world during the last century. This dramatic vegetation change is likely driven by livestock grazing, altered fire frequencies, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and/or changes in atmospheric deposition patterns. Woody invasion often results in significant changes in ecosystem function, including alterations in above- and belowground primary productivity, soil C, N, and P storage and turnover, and the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass pool. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships and interactions between plant communities and soil microbial communities in the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas where grasslands have been largely replaced by woodlands. Research was conducted along a successional chronosequence representing the stages of woody plant encroachment from open grassland to closed-canopy woodland. To characterize soil microbial community composition, soil samples (0-7.5 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands (representing time 0) and near the centers of woody plant clusters, groves, and drainage woodlands ranging in age from 10 to 130 yrs. Ages of woody plant stands were determined by dendrochronology. Community DNA was extracted from each soil sample with a MoBio PowerMax Soil DNA isolation kit. The DNA concentrations were quantified on a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and diluted to a standard concentration. Pyrosequencing was performed by the Research and Testing Laboratory (Lubbock, TX) according to Roche 454 Titanium chemistry protocols. Samples were amplified with primers 27F and 519R for bacteria, and primers ITS1F and ITS4 for fungi. Sequences were aligned using BioEdit and the RDP Pipeline and analyzed in MOTHUR. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of the operational taxonomic units identified by pyrosequencing revealed that both bacterial and fungal community composition were

  5. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  6. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  7. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  8. ISOLATION OF MESOPHYLL PROTOPLASTS FROM MEDITERRANEAN WOODY PLANTS FOR THE STUDY OF DNA INTEGRITY UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuzminsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells. On the other hand, these plants represent an interesting material to be studied because of the ability of these plants to tolerate abiotic stress. For instance, holm oak (Quercus ilex L. has been selected as the model plant to identify critical levels of O3 for Southern European forests. Consequently, a quantitative method for the evaluation of cell injury of leaf tissues of this species is required. Optimal conditions for high-yield nuclei isolation were obtained by using protoplast technology and a detailed description of the method is provided and discussed. White poplar (Populus alba L. was used as an internal control for protoplast isolation. Such a method has not been previously reported in newly fully developed leaves of holm oak. This method combined with Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay represents a new tool for testing the DNA integrity of leaf tissues in higher plants under stress conditions.

  9. Isolation of Mesophyll Protoplasts from Mediterranean Woody Plants for the Study of DNA Integrity under Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminsky, Elena; Meschini, Roberta; Terzoli, Serena; Pavani, Liliana; Silvestri, Cristian; Choury, Zineb; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells. On the other hand, these plants represent an interesting material to be studied because of the ability of these plants to tolerate abiotic stress. For instance, holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) has been selected as the model plant to identify critical levels of O3 for Southern European forests. Consequently, a quantitative method for the evaluation of cell injury of leaf tissues of this species is required. Optimal conditions for high-yield nuclei isolation were obtained by using protoplast technology and a detailed description of the method is provided and discussed. White poplar (Populus alba L.) was used as an internal control for protoplast isolation. Such a method has not been previously reported in newly fully developed leaves of holm oak. This method combined with SCGE assay represents a new tool for testing the DNA integrity of leaf tissues in higher plants under stress conditions.

  10. Facilitative or competitive effects of woody plants on understorey vegetation depend on N‐fixation, canopy shape and rainfall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blaser, Wilma J; Sitters, Judith; Hart, Simon P; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry; Wilson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    .... the height of the lower canopy) or by their capacity to fix nitrogen. We performed a meta‐analysis of the effects of woody plants on understorey productivity, incorporating canopy height and N...

  11. Developing woody crops for the enhancement of ecosystem services under changing climates in the north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny; William L. Headlee

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops belonging to the genera Populus L., Salix L., Pinus L., and Eucalyptus LHer. have provided broad economic and ecological benefits throughout the world, including afforestation and reforestation along urban to rural gradients. Within the genus Populus...

  12. Size of coarse woody debris 5 years after girdling and removal treatments in 50-year-old Loblolly PIne Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. Boyd [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2004-01-01

    PP 108 -113 in: Connor, Kristina F., ed. 2004. Proceedings of the 12th biennial southern silvicultural research conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS71. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 594 p. Abstract: In 1996, a study began at Savannah River Site to investigate large-scale replicated forest areas to control coarse woody debris for integrated biodiversity objectives. Research design was a randomized complete block with four treatments replicated in four blocks, resulting in 16 plots. The treatments applied to 50-year-old loblolly pine stands were (1) control, (2) girdling of 25 percent of trees to create catastrophic simulation, (3) annual removal of down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter, and (4) annual removal of both standing and down woody debris > 10 cm in diameter. The study tracks coarse woody debris recruitment and loading, rates of decomposition, and effects on the forest ecosystem.

  13. Temperature-driven plasticity in growth cessation and dormancy development in deciduous woody plants: a working hypothesis suggesting how molecular and cellular function is affected by temperature during dormancy induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Karen K; Kalcsits, Lee; Silim, Salim; Kendall, Edward; Gray, Gordon R

    2010-05-01

    The role of temperature during dormancy development is being reconsidered as more research emerges demonstrating that temperature can significantly influence growth cessation and dormancy development in woody plants. However, there are seemingly contradictory responses to warm and low temperature in the literature. This research/review paper aims to address this contradiction. The impact of temperature was examined in four poplar clones and two dogwood ecotypes with contrasting dormancy induction patterns. Under short day (SD) conditions, warm night temperature (WT) strongly accelerated timing of growth cessation leading to greater dormancy development and cold hardiness in poplar hybrids. In contrast, under long day (LD) conditions, low night temperature (LT) can completely bypass the short photoperiod requirement in northern but not southern dogwood ecotypes. These findings are in fact consistent with the literature in which both coniferous and deciduous woody plant species' growth cessation, bud set or dormancy induction are accelerated by temperature. The contradictions are addressed when photoperiod and ecotypes are taken into account in which the combination of either SD/WT (northern and southern ecotypes) or LD/LT (northern ecotypes only) are separated. Photoperiod insensitive types are driven to growth cessation by LT. Also consistent is the importance of night temperature in regulating these warm and cool temperature responses. However, the physiological basis for these temperature effects remain unclear. Changes in water content, binding and mobility are factors known to be associated with dormancy induction in woody plants. These were measured using non-destructive magnetic resonance micro-imaging (MRMI) in specific regions within lateral buds of poplar under SD/WT dormancing inducing conditions. Under SD/WT, dormancy was associated with restrictions in inter- or intracellular water movement between plant cells that reduces water mobility during dormancy

  14. Dynamic response of woody vegetation on fencing protection in semi-arid areas; Case study: Pilot exclosure on the Firmihin Plateau, Socotra Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Habrova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Woody vegetation dynamics and Dracaena cinnabari regeneration have been studied for five years in the conditions of Socotra Island. Woody plants were measured regularly inside and outside the exclosure area, and the growth and survival of D. cinnabari seedlings were observed. In the exclosure of about 1000 m2 a total of 49 species were identified, including 23 endemics, growing in the average density of 3.82 specimens per m2. The fenced area was overgrown relatively rapidly by dense grass cover – reaching approx. 2.7 t/ha. Species growth dynamics inside and outside the exclosure shows that grazing had a marked impact, leading to the elimination of trees and shrubs. All grazed species grew noticeably in the exclosure, in the average of 50 cm in 5 years. D. cinnabari as the dominant flagship species of Socotra has been studied with regards to regeneration dynamics. Observations indicate that probability of its seedlings survival increases with their age. No seedlings germinated from the seeds sown in the experiment, however, outplanted seedlings performed relatively well. Field observations show that D. cinnabari seed germination is triggered when the seed reaches a protected micro-habitat with a developed humus layer and high relative humidity in the soil lasts for at least two days.

  15. Effects of uprooting tree on herbaceous species diversity, woody species regeneration status and soft physical characteristics in a temperate mixed forest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Kooch; S.M.Hosseini; J.Mohammadi; S.M.Hojjati

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study to examine the pattern of development of herbaceous plant species,woody species regeneration and soil physical characteristics after tree uprooting in 20-ha areas of Experimental Forest Station of Tarbiat Modares University located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran.Soil bulk density,soil texture and moisture from pit and mound (PM) were measured in the laboratory.Results show that the soil bulk density was most in soil deeper layers at mound top,and the soil moisture content was most in soil deeper layers at Pit bottom.Our study supports that the micro-topography of PM (pit and mound) topography will create a mosaic of environmental conditions.This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species.It is recommend that the fallen trees with PM structure should remain in the protected area without clearing as the best option for forest restoration.This information can be useful for forest management that attempts to emulate natural processes.

  16. Dynamic response of woody vegetation on fencing protection in semi-arid areas; Case study: Pilot exclosure on the Firmihin Plateau, Socotra Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habrova, Hana; Pavlis, Jindrich

    2017-02-01

    Woody vegetation dynamics and Dracaena cinnabari regeneration have been studied for five years in the conditions of Socotra Island. Woody plants were measured regularly inside and outside the exclosure area, and the growth and survival of D. cinnabari seedlings were observed. In the exclosure of about 1000 m(2) a total of 49 species were identified, including 23 endemics, growing in the average density of 3.82 specimens per m(2). The fenced area was overgrown relatively rapidly by dense grass cover - reaching approx. 2.7 t/ha. Species growth dynamics inside and outside the exclosure shows that grazing had a marked impact, leading to the elimination of trees and shrubs. All grazed species grew noticeably in the exclosure, in the average of 50 cm in 5 years. D. cinnabari as the dominant flagship species of Socotra has been studied with regards to regeneration dynamics. Observations indicate that probability of its seedlings survival increases with their age. No seedlings germinated from the seeds sown in the experiment, however, outplanted seedlings performed relatively well. Field observations show that D. cinnabari seed germination is triggered when the seed reaches a protected micro-habitat with a developed humus layer and high relative humidity in the soil lasts for at least two days.

  17. Asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation and basal ganglia calcification in a child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Kun-Soo; Weon, Young Cheol

    2013-12-01

    Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, may be associated with various neurologic complications such as moyamoya syndrome, cervical spinal cord compression due to atlantoaxial subluxation, and basal ganglia damage, as well as epileptic seizures and stroke. Many cases of Down syndrome accompanied by isolated neurologic manifestations have been reported in children; however, Down syndrome with multiple neurologic conditions is rare. Here, we have reported a case of Down syndrome in a 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation with spinal cord compression, and basal ganglia calcification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Down syndrome, in a child, which was accompanied by these 3 neurologic complications simultaneously. As seen in this case, patients with Down syndrome may have neurologic conditions without any obvious neurologic symptoms; hence, patients with Down syndrome should be carefully examined for the presence of neurologic conditions.

  18. Potentials for forest woody biomass production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of possible potentials for the production of forest biomass in Serbia taking into consideration the condition of forests, present organizational and technical capacities as well as the needs and situation on the firewood market. Starting point for the estimation of production potentials for forest biomass is the condition of forests which is analyzed based on the available planning documents on all levels. Potentials for biomass production and use refer to initial periods in the production and use of forest biomass in Serbia.

  19. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  20. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  1. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason.

  2. On the relative importance of pool morphology and woody debris to distributions of shrimp in a Puerto Rican headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, M.; Covich, A.P.; Black, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we report the sizes and distributional orientation of woody debris in a headwater rainforest stream in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico. We also provide results of a 4-month study of a wood addition experiment designed to increase cover for benthic macroinvertebrates (freshwater shrimp). We added branch-sized woody debris to 20 pools in three streams. We trapped four species of freshwater shrimp (two species of benthic detritivores and two predatory shrimp species) during each of the 4 months following wood additions. An analysis of pool morphology (maximum depth, surface area and volume) provided a useful predictor of shrimp abundances. In general, numbers of shrimps increased with sizes of stream pools. A repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated no effect of woody debris additions on total numbers of shrimp per pool area. Two detritivore species (Atya lanipes, a filter feeder and Xiphocaris elongata, a shredder) decreased in abundance with increased woody debris and there was no statistical relationship between woody debris additions and predators (Macrobrachium carcinus and M. crenulatum). Small woody debris additions may have altered flow velocities that were important to filter-feeding Atya at the microhabitat scale, although the overall velocities within pools were not altered by wood additions. Lower numbers of Atya and Xiphocaris in two of the three streams may result from the occurrence of two predaceous fishes (American eel and mountain mullet) and more predatory Macrobrachium in these streams. One likely interpretation of the results of this study is that the stream pools in these study reaches had sufficient habitat structure provided by numerous rock crevices (among large rocks and boulders) to provide refuge from predators. Addition of woody debris did not add significantly to the existing structure. These results may not apply to stream channels with sand and gravel substrata where crevices and undercut banks are lacking

  3. Demonstration of the BioBaler harvesting system for collection of small-diameter woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Caffrey, Kevin R [ORNL; Barnett, Elliott J [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Brummette, Mark W [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    As part of a project to investigate sustainable forest management practices for producing wood chips on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the ORNL steam plant, the BioBaler was tested in various Oak Ridge locations in August of 2011. The purpose of these tests and the subsequent economic analysis was to determine the potential of this novel woody biomass harvesting method for collection of small-diameter, low value woody biomass. Results suggest that opportunities may exist for economical harvest of low-value and liability or negative-cost biomass. (e.g., invasives). This could provide the ORR and area land managers with a tool to produce feedstock while improving forest health, controlling problem vegetation, and generating local employment.

  4. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation Capability of Woody Plants in Mine wasteland of Karst Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuru, Wang; Zhongliang, Huang; Xuan, Zhang; Zijian, Wu

    2017-04-01

    The bioaccumulation capability and transfer characteristics of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in soil and 6 different woody plants collected from a typical lead-zinc mine wasteland of Karst area, Hunan province were investigated, including Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook., Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.), Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. The results showed that the 6 plants could adapt to the heavy metal polluted environment, and there was a positive correlation between the heavy metal content in plants and soil.Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.) and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. had the largest Pb bioaccumulation factor of 0.03; Paulownia. had the highest Zn bioaccumulation factor of 0.37; the largest Pb transfer factor of 1.31 were found in Koelreuteria paniculata; and Zn transfer factor of Paulownia. reached 1.45. These 4 woody plants are suitable for phytoremediation of mine wasteland of Karst areas.

  5. Relative role of contemporary environment versus history in shaping diversity patterns of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao;

    2012-01-01

    , and the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps reflecting their special geological features and history. Nevertheless, partial regression indicated that historical effects were less important relative to contemporary environment. In conclusion, contemporary environment (notably climate) determines the general trend in woody...... between these regions, indicating significant deviation from the predicted species richness based on contemporary environment. Additionally, species richness of a given biogeographical region deviated substantially from the predictions of species richness-environment models developed for the remaining...... regions combined. This suggests different richness-environment relationships among regions. These results indicate important historical signals in the species richness patterns of woody plants across China. The signals are especially pronounced in the eastern Himalayas, the Mongolian Plateau...

  6. Rapid Characterization of Woody Biomass Digestibility and Chemical Composition Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Hou; Laigeng Li

    2011-01-01

    Rapid determination of the properties of lignocellulosic material is highly desirable for biomass production and utilization. In the present study, measurements of woody biomass digestibility and chemical composition using near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy were calibrated. Poplar and eucalyptus materials were recorded in NIR spectrum as well as determined for their chemical compositions of Klason lignin, α-celluiose, holocellulose, lignin syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio and enzymatic digestibility. Fitting of the NIR information with chemical properties and digestibility by partial least-squares (PLS) regression generated a group of trained NIR models that were able to be used for rapid biomass measurement. Applying the models for woody biomass measurements led to a reliable evaluation of the chemical composition and digestibility, suggesting the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy in the rapid characterization of biomass properties.

  7. Timing and abundance of flowering and fruiting of woody plants in the Hørsholm Arboretum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leverenz, Jerry

    The Arboretum in Hørsholm has an extensive collection of woody plant species of known origin. There are approximately 2200 woody plant taxa in the collection, representing 295 genera and 101 plant families. This collection is used to study how plants from different parts of the world thrive...... in response to the Danish environment. In this study of the area within 2 km in all directions from the Arboretum, we found no plant species that were definitely escaping from the Arboretum collection. This was a surprising result, but it became clear that we needed to know if the plants were producing...... flowers (pollen) and fruit (seed) in order to have a clearer understanding of the negative results. As a first step we have begun to record if, and when, the taxa in the collection produce flowers (and thus pollen), and fruits (and thereby seed). In this Working Paper we present and analyse the results...

  8. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Thomas F [Forest Concepts, LLC; Dooley, James H [Forest Concepts, LLC

    2014-08-28

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  9. Landowners' perceptions of risk in grassland management: woody plant encroachment and prescribed fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan N. Harr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists recognize that fire and herbivory are essential to maintaining habitat quality in grassland ecosystems. Prescribed fire and grazing are typically used on public reserves to increase biodiversity, improve grassland productivity, and control encroachment of woody plants. However, these tools, particularly prescribed fire, have not been widely adopted by private landowners. Fire suppression and prescribed fire are strategies that present competing risks to owners who make management decisions. We explore landowner perceptions of risk associated with (1 eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana encroachment, and (2 the use of prescribed fire to control woody species in the Grand River Grasslands of Iowa and Missouri, USA. We found that although mapping data of eastern redcedar in this region showed substantial encroachment over the past three decades, concept mapping of landowner beliefs and in-person interviews of local community leaders revealed that perceived risks associated with prescribed fire often outweighed those associated with loss of forage and grassland habitats.

  10. On the measure of large woody debris in an alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bertoldi, G.; Rigon, E.

    2012-04-01

    The management of large woody debris (LWD) in Alpine torrents is a complex and ambiguous task. On one side the presence of LWD contributes to in-channel and floodplain morphological processes and plays an important role in landscape ecology and biodiversity. On the other side LWD increases considerably flood hazards when some river cross-sections result critical for the human interface (e.g. culverts, bridges, artificial channels). Only few studies provide quantitative data of LWD volumes in Alpine torrents. Research is needed both at basin scale processes (LWD recruiting from hillslopes) and at channel scale processes (feeding from river bank, storage/transport/deposition of LWD along the river bed). Our study proposes an integrate field survey methodology to assess the overall LWD amount which can be entrained by a flood. This knowledge is mandatory for the scientific research, for the implementation of LWD transport models, and for a complete hazard management in mountain basins. The study site is the high-relief basin of the Cordevole torrent (Belluno Province, Central Alps, Italy) whose outlet is located at the Saviner village (basin area of 109 square kilometers). In the November 1966 an extreme flood event occurred and some torrent reaches were heavily congested by LWD enhancing the overall damages due to long-duration overflows. Currently, the LWD recruitment seems to be strictly correlated with bank erosion and hillslope instability and the conditions of forest stand suggest LWD hazard is still high. Previous studies on sub-catchments of the Cordevole torrent have also shown an inverse relation between the drainage area and the LWD storage in the river-bed. Present contribution analyzes and quantifies the presence of LWD in the main valley channel of the Cordevole basin. A new sampling methodology was applied to integrate surveys of riparian vegetation and LWD storage. Data inventory confirms the previous relationship between LWD volumes and drainage area

  11. A "clearcut" case? Brown bear selection of coarse woody debris and carpenter ants on clearcuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Shane C; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E; Storch, Ilse; Kindberg, Jonas; Barck, Hanna; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-07-15

    Forest management alters habitat characteristics, resulting in various effects among and within species. It is crucial to understand how habitat alteration through forest management (e.g. clearcutting) affects animal populations, particularly with unknown future conditions (e.g. climate change). In Sweden, brown bears (Ursus arctos) forage on carpenter ants (Camponotus herculeanus) during summer, and may select for this food source within clearcuts. To assess carpenter ant occurrence and brown bear selection of carpenter ants, we sampled 6999 coarse woody debris (CWD) items within 1019 plots, of which 902 were within clearcuts (forests ⩽30 years of age) and 117 plots outside clearcuts (forests >30 years of age). We related various CWD and site characteristics to the presence or absence of carpenter ant galleries (nests) and bear foraging sign at three spatial scales: the CWD, plot, and clearcut scale. We tested whether both absolute and relative counts (the latter controlling for the number of CWD items) of galleries and bear sign in plots were higher inside or outside clearcuts. Absolute counts were higher inside than outside clearcuts for galleries (mean counts; inside: 1.8, outside: 0.8). CWD was also higher inside (mean: 6.8) than outside clearcuts (mean: 4.0). However, even after controlling for more CWD inside clearcuts, relative counts were higher inside than outside clearcuts for both galleries (mean counts; inside: 0.3, outside: 0.2) and bear sign (mean counts; inside: 0.03, outside: 0.01). Variables at the CWD scale best explained gallery and bear sign presence than variables at the plot or clearcut level, but bear selection was influenced by clearcut age. CWD circumference was important for both carpenter ant and bear sign presence. CWD hardness was most important for carpenter ant selection. However, the most important predictor for bear sign was the presence or absence of carpenter ant galleries. Bears had a high foraging "success" rate (⩾88%) in

  12. Responses of woody species to spatial and temporal ground water changes in coastal sand dune systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Máguas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the relative importance of groundwater in costal dune systems, studies concerning the responses of vegetation to ground water (GW availability variations, particularly in Mediterranean regions, are scarce. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to compare the responses of co-occurring species possessing different functional traits, to changes in GW levels (i.e. the lowering of GW levels in a sand dune ecosystem. For that, five sites were established within a 1 km2 area in a meso-mediterranean sand dune ecosystem dominated by a Pinus pinaster forest. Due to natural topographic variability and anthropogenic GW exploitation, substantial variability in depth to GW between sites was found. Under these conditions it was possible to identify the degree of usage and dependence on GW of different plant species (two deep-rooted trees, a drought adapted shrub, a phreatophyte and a non-native woody invader and how GW dependence varied seasonally and between the heterogeneous sites. Results indicated that the plant species had differential responses to changes in GW depth according to specific functional traits (i.e. rooting depth, leaf morphology, and water use strategy. Species comparison revealed that variability in pre-dawn water potential (Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C was related to site differences in GW use in the deep-rooted (Pinus pinaster, Myrica faya and phreatophyte (Salix repens species. However, such variation was more evident during spring than during summer drought. The exotic invader, Acacia longifolia, which does not possess a very deep root system, presented the largest seasonal variability in Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C. In contrast, the response of Corema album, an endemic understory drought-adapted shrub, seemed to be independent of water availability across seasons and sites. Thus, the susceptibility to lowering of GW due to anthropogenic

  13. Evolution and Origins of Polyploid Sonchus (Subgenus Sonchus) and the Woody Sonchus Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Li

    2010-01-01

    The Sonchinae is the most widely distributed subtribe in the tribe Cichorieae, with a discontinuous, almost cosmopolitan, and very peculiar phytogeographic distribution. In particular, genus Sonchus subgenus Sonchus, appears to be responsible for the origin of several island endemics both in the Pacific Ocean (Dendroseris, Thamnoseris, Actites, Kirkianella and Embergeria ) and the Atlantic Ocean (woody Sonchus alliance in the Macaronesian Islands). So polyploidy Sonchus and their relative Pac...

  14. Woody plants and the prediction of climate-change impacts on bird diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Kissling, W. D.; Field, R.; Korntheuer, H.; Heyder, U.; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2010-01-01

    Current methods of assessing climate-induced shifts of species distributions rarely account for species interactions and usually ignore potential differences in response times of interacting taxa to climate change. Here, we used species-richness data from 1005 breeding bird and 1417 woody plant species in Kenya and employed model-averaged coefficients from regression models and median climatic forecasts assembled across 15 climate-change scenarios to predict bird species richness under climat...

  15. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Koorem; Price, Jodi N; Mari Moora

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest--evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two specie...

  16. A Discussion on Drought Tolerance Through Hydraulic Architecture of Woody Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, ten woody plants grew on the campus of the Beijing Forestry University were selected for measuring hydraulic architecture parameters and water potential of one-year-old twigs. The results show that day and night change of water potential and hydraulic architecture parameters appear to be obviously convex trend. The relationship models between water potential and hydraulic conductivity, special conductivity and leaf special conductivity were respectively established, which were simulated b...

  17. Diversity of phyllophagous organisms on woody plants in the Botanical garden in Nitra, Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with identification of phyllophagous organisms colonizing various woody plant species in the Botanical Garden of the SUA (Slovak University of Agriculture). The research was carried out from 2010 to 2012 and the field work took place at two week intervals during the growing season. The main objective was to determine and evaluate the phyllophagous pests according to host plants. Adults, larvae of pests and damaged leaves were collected in a specified locality and documented b...

  18. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  19. Assessment of carbon in woody plants and soil across a vineyard-woodland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John N; Hollander, Allan D; O'Geen, A Toby; Thrupp, L Ann; Hanifin, Robert; Steenwerth, Kerri; McGourty, Glenn; Jackson, Louise E

    2011-11-09

    Quantification of ecosystem services, such as carbon (C) storage, can demonstrate the benefits of managing for both production and habitat conservation in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we evaluated C stocks and woody plant diversity across vineyard blocks and adjoining woodland ecosystems (wildlands) for an organic vineyard in northern California. Carbon was measured in soil from 44 one m deep pits, and in aboveground woody biomass from 93 vegetation plots. These data were combined with physical landscape variables to model C stocks using a geographic information system and multivariate linear regression. Field data showed wildlands to be heterogeneous in both C stocks and woody tree diversity, reflecting the mosaic of several different vegetation types, and storing on average 36.8 Mg C/ha in aboveground woody biomass and 89.3 Mg C/ha in soil. Not surprisingly, vineyard blocks showed less variation in above- and belowground C, with an average of 3.0 and 84.1 Mg C/ha, respectively. This research demonstrates that vineyards managed with practices that conserve some fraction of adjoining wildlands yield benefits for increasing overall C stocks and species and habitat diversity in integrated agricultural landscapes. For such complex landscapes, high resolution spatial modeling is challenging and requires accurate characterization of the landscape by vegetation type, physical structure, sufficient sampling, and allometric equations that relate tree species to each landscape. Geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques are useful for integrating the above variables into an analysis platform to estimate C stocks in these working landscapes, thereby helping land managers qualify for greenhouse gas mitigation credits. Carbon policy in California, however, shows a lack of focus on C stocks compared to emissions, and on agriculture compared to other sectors. Correcting these policy shortcomings could create incentives for ecosystem service provision

  20. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    and requires approximately 98 mb of memory to install. 0 The GIS is composed of four layers: the drainage network; road network; landcover ; and...Froehlich H. A. (1988), "Woody debris and its contribution to pool formation in a coastal stream 50 years after logging", Canadian Journal of Aquatic...and temporal evolution of small coastal gravel-bed streams: The influence of forest management on channel morphology and fish habitats", paper prepared

  1. Species composition and diversity of non-forest woody vegetation along roads in the agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Attila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation represents an important component of green infrastructure in the agricultural landscape, where natural and semi-natural forest cover has only a low land use proportion. This paper focuses on linear woody vegetation structures along roads in the agricultural landscape and analyses them in three study areas in the Nitra Region, Slovakia. We evaluate species composition and diversity, species occurrence frequency or spatial distribution, their structure according to relatively achievable age and origin. For the evaluation of occurrence frequency, a Frequency Factor was proposed and applied. This factor allows a better comparison of different study areas and results in more representative findings. The study areas were divided into sectors based on visual landscape features, which are easily identifiable in the field, such as intersections and curves in roads, and intersections of roads with other features, such as cadastral or land boundaries, watercourses, etc. Based on the species abundance, woody plants present within the sectors were categorised into 1 predominant, 2 complementary and 3 mixed-in species; and with regard to their origin into 1 autochthonous and 2 allochthonous. Further, trees were categorised into 1 long-lived, 2 medium-lived and 3 short-lived tree species. The main finding is that among trees, mainly allochthonous species dominated. Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the predominant tree species in all three study areas. It was up to 4 times more frequent than other predominant tree species. Introduced tree species prevailed also among complementary and mixed-in species. Among shrubs, mainly native species dominated, while non-native species had a significantly lower proportion and spatial distribution. Based on these findings, several measures have been proposed to improve the overall ecological stability, the proportion and spatial distribution of native woody plant species. The recommendations and

  2. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  3. Will woody plant encroachment impact the visitor experience and economy of conservation areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Gray

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Woody plant encroachment into savannas is a globally prevalent phenomenon and impacts ecosystem goods and services such as biodiversity, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, grazing and hydrology. The direct ecological and economic consequences for rangelands have been fairly well studied, but, to our knowledge, the economic impact on conservation efforts has not been investigated. African savannas are important as conservation areas because they support large numbers of the world’s remaining megafauna. This study used visitor surveys and long-term mammal distribution data to investigate how an increase in tree density might affect the visibility of animals in a conservation area, which could reduce the satisfaction of visitors to the area. We found that apparent herd sizes and density of animals were much reduced in woody areas, suggesting that visibility is negatively impacted. Visitor surveys determined that a large fraction (almost half of potential future visitors to the park may be lost if animals became more difficult to see and that the majority of these would be the higher-spending visitors. Responses differed depending on the origin of visitors, with international visitors being more interested in seeing animals, whilst local visitors were more content with just being away from the city. The results suggest that woody plant encroachment may have significant impacts on visitor numbers to savanna conservation areas, whilst animal numbers and densities may also be significantly impacted.Conservation implications: The results pointed to potentially significant economic consequences for conservation efforts as visitors become less satisfied with their experience. Perceptions of visitors are important for management decisions as park fees contribute significantly to conservation efforts. This could ultimately result in a reduced capacity for African conservation areas to conserve their biodiversity effectively. The results suggest that

  4. Analysis on the daily courses of water potential of nine woody species from Cerrado vegetation during wet season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The water potential (Y ) daily courses of 9 woody species from Cerrado vegetation in different weather conditions during wet season were observed and analyzed. The adjusting strategies of 9 species could be divided into 3 groups according to Cluster Analysis and based on the data observed on the January 18, March 20 and April 6. The Y values of the first group, which included 2 species, were maintained at the higher level consistently. The Y values of the second group, which included 5 species, were intermediate level. The Y values of the third group, which included 2 species, were kept in the lower level. The Y values of all species always kept pace with the weather condition, especially water condition. During the clear day only one Y value peak for all species occurred at midday (12:30-13:30). When the overcast or raining occurred for a short period, the fluctuation of Y values would appear after about 15-30 min responding to the change of weather condition. Even in the same group under the same external circumstance, there was a clear variation of the leaf Y values among different species, which showed that the strategy diversity for plant to balance water relation. From January to April, the Y values of 9 species reduced in response to the drought condition. The species with the lower values of water saturation deficiency at turgid loss point (Wsdtlp), the osmotic potential at saturation (p sat), the osmotic potential at turgid lose point (p tlp) or lower predawn water potential (Y pd) usually had the lower Y values at midday. The mechanism of water balance controlled by many systems has been assumed.

  5. Modeling Soil and Woody Vegetation in the Senegalese Sahel in the Context of Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brandt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic stress and anthropogenic disturbances have caused significant environmental changes in the Sahel. In this context, the importance of soil is often underrepresented. Thus, we analyze and discuss the interdependency of soil and vegetation by classifying soil types and its woody cover for a region in the Senegalese Ferlo. Clustering of 28 soil parameters led to four soil types which correspond with local Wolof denotations: Dek, Bowel, Dior and Bardial. The soil types were confirmed by a Non-metric Multidimensional-Scaling (NMDS ordination and extrapolated via a Random Forest classifier using six significant variables derived from Landsat imagery and a digital elevation model (out-of-bag error rate: 7.3%. In addition, canopy cover was modeled using Landsat and a Reduced-Major-Axis (RMA regression (R2 = 0.81. A woody vegetation survey showed that every soil type has its own species composition. However, 29% of Bowel regions are deforested (i.e., degraded and interviews revealed extensive environmental changes and a strong decline and local extinction of woody species. The differences between the soil types are significant, showing that vegetation changes (i.e., degradation and greening, resilience to climatic stress and human activities largely depend on soil properties. We highlight that spatial heterogeneity is an important aspect when dealing with environmental changes in the Sahel, and local knowledge can be well used to classify spatial units by means of public Earth observation data.

  6. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Straigytė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  7. Environmental Impacts and Costs of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils, Transesterified Lipids and Woody BTL—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brekke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews and compares assessments of three biodiesel fuels: (1 transesterified lipids, (2 hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO, and (3 woody biomass-to-liquid (BTL Fischer-Tropsch diesel and selected feedstock options. The article attempts to rank the environmental performance and costs of fuel and feedstock combinations. Due to inter-study differences in goal and study assumptions, the ranking was mostly qualitative and intra-study results are emphasized. Results indicate that HVO made from wastes or by-products such as tall oil, tallow or used cooking oil outperform transesterified lipids and BTL from woody material, both with respect to environmental life cycle impacts and costs. These feedstock options are, however, of limited availability, and to produce larger volumes of biofuels other raw materials must also be used. BTL from woody biomass seems promising with good environmental performance and the ability not to compete with food production. Production of biofuels from agricultural feedstock sources requires much energy and leads to considerable emissions due to agrochemical inputs. Thus, such biodiesel fuels are ranked lowest in this comparison. Production of feedstock is the most important life cycle stage. Avoiding detrimental land use changes and maintaining good agricultural or forestry management practices are the main challenges to ensure that biofuels can be a sustainable option for the future transport sector.

  8. The value of woody hedgerows for moth diversity on organic and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, C; Baril, A; McCabe, S K; Martin, P A; Guy, M

    2011-06-01

    Habitat destruction and degradation are important drivers of biodiversity loss within agro-ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of farming practices and the value of woody hedgerows on Lepidoptera in North America. The purpose of this work was to study moth diversity in woody hedgerows and croplands of organic and conventional farms. In addition, the influence of vegetation composition and abiotic variables on species richness, abundance, and composition was examined. Moths were sampled with light traps during six weeks in the summer of 2001. Vegetation data and abiotic variables were obtained for all sites. In total, 26,020 individuals from 12 families and 408 species were captured. Most species were uncommon. Only 35 species included >100 individuals while for 71% of species moon illumination, rainfall, and cloud cover). Moth species composition was significantly correlated to vegetation composition. This study broadens our understanding of the factors driving moth diversity and expands our knowledge of their geographic range. The maintenance of noncrop habitats such as woody hedgerows within agro-ecosystems seems paramount to preserving the biodiversity and abundance of many organisms, including moths.

  9. Relative role of contemporary environment versus history in shaping diversity patterns of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    What determines large-scale patterns of species diversity is a central and controversial topic in biogeography and ecology. In this study, we compared the effects of contemporary environment and historical contingencies on species richness patterns of woody plants in China, using fine-resolution ......-plant species richness across China, while historical contingencies generate regional deviations from this trend. Our findings imply that both species diversity and regional evolutionary and ecological histories should be taken into account for future nature conservation.......What determines large-scale patterns of species diversity is a central and controversial topic in biogeography and ecology. In this study, we compared the effects of contemporary environment and historical contingencies on species richness patterns of woody plants in China, using fine...... regions combined. This suggests different richness-environment relationships among regions. These results indicate important historical signals in the species richness patterns of woody plants across China. The signals are especially pronounced in the eastern Himalayas, the Mongolian Plateau...

  10. The floral transcriptomes of four bamboo species (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): support for common ancestry among woody bamboos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, William P; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Yin, Yanbin; Duvall, Melvin R

    2016-05-20

    Next-generation sequencing now allows for total RNA extracts to be sequenced in non-model organisms such as bamboos, an economically and ecologically important group of grasses. Bamboos are divided into three lineages, two of which are woody perennials with bisexual flowers, which undergo gregarious monocarpy. The third lineage, which are herbaceous perennials, possesses unisexual flowers that undergo annual flowering events. Transcriptomes were assembled using both reference-based and de novo methods. These two methods were tested by characterizing transcriptome content using sequence alignment to previously characterized reference proteomes and by identifying Pfam domains. Because of the striking differences in floral morphology and phenology between the herbaceous and woody bamboo lineages, MADS-box genes, transcription factors that control floral development and timing, were characterized and analyzed in this study. Transcripts were identified using phylogenetic methods and categorized as A, B, C, D or E-class genes, which control floral development, or SOC or SVP-like genes, which control the timing of flowering events. Putative nuclear orthologues were also identified in bamboos to use as phylogenetic markers. Instances of gene copies exhibiting topological patterns that correspond to shared phenotypes were observed in several gene families including floral development and timing genes. Alignments and phylogenetic trees were generated for 3,878 genes and for all genes in a concatenated analysis. Both the concatenated analysis and those of 2,412 separate gene trees supported monophyly among the woody bamboos, which is incongruent with previous phylogenetic studies using plastid markers.

  11. Identification of putative orthologous genes for the phylogenetic reconstruction of temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Na; Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2014-09-01

    The temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) are highly diverse in morphology but lack a substantial amount of genetic variation. The taxonomy of this lineage is intractable, and the relationships within the tribe have not been well resolved. Recent studies indicated that this tribe could have a complex evolutionary history. Although phylogenetic studies of the tribe have been carried out, most of these phylogenetic reconstructions were based on plastid data, which provide lower phylogenetic resolution compared with nuclear data. In this study, we intended to identify a set of desirable nuclear genes for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. Using two different methodologies, we identified 209 and 916 genes, respectively, as putative single copy orthologous genes. A total of 112 genes was successfully amplified and sequenced by next-generation sequencing technologies in five species sampled from the tribe. As most of the genes exhibited intra-individual allele heterozygotes, we investigated phylogenetic utility by reconstructing the phylogeny based on individual genes. Discordance among gene trees was observed and, to resolve the conflict, we performed a range of analyses using BUCKy and HybTree. While caution should be taken when inferring a phylogeny from multiple conflicting genes, our analysis indicated that 74 of the 112 investigated genes are potential markers for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  13. Woody vegetation and land cover changes in the Sahel of Mali (1967-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Raphael; Brandt, Martin; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-02-01

    In the past 50 years, the Sahel has experienced significant tree- and land cover changes accelerated by human expansion and prolonged droughts during the 1970s and 1980s. This study uses remote sensing techniques, supplemented by ground-truth data to compare pre-drought woody vegetation and land cover with the situation in 2011. High resolution panchromatic Corona imagery of 1967 and multi-spectral RapidEye imagery of 2011 form the basis of this regional scaled study, which is focused on the Dogon Plateau and the Seno Plain in the Sahel zone of Mali. Object-based feature extraction and classifications are used to analyze the datasets and map land cover and woody vegetation changes over 44 years. Interviews add information about changes in species compositions. Results show a significant increase of cultivated land, a reduction of dense natural vegetation as well as an increase of trees on farmer's fields. Mean woody cover decreased in the plains (-4%) but is stable on the plateau (+1%) although stark spatial discrepancies exist. Species decline and encroachment of degraded land are observed. However, the direction of change is not always negative and a variety of spatial variations are shown. Although the impact of climate is obvious, we demonstrate that anthropogenic activities have been the main drivers of change.

  14. Scaling Chromosomes for an Evolutionary Karyotype: A Chromosomal Tradeoff between Size and Number across Woody Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guolu; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the expected scaling relationships between chromosome size and number across woody species and to clarify the importance of the scaling for the maintenance of chromosome diversity by analyzing the scaling at the inter- & intra-chromosomal level. To achieve for the goals, chromosome trait data were extracted for 191 woody species (including 56 evergreen species and 135 deciduous species) from the available literature. Cross-species analyses revealed a tradeoff among chromosomes between chromosome size and number, demonstrating there is selective mechanism crossing chromosomes among woody species. And the explanations for the result were presented from intra- to inter-chromosome contexts that the scaling may be compromises among scale symmetry, mechanical requirements, and resource allocation across chromosomes. Therein, a 3/4 scaling pattern was observed between total chromosomes and m-chromosomes within nucleus which may imply total chromosomes may evolve from more to less. In addition, the primary evolutionary trend of karyotype and the role of m-chromosomes in the process of karyotype evolution were also discussed.

  15. Effect of Woody Debris abundance on daytime refuge use by cotton mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkelman, Travis, M.; Loeb, Susan, C.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract - Daytime refuges are important to nocturnal rodents for protection from predators and environmental extremes. Because refuges of forest-dwelling rodents are often associated with woody debris, we examined refuge use by 37 radio-collared Peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mice) in experimental plots with different levels of woody debris. Treatment plots had six times (≈ 60 m3/ha) the volume of woody debris as control plots (≈ 10 m3/ha). Of 247 refuges, 159 were in rotting stumps (64%), 32 were in root boles (13%), 19 were in brush piles (8%), and 16 were in logs (6%); 10 refuges could not be identified. Stumps were the most common refuge type in both treatments, but the distribution of refuge types was significantly different between treatment and control plots. Root boles and brush piles were used more on treatment plots than on control plots, and logs were used more on control plots than on treatment plots. Refuge type and vegetation cover were the best predictors of refuge use by cotton mice; root bole refuges and refuges with less vegetation cover received greater-than-expected use by mice. Abundant refuges, particularly root boles, may improve habitat quality for cotton mice in southeastern pine forests.

  16. New Biotechnological Tools for the Genetic Improvement of Major Woody Fruit Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limera, Cecilia; Sabbadini, Silvia; Sweet, Jeremy B; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of woody fruit species by traditional plant breeding techniques has several limitations mainly caused by their high degree of heterozygosity, the length of their juvenile phase and auto-incompatibility. The development of new biotechnological tools (NBTs), such as RNA interference (RNAi), trans-grafting, cisgenesis/intragenesis, and genome editing tools, like zinc-finger and CRISPR/Cas9, has introduced the possibility of more precise and faster genetic modifications of plants. This aspect is of particular importance for the introduction or modification of specific traits in woody fruit species while maintaining unchanged general characteristics of a selected cultivar. Moreover, some of these new tools give the possibility to obtain transgene-free modified fruit tree genomes, which should increase consumer's acceptance. Over the decades biotechnological tools have undergone rapid development and there is a continuous addition of new and valuable techniques for plant breeders. This makes it possible to create desirable woody fruit varieties in a fast and more efficient way to meet the demand for sustainable agricultural productivity. Although, NBTs have a common goal i.e., precise, fast, and efficient crop improvement, individually they are markedly different in approach and characteristics from each other. In this review we describe in detail their mechanisms and applications for the improvement of fruit trees and consider the relationship between these biotechnological tools and the EU biosafety regulations applied to the plants and products obtained through these techniques.

  17. Linking biodiversity to mutualistic networks – woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutualistic interactions are currently mapped by bipartite networkswith particular architecture and properties. The mycorrhizae connectthe trees and permit them to share resources, therefore relaxing thecompetition. Ectomycorrhizal macrofungi associated with woody species(Quercus robur, Q. cerris, Q. petraea, Tilia tomentosa, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, and Q. pubescens growing in a temperate, broadleaved mixed forest, from a hilly area near the city of Cluj–Napoca, central Romania were included in a bipartite mutualistic network. Community structure was investigated using several network metrics, modularity and nestedness algorithms in conjunction with C-score index cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (the Kulczynski similarity was index used as most appropriate metric selected by minimal stress criterion. The results indicate that the network presents high asymmetry (hosts are outnumbered by mycobionts at a great extent, high connectance, low modularity, andhigh nestedness, competition playing a secondary role in community assemblage (non significant difference between simulated and observed Cscore.The nestedness pattern is non-random and is comparable to previouslypublished results for other similar interactions containing plants. Inthe proposed network, woody species function exclusively as generalists. Modularity analysis is a finer tool were identifying species roles than centrality measures, however, the two types of algorithms permit the separation of species according to their roles as for example connectors (generalist species and ultraperipheral species (specialists. Supergeneralist woody species function as hubs for the diverse ectomycorrhizal community while supergeneralistectomycorrhizal fungi glue the hubs into a coherent aggregate.

  18. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  19. Basal insulin and cardiovascular and other outcomes in dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstein, Hertzel C; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested.......The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested....

  20. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.