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Sample records for basal vertebrate clade

  1. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

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    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  2. Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing

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    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Lei YANG; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish ...

  3. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

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    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  4. Is evolutionary biology becoming too politically correct? A reflection on the scala naturae, phylogenetically basal clades, anatomically plesiomorphic taxa, and 'lower' animals.

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    Diogo, Rui; Ziermann, Janine M; Linde-Medina, Marta

    2015-05-01

    The notion of scala naturae dates back to thinkers such as Aristotle, who placed plants below animals and ranked the latter along a graded scale of complexity from 'lower' to 'higher' animals, such as humans. In the last decades, evolutionary biologists have tended to move from one extreme (i.e. the idea of scala naturae or the existence of a general evolutionary trend in complexity from 'lower' to "higher" taxa, with Homo sapiens as the end stage) to the other, opposite, extreme (i.e. to avoid using terms such as 'phylogenetically basal' and 'anatomically plesiomorphic' taxa, which are seen as the undesired vestige of old teleological theories). The latter view tries to avoid any possible connotations with the original anthropocentric idea of a scala naturae crowned by man and, in that sense, it can be regarded as a more politically correct view. In the past years and months there has been renewed interest in these topics, which have been discussed in various papers and monographs that tend to subscribe, in general, to the points defended in the more politically correct view. Importantly, most evolutionary and phylogenetic studies of tetrapods and other vertebrates, and therefore most discussions on the scala naturae and related issues have been based on hard tissue and, more recently, on molecular data. Here we provide the first discussion of these topics based on a comparative myological study of all the major vertebrate clades and of myological cladistic and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of bony fish and tetrapods, including Primates. We specifically (i) contradict the notions of a scala naturae or evolutionary progressive trends leading to more complexity in 'higher' animals and culminating in Homo sapiens, and (ii) stress that the refutation of these old notions does not necessarily mean that one should not keep using the terms 'phylogenetically basal' and particularly 'anatomically plesiomorphic' to refer to groups such as the urodeles within the Tetrapoda

  5. The first freshwater mosasauroid (Upper Cretaceous, Hungary and a new clade of basal mosasauroids.

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    László Makádi

    Full Text Available Mosasauroids are conventionally conceived of as gigantic, obligatorily aquatic marine lizards (1000s of specimens from marine deposited rocks with a cosmopolitan distribution in the Late Cretaceous (90-65 million years ago [mya] oceans and seas of the world. Here we report on the fossilized remains of numerous individuals (small juveniles to large adults of a new taxon, Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Csehbánya Formation, Hungary (Santonian, Upper Cretaceous, 85.3-83.5 mya that represent the first known mosasauroid that lived in freshwater environments. Previous to this find, only one specimen of a marine mosasauroid, cf. Plioplatecarpus sp., is known from non-marine rocks in Western Canada. Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. uniquely possesses a plesiomorphic pelvic anatomy, a non-mosasauroid but pontosaur-like tail osteology, possibly limbs like a terrestrial lizard, and a flattened, crocodile-like skull. Cladistic analysis reconstructs P. inexpectatus in a new clade of mosasauroids: (Pannoniasaurus (Tethysaurus (Yaguarasaurus, Russellosaurus. P. inexpectatus is part of a mixed terrestrial and freshwater faunal assemblage that includes fishes, amphibians turtles, terrestrial lizards, crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds.

  6. Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and evolutionary analysis of vitamin D receptors isolated from basal vertebrates.

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    Erin M Kollitz

    Full Text Available The vertebrate genome is a result of two rapid and successive rounds of whole genome duplication, referred to as 1R and 2R. Furthermore, teleost fish have undergone a third whole genome duplication (3R specific to their lineage, resulting in the retention of multiple gene paralogs. The more recent 3R event in teleosts provides a unique opportunity to gain insight into how genes evolve through specific evolutionary processes. In this study we compare molecular activities of vitamin D receptors (VDR from basal species that diverged at key points in vertebrate evolution in order to infer derived and ancestral VDR functions of teleost paralogs. Species include the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, a 1R jawless fish; the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea, a cartilaginous fish that diverged after the 2R event; and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus, a primitive 2R ray-finned fish. Saturation binding assays and gel mobility shift assays demonstrate high affinity ligand binding and classic DNA binding characteristics of VDR has been conserved across vertebrate evolution. Concentration response curves in transient transfection assays reveal EC50 values in the low nanomolar range, however maximum transactivational efficacy varies significantly between receptor orthologs. Protein-protein interactions were investigated using co-transfection, mammalian 2-hybrid assays, and mutations of coregulator activation domains. We then combined these results with our previous study of VDR paralogs from 3R teleosts into a bioinformatics analysis. Our results suggest that 1, 25D3 acts as a partial agonist in basal species. Furthermore, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that functional differences between VDR orthologs and paralogs are influenced by differential protein interactions with essential coregulator proteins. We speculate that we may be observing a change in the pharmacodynamics relationship between VDR and 1, 25D3 throughout vertebrate evolution that may

  7. Pax258 and Pax6 alternative splicing events in basal chordates and vertebrates: a focus on paired box domain

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    Peter eFabian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paired box transcription factors play important role in development and tissue morphogenesis. The number of Pax homologs varies among species studied so far, due to genome and gene duplications that have affected PAX family to a great extent. Based on sequence similarity and functional domains, four Pax classes have been identified in chordates, namely Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7 and Pax4/6. Numerous splicing events have been reported mainly for Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes. Of significant interest are those events that lead to Pax proteins with presumed novel properties, such as altered DNA-binding or transcriptional activity. In the current study, a thorough analysis of Pax2/5/8 splicing events from cephalochordate and vertebrates was performed. We focused more on Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 splicing events in which the paired domain is involved. Three new splicing events were identified in Oryzias latipes, one of which seems to be conserved in Acanthomorphata. Using representatives from deuterostome and protostome phyla, a comparative analysis of the Pax6 exon-intron structure of the paired domain was performed, during an attempt to estimate the time of appearance of the Pax6(5a mRNA isoform. As shown in our analysis, this splicing event is absent in basal chordates and is characteristic of Gnathostomata. Moreover, expression pattern of alternative spliced variants was compared between basal chordates and fish species. In summary, our data indicate expansion of alternative mRNA variants in paired box region of Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes during the course of vertebrate evolution.

  8. The synaptonemal complex of basal metazoan hydra: more similarities to vertebrate than invertebrate meiosis model organisms.

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    Fraune, Johanna; Wiesner, Miriam; Benavente, Ricardo

    2014-03-20

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an evolutionarily well-conserved structure that mediates chromosome synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. Although its structure is conserved, the characterized protein components in the current metazoan meiosis model systems (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) show no sequence homology, challenging the question of a single evolutionary origin of the SC. However, our recent studies revealed the monophyletic origin of the mammalian SC protein components. Many of them being ancient in Metazoa and already present in the cnidarian Hydra. Remarkably, a comparison between different model systems disclosed a great similarity between the SC components of Hydra and mammals while the proteins of the ecdysozoan systems (D. melanogaster and C. elegans) differ significantly. In this review, we introduce the basal-branching metazoan species Hydra as a potential novel invertebrate model system for meiosis research and particularly for the investigation of SC evolution, function and assembly. Also, available methods for SC research in Hydra are summarized. PMID:24656231

  9. Weddellian marine/coastal vertebrates diversity from a basal horizon (Ypresian, Eocene of the Cucullaea I Allomember, La Meseta formation, Seymour (Marambio Island, Antarctica

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    Marcelo A. Reguero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Meseta Formation crops out in Seymour/Marambio Island, Weddell Sea, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula and contains one of the world's most diverse assemblages of Weddellian marine/coastal verte-brates of Early Eocene (Ypresian age. The La Meseta Formation is composed of poorly consolidated, marine sandstones and siltstones which were deposited in a coastal, deltaic and/or estuarine environment. It includes marine invertebrates and vertebrates as well as terrestrial vertebrates and plants. The highly fossiliferous basal horizon (Cucullaeashell bed, Telm 4 of Sadler 1988 of the CucullaeaI Allomember is a laterally extensive shell bed with sandy matrix. The fish remains, including 35 species from 26 families, of the Ypresian Cucullaeabed represent one of the most abundant and diverse fossil vertebrate faunas yet recorded in southern latitudes. Stratigraphic distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the Weddellian sphenisciforms are consistent with a first radiation of this group in the Early Eocene. The first inquestionable archaeocete from Antarctica is recorded in this unit and is referred to a new taxon.

  10. Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 alternative splicing events in basal chordates and vertebrates: a focus on paired box domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Peter; Kozmiková, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Jul 2 (2015). ISSN 1664-8021 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12047; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Pax homologs * splicing * vertebrate evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny

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    Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  12. The oldest platypus and its bearing on divergence timing of the platypus and echidna clades

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    Rowe, Timothy; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Springer, Mark; Woodburne, Michael O.

    2008-01-01

    Monotremes have left a poor fossil record, and paleontology has been virtually mute during two decades of discussion about molecular clock estimates of the timing of divergence between the platypus and echidna clades. We describe evidence from high-resolution x-ray computed tomography indicating that Teinolophos, an Early Cretaceous fossil from Australia's Flat Rocks locality (121–112.5 Ma), lies within the crown clade Monotremata, as a basal platypus. Strict molecular clock estimates of the ...

  13. A new basal bird from China with implications for morphological diversity in early birds.

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    Wang, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group is the second oldest fossil bird-bearing deposit, only surpassed by Archaeopteryx from the German Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestones. Here we report a new bird, Chongmingia zhengi gen. et sp. nov., from the Jehol Biota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Chongmingia zhengi is basal to the dominant Mesozoic avian clades Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha, and represents a new basal avialan lineage. This new discovery adds to our knowledge regarding the phylogenetic differentiation and morphological diversity in early avian evolution. The furcula of Chongmingia is rigid (reducing its efficiency), consequently requiring more power for flight. However, the elongated forelimb and the large deltopectoral crest on the humerus might indicate that the power was available. The unique combination of features present in this species demonstrates that numerous evolutionary experimentations took place in the early evolution of powered flight. The occurrence of gastroliths further confirms that herbivory was common among basal birds. The Jehol birds faced competition with pterosaurs, and occupied sympatric habitats with non-avian theropods, some of which consumed birds. Thus, avialan herbivory may have reduced ecological competition from carnivorous close relatives and other volant vertebrates early in their evolutionary history. PMID:26806355

  14. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral. Secondary

  15. Vertebrate Reproduction.

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    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  16. Anuran trypanosomes: phylogenetic evidence for new clades in Brazil.

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    da S Ferreira, Juliana I G; da Costa, Andrea P; Ramirez, Diego; Roldan, Jairo A M; Saraiva, Danilo; da S Founier, Gislene F R; Sue, Ana; Zambelli, Erick R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Verdade, Vanessa K; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosomes of anurans and fish are grouped into the Aquatic Clade which includes species isolated from fish, amphibians, turtles and platypus, usually transmitted by leeches and phlebotomine sand flies. Trypanosomes from Brazilian frogs are grouped within the Aquatic Clade with other anuran trypanosome species, where there seems to be coevolutionary patterns with vertebrate hosts and association to Brazilian biomes (Atlantic Forest, Pantanal and Amazonia Rainforest). We characterised the anuran trypanosomes from two different areas of the Cerrado biome and examined their phylogenetic relationships based on the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 112 anurans of six species was analysed and trypanosome prevalence evaluated through haemoculture was found to be 7% (8 positive frogs). However, only three isolates (2.7%) from two anuran species were recovered and cryopreserved. Analysis including SSU rDNA sequences from previous studies segregated the anuran trypanosomes into six groups, the previously reported An01 to An04, and An05 and An06 reported herein. Clade An05 comprises the isolates from Leptodactylus latrans (Steffen) and Pristimantis sp. captured in the Cerrado biome and Trypanosoma chattoni Mathis & Leger, 1911. The inclusion of new isolates in the phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for a new group (An06) of parasites from phlebotomine hosts. Our results indicate that the diversity of trypanosome species is underestimated since studies conducted in Brazil and other regions of the world are still few. PMID:25862033

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

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    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  18. Clade age and not diversification rate explains species richness among animal taxa.

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    McPeek, Mark A; Brown, Jonathan M

    2007-04-01

    Animal taxa show remarkable variability in species richness across phylogenetic groups. Most explanations for this disparity postulate that taxa with more species have phenotypes or ecologies that cause higher diversification rates (i.e., higher speciation rates or lower extinction rates). Here we show that clade longevity, and not diversification rate, has primarily shaped patterns of species richness across major animal clades: more diverse taxa are older and thus have had more time to accumulate species. Diversification rates calculated from 163 species-level molecular phylogenies were highly consistent within and among three major animal phyla (Arthropoda, Chordata, Mollusca) and did not correlate with species richness. Clades with higher estimated diversification rates were younger, but species numbers increased with increasing clade age. A fossil-based data set also revealed a strong, positive relationship between total extant species richness and crown group age across the orders of insects and vertebrates. These findings do not negate the importance of ecology or phenotype in influencing diversification rates, but they do show that clade longevity is the dominant signal in major animal biodiversity patterns. Thus, some key innovations may have acted through fostering clade longevity and not by heightening diversification rate. PMID:17427118

  19. Comparative physiology of oleaginous species from the Yarrowia clade.

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    Stéphanie Michely

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is a genetically tractable yeast species that has become an attractive model for analyses of lipid metabolism, due to its oleaginous nature. We investigated the regulation and evolution of lipid metabolism in non-Saccharomycetaceae yeasts, by carrying out a comparative physiological analysis of eight species recently assigned to the Yarrowia clade: Candida alimentaria, Y. deformans, C. galli, C. hispaniensis, C. hollandica, C. oslonensis, C. phangngensis and Y. yakushimensis. We compared the abilities of type strains of these species to grow on 31 non hydrophobic (sugars and other carbohydrate compounds and 13 hydrophobic (triglycerides, alkanes and free fatty acids carbon sources. Limited phenotypic diversity was observed in terms of the range of substrates used and, in the case of short-chain fatty acids, their toxicity. We assessed the oleaginous nature of these species, by evaluating their ability to store and to synthesize lipids. The mean lipid content of cells grown on oleic acid differed considerably between species, ranging from 30% of cell dry weight in C. oslonensis to 67% in C. hispaniensis. Lipid synthesis in cells grown on glucose resulted in the accumulation of C18:1 (n-9 as the major compound in most species, except for C. alimentaria and Y. yakushimensis, which accumulated principally C18:2(n-6, and C. hispaniensis, which accumulated both C16:0 and C18:1(n-9. Thus, all species of the clade were oleaginous, but they presented specific patterns of growth, lipid synthesis and storage, and therefore constitute good models for the comparative analysis of lipid metabolism in this basal yeast clade.

  20. Pathologically Collapsed Vertebral Body

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    Reza Saadat Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy, a case of CGD, presenting with quadriparesis "nFindings: Collapsed contiguous vertebral bodies"nSpared disks"nEpidural components extending one level above and below the involved vertebral bodies"nSignal of involved vertebral bodies: low on T1W and high on T2W image

  1. Imaging of vertebral fractures

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    Ananya Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

  2. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

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    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  3. Testing the hypothesis that a clade has adaptively radiated: iguanid lizard clades as a case study.

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    Losos, Jonathan B; Miles, Donald B

    2002-08-01

    The study of adaptive radiations has played a fundamental role in understanding mechanisms of evolution. A recent resurgence in the study of adaptive radiations highlights a gap in our knowledge about determining whether a clade constitutes adaptive diversification. Specifically, no objective criteria exist to judge whether a clade constitutes an adaptive radiation. Most clades, given enough time, will diversify adaptively to some extent; therefore, we argue that the term "adaptive radiation" should be reserved for those clades that are exceptionally diverse in terms of the range of habitats occupied and attendant morphological adaptations. Making such a definition operational, however, requires a comparative analysis of many clades. Only by comparing clades can one distinguish those that are exceptionally diverse (or nondiverse) from those exhibiting a normal degree of adaptive disparity. We propose such a test, focusing on disparity in the ecological morphology of monophyletic groups within the lizard family Iguanidae. We find that two clades, the Polychrotinae and Phrynosomatinae, are exceptionally diverse and that two others, the Crotaphytinae and Oplurinae, are exceptionally nondiverse. Potential explanations for differences in diversity are discussed, as are caveats and future extensions of our approach. PMID:18707482

  4. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  6. The clinical characteristics and therapy of syndrome of craniocerebral- cervical vertebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng; LIU Yuan-xin; WANG Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and new treatment for syndrome of craniocerebral-cervical vertebral injury. Methods: The clinical data of 52 patients with head injury accompanied by neck injury were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Craniocerebral injury could result in damage to cervical vertebrae, muscles, vessels and nerves, and even cause vertebral artery injury, which may lead to insufficient blood-supply of vertebral-basal artery. All patients were treated with cervical vertebral traction and the results were good. Conclusions: Acute craniocerebral injury with symptom of insufficient blood-supply of vertebral-basal artery, evident neurosis and atlas-axis half-dislocation in X-ray should be treated by cervical vertebral traction, which will yield better outcome.

  7. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

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    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  8. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades

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    John J Wiens; Lapoint, Richard T.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2015-01-01

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect o...

  9. Lipase production by diverse phylogenetic clades of Aureobasidium pullulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine strains representing 12 diverse phylogenetic clades of Aureobasidium pullulans were surveyed for lipase production using a quantitative assay. Strains in clades 4 and 10 produced 0.2-0.3 U lipase/ml, while color variant strain NRRL Y-2311-1 in clade 8 produced 0.54 U lipase/ml. Strains i...

  10. A new basal bird from China with implications for morphological diversity in early birds

    OpenAIRE

    Min Wang; Xiaoli Wang; Yan Wang; Zhonghe Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group is the second oldest fossil bird-bearing deposit, only surpassed by Archaeopteryx from the German Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestones. Here we report a new bird, Chongmingia zhengi gen. et sp. nov., from the Jehol Biota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Chongmingia zhengi is basal to the dominant Mesozoic avian clades Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha, and represents a new basal avialan lineage. This new discovery adds to our knowledge regarding th...

  11. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-01-01

    Most of the variation (98.8 %) in basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 70 species of marsupials is correlated with body mass, although lowland species have higher basal rates than highland species and burrowers have lower basal rates than non-burrowers. These factors collectively account for 99.2 % of the variation in marsupial BMR. Marsupials differ in BMR from eutherians by having no species with a high basal rate by general mammalian standards, even when consuming vertebrates or grass, food h...

  12. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  13. Thyroglobulin Represents a Novel Molecular Architecture of Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Guillaume; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Lorin, Thibault; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Tohmé, Marie; Deléage, Gilbert; Demeneix, Barbara; Arvan, Peter; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid hormones modulate not only multiple functions in vertebrates (energy metabolism, central nervous system function, seasonal changes in physiology, and behavior) but also in some non-vertebrates where they control critical post-embryonic developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Despite their obvious biological importance, the thyroid hormone precursor protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), has been experimentally investigated only in mammals. This may bias our view of how thyroid hormones are produced in other organisms. In this study we searched genomic databases and found Tg orthologs in all vertebrates including the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We cloned a full-size Tg coding sequence from western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comparisons between the representative mammal, amphibian, teleost fish, and basal vertebrate indicate that all of the different domains of Tg, as well as Tg regional structure, are conserved throughout the vertebrates. Indeed, in Xenopus, zebrafish, and lamprey Tgs, key residues, including the hormonogenic tyrosines and the disulfide bond-forming cysteines critical for Tg function, are well conserved despite overall divergence of amino acid sequences. We uncovered upstream sequences that include start codons of zebrafish and Xenopus Tgs and experimentally proved that these are full-length secreted proteins, which are specifically recognized by antibodies against rat Tg. By contrast, we have not been able to find any orthologs of Tg among non-vertebrate species. Thus, Tg appears to be a novel protein elaborated as a single event at the base of vertebrates and virtually unchanged thereafter. PMID:27311711

  14. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, Po-Lin; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2006-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastro-intestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overvi...

  15. Subsystems of the basal ganglia and motor infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali Sarvestani, Iman

    2013-01-01

    The motor nervous system is one of the main systems of the body and is our principle means ofbehavior. Some of the most debilitating and wide spread disorders are motor systempathologies. In particular the basal ganglia are complex networks of the brain that control someaspects of movement in all vertebrates. Although these networks have been extensively studied,lack of proper methods to study them on a system level has hindered the process ofunderstanding what they do and how they do it. In ...

  16. Bird evolution: testing the Metaves clade with six new mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary biologists are often misled by convergence of morphology and this has been common in the study of bird evolution. However, the use of molecular data sets have their own problems and phylogenies based on short DNA sequences have the potential to mislead us too. The relationships among clades and timing of the evolution of modern birds (Neoaves has not yet been well resolved. Evidence of convergence of morphology remain controversial. With six new bird mitochondrial genomes (hummingbird, swift, kagu, rail, flamingo and grebe we test the proposed Metaves/Coronaves division within Neoaves and the parallel radiations in this primary avian clade. Results Our mitochondrial trees did not return the Metaves clade that had been proposed based on one nuclear intron sequence. We suggest that the high number of indels within the seventh intron of the β-fibrinogen gene at this phylogenetic level, which left a dataset with not a single site across the alignment shared by all taxa, resulted in artifacts during analysis. With respect to the overall avian tree, we find the flamingo and grebe are sister taxa and basal to the shorebirds (Charadriiformes. Using a novel site-stripping technique for noise-reduction we found this relationship to be stable. The hummingbird/swift clade is outside the large and very diverse group of raptors, shore and sea birds. Unexpectedly the kagu is not closely related to the rail in our analysis, but because neither the kagu nor the rail have close affinity to any taxa within this dataset of 41 birds, their placement is not yet resolved. Conclusion Our phylogenetic hypothesis based on 41 avian mitochondrial genomes (13,229 bp rejects monophyly of seven Metaves species and we therefore conclude that the members of Metaves do not share a common evolutionary history within the Neoaves.

  17. Vertebral spinal osteophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Hage, Robert; Jordan, Robert; Loukas, Marios

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies. The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive sleep apnea. In addition to anterior cervical osteophytes, posterior and uncinate process osteophytes may form, compressing the spinal cord and vertebral artery blood supply, respectively. Cervical osteophytes have also been shown to form an accessory median atlanto-occipital joint when the relationship between the atlas, dens and basiocciput is involved. In the thorax, the esophagus is often affected by osteophytes and may result in dysphagia. Traumatic and non-traumatic thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm formation has been attributed to sharp osteophytes lacerating the aorta, a direct complication of the relationship between the aorta anterior vertebral column. Additionally, aspiration pneumonia was reported in patients with compression of a main stem bronchus, due to mechanical compression by thoracic osteophytes. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity to the spine are the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. Treatment of osteophytes is initially conservative with anti-inflammatory medications, followed by surgical removal. Increasing obesity and geriatric populations will continue to result in an array of osteoarthritic degenerative changes such as osteophyte formation. PMID:20383671

  18. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature of...

  19. Evidence of Sympatry of Clade A and Clade B Head Lice in a Pre-Columbian Chilean Mummy from Camarones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Rivera, Mario A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Three different lineages of head lice are known to parasitize humans. Clade A, which is currently worldwide in distribution, was previously demonstrated to be present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. The two other types of head lice are geographically restricted to America and Australia for clade B and to Africa and Asia for clade C. In this study, we tested two operculated nits from a 4,000-year-old Chilean mummy of Camarones for the presence of the partial Cytb mitochondrial gene (270 bp). Our finding shows that clade B head lice were present in America before the arrival of the European colonists. PMID:24204678

  20. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

    OpenAIRE

    Bensimon-Brito Anabela; Cardeira João; Cancela Maria; Huysseune Ann; Witten Paul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans) or ossify (osteichthyans). Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small ...

  1. Management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Dionyssiotis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Yannis DionyssiotisRhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, GreeceAbstract: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The management of patients with vertebral fractures should include treatment for osteoporosis and measures to reduce pain and improve mobility. This article provides information for management and rehabilitation of vertebral fractures based on clinical experience and literature.Keywords: vertebral fracture, quality of life, rehabilitation, osteoporosis

  2. A detailed investigation of the Pterocarpus clade (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Bente B.; Forest, Félix; Booth, Thomas J.; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2013-01-01

    The pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Dalbergieae) with papilionoid flowers, and allied genera in the Pterocarpus clade were sampled for the five molecular markers ITS2, trnL-F, ndhF-rpL32, matK, and rbcL, as part of our ongoing systematic studies in the clade. For wider analyses of the...

  3. Evolution of oxytocin pathways in the brain of vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Valery Grinevich

    2014-01-01

    The central oxytocin system transformed tremendously during the evolution, thereby adapting to the expanding properties of species. In more basal vertebrates (paraphyletic taxon Anamnia, which includes agnathans, fish and amphibians), magnocellular neurosecretory neurons producing oxytocin, vasopressin and their homologs reside in the wall of the third ventricle of the hypothalamus composing a single hypothalamic structure, the preoptic nucleus. This nucleus further diverged in advanced verte...

  4. Rapid progress on the vertebrate tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer H Bradley

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the greatest challenges for biology in the 21st century is inference of the tree of life. Interest in, and progress toward, this goal has increased dramatically with the growing availability of molecular sequence data. However, we have very little sense, for any major clade, of how much progress has been made in resolving a full tree of life and the scope of work that remains. A series of challenges stand in the way of completing this task but, at the most basic level, progress is limited by data: a limited fraction of the world's biodiversity has been incorporated into a phylogenetic analysis. More troubling is our poor understanding of what fraction of the tree of life is understood and how quickly research is adding to this knowledge. Here we measure the rate of progress on the tree of life for one clade of particular research interest, the vertebrates. Results Using an automated phylogenetic approach, we analyse all available molecular data for a large sample of vertebrate diversity, comprising nearly 12,000 species and 210,000 sequences. Our results indicate that progress has been rapid, increasing polynomially during the age of molecular systematics. It is also skewed, with birds and mammals receiving the most attention and marine organisms accumulating far fewer data and a slower rate of increase in phylogenetic resolution than terrestrial taxa. We analyse the contributors to this phylogenetic progress and make recommendations for future work. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that a large majority of the vertebrate tree of life will: (1 be resolved within the next few decades; (2 identify specific data collection strategies that may help to spur future progress; and (3 identify branches of the vertebrate tree of life in need of increased research effort.

  5. The synapsin gene family in basal chordates: evolutionary perspectives in metazoans

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardi Fiorenza; Pennati Roberta; Moronti Luca; Candiani Simona; Benfenati Fabio; Pestarino Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins involved in several functions correlated with both neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. The comprehension of the basal role of the synapsin family is hampered in vertebrates by the existence of multiple synapsin genes. Therefore, studying homologous genes in basal chordates, devoid of genome duplication, could help to achieve a better understanding of the complex functions of these proteins. Results In this study we report the...

  6. Minimizing Human Intervention in the Development of Basal Ganglia-Inspired Robot Control

    OpenAIRE

    F. Montes-Gonzalez; Prescott, T.J; Negrete-Martinez, J.

    2007-01-01

    A biologically inspired mechanism for robot action selection, based on the vertebrate basal ganglia, has been previously presented (Prescott et al. 2006, Montes Gonzalez et al. 2000). In this model the task confronting the robot is decomposed into distinct behavioural modules that integrate information from multiple sensors and internal state to form ‘salience’ signals. These signals are provided as inputs to a computational model of the basal ganglia whose intrinsic processes cause the selec...

  7. Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs. Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and of the cellular components of the olfactory system. Results We have identified 50 full-length and 11 partial ORs in Branchiostoma floridae. No ORs were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis places the B. floridae OR genes in a monophyletic clade with the vertebrate ORs. The majority of OR genes in amphioxus are intronless and many are also tandemly arrayed in the genome. By exposing conserved amino acid motifs and testing the ability of those motifs to discriminate between ORs and non-OR GPCRs, we identified three OR-specific amino acid motifs common in cephalochordate, fish and mammalian and ORs. Conclusion Here, we show that amphioxus has orthologs of vertebrate ORs. This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. We have also identified highly conserved amino acid motifs that may be important for maintaining

  8. The oldest caseid synapsid from the Late Pennsylvanian of Kansas, and the evolution of herbivory in terrestrial vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Reisz

    Full Text Available The origin and early evolution of amniotes (fully terrestrial vertebrates led to major changes in the structure and hierarchy of terrestrial ecosystems. The first appearance of herbivores played a pivotal role in this transformation. After an early bifurcation into Reptilia and Synapsida (including mammals 315 Ma, synapsids dominated Paleozoic terrestrial vertebrate communities, with the herbivorous caseids representing the largest vertebrates on land. Eocasea martini gen. et sp. nov., a small carnivorous caseid from the Late Carboniferous, extends significantly the fossil record of Caseidae, and permits the first clade-based study of the origin and initial evolution of herbivory in terrestrial tetrapods. Our results demonstrate for the first time that large caseid herbivores evolved from small, non-herbivorous caseids. This pattern is mirrored by three other clades, documenting multiple, independent, but temporally staggered origins of herbivory and increase in body size among early terrestrial tetrapods, leading to patterns consistent with modern terrestrial ecosystem.

  9. Identification of a Dopaminergic Enhancer Indicates Complexity in Vertebrate Dopamine Neuron Phenotype Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Esther; Stevenson, Tamara J.; Chien, Chi-Bin; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic neurons of the basal ganglia play critical roles in CNS function and human disease, but specification of dopamine neuron phenotype is poorly understood in vertebrates. We performed an in vivo screen in zebrafish to identify dopaminergic neuron enhancers, in order to facilitate studies on the specification of neuronal identity, connectivity, and function in the basal ganglia. Based primarily on identification of conserved non-coding elements, we tested 54 DNA elements from fou...

  10. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  11. Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae. PMID:17611090

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal evolutionary relationships of the Phytophthora Ic clade species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Erica S.; Russ, Carsten; Nusbaum, Chad; Zeng, Qiandong; Saville, Amanda; Olarte, Rodrigo; Carbone, Ignazio; Hu, Chia-Hui; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Samaniego, Jose A; Thorne, Jeffrey L.; Ristaino, Jean B.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens of potato and tomato globally. The pathogen is closely related to four other Phytophthora species including P. phaseoli, P. ipomoeae, P. mirabilis, and P. andina that are important pathogens of other wild and domesticated hosts. P. andina is an interspecific hybrid between P. infestans and an unknown Phytophthora species. We have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the sister species of P. infestans in order to resolve the evolutionary relationships within the clade. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the P. phaseoli mitochondrial lineage is basal within the clade. P. mirabilis and P. ipomoeae are sister lineages and share a common ancestor with the Ic mitochondrial lineage of P. andina. These lineages in turn are sister to the P. infestans and P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineages. The P. andina Ic lineage diverged much earlier than the P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineage and P. infestans. The presence of two mitochondrial lineages in P. andina supports the hybrid nature of this species. The ancestral state of the P. andina Ic lineage in the tree and its occurrence only in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru suggests further sampling in the Americasis warranted to understand the distribution of this species hybrid in nature. PMID:25754775

  13. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P < .0008-.0283). This observation may explain the predominance of clade B in the community and why antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated E. faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. PMID:26671890

  14. Evolution of Vertebrate Phototransduction: Cascade Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Trevor D; Patel, Hardip; Chuah, Aaron; Natoli, Riccardo C; Davies, Wayne I L; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P; Hunt, David M

    2016-08-01

    We applied high-throughput sequencing to eye tissue from several species of basal vertebrates (a hagfish, two species of lamprey, and five species of gnathostome fish), and we analyzed the mRNA sequences for the proteins underlying activation of the phototransduction cascade. The molecular phylogenies that we constructed from these sequences are consistent with the 2R WGD model of two rounds of whole genome duplication. Our analysis suggests that agnathans retain an additional representative (that has been lost in gnathostomes) in each of the gene families we studied; the evidence is strong for the G-protein α subunit (GNAT) and the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6), and indicative for the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA and CNGB). Two of the species (the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus and the lamprey Mordacia mordax) possess only a single class of photoreceptor, simplifying deductions about the composition of cascade protein isoforms utilized in their photoreceptors. For the other lamprey, Geotria australis, analysis of the ratios of transcript levels in downstream and upstream migrant animals permits tentative conclusions to be drawn about the isoforms used in four of the five spectral classes of photoreceptor. Overall, our results suggest that agnathan rod-like photoreceptors utilize the same GNAT1 as gnathostomes, together with a homodimeric PDE6 that may be agnathan-specific, whereas agnathan cone-like photoreceptors utilize a GNAT that may be agnathan-specific, together with the same PDE6C as gnathostomes. These findings help elucidate the evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade from an ancestral chordate phototransduction cascade that existed prior to the vertebrate radiation. PMID:27189541

  15. Ancestral vascular lumen formation via basal cell surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Kucera

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus, the basement membranes of endoderm and mesoderm line the lumen of the major vessels, namely aorta and heart. During amphioxus development a laminin-containing extracellular matrix (ECM was found to fill the space between the basal cell surfaces of endoderm and mesoderm along their anterior-posterior (A-P axes. Blood cells appear in this ECM-filled tubular space, coincident with the development of a vascular lumen. To get insight into the underlying cellular mechanism, we induced vessels in vitro with a cell polarity similar to the vessels of amphioxus. We show that basal cell surfaces can form a vascular lumen filled with ECM, and that phagocytotic blood cells can clear this luminal ECM to generate a patent vascular lumen. Therefore, our experiments suggest a mechanism of blood vessel formation via basal cell surfaces in amphioxus and possibly in other invertebrates that do not have any endothelial cells. In addition, a comparison between amphioxus and mouse shows that endothelial cells physically separate the basement membranes from the vascular lumen, suggesting that endothelial cells create cardiovascular tubes with a cell polarity of epithelial tubes in vertebrates and mammals.

  16. Vertebral fracture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  17. Vertebral contour in spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defect in the pars interarticularis of spondylolisthesis may be dependent on contributing factors related to trauma and stress to which the neural arch is subjected, superimposed on a hereditary diasthesis. Posterior wedging of 5th lumber vertebral body in lumbosacral spondylolisthesis together with the degree of slip have been measured. The average wedging in spondylolisthesis is significantly greater than patient without this condition, and forms a characteristic radiological sign. The degree of wedging and slip show a statistically valid correlation. The diagnosis of spondylolisthesis is becoming more prevalent as the complexity of our society result in the increasing use of roentgenography of the lumbar spine. Isolated lateral deviation and rotation of spinous process seen in anteroposterior radiographs of the lumbar spine seems to be associated with pathology in the pars interarticularis

  18. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Albion Wills, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing.

  19. The vertebrate Hox gene regulatory network for hindbrain segmentation: Evolution and diversification: Coupling of a Hox gene regulatory network to hindbrain segmentation is an ancient trait originating at the base of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Hugo J; Bronner, Marianne E; Krumlauf, Robb

    2016-06-01

    Hindbrain development is orchestrated by a vertebrate gene regulatory network that generates segmental patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. Here, we review analyses of vertebrate and invertebrate chordate models that inform upon the evolutionary origin and diversification of this network. Evidence from the sea lamprey reveals that the hindbrain regulatory network generates rhombomeric compartments with segmental Hox expression and an underlying Hox code. We infer that this basal feature was present in ancestral vertebrates and, as an evolutionarily constrained developmental state, is fundamentally important for patterning of the vertebrate hindbrain across diverse lineages. Despite the common ground plan, vertebrates exhibit neuroanatomical diversity in lineage-specific patterns, with different vertebrates revealing variations of Hox expression in the hindbrain that could underlie this diversification. Invertebrate chordates lack hindbrain segmentation but exhibit some conserved aspects of this network, with retinoic acid signaling playing a role in establishing nested domains of Hox expression. PMID:27027928

  20. Evolution of oxytocin pathways in the brain of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sophie Knobloch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The central oxytocin system transformed tremendously during the evolution, thereby adapting to the expanding properties of species. In more basal vertebrates (paraphyletic taxon Anamnia, which includes agnathans, fish and amphibians, magnocellular neurosecretory neurons producing oxytocin, vasopressin and their homologs reside in the wall of the third ventricle of the hypothalamus composing a single hypothalamic structure, the preoptic nucleus. This nucleus further diverged in advanced vertebrates (monophyletic taxon Amniota, which includes reptiles, birds and mammals into the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei with accessory nuclei between them. The individual magnocellular neurons underwent a process of transformation from primitive uni- or bipolar neurons into highly differentiated neurons. Due to these microanatomical and cytological changes, the ancient release modes of oxytocin into the cerebrospinal fluid were largely replaced by vascular release. However, the most fascinating feature of the progressive transformations of the oxytocin system has been the expansion of oxytocin axonal projections to forebrain regions. In the present review we provide a background on these evolutionary advancements. Furthermore, we draw attention to the non-synaptic axonal release in small and defined brain regions with the aim to clearly distinguish this way of oxytocin action from the classical synaptic transmission on one side and from dendritic release followed by a global diffusion on the other side. Finally, we will summarize the effects of oxytocin and its homologs on pro-social reproductive behaviors in representatives of the phylogenetic tree and will propose anatomically plausible pathways of oxytocin release contributing to these behaviors in basal vertebrates and amniots.

  1. Phylogeography of the pitviper clade Agkistrodon: historical ecology, species status, and conservation of cantils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C L; Zamudio, K R; Greene, H W

    2000-04-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from three gene regions and two tRNAs (ND4, tRNA-HIS-SER, 12S, and 16S rDNA) to investigate the historical ecology of the New World pitviper clade Agkistrodon, with emphasis on the disjunct subspecies of the cantil, A. bilineatus. We found strong evidence that the copperhead (A. contortrix) is basal to its congeners, and that the cottonmouth (A. piscivorus) is basal to cantils. Phylogeography and natural history of the living terminal taxa imply that Agkistrodon primitively occupied relatively temperate habitats, with subsequent evolution of tropicality in ancestral A. bilineatus. Our best supported phylogeny rejects three gulf arc scenarios for the biogeography of A. bilineatus. We find significant statistical support for an initial divergence between populations on the east and west coasts of México and subsequent occupancy of the Yucatán Peninsula, by way of subhumid corridors in northern Central America. Based on phylogenetic relationships, morphological and molecular divergence, and allopatry we elevate A. b. taylori of northeastern México to species status. Taylor's cantil is likely threatened by habitat destruction and small geographical range, and we offer recommendations for its conservation and management. PMID:10736044

  2. Correlation between vertebral Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Böhmer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the vertebral column is marked by profound morphological changes that have a strong impact on organismal biology. The vital functions of the axial skeleton range from protecting the neural structures through sustaining the body posture to physiological aspects such as breathing. Archosaurs (crocodiles, birds and dinosaurs), as a group, display a striking variety of body plans and vertebral morphologies. This dissertation aims to contribute to the understanding of the patte...

  3. End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallan, Lauren Cole; Coates, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    The Devonian marks a critical stage in the early evolution of vertebrates: It opens with an unprecedented diversity of fishes and closes with the earliest evidence of limbed tetrapods. However, the latter part of the Devonian has also been characterized as a period of global biotic crisis marked by two large extinction pulses: a "Big Five" mass extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian stage boundary (374 Ma) and the less well-documented Hangenberg event some 15 million years later at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary (359 Ma). Here, we report the results of a wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these events on early vertebrate evolution, which was obtained from a database of vertebrate occurrences sampling over 1,250 taxa from 66 localities spanning Givetian to Serpukhovian stages (391 to 318 Ma). We show that major vertebrate clades suffered acute and systematic effects centered on the Hangenberg extinction involving long-term losses of over 50% of diversity and the restructuring of vertebrate ecosystems worldwide. Marine and nonmarine faunas were equally affected, precluding the existence of environmental refugia. The subsequent recovery of previously diverse groups (including placoderms, sarcopterygian fish, and acanthodians) was minimal. Tetrapods, actinopterygians, and chondrichthyans, all scarce within the Devonian, undergo large diversification events in the aftermath of the extinction, dominating all subsequent faunas. The Hangenberg event represents a previously unrecognized bottleneck in the evolutionary history of vertebrates as a whole and a historical contingency that shaped the roots of modern biodiversity. PMID:20479258

  4. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  5. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  6. Isolation and Functional Analyses of a Putative Floral Homeotic C-Function Gene in a Basal Eudicot London Plane Tree (Platanus acerifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Cong; Liu, Guofeng; Bao, Manzhu

    2013-01-01

    The identification of mutants in model plant species has led to the isolation of the floral homeotic function genes that play crucial roles in flower organ specification. However, floral homeotic C-function genes are rarely studied in basal eudicots. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the AGAMOUS (AG) orthologous gene (PaAG) from a basal eudicot London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia Willd). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PaAG belongs to the C- clade AG group of genes. P...

  7. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

  8. Phylogeny and biogeography of an uncultured clade of snow chytrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, C S; Darcy, J L; Schmidt, S K

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that snow can contain a diverse array of algae known as 'snow algae'. Some reports also indicate that parasites of algae (e.g. chytrids) are also found in snow, but efforts to phylogenetically identify 'snow chytrids' have not been successful. We used culture-independent molecular approaches to phylogenetically identify chytrids that are common in long-lived snowpacks of Colorado and Europe. The most remarkable finding of the present study was the discovery of a new clade of chytrids that has representatives in snowpacks of Colorado and Switzerland and cold sites in Nepal and France, but no representatives from warmer ecosystems. This new clade ('Snow Clade 1' or SC1) is as deeply divergent as its sister clade, the Lobulomycetales, and phylotypes of SC1 show significant (P snow chytrids were phylogenetically shown to be in the order Rhizophydiales, a group with known algal parasites and saprotrophs. We suggest that these newly discovered snow chytrids are important components of snow ecosystems where they contribute to snow food-web dynamics and the release of nutrients due to their parasitic and saprotrophic activities. PMID:23551529

  9. Photosynthetic pigments of oceanic Chlorophyta belonging to prasinophytes clade VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Dos Santos, Adriana; Gourvil, Priscillia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Garrido, José Luis; Vaulot, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The ecological importance and diversity of pico/nanoplanktonic algae remains poorly studied in marine waters, in part because many are tiny and without distinctive morphological features. Amongst green algae, Mamiellophyceae such as Micromonas or Bathycoccus are dominant in coastal waters while prasinophytes clade VII, yet not formerly described, appear to be major players in open oceanic waters. The pigment composition of 14 strains representative of different subclades of clade VII was analyzed using a method that improves the separation of loroxanthin and neoxanthin. All the prasinophytes clade VII analyzed here showed a pigment composition similar to that previously reported for RCC287 corresponding to pigment group prasino-2A. However, we detected in addition astaxanthin for which it is the first report in prasinophytes. Among the strains analyzed, the pigment signature is qualitatively similar within subclades A and B. By contrast, RCC3402 from subclade C (Picocystis) lacks loroxanthin, astaxanthin, and antheraxanthin but contains alloxanthin, diatoxanthin, and monadoxanthin that are usually found in diatoms or cryptophytes. For subclades A and B, loroxanthin was lowest at highest light irradiance suggesting a light-harvesting role of this pigment in clade VII as in Tetraselmis. PMID:26987097

  10. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  11. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  12. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  13. Amphioxus: beginning of vertebrate and end of invertebrate type GnRH receptor lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Javier A; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2009-06-01

    In vertebrates, activation of the GnRH receptor is necessary to initiate the reproductive cascade. However, little is known about the characteristics of GnRH receptors before the vertebrates evolved. Recently genome sequencing was completed for amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. To understand the GnRH receptors (GnRHR) from this most basal chordate, which is also classified as an invertebrate, we cloned and characterized four GnRHR cDNAs encoded in the amphioxus genome. We found that incubation of GnRH1 (mammalian GnRH) and GnRH2 (chicken GnRH II) with COS7 cells heterologously expressing the amphioxus GnRHRs caused potent intracellular inositol phosphate turnover in two of the receptors. One of the two receptors displayed a clear preference for GnRH1 over GnRH2, a characteristic not previously seen outside the type I mammalian GnRHRs. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the four receptors into two paralogous pairs, with one pair grouping basally with the vertebrate GnRH receptors and the other grouping with the octopus GnRHR-like sequence and the related receptor for insect adipokinetic hormone. Pharmacological studies showed that octopus GnRH-like peptide and adipokinetic hormone induced potent inositol phosphate turnover in one of these other two amphioxus receptors. These data demonstrate the functional conservation of two distinct types of GnRH receptors at the base of chordates. We propose that one receptor type led to vertebrate GnRHRs, whereas the other type, related to the mollusk GnRHR-like receptor, was lost in the vertebrate lineage. This is the first report to suggest that distinct invertebrate and vertebrate GnRHRs are present simultaneously in a basal chordate, amphioxus. PMID:19264870

  14. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A; Balachandran C; Shenoi S; Sabitha L; Pai Satish; Ravikumar B; Roy Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  15. TWO SNOW SPECIES OF THE QUADRIFLAGELLATE GREEN ALGA CHLAINOMONAS (CHLOROPHYTA, VOLVOCALES): ULTRASTRUCTURE AND PHYLOGENETIC POSITION WITHIN THE CHLOROMONAS CLADE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novis, Philip M; Hoham, Ronald W; Beer, Thomas; Dawson, Murray

    2008-08-01

    The quadriflagellate snow alga Chlainomonas Christen, distributed in New Zealand and North America, has several unusual structural attributes. A process assumed to be cytokinesis involves extrusion of protoplasm from the parent through a narrow canal, C. kolii (J. T. Hardy et Curl) Hoham produces a net-like outer envelope rather than a cell wall, and the flagellar basal apparatus of Chlainomonas consists of two semi-independent pairs of basal bodies. Structural connections between basal body pairs appear minimal, but a connecting system different from that observed in other genera exists within each pair. Phylogenetic analysis using rbcL sequences places Chlainomonas in the Chloromonas clade, other known members of which are all biflagellate. Chlainomonas is split into two robust lineages, with New Zealand collections sharing an origin with northern North American collections. Although the quadriflagellate condition is regarded as ancestral in the Chlorophyceae, we speculate-based on ultrastructural and molecular data presented here-that Chlainomonas represents a derived form that has arisen from fusion of two ancestral biflagellate cells. Other explanations (for example, that Chlainomonas represents a diploid form of a biflagellate species) are remotely possible but are presently at odds with extensive observations of field material. Improvements in techniques for experimental manipulation of these sensitive cryophiles will be required to fully characterize their structure and progress our understanding of their biology. PMID:27041619

  16. A phylogenetic overview of the antrodia clade (Basidiomycota, Polyporales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz; Lindner, Daniel L; Miettinen, Otto; Justo, Alfredo; Hibbett, David S

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among members of the antrodia clade were investigated with molecular data from two nuclear ribosomal DNA regions, LSU and ITS. A total of 123 species representing 26 genera producing a brown rot were included in the present study. Three DNA datasets (combined LSU-ITS dataset, LSU dataset, ITS dataset) comprising sequences of 449 isolates were evaluated with three different phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference). We present a phylogenetic overview of the five main groups recovered: the fibroporia, laetiporus, postia, laricifomes and core antrodia groups. Not all of the main groups received strong support in the analyses, requiring further research. We were able to identify a number of well supported clades within the main groups. PMID:23935025

  17. Comparative Physiology of Oleaginous Species from the Yarrowia Clade

    OpenAIRE

    Michely, STEPHANIE; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuveglise-Degouy, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a genetically tractable yeast species that has become an attractive model for analyses of lipid metabolism, due to its oleaginous nature. We investigated the regulation and evolution of lipid metabolism in non-Saccharomycetaceae yeasts, by carrying out a comparative physiological analysis of eight species recently assigned to the Yarrowia clade: Candida alimentaria, Y. deformans, C. galli, C. hispaniensis, C. hollandica, C. oslonensis, C. phangngensis and Y. yakushimens...

  18. Regressive Evolution of Photosynthesis in the Roseobacter Clade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koblížek, Michal; Zeng, Yonghui; Horák, A.; Oborník, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2013 (2013), s. 385-405. ISSN 0065-2296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/0221; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : roseobacter clade * photosynthesis * marine microbial communities Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2013

  19. Juvenile skeletogenesis in anciently diverged sea urchin clades

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Feng; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Petsios, Elizabeth; Erkenbrack, Eric; Moats, Rex A.; Bottjer, David J.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of evolutionary divergence in animal body plans devolves from analysis of those developmental processes that, in forms descendant from a common ancestor, are responsible for their morphological differences. The last common ancestor of the two extant subclasses of sea urchins, i.e., euechinoids and cidaroids, existed well before the Permian/Triassic extinction (252 mya). Subsequent evolutionary divergence of these clades offers in principle a rare opportunity to solve...

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  1. Genetic tools for the investigation of Roseobacter clade bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tielen Petra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Roseobacter clade represents one of the most abundant, metabolically versatile and ecologically important bacterial groups found in marine habitats. A detailed molecular investigation of the regulatory and metabolic networks of these organisms is currently limited for many strains by missing suitable genetic tools. Results Conjugation and electroporation methods for the efficient and stable genetic transformation of selected Roseobacter clade bacteria including Dinoroseobacter shibae, Oceanibulbus indolifex, Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, Phaeobacter inhibens, Roseobacter denitrificans and Roseobacter litoralis were tested. For this purpose an antibiotic resistance screening was performed and suitable genetic markers were selected. Based on these transformation protocols stably maintained plasmids were identified. A plasmid encoded oxygen-independent fluorescent system was established using the flavin mononucleotide-based fluorescent protein FbFP. Finally, a chromosomal gene knockout strategy was successfully employed for the inactivation of the anaerobic metabolism regulatory gene dnr from D. shibae DFL12T. Conclusion A genetic toolbox for members of the Roseobacter clade was established. This provides a solid methodical basis for the detailed elucidation of gene regulatory and metabolic networks underlying the ecological success of this group of marine bacteria.

  2. The historical biogeography of groupers: Clade diversification patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka Yan; Craig, Matthew Thomas; Choat, John Howard; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Groupers (family Epinephelidae) are a clade of species-rich, biologically diverse reef fishes. Given their ecological variability and widespread distribution across ocean basins, it is important to scrutinize their evolutionary history that underlies present day distributions. This study investigated the patterns and processes by which grouper biodiversity has been generated and what factors have influenced their present day distributions. We reconstructed a robust, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Epinephelidae with comprehensive (∼87%) species sampling, whereby diversification rates were estimated and ancestral ranges were reconstructed. Our results indicate that groupers originated in what is now the East Atlantic during the mid-Eocene and diverged successively to form six strongly supported main clades. These clades differ in age (late Oligocene to mid-Miocene), geographic origin (West Atlantic to West Indo-Pacific) and temporal-spatial diversification pattern, ranging from constant rates of diversification to episodes of rapid radiation. Overall, divergence within certain biogeographic regions was most prevalent in groupers, while vicariant divergences were more common in Tropical Atlantic and East Pacific groupers. Our findings reveal that both biological and geographical factors have driven grouper diversification. They also underscore the importance of scrutinizing group-specific patterns to better understand reef fish evolution. PMID:26908372

  3. Denitrification capabilities of two biological phosphorus removal sludges dominated by different “Candidatus Accumulibacter” clades

    OpenAIRE

    Flowers, Jason J.; He, Shaomei; Yilmaz, Safak; Noguera, Daniel R.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2009-01-01

    The capability of “Candidatus Accumulibacter” to use nitrate as an electron acceptor for phosphorus uptake was investigated using two activated sludge communities. The two communities were enriched in Accumulibacter clade IA and clade IIA, respectively. By performing a series of batch experiments, we found that clade IA was able to couple nitrate reduction with phosphorus uptake, but clade IIA could not. These results agree with a previously proposed hypothesis that different populations of A...

  4. A broadly protective vaccine against globally dispersed clade 1 and clade 2 H5N1 influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Mary A; Singh, Neetu; Garg, Sanjay; Jayashankar, Lakshmi; Veguilla, Vic; Pandey, Aseem; Matsuoka, Yumi; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Mittal, Suresh K; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2008-04-15

    Development of effective and immunogenic vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses with the potential to cause a pandemic is a public health priority. The global demand for a vaccine cannot be met in the event of an influenza pandemic because of the limited capacity to manufacture egg-derived vaccines as well as potential problems with the availability of embryonated eggs. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative, egg-independent vaccines. We developed an adenoviral vector-based vaccine that contains hemagglutinin protein from clade 1 and clade 2 viruses, as well as conserved nucleoprotein, to broaden the vaccine coverage against H5N1 viruses. PMID:18462165

  5. Vertebroplasty in osteoporotic vertebral compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are a frequently encountered clinical problem. We aimed to perform a critical, structured review of the current literature and to compare the results with our own experiences. A structured review of 7 studies about vertebroplasty in osteoporotic compression fractures was performed; each study assessed at least 16 patients and was published in English since 1997. The results were compared to our own experience in 22 patients treated in 2002. Over the past decade, vertebroplasty has increasingly been performed for the treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures. In good correlation with our own results, all authors reported a significant improvement of pain immediately after treatment and a reduction of pain of up to 90% within 24 h after vertebroplasty. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the use of analgetics and a substantial improvement of functional status has been described in recent studies. In our own evaluation, we were also able to demonstrate a significant improvement of pain after vertebroplasty in 17 of 22 (77%) of our patients. 18 of 22 (82%) patients were able to diminish or even discontinue their analgesic medication. Reported results for vertebroplasty have demonstrated a rapid improvement in pain and physical functioning in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Percutaneous vertebroplasty has proven to provide a valuable treatment option for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (orig.)

  6. Signaling mechanisms and behavioral function of the mouse basal vomeronasal neuroepithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Chamero

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a sensory organ that is found in most terrestrial vertebrates and that is principally implicated in the detection of pheromones. The VNO contains specialized sensory neurons organized in a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that recognize chemical signals involved in initiating innate behavioral responses. In rodents, the VNO neuroepithelium is segregated into two distinct zones, apical and basal. The molecular mechanisms involved in ligand detection by apical and...

  7. Karsinoma Sel Basal Pada Wajah

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti

    2008-01-01

    Karsinoma sel basal merupakan tumor ganas pada lapisan epidermis kulit yang paling umum dijumpai. Lokasi tumor iui paling banyak pada wajah dibandingkan anggota tubuh lainnya. Etiologi tumor iui diduga berhubungan dengan cahaya matahari yang mengandung sinar ultraviolet yang karsinogenik. Klasifikasi tumor ini dibagi berdasarkan gambaran kliuis dan histopatologisnya. Diagnosa tumor ini dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan k1inis dan histologis, pemeriksaan radiologis jarang digunakan. Diag...

  8. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  9. Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bradford J

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were developed to reduce pain and improve quality of life for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, the use of vertebral augmentation has been debated and questioned since its inception. This article addresses some of these issues. PMID:26490134

  10. Experimental taphonomy and the anatomy and diversity of the earliest fossil vertebrates (Chengjiang Biota, Cambrian, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah; Murdock, Duncan; Cong, Peiyun

    2016-04-01

    The oldest fossil vertebrates are from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, which contains four genera of fish-like, primitive vertebrates: Haikouichthys, Myllokunmingia, Zhongjianichthys and Zhongxiniscus. These fossils play key roles in calibrating molecular clocks and informing our view of the anatomy of animals close to the origin of vertebrates, potentially including transitional forms between vertebrates and their nearest relatives. Despite the evident importance of these fossils, the degree to which taphonomic processes have affected their anatomical completeness has not been investigated. For example, some or all might have been affected by stemward slippage - the pattern observed in experimental decay of non-biomineralised chordates in which preferential decay of synapomorphies and retention of plesiomorphic characters would cause fossil taxa to erroneously occupy more basal positions than they should. This hypothesis is based on experimental data derived from decay of non-biomineralised chordates under laboratory conditions. We have expanded this analysis to include a broader range of potentially significant environmental variables; we have also compared and combined the results of experiments from several taxa to identify general patterns of chordate decay. Examination of the Chengjiang vertebrates in the light of these results demonstrates that, contrary to some assertions, experimentally derived models of phylogenetic bias are applicable to fossils. Anatomical and phylogenetic interpretations of early vertebrates that do not take taphonomic biases into account risk overestimating diversity and the evolutionary significance of differences between fossil specimens.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  12. Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis clades enriched under cyclic anaerobic and microaerobic conditions simultaneously use different electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, Pamela Y; Owen, Brian R; Martirano, Joseph; Ma, Juan; Kapoor, Vikram; Santo Domingo, Jorge; McMahon, Katherine D; Noguera, Daniel R

    2016-10-01

    Lab- and pilot-scale simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal-sequencing batch reactors were operated under cyclic anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions. The use of oxygen, nitrite, and nitrate as electron acceptors by Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis during the micro-aerobic stage was investigated. A complete clade-level characterization of Accumulibacter in both reactors was performed using newly designed qPCR primers targeting the polyphosphate kinase gene (ppk1). In the lab-scale reactor, limited-oxygen conditions led to an alternated dominance of Clade IID and IC over the other clades. Results from batch tests when Clade IC was dominant (i.e., >92% of Accumulibacter) showed that this clade was capable of using oxygen, nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors for P uptake. A more heterogeneous distribution of clades was found in the pilot-scale system (Clades IIA, IIB, IIC, IID, IA, and IC), and in this reactor, oxygen, nitrite and nitrate were also used as electron acceptors coupled to phosphorus uptake. However, nitrite was not an efficient electron acceptor in either reactor, and nitrate allowed only partial P removal. The results from the Clade IC dominated reactor indicated that either organisms in this clade can simultaneously use multiple electron acceptors under micro-aerobic conditions, or that the use of multiple electron acceptors by Clade IC is due to significant microdiversity within the Accumulibacter clades defined using the ppk1 gene. PMID:27340814

  13. Genotyping of Brucella species using clade specific SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Jeffrey T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a worldwide disease of mammals caused by Alphaproteobacteria in the genus Brucella. The genus is genetically monomorphic, requiring extensive genotyping to differentiate isolates. We utilized two different genotyping strategies to characterize isolates. First, we developed a microarray-based assay based on 1000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were identified from whole genome comparisons of two B. abortus isolates , one B. melitensis, and one B. suis. We then genotyped a diverse collection of 85 Brucella strains at these SNP loci and generated a phylogenetic tree of relationships. Second, we developed a selective primer-extension assay system using capillary electrophoresis that targeted 17 high value SNPs across 8 major branches of the phylogeny and determined their genotypes in a large collection ( n = 340 of diverse isolates. Results Our 1000 SNP microarray readily distinguished B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, differentiating B. melitensis and B. suis into two clades each. Brucella abortus was divided into four major clades. Our capillary-based SNP genotyping confirmed all major branches from the microarray assay and assigned all samples to defined lineages. Isolates from these lineages and closely related isolates, among the most commonly encountered lineages worldwide, can now be quickly and easily identified and genetically characterized. Conclusions We have identified clade-specific SNPs in Brucella that can be used for rapid assignment into major groups below the species level in the three main Brucella species. Our assays represent SNP genotyping approaches that can reliably determine the evolutionary relationships of bacterial isolates without the need for whole genome sequencing of all isolates.

  14. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Dutcher, Susan K.; O’Toole, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes...

  15. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  16. Two new species in Agaricus tropical clade I

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Guinberteau, Jacques; Chen, Jie; Vellinga, Else C.; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Yan, Jiye; Kevin D. Hyde; Callac, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    As part of our efforts of study the saprobic mushrooms in Asia we have collected numerous taxa of the genus Agaricus in northern Thailand. It is likely that more than 40 new species occur in this region and many are potentially edible or medicinal. A recent phylogenetic study revealed that most species of this region belong to exclusively tropical clades of which the largest one, TR I, was suspected to represent section Brunneopicti. In this paper we introduce two new species as Agaricus chia...

  17. Juvenile skeletogenesis in anciently diverged sea urchin clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Thompson, Jeffrey R; Petsios, Elizabeth; Erkenbrack, Eric; Moats, Rex A; Bottjer, David J; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistic understanding of evolutionary divergence in animal body plans devolves from analysis of those developmental processes that, in forms descendant from a common ancestor, are responsible for their morphological differences. The last common ancestor of the two extant subclasses of sea urchins, i.e., euechinoids and cidaroids, existed well before the Permian/Triassic extinction (252 mya). Subsequent evolutionary divergence of these clades offers in principle a rare opportunity to solve the developmental regulatory events underlying a defined evolutionary divergence process. Thus (i) there is an excellent and fairly dense (if yet incompletely analyzed) fossil record; (ii) cladistically confined features of the skeletal structures of modern euechinoid and cidaroid sea urchins are preserved in fossils of ancestral forms; (iii) euechinoids and cidaroids are among current laboratory model systems in molecular developmental biology (here Strongylocentrotus purpuratus [Sp] and Eucidaris tribuloides [Et]); (iv) skeletogenic specification in sea urchins is uncommonly well understood at the causal level of interactions of regulatory genes with one another, and with known skeletogenic effector genes, providing a ready arsenal of available molecular tools. Here we focus on differences in test and perignathic girdle skeletal morphology that distinguish all modern euechinoid from all modern cidaroid sea urchins. We demonstrate distinct canonical test and girdle morphologies in juveniles of both species by use of SEM and X-ray microtomography. Among the sharply distinct morphological features of these clades are the internal skeletal structures of the perignathic girdle to which attach homologous muscles utilized for retraction and protraction of Aristotles׳ lantern and its teeth. We demonstrate that these structures develop de novo between one and four weeks after metamorphosis. In order to study the underlying developmental processes, a method of section whole mount in

  18. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  19. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  20. The evolution of pepsinogen C genes in vertebrates: duplication, loss and functional diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Costa Castro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspartic proteases comprise a large group of enzymes involved in peptide proteolysis. This collection includes prominent enzymes globally categorized as pepsins, which are derived from pepsinogen precursors. Pepsins are involved in gastric digestion, a hallmark of vertebrate physiology. An important member among the pepsinogens is pepsinogen C (Pgc. A particular aspect of Pgc is its apparent single copy status, which contrasts with the numerous gene copies found for example in pepsinogen A (Pga. Although gene sequences with similarity to Pgc have been described in some vertebrate groups, no exhaustive evolutionary framework has been considered so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining phylogenetics and genomic analysis, we find an unexpected Pgc diversity in the vertebrate sub-phylum. We were able to reconstruct gene duplication timings relative to the divergence of major vertebrate clades. Before tetrapod divergence, a single Pgc gene tandemly expanded to produce two gene lineages (Pgbc and Pgc2. These have been differentially retained in various classes. Accordingly, we find Pgc2 in sauropsids, amphibians and marsupials, but not in eutherian mammals. Pgbc was retained in amphibians, but duplicated in the ancestor of amniotes giving rise to Pgb and Pgc1. The latter was retained in mammals and probably in reptiles and marsupials but not in birds. Pgb was kept in all of the amniote clade with independent episodes of loss in some mammalian species. Lineage specific expansions of Pgc2 and Pgbc have also occurred in marsupials and amphibians respectively. We find that teleost and tetrapod Pgc genes reside in distinct genomic regions hinting at a possible translocation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the repertoire of Pgc genes is larger than previously reported, and that tandem duplications have modelled the history of Pgc genes. We hypothesize that gene expansion lead to functional divergence in tetrapods, coincident with the

  1. Radiotherapy for symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Assessment of treatment results of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas and review of the literature. Patients and Methods: Ten patients treated between 1974 to 1997 were retrospectively analyzed. Efficacy of treatment was determined according to improvement of pain and/or neurological symptoms. Results: Improvement was achieved in 8 of 10 patients. The initially existing neurological symptoms of 3 patients disappeared completely in 2 cases and improved in 1 case. Acute side effects were slight. Late side effects were not seen. A dose-effect relationship could not be assessed. There was no relapse. Conclusion: Radiotherapy with 30 Gy for symptomatic vertebral angioma as primary therapy is indicated. In case of neurological symptoms a radiotherapy after operative therapy is recommendable even if the patient is free of symptoms to prevent progress or relapse. (orig.)

  2. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  3. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence

  4. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures: SPECT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of bone using Tc-99m MDP in the diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Thirty two patients with osteoporotic vertebral fracture were included in this study (mean age: 67±8, male: 5, female: 27). Seventy nine vertebral fractures were detected (38 thoracic/thoracolumbar lesions and 41 lumbar lesions), which were classified by type of deformity (wedge, biconcave or compression). The patterns and locations of increased uptakes were examined and analyzed. Forty seven wedge fractures, 20 biconcave fractures and 12 compression fractures were found. Diffuse and asymmetric uptakes were common in fractured bodies. More than one uptake were examined in 69 posterior elements of fractured vertebrae (87.3%) including 40 of 47 wedge fractures (85.1%), 17 of 20 biconcave fractures (85.0%) and 12 of 12 compression fractures (100%). Wedge fractures were predominant fracture in thoracic/thoracolumbar spine whereas incidence of biconcave or compression type was similar to that of wedge fracture in lumbar spine (p =0.04). Spinous process uptake was more frequently seen in lumbar lesions than thoracic/thoracolumbar lesions (p 0.009). Facet joint uptake in biconcave fracture was more common in lumbar spine (92.3%) than thoracic/thoracolumbar spine (57.1%). Spinous process uptake in biconcave fracture was also more frequently detected in lumbar spine (p = 0.043). Bone SPECT was useful in the evaluation of osteoporotic vertebral fracture, especially posterior elements of vertebrae

  5. Extraneural Glioblastoma Multiforme Vertebral Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Liang, Lydia; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Hdeib, Alia; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas; Bettegowda, Chetan; Laterra, John; Burger, Peter; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor; however, extraneural metastasis is uncommon. Of those that metastasize extraneurally, metastases to the vertebral bodies represent a significant proportion. We present a review of 28 cases from the published literature of GBM metastasis to the vertebra. The mean age at presentation was 38.4 years with an average overall survival of 26 months. Patients were either asymptomatic with metastasis discovered at autopsy or presented with varying degrees of pain, weakness of the extremities, or other neurologic deficits. Of the cases that included the time to spinal metastasis, the average time was 26.4 months with a reported survival of 10 months after diagnosis of vertebral metastasis. A significant number of patients had no treatments for their spinal metastasis, although the intracranial lesions were treated extensively with surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. With increasing incremental gains in the survival of patients with GBM, clinicians will encounter patients with extracranial metastasis. As such, this review presents timely information concerning the presentation and outcomes of patients with vertebral metastasis. PMID:26704201

  6. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  7. The basal ganglia downstream control of brainstem motor centres--an evolutionarily conserved strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillner, Sten; Robertson, Brita

    2015-08-01

    The basal ganglia plays a crucial role in decision-making and control of motion. The output of the basal ganglia consists of tonically active GABAergic neurons, a proportion of which project to different brainstem centres and another part projecting to thalamus and back to cortex. The focus here is on the former part, which keeps the different brainstem motor-centres tonically inhibited under resting conditions. These centres will be disinhibited when called into action. In the control of motion the direct pathway will promote movement and the indirect pathway inhibit competing movement patterns counteracting the motor-command issued. The basal ganglia detailed structure and function are conserved throughout the vertebrate evolution, including the afferent (e.g. habenulae) and efferent control of the dopamine system. PMID:25682058

  8. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  9. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.; Hoggenmueller, U.; Becker, G. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hofmann, E. [Division of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Fischer, R. [Medical Division Heinz Kalk-Klinik, Bad Kissingen (Germany); Kraus, M.; Scheurlen, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  10. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  11. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A.; Button, David J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa.

  12. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A; Button, David J; Barrett, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa. PMID:27199098

  13. A new mechanistic scenario for the origin and evolution of vertebrate cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cattell

    Full Text Available The appearance of cellular cartilage was a defining event in vertebrate evolution because it made possible the physical expansion of the vertebrate "new head". Despite its central role in vertebrate evolution, the origin of cellular cartilage has been difficult to understand. This is largely due to a lack of informative evolutionary intermediates linking vertebrate cellular cartilage to the acellular cartilage of invertebrate chordates. The basal jawless vertebrate, lamprey, has long been considered key to understanding the evolution of vertebrate cartilage. However, histological analyses of the lamprey head skeleton suggest it is composed of modern cellular cartilage and a putatively unrelated connective tissue called mucocartilage, with no obvious transitional tissue. Here we take a molecular approach to better understand the evolutionary relationships between lamprey cellular cartilage, gnathostome cellular cartilage, and lamprey mucocartilage. We find that despite overt histological similarity, lamprey and gnathostome cellular cartilage utilize divergent gene regulatory networks (GRNs. While the gnathostome cellular cartilage GRN broadly incorporates Runx, Barx, and Alx transcription factors, lamprey cellular cartilage does not express Runx or Barx, and only deploys Alx genes in certain regions. Furthermore, we find that lamprey mucocartilage, despite its distinctive mesenchymal morphology, deploys every component of the gnathostome cartilage GRN, albeit in different domains. Based on these findings, and previous work, we propose a stepwise model for the evolution of vertebrate cellular cartilage in which the appearance of a generic neural crest-derived skeletal tissue was followed by a phase of skeletal tissue diversification in early agnathans. In the gnathostome lineage, a single type of rigid cellular cartilage became dominant, replacing other skeletal tissues and evolving via gene cooption to become the definitive cellular cartilage of

  14. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  15. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  16. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    . Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...... transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic...

  17. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  18. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing in the Roseobacter Clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Zan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Roseobacter clade are ecologically important and numerically abundant in coastal environments and can associate with marine invertebrates and nutrient-rich marine snow or organic particles, on which quorum sensing (QS may play an important role. In this review, we summarize current research progress on roseobacterial acyl-homoserine lactone-based QS, particularly focusing on three relatively well-studied representatives, Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 and the dinoflagellate symbiont Dinoroseobacter shibae. Bioinformatic survey of luxI homologues revealed that over 80% of available roseobacterial genomes encode at least one luxI homologue, reflecting the significance of QS controlled regulatory pathways in adapting to the relevant marine environments. We also discuss several areas that warrant further investigation, including studies on the ecological role of these diverse QS pathways in natural environments.

  19. Algicidal lactones from the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Riclea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles released by the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Rugeria pomeroyi were collected by use of a closed-loop stripping headspace apparatus (CLSA and analysed by GC–MS. Several lactones were found for which structural proposals were derived from their mass spectra and unambiguously verified by the synthesis of reference compounds. An enantioselective synthesis of two exemplary lactones was performed to establish the enantiomeric compositions of the natural products by enantioselective GC–MS analyses. The lactones were subjected to biotests to investigate their activity against several bacteria, fungi, and algae. A specific algicidal activity was observed that may be important in the interaction between the bacteria and their algal hosts in fading algal blooms.

  20. Four New Vining Species of Solanum (Dulcamaroid Clade) from Montane Habitats in Tropical America

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solanum (Solanaceae), with approximately 1500 species, is one of the largest genera of flowering plants, and has a centre of diversity in the New World tropics. The genus is divided into 13 major clades, of which two, the Dulcamaroid clade and the "African Non-Spiny" clade, exhibit vine morphology with twining petioles. I am currently preparing a worldwide monograph of these two groups, comprising some 70 species. METHODS: I formally describe here four new species of Solanum from ...

  1. Shedding light into the function of the earliest vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Carlos; Purnell, Mark; Rayfield, Emily; Donoghue, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates, the first in our evolutionary lineage to develop a biomineralized skeleton. As such, the conodont skeleton is of great significance because of the insights it provides concerning the biology and function of the primitive vertebrate skeleton. Conodont function has been debated for a century and a half on the basis of its paleocological importance in the Palaezoic ecosystems. However, due to the lack of extanct close representatives and the small size of the conodont element (under a milimiter in length) strongly limited their functional analysis, traditional restricted to analogy. More recently, qualitative approaches have been developed, facilitating tests of element function based on occlusal performance and analysis of microwear and microstructure. In this work we extend these approaches using novel quantitative experimental methods including Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy or Finite Element Analysis to test hypotheses of conodont function. The development of high resolution virtual models of conodont elements, together with biomechanical approaches using Finite Element analysis, informed by occlusal and microwear analyses, provided conclusive support to test hypothesis of structural adaptation within the crown tissue microstructure, showing a close topological co-variation patterns of compressive and tensile stress distribution with different crystallite orientation. In addition, our computational analyses strongly support a tooth-like function for many conodont species. Above all, our study establishes a framework (experimental approach) in which the functional ecology of conodonts can be read from their rich taxonomy and phylogeny, representing an important attempt to understand the role of this abundant and diverse clade in the Phanerozoic marine ecosystems.

  2. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  3. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  4. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least ri...

  5. Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Takeshi; Kawashima, Shuichi; Tanaka, Chisaki; Murai, Miho; Yoneda, Masahiko; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Kanehisa, Minoru; Satoh, Nori; Wada, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of vertebrates has included a number of important events: the development of cartilage, the immune system, and complicated craniofacial structures. Here, we examine domain shuffling as one of the mechanisms that contributes novel genetic material required for vertebrate evolution. We mapped domain-shuffling events during the evolution of deuterostomes with a focus on how domain shuffling contributed to the evolution of vertebrate- and chordate-specific characteristics. We identi...

  6. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  7. Vertebral osteomyelitis: assessment using MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven patients who were clinically suspected of having vertebral osteomyelitis were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR), radiography, and radionuclide studies. These findings were correlated with the final clinical, microbiologic, or histologic diagnoses. Based on the results of these latter studies, 23 patients were believed to have osteomyelitis. MR examinations consisted of at least a sagittal image (TE = 30 msec, TR = 0.5 sec) and an image obtained at TE = 120 msec, TR = 2-3 sec. All patients underwent radiographic and MR examinations, 36 underwent technetium 99m-HDP bone scanning, and 20 patients underwent gallium 67 scanning. Nineteen patients underwent both bone and gallium scanning. The imaging studies were reviewed independently by investigators blinded to the final diagnoses. MR had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 92%, and accuracy of 94%. Combined gallium and bone scan studies (19 cases) had a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 94%. Bone scans alone had a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 78%, and accuracy of 86%. Plain radiographs had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 57%, and accuracy of 73%. The MR appearance of vertebral osteomyelitis in this study was characteristic, and MR was as accurate and sensitive as radionuclide scanning in the detection of osteomyelitis

  8. On neurocomputational models of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Moustafa

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades, it became evident that the basal ganglia is involved in cognitive as well as motor processes, including motor control, conditioning, working memory, and sequence learning. Systems-levels models attempt to explain what kinds of computations are employed by the basal ganglia. It is argued that the basal ganglia integrates information from different structures, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and decides on which motor response to execute. Learning such ...

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  10. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive m...

  11. Pathological basal ganglia activity in movement disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann, Thomas; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, and associated changes in basal ganglia activities has significantly changed in the course of the last few decades. This process began with the development of detailed anatomical models of the basal ganglia, followed by studies of basal ganglia activity patterns in animal models of common movement disorders and electrophysiological recordings in movement disorder patients undergoing functional neurosurgical procedures. These inve...

  12. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  13. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  14. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  15. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  16. Interplay between the genetic clades of Micromonas and their viruses in the Western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoux, A-C; Lebredonchel, H; Dehmer, H; Latimier, M; Edern, R; Rigaut-Jalabert, F; Ge, P; Guillou, L; Foulon, E; Bozec, Y; Cariou, T; Desdevises, Y; Derelle, E; Grimsley, N; Moreau, H; Simon, N

    2015-10-01

    The genus Micromonas comprises distinct genetic clades that commonly dominate eukaryotic phytoplankton community from polar to tropical waters. This phytoplankter is also recurrently infected by abundant and genetically diverse prasinoviruses. Here we report on the interplay between prasinoviruses and Micromonas with regard to the genetic diversity of this host. For 1 year, we monitored the abundance of three clades of Micromonas and their viruses in the Western English Channel, both in the environment using clade-specific probes and flow cytometry, and in the laboratory using clonal strains of Micromonas clades to assay for their viruses by plaque-forming units. We showed that the seasonal fluctuations of Micromonas clades were closely mirrored by the abundance of their corresponding viruses, indicating that the members of Micromonas genus are susceptible to viral infection, regardless of their genetic affiliation. The characterization of 45 viral isolates revealed that Micromonas clades are attacked by specific virus populations, which exhibit distinctive clade specificity, life strategies and genetic diversity. However, some viruses can also cross-infect different host clades, suggesting a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer within the Micromonas genus. This study provides novel insights into the impact of viral infection for the ecology and evolution of the prominent phytoplankter Micromonas. PMID:26081716

  17. HIV-1 clade promoters strongly influence spatial and temporal dynamics of viral replication in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centlivre, Mireille; Sommer, Peter; Michel, Marie; Fang, Raphaël Ho Tsong; Gofflo, Sandrine; Valladeau, Jenny; Schmitt, Nathalie; Thierry, Françoise; Hurtrel, Bruno; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Sala, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Although the primary determinant of cell tropism is the interaction of viral envelope or capsid proteins with cellular receptors, other viral elements can strongly modulate viral replication. While the HIV-1 promoter is polymorphic for a variety of transcription factor binding sites, the impact of these polymorphisms on viral replication in vivo is not known. To address this issue, we engineered isogenic SIVmac239 chimeras harboring the core promoter/enhancer from HIV-1 clades B, C, and E. Here it is shown that the clade C and E core promoters/enhancers bear a noncanonical activator protein–1 (AP-1) binding site, absent from the corresponding clade B region. Relative ex vivo replication of chimeras was strongly dependent on the tissue culture system used. Notably, in thymic histocultures, replication of the clade C chimera was favored by IL-7 enrichment, which suggests that the clade C polymorphism in the AP-1 and NF-κB binding sites is involved. Simultaneous infection of rhesus macaques with the 3 chimeras revealed a strong predominance of the clade C chimera during primary infection. Thereafter, the B chimera dominated in all tissues. These data show that the clade C promoter is particularly adapted to sustain viral replication in primary viremia and that clade-specific promoter polymorphisms constitute a major determinant for viral replication. PMID:15690084

  18. Deep divergences and extensive phylogeographic structure in a clade of lowland tropical salamanders

    OpenAIRE

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Vásquez-Almazán, Carlos R.; Luna-Reyes, Roberto; Wake, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders (Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton) using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geo...

  19. Differences in pectoral fin spine morphology between vocal and silent clades of catfishes (Order Siluriformes: Ecomor-phological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. KAATZ, Donald J. STEWART, Aaron N. RICE, Phillip S. LOBEL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stridulatory sound-producing behavior is widespread across catfish families, but some are silent. To understand why, we compared spine morphology and ecotype of silent and vocal clades. We determined vocal ability of laboratory specimens during disturbance behavior. Vocal families had bony (not flexible or segmented spines, well-developed anterior and/or posterior serrations, and statistically significantly longer spines. We compared morphology of the proximal end of the pectoral spine between vocal and silent species. For vocal taxa, microscopic rounded or bladed ridges or knobs were present on the dorsal process. Most silent species had reduced processes with exclusively smooth, convoluted, or honeycombed surfaces very similar to spine-locking surfaces, or they had novel surfaces (beaded, vacuolated, cobwebbed. Most callichthyids had ridges but many were silent during disturbance. All doradid, most auchenipterid and most mochokid species were vocal and had ridges or knobs. Within the Auchenipteridae, vocal species had spines with greater weight and serration development but not length. Silent auchenipterids had thin, brittle, distally segmented spines with few microscopic serrations on only one margin and a highly reduced dorsal process lacking any known vocal morphology. Silent auchenipterids are derived and pelagic, while all vocal genera are basal and benthopelagic. This is the first phylogenetic evidence for stridulation mechanism loss within catfishes. Phylogenetic mapping of vocal ability, spine condition, and ecotype revealed the repeated presence of silence and vocal taxa, short and long spines, and ecotype shifts within clades. The appearance and loss of vocal behavior and supporting morphologies may have facilitated diversification among catfishes [Current Zoology 56 (1: 73–89 2010].

  20. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  1. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  2. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  3. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  4. Progress to extinction: increased specialisation causes the demise of animal clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, P.; Carotenuto, F.; Mondanaro, A.; Castiglione, S.; Passaro, F.; Saggese, F.; Melchionna, M.; Serio, C.; Alessio, L.; Silvestro, D.; Fortelius, M.

    2016-08-01

    Animal clades tend to follow a predictable path of waxing and waning during their existence, regardless of their total species richness or geographic coverage. Clades begin small and undifferentiated, then expand to a peak in diversity and range, only to shift into a rarely broken decline towards extinction. While this trajectory is now well documented and broadly recognised, the reasons underlying it remain obscure. In particular, it is unknown why clade extinction is universal and occurs with such surprising regularity. Current explanations for paleontological extinctions call on the growing costs of biological interactions, geological accidents, evolutionary traps, and mass extinctions. While these are effective causes of extinction, they mainly apply to species, not clades. Although mass extinctions is the undeniable cause for the demise of a sizeable number of major taxa, we show here that clades escaping them go extinct because of the widespread tendency of evolution to produce increasingly specialised, sympatric, and geographically restricted species over time.

  5. Progress to extinction: increased specialisation causes the demise of animal clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, P; Carotenuto, F; Mondanaro, A; Castiglione, S; Passaro, F; Saggese, F; Melchionna, M; Serio, C; Alessio, L; Silvestro, D; Fortelius, M

    2016-01-01

    Animal clades tend to follow a predictable path of waxing and waning during their existence, regardless of their total species richness or geographic coverage. Clades begin small and undifferentiated, then expand to a peak in diversity and range, only to shift into a rarely broken decline towards extinction. While this trajectory is now well documented and broadly recognised, the reasons underlying it remain obscure. In particular, it is unknown why clade extinction is universal and occurs with such surprising regularity. Current explanations for paleontological extinctions call on the growing costs of biological interactions, geological accidents, evolutionary traps, and mass extinctions. While these are effective causes of extinction, they mainly apply to species, not clades. Although mass extinctions is the undeniable cause for the demise of a sizeable number of major taxa, we show here that clades escaping them go extinct because of the widespread tendency of evolution to produce increasingly specialised, sympatric, and geographically restricted species over time. PMID:27507121

  6. Plasmodium falciparum dolichol phosphate mannose synthase represents a novel clade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM) catalyzes the reaction between dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) and guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-Man) to form dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man). This molecule acts as mannose donor for N-glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum DPM1 (Pfdpm1) possesses a single predicted transmembrane region near the N-, but not the C-terminus. Here we show that the cloned Pfdpm1 gene failed to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant indicating that the parasite gene does not belong to the baker's yeast group, as was previously assumed. Furthermore, Pfdpm1 was unable to complement a mouse mutant deficient in DPM but efficiently complements the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast mutant, indicating a difference between fission yeast and mammalian DPM genes. Therefore, we reanalyzed the hydrophobicity scales of all known DPMs and consequently reclassify the DPM clade into six major novel subgroups. Furthermore, we show that Pfdpm1 represents a unique enzyme among these subgroups

  7. Morphologic and radiologic data of isolated vertebral end-plates under particular consideration of radiodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intention was to find examination techniques for macroscopico-morphological diagnosis, for quantification of the concavity and methods for roentgenologico-densitometric analysis of vertebral end-plates. The following factors were used for macromorphologic diagnosis: osteophytes, ridge constitution, ridge transition, cribriform plate and concavity. The radiodensitometric analysis comprised investigation of bone density, anisotropy and ridge mineralisation. The specimen were radiographed on a mammograph together with calcium chloride solutions of increasing concentration. Statistically significant differences in the behaviour of basal and upper plates were not observed. With reference to the factors osteophytes and ridge constitution the basal plates seem to be morphologically more variable than the upper plates. It resulted that the features absolute concavity and concavity quotient are highly appropriate factors to document the constitution of the isolated vertebral end-plates. Also the features density, anisotropy and ridge mineralisation were found to be useful for documentation. The result of data correlation was that high concavity quotients are accompanied by macroscopically medium- to small-sized pores. Density and anisotropy of the overall profiles do not show correlation, but voluminous cribriform laminae tend to develop more inhomogenic structures. As to be expected, bone density increases with macroscopic fine porosity. The higher the concavity quotient is, the smaller are the values for density, ridge mineralisation and anisotropy. Thus a high degree of vertebral end-plate concavity indicates reduced bone density and lower mineral content. (orig./MG)

  8. An extended family of novel vertebrate photopigments is widely expressed and displays a diversity of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Wayne I L; Tamai, T Katherine; Zheng, Lei; Fu, Josephine K; Rihel, Jason; Foster, Russell G; Whitmore, David; Hankins, Mark W

    2015-11-01

    Light affects animal physiology and behavior more than simply through classical visual, image-forming pathways. Nonvisual photoreception regulates numerous biological systems, including circadian entrainment, DNA repair, metabolism, and behavior. However, for the majority of these processes, the photoreceptive molecules involved are unknown. Given the diversity of photophysiological responses, the question arises whether a single photopigment or a greater diversity of proteins within the opsin superfamily detect photic stimuli. Here, a functional genomics approach identified the full complement of photopigments in a highly light-sensitive model vertebrate, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and characterized their tissue distribution, expression levels, and biochemical properties. The results presented here reveal the presence of 42 distinct genes encoding 10 classical visual photopigments and 32 nonvisual opsins, including 10 novel opsin genes comprising four new pigment classes. Consistent with the presence of light-entrainable circadian oscillators in zebrafish, all adult tissues examined expressed two or more opsins, including several novel opsins. Spectral and electrophysiological analyses of the new opsins demonstrate that they form functional photopigments, each with unique chromophore-binding and wavelength specificities. This study has revealed a remarkable number and diversity of photopigments in zebrafish, the largest number so far discovered for any vertebrate. Found in amphibians, reptiles, birds, and all three mammalian clades, most of these genes are not restricted to teleosts. Therefore, nonvisual light detection is far more complex than initially appreciated, which has significant biological implications in understanding photoreception in vertebrates. PMID:26450929

  9. Population genetics and evolution of the mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus, the world's only self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avise, J C; Tatarenkov, A

    2015-09-01

    The mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus (Rivulidae, Cyprinodontiformes), is phylogenetically embedded within a large clade of oviparous (egg laying) and otherwise mostly gonochoristic (separate sex) killifish species in the circumtropical suborder Aplocheiloidei. It is unique in its reproductive mode: K. marmoratus is essentially the world's only vertebrate species known to engage routinely in self-fertilization as part of a mixed-mating strategy of selfing plus occasional outcrossing with gonochoristic males. This unique form of procreation has profound population-genetic and evolutionary-genetic consequences that are the subject of this review. PMID:26223378

  10. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Yuyama

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages.

  11. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  12. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  13. Imaging assessment of vertebral burst fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of radiography, CT and MRI in diagnosis of vertebral burst fracture. Methods: 51 patients with vertebral burst fracture were evaluated with X-ray, CT and MRI, including 3 cases in cervical vertebra, 18 cases in thoracic vertebra, and 30 cases in lumbar vertebra. The imaging features were comparatively studied. Results: Radiography showed decreased height of the vertebral body, increased antero-posterior diameter and the transverse diameter, and/or the widened interpedicle distance, the inter-spinous distance, as well as the bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal in 28 cases(54.90%). X-ray findings similar to the compression fracture were revealed in 20 cases(39.21%). And missed diagnosis was made in 3 cases (5.88%). CT clearly demon-strated the vertebral body vertically or transversely burst crack in 49 cases (96.07%); bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal and narrowed vertebral canal in 35 cases(68. 62% ); fracture of spinal appendix in 22 cases(43.14%). Meanwhile MRI showed abnormal signals within the spinal cord in 35 cases (68.62%),injured intervertebral disk in 29 cases(56.86% ), extradural hematoma in 12 cases(23.52% ) and torn posterior longitudinal ligament in 6 cases (11.76%). Conclusions: Radiography is the routine examination, while with limited diagnostic value in vertebral burst fracture. These patients who have nervous symptoms with simple compression fracture or unremarkable on X-ray should receive the CT or MRI examination. CT is better than MRI in demonstrating the fracture and the displaced bony fragment, while MRI is superior to CT in showing nervous injuries. CT and MRI will provide comprehensive information guiding clinical treatment of vertebral burst fracture. (authors)

  14. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is “Proterosuchia,” which as historically conceived includes members of both Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic “Prolacertiformes” and “Protorosauria,” in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs or archosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived “disaster” clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. “Proterosuchia” is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more

  15. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  16. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  17. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  18. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  19. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  20. Reiterative pattern of sonic hedgehog expression in the catshark dentition reveals a phylogenetic template for jawed vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Moya M.; Fraser, Gareth J.; Chaplin, Natalie; Hobbs, Carl; Graham, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    For a dentition representing the most basal extant gnathostomes, that of the shark can provide us with key insights into the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. To detail the pattern of odontogenesis, we have profiled the expression of sonic hedgehog, a key regulator of tooth induction. We find in the catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) that intense shh expression first occurs in a bilaterally symmetrical pattern restricted to broad regions in each half of the dentition in the embryo jaw. As in ...

  1. Reticulate evolution, cryptic species, and character convergence in the core East Asian clade of Gaultheria (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Fritsch, Peter W; Cruz, Boni C; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu

    2010-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 84 samples representing 30 species in the core East Asian clade of the wintergreen group of Gaultheria (Angiospermae: Ericaceae: Gaultherieae) were estimated from separate and combined DNA sequence data from five genic regions (ITS, matK, rpl16, trnL-trnF, and trnS-trnG) with parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Two major clades were recovered, one comprising several sections and series with leaves generally more than 1 cm long [the ser. Leucothoides sensu lato (s.l.) clade] and another comprising the species of ser. Trichophyllae, with leaves generally less than 1 cm long. The ITS region yielded little phylogenetic resolution, whereas in the combined chloroplast analysis the samples from individual morphospecies in both clades were often nonmonophyletic. This was postulated to result from reticulate evolution in the ser. Leucothoides s.l. clade, particularly in two specific cases of hybridization and a crown clade with likely chloroplast capture following localized introgression. In the ser. Trichophyllae clade, such nonmonophyly was largely attributed to cryptic species and character convergence resulting at least partly from extreme morphological reduction. The relatively low-elevation habitats in which the species of the ser. Leucothoides s.l. clade generally grow are thought to have promoted opportunities for sympatry and reticulation, whereas the high-alpine habitats of ser. Trichophyllae are more likely to have spawned isolated populations and narrow endemism. As in other Sino-Himalayan plant groups, overall low sequence divergence and reticulate evolution suggest rapid radiation in the core East Asian clade of Gaultheria. PMID:20558306

  2. Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C...

  3. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  4. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  5. Methanol intoxication with bilateral basal ganglia infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol is a toxic agent that affects the central nervous system, especially the optic nerves and basal ganglia. Symmetrical hypodense lesions in the basal ganglia, which can be demonstrated by CT or MRI, is accepted as the most characteristic radiological feature of the disease. A case of a patient with bilateral putaminal hypodense infarcts due tomethanol intoxication is presented. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic ...

  7. Somatotopic Organization of the Primate Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei....

  8. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. ...

  9. Imaging advances in upper cervical vertebral disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upper cervical vertebral has complex anatomic structure and some diseases may involve this vital center area of human body. Most of the diseases, such as trauma, malformation, and degeneration, need to be treated with surgery to recover the function of cervical vertebral. The accurate evaluation is crucial before and after the surgery. In the past few years, CT, MRI, and ultra-sound play important roles in the evaluation of upper cervical vertebral diseases and planning treatment. Comprehensive evaluation with multidisciplinary approach is advocated. In this paper we reviewed the anatomy and clinic treatments; summarized the latest imaging advances in upper cervical vertebral disease; discussed the perspective of comprehensive evaluation with multidisciplinary approach. (authors)

  10. Anomalous origin of left vertebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Vidya Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral artery arises from the upper surface of the first part of subclavian artery on both sides. The morphological variations of the vertebral artery are of immense importance in surgery, angiography and all non-invasive procedures. During the routine dissection of a male cadaver aged about 65 years, we observed a variation in the branching of arch of aorta. The arch of aorta gave off four branches-brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery (CCA, left vertebral artery (LVA and left subclavian artery. LVA was arising between left CCA and left subclavian artery.The knowledge of variations in the vertebral artery is of great clinical interest to the neurosurgeon and radiologist for diagnostic investigation and surgical procedures of the neck.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease Enable Javascript to ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a disorder ...

  12. Description of Teunomyces gen. nov. for the Candida kruisii clade, Suhomyces gen. nov. for the Candida tanzawaensis clade and Suhomyces kilbournensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J; Blackwell, Meredith

    2016-08-01

    DNA sequence analysis has shown that species of the Candida kruisii clade and species of the C. tanzawaensis clade represent phylogenetically circumscribed genera, which are described as Teunomyces gen. nov., type species T kruisii, and Suhomyces gen. nov., type species S tanzawaensis Many of the species are distributed worldwide and they are often isolated from fungus-feeding insects and their habitats. Included is the description of S. kilbournensis (type strain NRRL Y-17864, CBS 14276), a species found almost exclusively on maize kernels (Zea mays) in IL, USA. PMID:27188882

  13. Vertebral metastases of the mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    528 patients with carcinoma of the breast in the radiological clinic and polyclinic of the University of Munich were examined. 287 patients developed metastases during the observation period. In 174 cases, these were localized at the skeleton. Within the skeleton, the vertebral column and the iliosacral joints were affected in 147 cases. 120 of these 147 patients were irradiated on the affected regions. In 50 of these 120 cases, using the X-ray findings and the skeleton scintiscannings, relapses in the vertebral column could be found. 22 of these patients developed a relapse in the vertebral column in the first 3 months, in the 1st half year the rate was 72% and after a year even 90%. The average latency period until the development of the relapse in the vertebral column was 7.1 months. 20 patients were irradiated at the vertebral column and/or at the iliosacral joints twice, 9 of them were irradiated three times, one patient four and one patient five times. In most cases, the thoracic and the lumbar parts of the spine were irradiated, this was followed by the sacrum, the iliosacral joints, and the cervical vertebral. The average interval between the irradiations was 8 to 9 months. 74% of the irradiations had to be carried out during hospitalization, 26% could be carried out on outdoor patients. The results show that relapse developments after irradiation of a metastase at the vertebral column or at the iliosacral joints occur frequently and mean a considerable physical and psychic burden to the patient. Therefore it seems reasonable to recommend an irradiation of the whole vertebral column including the iliosacral joints in the first occurrence of a metastase in this region. (orig./MG)

  14. Molecular evolution of the vertebrate immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Bartl, S; Baltimore, D; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-01

    An understanding of the evolution of vertebrate immunity is slowly emerging from studies of chordates that share distant ancestors with mammals. In higher vertebrates, such as birds and mammals, we know that two receptor systems are operative. B cells use immunoglobulins to bind foreign agents (the functionally defined antigens). T cells use T-cell receptors (TCRs) to respond to antigen in the form of processed peptides bound to cell surface proteins encoded in the major histocompatibility...

  15. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chunxia Gao,1,* Donglei Wei,1,* Huilin Yang,1 Tao Chen,2 Lei Yang1,3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Orthopaedic Institute, First Affiliated Hospital, 2Robotics and Microsystems Center, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, 3Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. Keywords: nanomaterials, osteoporosis, vertebral fracture, kyphoplasty, bone cement, pedicle screw, radiopacifier

  16. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    OpenAIRE

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; M. Klingenspor; White, C.R.; Jastroch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Su...

  17. The non-evaginated secondary prosencephalon of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The secondary prosencephalon (telencephalon plus hypothalamus is probably the most complex area of the brain, with complicated patterning specifications. As yet, no prosomeric subdivisions have been reported and only distinct histogenetic territories have been recognized. In the present comparative study we analyzed cross-correlated expression maps in the non-evaginated territories of the secondary prosencephalon in different vertebrates throughout development, to assess the existence of comparable divisions and subdivisions in the different groups. Each division is characterized by expression of a unique combination of developmental regulatory genes, and each appears to represent a self-regulated and topologically constant histogenetic brain compartment that gives rise to a specific cell group. The non-evaginated area of the telencephalon corresponds to the preoptic region, whereas the hypothalamus, topologically rostral to the diencephalic prethalamus, includes basal (mammillary and tuberal and alar (paraventricular and suprachiasmatic parts. This complex area is specified by a cascade of transcription factors, among which the Dlx family members and Nkx2.1 are essential for the correct development. The only exception is found in the subdivision named termed the supraoptoparaventricular area, in which the transcription factor Orthopedia is essential in restricting the fate of multiple categories of neuroendocrine neurons, in the absence of the Dlx/Nkx2.1 combination. Our analysis, based on own data and published results by other researchers, suggests that common features are shared at least by all tetrapods and, therefore, they most likely were present in the stem tetrapods. The available data for agnathans (lampreys and other fish groups indicate that not all subdivisions of the secondary prosencephalon were present at the origin of vertebrates, raising important questions about their evolution.

  18. Determination Methods for the Exoskeletal Remains of Early Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karatajute-Talimaa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeleton, consisting of micromeric elements (odontodes and their derivatives, is characteristic of the most ancient vertebrates. Great morphological and histological variability of discrete exoskeletal microremains makes it difficult to identify them. It is necessary to study not only separate scales or tesserae, but also to get a picture of the squamation in general, because species determined from discrete elements are understood as an assemblage of morphological types. For determination of discrete exoskeletal elements, their morphology, internal structure, defined tissue types of crown and basal plate, types (way of their growth, system of vascular canals should be studied in addition changes occuring during ontogenetic development of both the dermal skeletal elements and the squamation should be taken in consideration. The material of different groups of early vertebrates (astraspids, tesakoviaspids, heterostracans, thelodonts, mongolepids, chondrichthyans and acanthodians, which were widely distributed in the Early Palaeozoic, are used as examples. Ein Hautskelett aus mikromerischen Elementen (Odontodes und davon abgeleiteten Formen ist für die meisten frühen Vertebraten kennzeichnend. Große morphologische und histologische Variabilität der einzelnen Mikroreste des Hautskeletts bereitet bei ihrer Bestimmung Schwierigkeiten. Es ist notwendig, nicht nur isolierte Schuppen und Tesserae zu untersuchen, sondern man muß sich eine Vorstellung der der gesamten Beschuppung verschaffen, da Arten bestimmt auf isoliertem Material als eine Ansammlung von morphologischen Typen verstanden werden müssen. Bei der Bestimmung isolierter Elemente des Enskeletts sollte man deren Morphologie, innere Struktur, Gewebetypen der Krone und Basalplatte, Arten des Wachstums, Anordnung der Gefäßkanäle und Veränderungen während des Wachstums des Einzelelements und der Gesamtbeschuppung berücksichtigen. Hautskelett-Elemente der verschiedenen Gruppen fr

  19. Comparative genomics of two 'Candidatus Accumulibacter' clades performing biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Jason J; He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tringe, Susannah G; Hugenholtz, Philip; McMahon, Katherine D

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are important in many wastewater treatment systems performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The Accumulibacter lineage can be subdivided phylogenetically into multiple clades, and previous work showed that these clades are ecologically distinct. The complete genome of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis strain UW-1, a member of Clade IIA, was previously sequenced. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Candidatus Accumulibacter spp. strain UW-2, a member of Clade IA, assembled following shotgun metagenomic sequencing of laboratory-scale bioreactor sludge. We estimate the genome to be 80-90% complete. Although the two clades share 16S rRNA sequence identity of >98.0%, we observed a remarkable lack of synteny between the two genomes. We identified 2317 genes shared between the two genomes, with an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 78.3%, and accounting for 49% of genes in the UW-1 genome. Unlike UW-1, the UW-2 genome seemed to lack genes for nitrogen fixation and carbon fixation. Despite these differences, metabolic genes essential for denitrification and EBPR, including carbon storage polymer and polyphosphate metabolism, were conserved in both genomes. The ANI from genes associated with EBPR was statistically higher than that from genes not associated with EBPR, indicating a high selective pressure in EBPR systems. Further, we identified genomic islands of foreign origins including a near-complete lysogenic phage in the Clade IA genome. Interestingly, Clade IA appeared to be more phage susceptible based on it containing only a single Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats locus as compared with the two found in Clade IIA. Overall, the comparative analysis provided a genetic basis to understand physiological differences and ecological niches of Accumulibacter populations, and highlights the importance of diversity in maintaining system functional resilience. PMID:23887171

  20. THE URBILATERIAN BRAIN REVISITED: NOVEL INSIGHTS INTO OLD QUESTIONS FROM NEW FLATWORM CLADES

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, Xavier; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Flatworms are classically considered to represent the simplest organizational form of all living bilaterians with a true central nervous system. Based on their simple body plans, all flatworms have been traditionally grouped together in a single phylum at the base of the bilaterians. Current molecular phylogenomic studies now split the flatworms into two widely separated clades, the acoelomorph flatworms and the platyhelminth flatworms, such that the last common ancestor of both clades corres...

  1. Deep divergences and extensive phylogeographic structure in a clade of lowland tropical salamanders

    OpenAIRE

    Rovito Sean M; Parra-Olea Gabriela; Vásquez-Almazán Carlos R; Luna-Reyes Roberto; Wake David B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders (Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton) using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geographic origin of species and location of genetic b...

  2. A review of the fossil record of turtles of the clade Pan-Carettochelys

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Turtles of the total clade Pan-Carettochelys have a relatively poor fossil record that extends from the Early Cretaceous. The clade is only found in Asia during the Cretaceous, but spreads to Europe and North America during the Eocene. Neogene finds are restricted to Europe, Africa and Australia, whereas the only surviving species, Carettochelys insculpta, lives in New Guinea and the Northern Territories of Australia. The ecology of fossil pan-carettochelyids appears similar to that of the ex...

  3. Development of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for Different Clades of “Candidatus Accumulibacter”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An Ni; Mao, Yanping; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    We designed novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primers for the polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene, targeting eight individual “Candidatus Accumulibacter” (referred to as Accumulibacter) clades. An evaluation of primer sets was conducted regarding the coverage, specificity, and PCR efficiency. (i) All primer sets were designed to cover all available sequences of the target clade. (ii) The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences retrieved from the qPCR products by each primer set demonstrated a high level of specificity. (iii) All calibration curves presented high PCR efficiencies in the range of 85–112% (R2 = 0.962–0.998). In addition, the possible interference of non-target amplicons was individually examined using the qPCR assay for 13 Accumulibacter clades, which were either undetected or showed negligible detection. With the primers designed by other research groups, a highly selective and sensitive qPCR-based method was developed to quantify all Accumulibacter clades, with the exception of Clade IE, in one assay, which enables more comprehensive insights into the community dynamics. The applicability to environmental samples was demonstrated by profiling the Accumulibacter clades in activated sludge samples of nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27142574

  4. Development of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for Different Clades of “Candidatus Accumulibacter”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An Ni; Mao, Yanping; Zhang, Tong

    2016-05-01

    We designed novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primers for the polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene, targeting eight individual “Candidatus Accumulibacter” (referred to as Accumulibacter) clades. An evaluation of primer sets was conducted regarding the coverage, specificity, and PCR efficiency. (i) All primer sets were designed to cover all available sequences of the target clade. (ii) The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences retrieved from the qPCR products by each primer set demonstrated a high level of specificity. (iii) All calibration curves presented high PCR efficiencies in the range of 85–112% (R2 = 0.962–0.998). In addition, the possible interference of non-target amplicons was individually examined using the qPCR assay for 13 Accumulibacter clades, which were either undetected or showed negligible detection. With the primers designed by other research groups, a highly selective and sensitive qPCR-based method was developed to quantify all Accumulibacter clades, with the exception of Clade IE, in one assay, which enables more comprehensive insights into the community dynamics. The applicability to environmental samples was demonstrated by profiling the Accumulibacter clades in activated sludge samples of nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Development of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for Different Clades of "Candidatus Accumulibacter".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An Ni; Mao, Yanping; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    We designed novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primers for the polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene, targeting eight individual "Candidatus Accumulibacter" (referred to as Accumulibacter) clades. An evaluation of primer sets was conducted regarding the coverage, specificity, and PCR efficiency. (i) All primer sets were designed to cover all available sequences of the target clade. (ii) The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences retrieved from the qPCR products by each primer set demonstrated a high level of specificity. (iii) All calibration curves presented high PCR efficiencies in the range of 85-112% (R(2) = 0.962-0.998). In addition, the possible interference of non-target amplicons was individually examined using the qPCR assay for 13 Accumulibacter clades, which were either undetected or showed negligible detection. With the primers designed by other research groups, a highly selective and sensitive qPCR-based method was developed to quantify all Accumulibacter clades, with the exception of Clade IE, in one assay, which enables more comprehensive insights into the community dynamics. The applicability to environmental samples was demonstrated by profiling the Accumulibacter clades in activated sludge samples of nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27142574

  6. Taxonomic evaluation of species in the Streptomyces hirsutus clade using multi-locus sequence analysis and proposals to reclassify several species in this clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of species of Streptomyces based on 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in a statistically well-supported clade (100% bootstrap value) containing 8 species that exhibited very similar gross morphology in producing open looped (Retinaculum-Apertum) to spiral (Spira) chains...

  7. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManyiYang; ShaochunYuan; Shengfeng Huang; Jun Li; Liqun Xu; Huiqing Huang; Xin Tao; Jian peng; Anlong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The MyD88-independent pathway,one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes,Is thought to be a vertebrate innovation.However,a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor,designated bbtTICAM,which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus,links this pathway to invertebrates.The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1,also known as TRIF),while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAMI and TICAM2(TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2,also known as TRAM).Similar to human TICAM1,bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif.Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes,and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile a and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2.However,bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon.Thus,our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM I and TICAM2,but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates,which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network.

  8. Kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clininal efficacy of kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Forty-five patients with severe osteoporotic compressive fractures were treated by kyphoplasty from Jan 2005 to Jan 2009. The compressive rate of the fractured vertebral bodies was more than 75%. According to the morphology of the vertebral compression fracture bodies the unilateral or bilateral balloon kyphoplasty were selected. The anterior vertebral height was measured on a standing lateral radiograph at pre-operative, post-operative (one day after operation) and final follow-up time. A visual analog scale(VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were chosen to evaluate pain status and functional activity. Results: The mean follow-up was for 21.7 months (in range from 18 to 48 months). The anterior vertebral body height of fracture vertebra was restored from preoperative (18.7 ± 3.1)% to postoperative (51.4 ± 2.3)%, the follow-up period (50.2 ± 2.7)%. There was a significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative values (P0.05). The VAS was 8.1 ± 1.4 at preoperative, 2.6 ± 0.9 at postoperative, 2.1 ± 0.5 at final follow-up time; and the ODI was preoperative 91.1 ± 2.3, postoperative 30.7 ± 7.1, follow-up period 26.1 ± 5.1. There was statistically significant improvement in the VAS and ODI in the post-operative assessment compared with the pre-operative assessment (P0.05). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in three cases. New vertebral fracture occurred in one case. Conclusion: The study suggests that balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  9. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  10. Prognosis for conservative therapy to vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the poor prognosis factor in patients with vertebral compression fractures. We radiologically investigated the degree of vertebral collapse and kyphotic curves in 43 patients. Patients complaining of back pain were found to have significantly lower vertebral height and progressive kyphotic deformity. Early MRI findings suggested that the existence of posterior vertebral damage was correlated with vertebral collapse, kyphotic deformity, and continuous back pain. (author)

  11. Are congenital vertebral anomalies and spina bifida cystica aetiologically related?

    OpenAIRE

    Lendon, R G; Wynne-Davies, R; Lendon, M

    1981-01-01

    Radiological records of 104 patients with multiple vertebral anomalies without apparent spina bifida and 112 infants with spina bifida cystica were surveyed and the incidences of hemivertebrae and of rib, vertebral body, and vertebral arch fusions were recorded. The distributions of these four anomalies along the vertebral axis were found not to be statistically different between the two age groups. This is additional evidence to support the hypothesis that multiple vertebral anomalies and an...

  12. Microsporidia-nematode associations in methane seeps reveal basal fungal parasitism in the deep sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eSapir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea is Earth’s largest habitat but little is known about the nature of deep-sea parasitism. In contrast to a few characterized cases of bacterial and protistan parasites, the existence and biological significance of deep-sea parasitic fungi is yet to be understood. Here we report the discovery of a fungus-related parasitic microsporidium, Nematocenator marisprofundi n. gen. n. sp. that infects benthic nematodes at Pacific Ocean methane seeps on the Pacific Ocean floor. This infection is species-specific and has been temporally and spatially stable over two years of sampling, indicating an ecologically consistent host-parasite interaction. A high distribution of spores in the reproductive tracts of infected males and females and their absence from host nematodes’ intestines suggests a sexual transmission strategy in contrast to the fecal-oral transmission of most microsporidia. N. marisprofundi targets the host’s body wall muscles causing cell lysis, and in severe infection even muscle filament degradation. Phylogenetic analyses placed N. marisprofundi in a novel and basal clade not closely related to any described microsporidia clade, suggesting either that microsporidia-nematode parasitism occurred early in microsporidia evolution or that host specialization occurred late in an ancient deep-sea microsporidian lineage. Our findings reveal that methane seeps support complex ecosystems involving interkingdom interactions between bacteria, nematodes, and parasitic fungi and that microsporidia parasitism exists also in the deep sea biosphere.

  13. Phylogenetic analyses of complete mitochondrial genome sequences suggest a basal divergence of the enigmatic rodent Anomalurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissi Carmela

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic relationships between Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates and their allies (Euarchontoglires have long been debated. While it is now generally agreed that Rodentia constitutes a monophyletic sister-group of Lagomorpha and that this clade (Glires is sister to Primates and Dermoptera, higher-level relationships within Rodentia remain contentious. Results We have sequenced and performed extensive evolutionary analyses on the mitochondrial genome of the scaly-tailed flying squirrel Anomalurus sp., an enigmatic rodent whose phylogenetic affinities have been obscure and extensively debated. Our phylogenetic analyses of the coding regions of available complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Euarchontoglires suggest that Anomalurus is a sister taxon to the Hystricognathi, and that this clade represents the most basal divergence among sampled Rodentia. Bayesian dating methods incorporating a relaxed molecular clock provide divergence-time estimates which are consistently in agreement with the fossil record and which indicate a rapid radiation within Glires around 60 million years ago. Conclusion Taken together, the data presented provide a working hypothesis as to the phylogenetic placement of Anomalurus, underline the utility of mitochondrial sequences in the resolution of even relatively deep divergences and go some way to explaining the difficulty of conclusively resolving higher-level relationships within Glires with available data and methodologies.

  14. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  15. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  16. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  17. Potential underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Birkan İlhan, Fatih Tufan, Gülistan Bahat, Mehmet Akif KaranDivision of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read with great interest the article by Liang et al “Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study”.1\tIn their study, the authors investigated the factors possibly associated with new vertebral compression fractures in patients who previously had vertebral augmentation procedures. They reported that osteoporosis (OP was not observed as a risk factor for repeat vertebral augmentation. Among multiple chronic diseases, hypertension (HT was reported as one factor associated with new vertebral fractures. Among the medications used to treat or prevent OP, they reported calcium/vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and calcitonin were associated with not having repeat vertebral augmentation. However, steroids, paracetamol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with having repeat vertebral augmentation. We would like to comment on their article.View original paper by Kurimato and colleagues.

  18. Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I [severe compression (anterior height/posterior height) 0.75). A total of 102 vertebral bodies in 40 patients (12 men, 28 women, age 70.3 ± 9.5) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 12 months. Group I showed a greater benefit compared with group II with respect to anterior height gain (+2.1 ± 1.9 vs +0.7 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.001), reduction of endplate angle (-3.6 ± 4.2 vs -0.8 ± 2.3 , P < 0.001), and compression index (+0.09 ± 0.11 vs +0.01 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). At one-year follow-up, group I demonstrated preserved anterior height gain (+1.5 ± 2.8 mm, P < 0.015) and improved endplate angle (-3.4 ± 4.9 , P < 0.001). In group II, the vertebral heights returned to and were fixed at the pre-interventional levels. Vertebroplasty provided vertebral height gain over one year, particularly in cases with severe compression. Vertebrae with moderate compression were fixed and stabilized at the pre-treatment level over one year. (orig.)

  19. Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, Michael B.; Morgen, Nadine; Herber, Sascha; Dueber, Christoph [University Hospital of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Drees, Philipp; Boehm, Bertram [University Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I [severe compression (anterior height/posterior height) <0.75] and group II (moderate compression index >0.75). A total of 102 vertebral bodies in 40 patients (12 men, 28 women, age 70.3 {+-} 9.5) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 12 months. Group I showed a greater benefit compared with group II with respect to anterior height gain (+2.1 {+-} 1.9 vs +0.7 {+-} 1.6 mm, P < 0.001), reduction of endplate angle (-3.6 {+-} 4.2 vs -0.8 {+-} 2.3 , P < 0.001), and compression index (+0.09 {+-} 0.11 vs +0.01 {+-} 0.06, P < 0.001). At one-year follow-up, group I demonstrated preserved anterior height gain (+1.5 {+-} 2.8 mm, P < 0.015) and improved endplate angle (-3.4 {+-} 4.9 , P < 0.001). In group II, the vertebral heights returned to and were fixed at the pre-interventional levels. Vertebroplasty provided vertebral height gain over one year, particularly in cases with severe compression. Vertebrae with moderate compression were fixed and stabilized at the pre-treatment level over one year. (orig.)

  20. Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma: Treatment with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aich Ranen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertebrae are the second commonest site among skeletal locations affected by hemangioma, but only about one per cent becomes symptomatic throughout the life. Though surgery, intra vertebral injection of various sclerosing agents have been tried in treating this benign process, no general consensus regarding management has been reached. Radiotherapy is emerging as a low cost, simple, non-invasive but very effective modality of treatment of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma. Aim: This study aims to find out the role of external beam radiotherapy in alleviating the symptoms of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas without compromising the quality of life. Materials and Methods: Seven consecutive patients with symptomatic vertebral hemangioma were treated with a fixed dose of external beam radiotherapy; and muscle power was assessed before, after treatment and during follow-up. Results: All patients showed improvement of muscle power, which increased with the passage of time. Pain relief with improvement of quality of life was obtained in all the patients. Conclusion: Effect of radiotherapy on vertebral hemangioma is dose-dependent and the dose limiting factor is the spinal cord tolerance. In the present era of IMRT, greater dose can be delivered to the parts of vertebra affected by the hemangioma without compromising the spinal cord tolerance and expected to give better results.

  1. Intraspecific diversity and distribution of the cosmopolitan species Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae): morphology, genetics, and ecophysiology of the three clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Park, Bum Soo; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Wang, Pengbin; Han, Myung-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Three clades of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, determined by the internal transcribed space (ITS) region, are distributed throughout the world. We studied 15 P. pungens clones from various geographical locations and confirmed the existence of the three clades within P. pungens, based on ITS sequencing and described the three subgroups (IIIaa, IIIab, and IIIb) of clade III. Clade III (clade IIIaa) populations were reported for the first time in Korean coastal waters and the East China Sea. In morphometric analysis, we found the ultrastructural differences in the number of fibulae, striae, and poroids that separate the three clades. We carried out physiological tests on nine clones belonging to the three clades growing under various culture conditions. In temperature tests, only clade III clones could not grow at lower temperatures (10°C and 15°C), although clade I and II clones grew well. The estimated optimal growth range of clade I clones was wider than that of clades II and III. Clade II clones were considered to be adapted to lower temperatures and clade III to higher temperatures. In salinity tests, clade II and III clones did not grow well at a salinity of 40. Clade I clones were regarded as euryhaline and clade II and III clones were stenohaline. This supports the hypothesis that P. pungens clades have different ecophysiological characteristics based on their habitats. Our data show that physiological and morphological features are correlated with genetic intraspecific differentiation in P. pungens. PMID:26986266

  2. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  3. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  5. Using a grass substrate to compare decay among two clades of brown rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Justin T; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2013-10-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of wood-degrading fungi has grown in tandem with lignocellulose bioconversion efforts, yet many potential biomass feedstocks are non-woody. Using corn stover (Zea mays) as a substrate, we tracked degradative capacities among brown rot fungi from the Antrodia clade, including Postia placenta, the first brown rot fungus to have its genome sequenced. Decay dynamics were compared against Gloeophyllum trabeum from the Gloeophyllum clade. Weight loss induced by P. placenta (6.2 %) and five other Antrodia clade isolates (average 7.4 %) on corn stalk after 12 weeks demonstrated inefficiency among these fungi, relative to decay induced by G. trabeum (44.4 %). Using aspen (Populus sp.) as a woody substrate resulted in, on average, a fourfold increase in weight loss induced by Antrodia clade fungi, while G. trabeum results matched those on stover. The sequence and trajectories of chemical constituent losses differed as a function of substrate but not fungal clade. Instead, chemical data suggest that characters unique to stover limit decay by the Antrodia clade, rather than disparities in growth rate or extractives toxicity. High p-coumaryl lignin content, lacking the methoxy groups characteristically cleaved during brown rot, is among potential rate-distinguishing characters in grasses. This ineptitude among Antrodia clade fungi on grasses was supported by meta-analysis of other unrelated studies using grass substrates. Concerning application, results expose a problem if adopting the strategy of the model decay fungus P. placenta to treat corn stover, a widely available plant feedstock. Overall, the results insinuate phylogenetically distinct modes of brown rot and demonstrate the benefit of using non-woody substrates to probe wood degradation mechanisms. PMID:23917637

  6. Identifikasi Secara Serologi Galur Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 dan Clade 2.3.2 pada Ayam Petelur (SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA STRAIN VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 CLADE 2.1.3 AND CLADE 2.3.2 FROM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Kusumastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know avian influenza (AI infection in field by using serology test in threemarketing area of AI vaccines. Haemagglutination inhibition methode was used in this test. There werefour antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (AIstrainA/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006, AIstrain A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007, AI strain A/Chicken/West Java-Nagrak/30/2007, and AI strainA/Chicken/Pekalongan/BBVW-208/2007 and 2 antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (AI strainA/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and AI strain A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 was used inthis study for HI test. The result presents that 93,33% chicken farms in three marketing area of PT. SanbioLaboratories have positive antibody titre to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3. This titre may be obtained fromAI clade 2.1.3 vaccination. From 15 samples, 92,86% are positive to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2A/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and 92,31% are positive to A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 evenwithout AI clade 2.3.2 vaccination. This antibody titre may be obtained from AI clade 2.1.3 vaccine crossprotection or field infection.

  7. Benign fracture versus malignant vertebral body infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging capabilities in differentiating marrow signal alterations seen in benign vertebral body compression fractures from those of malignant vertebral infiltration were assessed. Thirty-six patients, including 15 with posttraumatic vertebral compression fractures of known age, and 21 with malignant bone lesions, were imaged with MR. MR spine imaging (1.5 T) was performed with routine spin-echo sequences as well as inversion recovery (STIR), gradient-echo scans (GRASS), and chemical shift images (selective saturation technique) to obtain fat and water scans. Fat/water images enhanced differentiation between benign and malignant signal alterations. In general, patients with malignancy showed abnormal diffuse low signal intensity on fat images and corresponding increased signal on water images. Benign compression fractures showed variable patterns of signal alteration on fat/water images depending on fracture age. Old fractures showed persistent fat signal. Only very acute traumatic fractures showed increased signal on water images

  8. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.;

    2013-01-01

    conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into......Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and...... should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box....

  9. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  10. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

  11. Cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a patient with isolated involvement of vestibulocochlear nerve by a huge vascular loop from vertebral dolichoectasia. No other neurological deficit was found except for unilateral hearing loss. Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential study indicated a retrocochlear lesion. The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally enhanced vascular lesion impinged on the left porus acusticus with a displacement of the brainstem to the right. There was no infarction in the brainstem. A cerebral angiography demonstrated a megadolichoectatic horizontal loop at the intracranial portion of the left vertebral artery. There was no thrombus or atherosclerosis in the vertebrobasilar system. A mechanical compression by a vascular loop is the only possible pathogenesis for hearing loss. The authors diagnose this condition as cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome

  12. The synapsin gene family in basal chordates: evolutionary perspectives in metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bernardi Fiorenza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins involved in several functions correlated with both neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. The comprehension of the basal role of the synapsin family is hampered in vertebrates by the existence of multiple synapsin genes. Therefore, studying homologous genes in basal chordates, devoid of genome duplication, could help to achieve a better understanding of the complex functions of these proteins. Results In this study we report the cloning and characterization of the Ciona intestinalis and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae synapsin transcripts and the definition of their gene structure using available C. intestinalis and B. floridae genomic sequences. We demonstrate the occurrence, in both model organisms, of a single member of the synapsin gene family. Full-length synapsin genes were identified in the recently sequenced genomes of phylogenetically diverse metazoans. Comparative genome analysis reveals extensive conservation of the SYN locus in several metazoans. Moreover, developmental expression studies underline that synapsin is a neuronal-specific marker in basal chordates and is expressed in several cell types of PNS and in many, if not all, CNS neurons. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that synapsin genes are metazoan genes present in a single copy per genome, except for vertebrates. Moreover, we hypothesize that, during the evolution of synapsin proteins, new domains are added at different stages probably to cope up with the increased complexity in the nervous system organization. Finally, we demonstrate that protochordate synapsin is restricted to the post-mitotic phase of CNS development and thereby is a good marker of postmitotic neurons.

  13. A paleontological perspective of vertebrate origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Early Cambrian Haikouichthys and Haikouella have been claimed to be related to contribute in an important way to our understanding of vertebrate origin, but there have been heated debates about how exactly they are to be interpreted. New discoveries of numerous specimens of Haikouichthys not only confirm the identity of previously described structures such as the dorsal and the ventral fins, and chevron-shaped myomeres, but also reveal many new important characteristics, including sensory organs of the head (e.g. large eyes), and a prominent notochord with differentiated vertebral elements. This "first fish" appears, however, to retain primitive reproductive features of acraniates, suggesting that it is a stem-group craniates. A new order (Myllokunmingiida) and a new family (Myllokunmingiidae) are erected, and a new species, Zhongjianichthys rostratus (gen. et sp. nov.), is described herein. Over 1400 newly-discovered specimens of Haikouella provide a wealth of anatomical information on this organism. It differs from chordates in many organs and organ systems, including the skin, muscles, respiratory, circulatory and nervous systems. In contrast, its body-design resembles that of vetulicolians, and the presence of a "transitional" nervous system with both dorsal and ventral nerve cords suggests an affinity with living hemichordates. On the basis of these and other recent findings of fossil deuterostomes, a five-step hypothesis for vertebrate origin is proposed, intended to bridge the long- standing gap between protostomes and vertebrates. Four of the five steps accord with established ideas current in modern evolutionary zoology. Evidence for the first step is obtainable only from fossils, and specifically from fossils found from South China, hence the crucial importance of S. China sites for our understanding of early vertebrate origins and evolution. Accordingly, South China is suggested as the oldest-known birthplace of the whole vertebrates.

  14. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  15. Pediatric congenital vertebral artery arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shownkeen, Harish; Bova, Davide; Chenelle, Andrew G; Origitano, Thomas C

    2003-05-01

    Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are rare in children and the congenital form has been seldom reported in the literature. Prior to using endovascular therapy techniques, only surgery was the main treatment. The most common endovascular treatment is through the use of detachable balloons. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a congenital vertebral artery fistula in a 20-month-old child. Balloons could not be safely employed; therefore, embolization was performed with Guglielmi detachable microcoils. We review the history and treatment of these lesions, their clinical presentation, and imaging features, including their outcome, with particular attention to the pediatric population. PMID:12695869

  16. Pediatric congenital vertebral artery arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shownkeen, Harish; Chenelle, Andrew G.; Origitano, Thomas C. [Department of Neurologcal Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States); Bova, Davide [Department of Radiology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are rare in children and the congenital form has been seldom reported in the literature. Prior to using endovascular therapy techniques, only surgery was the main treatment. The most common endovascular treatment is through the use of detachable balloons. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a congenital vertebral artery fistula in a 20-month-old child. Balloons could not be safely employed; therefore, embolization was performed with Guglielmi detachable microcoils. We review the history and treatment of these lesions, their clinical presentation, and imaging features, including their outcome, with particular attention to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  17. Pediatric congenital vertebral artery arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are rare in children and the congenital form has been seldom reported in the literature. Prior to using endovascular therapy techniques, only surgery was the main treatment. The most common endovascular treatment is through the use of detachable balloons. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a congenital vertebral artery fistula in a 20-month-old child. Balloons could not be safely employed; therefore, embolization was performed with Guglielmi detachable microcoils. We review the history and treatment of these lesions, their clinical presentation, and imaging features, including their outcome, with particular attention to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  18. Steroid receptor phylogeny and vertebrate origins

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Vertebrates appear about 500 million years ago in the fossil record. This is only 25–50 million years after the great explosion of multicellular invertebrate body plans in the early Cambrian. On a geological time scale, this interval is a ‘blink of an eye’, suggesting that the evolution of regulatory genes is likely to be important in the origins of vertebrates. Here we present evidence for a role of steroid receptors in this process based on a phylogenetic analysis suggesting that recepto...

  19. Genomic differentiation among two strains of the PS1 clade isolated from geographically separated marine habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy

    2014-05-22

    Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation, we isolated a strain affiliated with the PS1 clade from surface waters of the Red Sea. Strain RS24 represents the second isolate of this group of marine Alphaproteobacteria after IMCC14465 that was isolated from the East (Japan) Sea. The PS1 clade is a sister group to the OCS116 clade, together forming a putatively novel order closely related to Rhizobiales. While most genomic features and most of the genetic content are conserved between RS24 and IMCC14465, their average nucleotide identity (ANI) is < 81%, suggesting two distinct species of the PS1 clade. Next to encoding two different variants of proteorhodopsin genes, they also harbor several unique genomic islands that contain genes related to degradation of aromatic compounds in IMCC14465 and in polymer degradation in RS24, possibly reflecting the physicochemical differences in the environment they were isolated from. No clear differences in abundance of the genomic content of either strain could be found in fragment recruitment analyses using different metagenomic datasets, in which both genomes were detectable albeit as minor part of the communities. The comparative genomic analysis of both isolates of the PS1 clade and the fragment recruitment analysis provide first insights into the ecology of this group. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variation reveals recent evolutionary history of main Boa constrictor clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynková, Ivana; Starostová, Zuzana; Frynta, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    We sequenced a 1114-bp fragment of cytochrome b gene in six subspecies (115 samples) of Boa constrictor and detected 67 haplotypes. Our analyses revealed the presence of two distinct clades, one from Central America (CA) including the neighboring part of South America west of the Andes, and the other covering the rest of South America (SA). Sequence divergence between CA and SA clades is about 5-7%, which roughly corresponds to a separation at the time of uplift of the Colombian Andes following formation of the Panama Isthmus before 3.5 Myr Sequence divergence within the SA and CA clades is only 2-3%, suggesting a fairly recent spread of these clades Into their current geographic ranges. Thus, we may not be dealing with taxa with a markedly old evolutionary history. Because juveniles of B. constrictor feed mostly on small rodents, we hypothesized that spread of this species was allowed by a new food source represented by murold rodents that appeared after closure of the Panama portal. With respect to the taxonomy, B. c. imperator may be elevated to full species rank. Within the SA clade, a haplotype of Argentinian B. c. occidentalis is markedly distinct, while the remaining haplotype groups analyzed are distributed throughout large ranges and may all belong to a single nominotypic subspecies. PMID:19799513

  1. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  2. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  4. Basal cell epithelioma with lymphogenic and hematogenic formation of metastases (a. o. into the myocardium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with a basal cell epithelioma, partially adenoid and partially morphea-like in structure, which despite intensive X-ray treatment relapsed constantly and which finally developed into an ulcus terebrans. Approximately 13 years after the primary tumor had developed (located on the left wing of the nose) both a lymphogenic and a hematogenic formation of metastases occurred with a subsequent exitus letalis 4 months later. Besides the metastases of the skin, there were multiple metastases in the lymph nodes, vertebral column, ribs, spleen, liver, stomach, pleura, and peritoneum as well as in the myocard of both ventricles and in the perimysium of the skeletal muscles. Their histological structure was similar to a partly adenoid, partily morphea-like basal cell epithelioma. The possible influence of X-ray treatment on the tumor tissue in way of benignity or malignancy is discussed in view of relevant literature on this topic. The alteration of basal cell epitheliomas into the socalled transitional epitheliomas is also analyzed. (orig.)

  5. Signaling mechanisms and behavioral function of the mouse basal vomeronasal neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gómez, Anabel; Stein, Benjamin; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a sensory organ that is found in most terrestrial vertebrates and that is principally implicated in the detection of pheromones. The VNO contains specialized sensory neurons organized in a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that recognize chemical signals involved in initiating innate behavioral responses. In rodents, the VNO neuroepithelium is segregated into two distinct zones, apical and basal. The molecular mechanisms involved in ligand detection by apical and basal VNO sensory neurons differ extensively. These two VNO subsystems express different subfamilies of vomeronasal receptors and signaling molecules, detect distinct chemosignals, and project to separate regions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The roles that these olfactory subdivisions play in the control of specific olfactory-mediated behaviors are largely unclear. However, analysis of mutant mouse lines for signal transduction components together with identification of defined chemosensory ligands has revealed a fundamental role of the basal part of the mouse VNO in mediating a wide range of instinctive behaviors, such as aggression, predator avoidance, and sexual attraction. Here we will compare the divergent functions and synergies between the olfactory subsystems and consider new insights in how higher neural circuits are defined for the initiation of instinctive behaviors. PMID:25505388

  6. Signaling mechanisms and behavioral function of the mouse basal vomeronasal neuroepithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel ePérez-Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO is a sensory organ that is found in most terrestrial vertebrates and that is principally implicated in the detection of pheromones. The VNO contains specialized sensory neurons organized in a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that recognize chemical signals involved in initiating innate behavioral responses. In rodents, the VNO neuroepithelium is segregated into two distinct zones, apical and basal. The molecular mechanisms involved in ligand detection by apical and basal VNO sensory neurons differ extensively. These two VNO subsystems express different subfamilies of vomeronasal receptors and signaling molecules, detect distinct chemosignals, and project to separate regions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. The roles that these olfactory subdivisions play in the control of specific olfactory-mediated behaviors are largely unclear. However, analysis of mutant mouse lines for signal transduction components together with identification of defined chemosensory ligands has revealed a fundamental role of the basal part of the mouse VNO in mediating a wide range of instinctive behaviors, such as aggression, predator avoidance, and sexual attraction. Here we will compare the divergent functions and synergies between the olfactory subsystems and consider new insights in how higher neural circuits are defined for the initiation of instinctive behaviors.

  7. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang CL; Wang HK; Syu FK; Wang KW; Lu K; Liliang PC

    2015-01-01

    Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebr...

  8. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  9. Requirement for Dlgh-1 in planar cell polarity and skeletogenesis during vertebrate development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Rivera

    Full Text Available The development of specialized organs is tightly linked to the regulation of cell growth, orientation, migration and adhesion during embryogenesis. In addition, the directed movements of cells and their orientation within the plane of a tissue, termed planar cell polarity (PCP, appear to be crucial for the proper formation of the body plan. In Drosophila embryogenesis, Discs large (dlg plays a critical role in apical-basal cell polarity, cell adhesion and cell proliferation. Craniofacial defects in mice carrying an insertional mutation in Dlgh-1 suggest that Dlgh-1 is required for vertebrate development. To determine what roles Dlgh-1 plays in vertebrate development, we generated mice carrying a null mutation in Dlgh-1. We found that deletion of Dlgh-1 caused open eyelids, open neural tube, and misorientation of cochlear hair cell stereociliary bundles, indicative of defects in planar cell polarity (PCP. Deletion of Dlgh-1 also caused skeletal defects throughout the embryo. These findings identify novel roles for Dlgh-1 in vertebrates that differ from its well-characterized roles in invertebrates and suggest that the Dlgh-1 null mouse may be a useful animal model to study certain human congenital birth defects.

  10. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Daza Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R. One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species.

  11. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPPn 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hudson

    Full Text Available Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPPn in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPPn motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I, four in α2(I and three in α1(II, all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPPn domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human, up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPPn motif were found in α1(I and four in α2(I, with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPPn site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species.

  12. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnerty John R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Results Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal, were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Conclusion Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies.

  13. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPP)n 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M; Werther, Rachel; Weis, MaryAnn; Wu, Jiann-Jiu; Eyre, David R

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPP)n) in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPP)n motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I), four in α2(I) and three in α1(II), all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin) and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord) were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPP)n domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human), up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPP)n motif were found in α1(I) and four in α2(I), with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPP)n site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species. PMID:24695516

  14. Surgical treatment of vertebral body splintered fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titova Yu.l.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The given report concerns the method of surgical treatment of vertebral body splintered fractures. The surgery is presented by transpedicular fixation of an injured part and allows to perform reduction of body fragments of the injured vertebra. Simplicity of technical performance and efficiency of the technique explain its practical value

  15. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in painful refractory vertebral hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Narayana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Painful vertebral hemangiomas are often inadequately managed medically. We evaluated the outcome of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP in the treatment of painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management. Materials and Methods: 14 patients (four thoracic and ten lumbar vertebra with painful vertebral hemangiomas presenting with severe back pain for more than 6 months not responding to medical therapy were treated by vertebroplasty. Cross sectional imaging of the spine with magnetic resonance was done. Blood investigations were done to exclude coagulopathy excluded. PVP was performed under local anesthesia. Results: The pain intensity numeric rating scale (PI-NRS-11 of these patients was in the range of 7-10 (Severe Pain. After vertebroplasty 8 patients were completely free of pain (PI NRS Score 0 while 6 were significantly relieved (PI-NRS Score 1-3. No complications were observed. Two patients with associated radicular pain had good pain relief following PVP. No recurrence was found during 36 months of postoperative followup. Conclusion: PVP is a safe and effective procedure in patients with painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management.

  17. Diagnosis and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jason; Davis, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, affecting more than 700,000 Americans annually. Fracture risk increases with age, with four in 10 white women older than 50 years experiencing a hip, spine, or vertebral fracture in their lifetime. VCFs can lead to chronic pain, disfigurement, height loss, impaired activities of daily living, increased risk of pressure sores, pneumonia, and psychological distress. Patients with an acute VCF may report abrupt onset of back pain with position changes, coughing, sneezing, or lifting. Physical examination findings are often normal, but can demonstrate kyphosis and midline spine tenderness. More than two-thirds of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on plain radiography. Acute VCFs may be treated with analgesics such as acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, narcotics, and calcitonin. Physicians must be mindful of medication adverse effects in older patients. Other conservative therapeutic options include limited bed rest, bracing, physical therapy, nerve root blocks, and epidural injections. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, is controversial, but can be considered in patients with inadequate pain relief with nonsurgical care or when persistent pain substantially affects quality of life. Family physicians can help prevent vertebral fractures through management of risk factors and the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27386723

  18. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  19. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  20. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  1. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the demographics, imaging findings, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of primary vertebral Ewing's sarcoma (PVES). A retrospective review of medical records and radiological studies of patients diagnosed with PVES from 1936 through 2001 in our institution and Department of Pathology consultation files was undertaken. Metastatic and soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma cases were excluded. From a total of 1,277 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, 125 (9.8%) had a primary vertebral origin. There were 48 females and 76 males. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 54 (mean 19.3, standard deviation 10.7, median 16) years. Vertebral column distribution was four cervical (3.2%), 13 thoracic (10.5%), 31 lumbar (25%), and 67 sacrum (53.2%). More than one vertebral segment was involved in ten cases (8%). Satisfactory imaging studies were available in 51 patients: 49 radiographs, 27 computerized tomography (CT), and 23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The majority of tumors were lytic (93%). Three cases were mixed lytic and sclerotic (6%) and one sclerotic. In the nonsacral spine, the majority of lesions (12/20) involved the posterior elements with extension into the vertebral body. Five cases were centered in the vertebral body with extension into the posterior elements. Two cases were limited to the posterior elements, and one case solely involved the vertebral body. Ala was the most frequently affected site in the sacrum (18/26). Spinal canal invasion was frequent (91%). Detailed clinical information was available in 53 patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 30 (mean 7) months. Local pain was the first symptom and seen in all cases. Neurological deficits were present in 21 (40%) cases. All patients received radiation in various dosages; 70% additionally received chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients had surgery, and two patients received bone marrow transplantation. Forty-five patients had follow-up; the five-year disease-free survival probability is 0.53. Disease

  2. FISH-Flow: a quantitative molecular approach for describing mixed clade communities of Symbiodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, S. E.; Smith, G. J.; Geller, J. B.

    2014-03-01

    Our understanding of reef corals and their fate in a changing climate is limited by our ability to monitor the diversity and abundance of the dinoflagellate endosymbionts that sustain them. This study combined two well-known methods in tandem: fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for genotype-specific labeling of Symbiodinium and flow cytometry to quantify the abundance of each symbiont clade in a sample. This technique (FISH-Flow) was developed with cultured Symbiodinium representing four distinct clades (based on large subunit rDNA) and was used to distinguish and quantify these types with high efficiency and few false positives. This technique was also applied to freshly isolated symbionts of Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella annularis. Isolates from acutely bleached coral tissues had significantly lower labeling efficiency; however, isolates from healthy tissue had efficiencies comparable to cultured Symbiodinium trials. RNA degradation in bleaching samples may have interfered with labeling of cells. Nevertheless, we were able to determine that, with and without thermal stress, experimental columns of the coral O. annularis hosted a majority of clade B and B/C symbionts on the top and side of the coral column, respectively. We demonstrated that, for cultured Symbiodinium and Symbiodinium freshly isolated from healthy host tissues, the relative ratio of clades could be accurately determined for clades present at as low as 7 % relative abundance. While this method does not improve upon PCR-based techniques in identifying clades at background levels, FISH-Flow provides a high precision, flexible system for targeting, quantifying and isolating Symbiodinium genotypes of interest.

  3. Life-history effects of arsenic toxicity in clades of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposures of Lumbricus rubellus to a series of arsenic concentrations in soil were used to assess life-stage (juvenile, adult) and genotype specific sensitivities, to calculate population growth rate (λ) and to assess patterns of As accumulation. Significant mortality was seen in juveniles at 125 mg/kg As, while growth and maturation was affected from 36 mg/kg and above. In adults, cocoon production at the highest concentration (125 mg/kg) was significantly reduced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparison of mitochondrial sequences to establish genotypic variation among juveniles. Three clades with more than 7.5% divergent were described, with 70% of earthworms belonging to a single clade. Date of and mass at maturation was significantly different between clades, but clades were not differentially As sensitive. Parameter λ was reduced at 36 mg/kg As and was negative at 125 mg/kg As, suggesting impacts and population stability and potential extinction at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: ► Lumbricus rubellus exposures to arsenic assessed life-stage and genotype sensitivities. ► Mortality effects were seen at 125 mg/kg and sublethal effects at 36 mg/kg ► Phylogenetic analysis identified three major L. rubellus clades. ► Date and mass at maturation, but not arsenic sensitivity, differed between clades. ► Effects on λ suggested population impacts at environmental concentrations. - Capsule: The impact of arsenic toxicity and role of genotype on Lumbricus rubellus life-history parameters reveal variation among sublethal endpoints.

  4. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  5. A Case Report: Balloon Occlusion Of Vertebral Artery In A Giant Vertebral Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Edraki

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: True aneurysms of extra cranial vertebral arteries are rare. The usual pathogenesis of aneurysms in this location is either penetrating or blunt trauma with resultant pseudo- aneurysm formation. We report a patient with a presumed pseudo-aneurysm of the extra- cranial vertebral artery presenting with painful neck mass, without obvious history of trauma. Case description: A 59-year old man presented with painful left lateral neck mass from 3 month ago with a bruit over it on physical examination. Patient had a history of long term anticoagulant therapy because of chronic lower extremity DVT. Patient was referred to our DSA (Department for angiography. After color Doppler US, CT scan and MR-angiography were performed and a giant aneurysm in left vertebral artery was detected. The lesion was successfully treated by an endovascular technique of balloon occlusion of the verte-bral artery.

  6. Oldest near-complete acanthodian: the first vertebrate from the Silurian Bertie Formation Konservat-Lagerstatte, Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole J Burrow

    Full Text Available The relationships between early jawed vertebrates have been much debated, with cladistic analyses yielding little consensus on the position (or positions of acanthodians with respect to other groups. Whereas one recent analysis showed various acanthodians (classically known as 'spiny sharks' as stem osteichthyans (bony fishes and others as stem chondrichthyans, another shows the acanthodians as a paraphyletic group of stem chondrichthyans, and the latest analysis shows acanthodians as the monophyletic sister group of the Chondrichthyes.A small specimen of the ischnacanthiform acanthodian Nerepisacanthus denisoni is the first vertebrate fossil collected from the Late Silurian Bertie Formation Konservat-Lagerstätte of southern Ontario, Canada, a deposit well-known for its spectacular eurypterid fossils. The fish is the only near complete acanthodian from pre-Devonian strata worldwide, and confirms that Nerepisacanthus has dentigerous jaw bones, body scales with superposed crown growth zones formed of ondontocytic mesodentine, and a patch of chondrichthyan-like scales posterior to the jaw joint.The combination of features found in Nerepisacanthus supports the hypothesis that acanthodians could be a group, or even a clade, on the chondrichthyan stem. Cladistic analyses of early jawed vertebrates incorporating Nerepisacanthus, and updated data on other acanthodians based on publications in press, should help clarify their relationships.

  7. Isolation of an aerobic sulfur oxidizer from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Katharine T.; Morris, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria from the uncultured SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade of gamma proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers (GSOs) have the genetic potential to oxidize reduced sulfur and fix carbon in the tissues of clams and mussels, in oxygen minimum zones and throughout the deep ocean (>200 m). Here, we report isolation of the first cultured representative from this GSO clade. Closely related cultures were obtained from surface waters in Puget Sound and from the deep chlorophyll maximum in the North Pacific gyre. P...

  8. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events

  9. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Sami N. Nasrallah; L. Raymond Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism...

  10. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  11. An Inquiry into Acupuncture Treatment on Cervical Vertebral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The cervical vertebral diseases are the diseases of cervical osteoarticular and ligament hypertrophy that cause stenosis of vertebral canals and intervertebral foraminae and compression of nerve roots or cervical segments.

  12. Early Bone Marrow Edema Pattern of the Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture : Can Be Predictor of Vertebral Deformity Types and Prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young; Kim, Sung Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an early bone marrow edema pattern predicts vertebral deformity types and prognosis in osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Methods This retrospective study enrolled 64 patients with 75 acute OVCFs who underwent early MRI and followed up MRI. On early MRI, the low SI pattern of OVCF on T1WI were assessed and classified into 3 types (diffuse, globular or patchy, band-like). On followed up MRI, the vertebral deformity types (anterior wedge, biconcave, crush), degree of vertebral body height loss, incidence of vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis were assessed for each vertebral fracture types. Results According to the early bone marrow edema pattern on T1WI, 26 vertebrae were type 1, 14 vertebrae were type 2 and 35 vertebrae were type 3. On followed up MRI, the crush-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 1 OVCFs, the biconcave-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 2 OVCFs and the anterior wedge-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 3 OVCFs (pvertebral body height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis on the follow up MRI. Conclusion Early bone marrow edema pattern of OVCF on T1WI, significant correlated with vertebral deformity types on the follow up MRI. The severe degree of vertebral height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis, and spinal stenosis were more frequent in patients with diffuse low SI pattern. PMID:26962419

  13. Protection level of AI H5N1 vaccine clade 2.1.3 commercial against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus from Ducks to SPF chicken in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriani R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 has infected chickens in farms, causing mortality and a decrease in egg production. Vaccination is one of the strategies to control disease of AI subtype H5N1. AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 vaccine is available commercially. The effectiveness of two vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A and B, and AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo virus SPF chickens was tested in laboratory. Four groups of SPF chickens were used in this study, there were (1 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A, (2 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product B, (3 vaccinated with AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 and (4 unvaccinated (as a control. Each vaccinated group consisted of 10 chicken except 8 chicken for control group. SPF chicken were vaccinated with 1 dose of vaccine at 3 weeks olds, and then after 3 weeks post vaccination (at 6 weeks olds. All group of chicken were challenged with 106 EID50 per 0.1 ml via intranasal. The results showed, chicken vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A and B gave 100 and 80% protection respectively, but showed challenged virus shedding, whereas vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 gave 100% protection from mortality and without virus shedding. Vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A was better than vaccine product B, and when chicken vaccinated against H5N1 clade 2.3.2, H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine was the best to be used. In order to protect chicken from AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 in the field, a bivalent vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 subtypes should be developed.

  14. What do the basal ganglia do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P; Marsden, C D

    1998-06-13

    We propose that the basal ganglia support a basic attentional mechanism operating to bind input to output in the executive forebrain. Such focused attention provides the automatic link between voluntary effort, sensory input, and the calling up and operation of a sequence of motor programmes or thoughts. The physiological basis for this attentional mechanism may lie in the tendency of distributed, but related, cortical activities to synchronise in the gamma (30 to 50 Hz) band, as occurs in the visual cortex. Coherent and synchronised elements are more effective when convergence occurs during successive stages of processing, and in this way may come together to give the one gestalt or action. We suggest that the basal ganglia have a major role in facilitating this aspect of neuronal processing in the forebrain, and that loss of this function contributes to parkinsonism and abulia. PMID:9635969

  15. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Lamos EM; Younk LM; Davis SN

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with in...

  16. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  17. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  18. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  19. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  20. Distant compression fracture in a child with dysplastic vertebral changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case of vertebral injury in a child which presents certain difficulties in diagnosis more exact definition is described. Incompatibility of minimal clinical manifestations and essential roentgenographic findings was pointed out. Vertebral scintigraphic researches, conducted twice, have allowed to diagnose, vertebral bodies true traumatic injury

  1. The variety of vertebrate mechanisms of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukhina, Antonina V; Lukina, Natalia A; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D; Smirnov, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  2. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  3. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  4. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    OpenAIRE

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the...

  5. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92% to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%. Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However

  6. Anatomia do sulco da artéria vertebral Vertebral artery groove anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Franco de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido realizadas na região craniocervical devido a diversas patologias. Durante o acesso cirúrgico a essa região existe um risco potencial de lesão iatrogênica da artéria vertebral, relacionado ao acesso lateral amplo e à avaliação inadequada da anatomia local. Variações no trajeto da artéria vertebral ocasionam maior risco de lesão vascular. O estudo pré-operatório por imagem da anatomia da artéria vertebral e do seu sulco tem sido realizado para aumentar a segurança cirúrgica. OBJETIVO: Estudar a morfometria da artéria vertebral no atlas através da tomografia computadorizada do sulco da artéria vertebral (SAV em 30 atlas isolados de cadáveres. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O SAV e suas relações com a linha média foram avaliados através de oito medidas lineares e duas angulares, bilateralmente. A média, valor máximo e mínimo, e desvio padrão foram calculados para cada parâmetro. RESULTADOS: O SAV apresentou uma maior largura e maior espessura do lado esquerdo (pINTRODUCTION: Several surgical techniques have been carried through in the skull-cervical region due to various pathologies. During the surgical access to this region, a potential risk of iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery exists, related to extended lateral access and the inadequate evaluation of the local anatomy. Variations in the groove of the vertebral artery lead to a greater risk of vascular injury during surgery. Preoperative image study of the vertebral artery anatomy and its groove has been realized to enhance surgical safety. OBJECTIVE: to study the morphometry of atlas vertebral artery on computed tomography scan images of the vertebral artery groove (VAG in 30 dry atlas. METHODS: VAG and its relationship with the midline were evaluated through eight linear and two angular measures, bilaterally. The average, maximum and minimum values, and standard deviation were calculated for each parameter

  7. The lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen con...

  8. Expanding our view of genomic diversity in Candidatus Accumulibacter clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skennerton, Connor T; Barr, Jeremy J; Slater, Frances R; Bond, Philip L; Tyson, Gene W

    2015-05-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is an important industrial wastewater treatment process mediated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs). Members of the genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are one of the most extensively studied PAO as they are commonly enriched in lab-scale EBPR reactors. Members of different Accumulibacter clades are often enriched through changes in reactor process conditions; however, the two currently sequenced Accumulibacter genomes show extensive metabolic similarity. Here, we expand our understanding of Accumulibacter genomic diversity through recovery of eight population genomes using deep metagenomics, including seven from phylogenetic clades with no previously sequenced representative. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a core of shared genes involved primarily in carbon and phosphorus metabolism; however, each Accumulibacter genome also encoded a substantial number of unique genes (> 700 genes). A major difference between the Accumulibacter clades was the type of nitrate reductase encoded and the capacity to perform subsequent steps in denitrification. The Accumulibacter clade IIF genomes also contained acetaldehyde dehydrogenase that may allow ethanol to be used as carbon source. These differences in metabolism between Accumulibacter genomes provide a molecular basis for niche differentiation observed in lab-scale reactors and may offer new opportunities for process optimization. PMID:25088527

  9. Strong linkages between DOM optical properties and main clades of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral, Valentina; Graeber, Daniel; Calliari, Danilo;

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research on the linkages between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacteria, it is not yet clear how the abundance of the main aquatic clades relates to DOM composition in natural aquatic systems. We evaluated this relation using PARAFAC modeling of excitation–emission fluor...

  10. Phylogenomic evidence for a common ancestor of mitochondria and the SAR11 clade

    OpenAIRE

    Thrash, J. Cameron; Boyd, Alex; Huggett, Megan J.; Grote, Jana; Carini, Paul; Yoder, Ryan J.; Robbertse, Barbara; Spatafora, Joseph W; Rappé, Michael S.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria share a common ancestor with the Alphaproteobacteria, but determining their precise origins is challenging due to inherent difficulties in phylogenetically reconstructing ancient evolutionary events. Nonetheless, phylogenetic accuracy improves with more refined tools and expanded taxon sampling. We investigated mitochondrial origins with the benefit of new, deeply branching genome sequences from the ancient and prolific SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria and publicly available al...

  11. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  12. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Gonzalez-Durán, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, José Miguel; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Ramirez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico.

  13. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Gonzalez-Durán, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, José Miguel; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Ramirez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico. PMID:26159533

  14. Phaeobacter inhibens from the Roseobacter clade has an environmental niche as a surface colonizer in harbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Wemheuer, Bernd; Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin; Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Breider, Sven; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Phaeobacter inhibens belongs to the marine Roseobacter clade and is important as a carbon and sulfur metabolizer, a biofilm former and producer of the antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA). The majority of cultured strains have been isolated from marine aquaculture sites, however, their niche in the...

  15. Genetic variation within Symbiodinium clade B from the coral genus Madracis in the Caribbean (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, O.E.; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.; Bak, R.P M

    2003-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced in symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) from five morphospecies in the genus Madracis. The phylogeny of the symbionts is congruent with a companion phylogeny of the coral host. Comparison with known clade B symbiont ITS types reveals th

  16. Contrasting patterns of phylogenetic assemblage structure along the elevational gradient for major hummingbird clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.;

    2011-01-01

    mean of all possible pairwise phylogenetic distances between co-occurring species. We related NRI for each clade to elevation, precipitation and vegetation-related variables using generalized additive models. Results Our findings support the prediction of an increase in the co-occurrence of close...

  17. A divergent clade of circular single-stranded DNA viruses from pig feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using metagenomics and molecular cloning methods, we characterized five novel small circular viral genomes from pig feces distantly related to chimpanzee and porcine stool-associated circular viruses, (ChiSCV and PoSCV1). Phylogenetic analysis placed these viruses into a new, highly divergent, clade...

  18. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  19. Phylogeny and biogeography of the most diverse clade of South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Lobos, Simón E; Venegas, Pablo J; Chávez, Germán; Aguirre-Peñafiel, Vanessa; Zurita, Daniel; Echevarría, Lourdes Y

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 50% of the diversity of the speciose Neotropical lizard clade Gymnophthalmidae is nested within the subclade Cercosaurinae. The taxonomy of Cercosaurinae lizards has been historically confusing because many diagnostic characters of those clades traditionally ranked as genera do not represent true diagnostic apomorphies. Even though molecular phylogenies of several 'genera' have been presented in the last few years, some of them remain poorly sampled (e.g., Anadia, Echinosaura, Potamites, Riama). In this paper we present a more comprehensive phylogeny of Cercosaurinae lizards with emphasis on Andean taxa from Ecuador and Peru, as well as a time-calibrated phylogeny with reconstruction of ancestral areas. Our analysis includes 52% of all recognized species of Cercosaurinae (67 species) and 1914 characters including three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We find that Anadia, Echinosaura, Euspondylus, Potamites, Proctoporus, and Riama are not monophyletic: the Tepuian Anadia mcdiarmidi is not sister to Andean species of Anadia; Echinosaura sulcarostrum is not included in the same clade formed by other species of Echinosaura and their more recent common ancestor; Teuchocercus is nested within Echinosaura; species of Euspondylus included in this study are nested within Proctoporus; Riama laudahnae is included in Proctoporus; and Potamites is paraphyletic and split in two separate clades, one of which we name Gelanesaurus, also a new genus-group name. Within Potamites, P. ecpleopus is paraphyletic, and P. strangulatus strangulatus and P. strangulatus trachodus are recognized as two distinct species. We also identify three unnamed clades (i.e., not nested within any of the recognized 'genera') from Andean populations in Ecuador and Peru. The estimated age of the clade Cercosaurinae (∼60Ma) corresponds to the early stages of the northern Andes. Even though the distribution of the most recent common ancestor of Cercosaurinae remains equivocal, our analysis shows

  20. Clinical Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCF's) are the most common form of osteoporotic fractures. Whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, they both represent a high risk for not only vertebral but also nonvertebral fractures in untreated populations. This high risk of future fracture after a VCF is independent of the T-score because bone strength is a combination of bone mineral density and bone quality. VCFs are the single greatest risk for future fractures at all other skeletal sites in untreated populations, including hip fractures. They are often unrecognized despite their exceptionally high prevalence in all genders and most ethnic groups as age increases. This article highlights some of the key messages about VCF's, and how assessment for their presence and then management will reduce the risk of all osteoporotic fractures. PMID:26439186

  1. Testing Relationships between Energy and Vertebrate Abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding what drives variation in the abundance of organisms is fundamental to evolutionary ecology and wildlife management. Yet despite its importance, there is still great uncertainty about the main factors influencing variation in vertebrate abundance across taxa. We believe valuable knowledge and increased predictive power could be gained by taking into account both the intrinsic factors of species and the extrinsic factors related to environmental surroundings in the commonly cited RQ model, which provides a simple conceptual framework valid at both the interspecific and the intraspecific scales. Approaches comparing studies undertaken at different spatial and taxonomic scales could be key to our ability to better predict abundance, and thanks to the increased availability of population size data, global geographic datasets, and improved comparative methods, there might be unprecedented opportunities to (1) gain a greater understanding of vertebrate abundance patterns and (2) test existing theories on free-ranging animals.

  2. CT and MRI of vertebral haemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective comparative study of CT and MRI was carried out involving 38 vertebral haemangiomas; this revealed a typical signal pattern on MRI from benign lesions. It consists of a hyper-intense signal from the bone marrow affecting the T1/T2 sequences; this may be focal or involve the entire vertebral body. These characteristic signals were compared with CT images of the spine. The areas of bone that produce the high intensity signals on MRI appear on CT as spongey patterns with hypertrophic trabeculae surrounding mostly areas with negative absorption values. An analysis of the changes in the spongiosa has revealed three clearly defined types. The signals derived from haemangiomas extending beyond the bone have an intensity of normal spongiosa; this corresponds with an absence of fat, as demonstrated by CT. Extra-osseous components have low intensity T1 signals that increase in T2 sequences. (orig.)

  3. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  4. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  5. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification

    OpenAIRE

    O′Guinn, Devon J.; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative ma...

  6. Vertebrates Limb Geometry in the Simplex space

    OpenAIRE

    Daunis i Estadella, Josep; Mateu i Figueras, Glòria; Thió i Fernández de Henestrosa, Santiago; Rodrigues, L

    2008-01-01

    A novel metric comparison of the appendicular skeleton (fore and hind limb) of different vertebrates using the Compositional Data Analysis (CDA) methodological approach it’s presented. 355 specimens belonging in various taxa of Dinosauria (Sauropodomorpha, Theropoda, Ornithischia and Aves) and Mammalia (Prothotheria, Metatheria and Eutheria) were analyzed with CDA. A special focus has been put on Sauropodomorpha dinosaurs and the Aitchinson distance has been used as a mea...

  7. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Signaling in Vertebrate Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xiaoqin; Chun, Jerold

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a cell membrane phospholipid metabolite that can act as an extracellular signal. Its effects are mediated through at least five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), LPA1-5, and likely others as well. Studies in multiple species including LPA receptor-deficient mice and humans have identified or implicated important roles for receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of vertebrate reproduction. These include ovarian function, spermatogenesis, fertilizat...

  8. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brenes

    Full Text Available Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis, and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans. We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively, but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  9. Functional diversification of taste cells in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Abe, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Tastes are senses resulting from the activation of taste cells distributed in oral epithelia. Sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty tastes are called the five “basic” tastes, but why five, and why these five? In this review, we dissect the peripheral gustatory system in vertebrates from molecular and cellular perspectives. Recent behavioral and molecular genetic studies have revealed the nature of functional taste receptors and cells and show that different taste qualities are accounted for b...

  10. Vertebrate ecology at the Los Medanos site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    October and November 1980 vertebrate ecology study accomplishments are outlined in this report. The report provides a listing of food items found in the crops of Mourning Doves collected at the WIPP Site during 1979 and a listing of small mammal digestive tracts and reproductive tracts that have been removed, labeled and preserved. Scaled Quail collection results are also reported. Each specimen was weighed and sexed and the crop contents of each specimen was removed for analysis

  11. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  12. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, J.; W. W. Naumann; Viehweg, J.; Martí-Mus, M.

    1998-01-01

    Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians) compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossil...

  13. Development of the splanchnocranium in Prochilodus argenteus (Teleostei: Characiformes) with a discussion of the basal developmental patterns in the Otophysi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Vari, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    Development of the mandibular, hyoid and gill arches, which constitute the splanchnocranium, are described for Prochilodus argenteus, order Characiformes, one of the basal lineages of the Otophysi. Development was examined from just hatched larvae through juveniles using whole specimens cleared and counterstained for cartilage and bone as well as histological preparations. Observations are compared with the developmental trends reported for Cypriniformes, the basalmost clade of the Otophysi. Shortened developmental sequences for Prochilodus compared to the cypriniform Catostomus were discovered in the ontogeny of the ceratohyals, ceratobranchials 1-5, epibranchials 1-4 and the symplectic portion of the hyosymplectic. Prochilodus also differs from Catostomus in having the basihyal plus the anterior copula appearing at different stages of ontogeny rather than simultaneously. Contrary to previous assumptions, developmental information indicates that hypobranchial 4 as well as likely basibranchial 5 are present in Prochilodus. Various developmental patterns in Prochilodus considered basal for the Otophysi, the predominant component of the Ostariophysi, are likely conserved from patterns prevalent in basal groups in the Actinopterygii. PMID:25595854

  14. Metastatic compression fractures of vertebral bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 65 patients with 76 vertebral compression fractures. Thirty three fractures were due to metastatic tumors; 43 were caused by benign process except for known spinal trauma. Metastatic fractures showed low signal intensity on T1 weighted image (T1WI) and various signal intensities on T2WI. In 27 of the 33 fractures caused by metastases, MRI showed complete replacement of normal bone marrow. Vertebral arches and spinous processes were frequently involved by the tumor. Paravertebral and/or intraspinal soft tissue masses were also highly associated with metastatic fractures. In metastatic fractures, the compression of the spinal cord was more frequent compared to benign processes. Disk involvement was rare in either type of fracture. We suppose MRI is a useful modality in diagnosing metastatic compression fractures. The involvement of vertebral arches and spinous processes due to metastasis, and the presence of paravertebral and/or intraspinal masses are helpful findings for discriminating between malignant and benign processes. (author)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study population was comprised of 27 patients with vertebral compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. Vertebral compression fracture was shown as hypointensity in all patients on T1-weighted images. Hypointensity was confined to one vertebrae in 20 patients (Group A), and to two or more vertebrae in the other 7 patients (Group B). In Group A, 6 patients had disagreement between plain X-ray findings and MRI findings: fracture was not seen on X-ray in one patient; and fracture site on X-ray was different from abnormal site on MRI in the other 5. In Group B, 3 patients had disagreement between X-ray and MRI findigns. For fracture of the thoracic vertebrae, hypointensity on MRI tended to extend the whole vertebrae; and for fracture of the lumbar vertebrae, it tended to be confined to some vertebrae. MRI findings corresponded to pain in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, although they did not concur with pain in the thoraco-lumbar transition area. In comparing with skeletal scintigraphy available in 13 patients, RI uptake was stronger as the range of hypointensity increased. There was no concordance between the range of hypointensity and duration up to pain relief. Mechanical strength of the vertebrae had became weaken when hypointense extended to two thirds of the vertebrae. MRI proved useful for evaluating wealing process of vertebral compression fracture. (N.K.)

  16. Comparative genomics of vertebrate Fox cluster loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeld Sebastian M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate genomes contain numerous duplicate genes, many of which are organised into paralagous regions indicating duplication of linked groups of genes. Comparison of genomic organisation in different lineages can often allow the evolutionary history of such regions to be traced. A classic example of this is the Hox genes, where the presence of a single continuous Hox cluster in amphioxus and four vertebrate clusters has allowed the genomic evolution of this region to be established. Fox transcription factors of the C, F, L1 and Q1 classes are also organised in clusters in both amphioxus and humans. However in contrast to the Hox genes, only two clusters of paralogous Fox genes have so far been identified in the Human genome and the organisation in other vertebrates is unknown. Results To uncover the evolutionary history of the Fox clusters, we report on the comparative genomics of these loci. We demonstrate two further paralogous regions in the Human genome, and identify orthologous regions in mammalian, chicken, frog and teleost genomes, timing the duplications to before the separation of the actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages. An additional Fox class, FoxS, was also found to reside in this duplicated genomic region. Conclusion Comparison of loci identifies the pattern of gene duplication, loss and cluster break up through multiple lineages, and suggests FoxS1 is a likely remnant of Fox cluster duplication.

  17. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  18. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  19. T-cell receptors in ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemagne, J; Fellah, J S; De Guerra, A; Kerfourn, F; Partula, S

    1998-12-01

    The structure and expression of genes encoding molecules homologous to mammalian T-cell receptors (TCR) have been recently studied in ectothermic vertebrate species representative of chondrychthians, teleosts, and amphibians. The overall TCR chain structure is well conserved in phylogeny: TCR beta- and TCR alpha-like chains were detected in all the species analyzed; TCR gamma- and TCR delta-like chains were also present in a chondrychthian species. The diversity potential of the variable (V) and joining (J) segments is rather large and, as in mammals, conserved diversity (D) segments are associated to the TCR beta and TCR delta chains. An important level of junctional diversity occurred at the V-(D)-J junctions, with the potential addition of N- and P-nucleotides. Thus, the conservation of the structure and of the potential of diversity of TCR molecules have been under a permanent selective pressure during vertebrate evolution. The structure of MHC class I and class II molecules was also well conserved in jawed vertebrates. TCR and MHC molecules are strongly functionally linked and play a determinant role in the initiation and the regulation of the specific immune responses; thus, it is not surprising that their structures have been reciprocally frozen during evolution. PMID:9914905

  20. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  1. Repeated Climate-linked host shifts have promoted diversification in a temperate clade of leaf-mining flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central but little-tested prediction of "escape and radiation" coevolution is that colonization of novel, chemically defended host plant clades accelerates insect herbivore diversification. That theory, in turn, exemplifies one side of a broader debate about the relative influence on clade dynami...

  2. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmetti GC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni C Anselmetti1, Sean M Tutton2, Francis R Facchini3, Larry E Miller4,5, Jon E Block51Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Turin, Italy; 2Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Interventional Radiology, Interventional Oncology, VIR Chicago, Hinsdale, IL, USA; 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 5The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system.Case presentation: A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No

  3. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  4. Initial clinical experience with a novel vertebral augmentation system for treatment of symptomatic vertebral compression fractures: A case series of 26 consecutive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Larry E; Repantis Thomas; Korovessis Panagiotis; Block Jon E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Minimally invasive vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat vertebral compression fractures although procedural polymethylmethacrylate cement leakage remains common. We report herein our initial experience with a novel vertebral augmentation technique designed to treat symptomatic vertebral osteoporotic fractures and osteolytic metastases with minimal cement extravasation. Methods Forty-two vertebral fractures were identified in 26 consecutive patients (m...

  5. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  6. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  7. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior

  8. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  9. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  10. Clinical and neuroimaging features vertebral radiculopathy in the combination with vertebral hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-honatskaya M.L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to study the clinical and neuroimaging features of radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas in conjunction with the vertebrae. Materials and methods. A total of 56 patients with radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas combined with the vertebrae. Results. The patients in addition to pain, and focal neurological symptoms were observed violation of urination, and chronic venous insuffciency of lower extremities. MRI identifed three types of vertebral hem-angiomas, depending on the structural characteristics. Conclusion. The aim of the study is realized.Most hemangiomas are asymptomatic yourself. Pain and neurological symptoms caused by musculo-tonic component, the presence of disc herniation, changes in the intervertebral joints, ligaments violation. Type III meets the criteria for hemangiomas and requires aggressive surgical treatment.

  11. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  12. Anatomia do sulco da artéria vertebral Vertebral artery groove anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Max Franco de Carvalho; Roberta Teixeira Rocha; João Tiago Silva Monteiro; Carlos Umberto Pereira; Helton Luiz Aparecido Defino

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido realizadas na região craniocervical devido a diversas patologias. Durante o acesso cirúrgico a essa região existe um risco potencial de lesão iatrogênica da artéria vertebral, relacionado ao acesso lateral amplo e à avaliação inadequada da anatomia local. Variações no trajeto da artéria vertebral ocasionam maior risco de lesão vascular. O estudo pré-operatório por imagem da anatomia da artéria vertebral e do seu sulco tem sido realizado para a...

  13. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  14. The Sun's immutable basal quiet atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, W.; Wallace, L.

    2003-02-01

    We employ limb darkening, spectral energy distribution (color), and center-disk spectrum line strength to investigate photospheric temporal variability. Current limb-darkening curves agree to 1% with past observations taken at different epochs extending back to 1975. Concerning color, from the data of Labs and Neckel (Cox, 1999) we deduce that the solar limb is 1000 Å more red than disk center. But when integrated over the entire disk to represent the Sun-as-a-star, the color shift is only 30 Å. Color is therefore not a very sensitive indicator of full-disk photospheric change. We examine the center-disk time series for C 5380 Å and Fe 5379 Å equivalent width and the Ca K index. The ratio C 5380/Fe 5379 in equivalent width is 0.4221+0.00011 (+/-0.00003) y-1, indicating secular change but with no cycle modulation. Converted to temperature this variance amounts to +/-0.028 K. This is in contrast to the full-disk cycle modulation of these lines reported by Gray and Livingston (1997b). Ca K index also exhibits no cycle variation at disk center. Taking into account these findings, plus the small fraction of the photosphere occupied by magnetic elements as revealed in high-resolution G-band pictures, we suggest that cycle magnetic fields thread through the basal atmosphere without physical effect; that the basal quiet atmosphere is observationally immutable to the magnetic cycle within the limits given above.

  15. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  16. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications

  17. Evaluation on vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures by MRI and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with acute or sub-acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVC-F) by MRI, and to provide basis for diagnosis of OVCF. Methods: The clinical data of a total of 66 patients with OVCF underwent vertebroplasty (76 fracture of vertebral bodies) were selected. The vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of OVCF patients were detected by MRI. Results: There were 57 vertebral endplate injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (75% ). There were only 27 vertebral bodies with vertebral endplate injury in 57 fracture vertebral bodies with endplate injury (47% ), and 22 vertebral with superior and inferior vertebral endplate injury (39% ), and 8 vertebral bodies with inferior vertebral endplate injury (14% ). There were 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (63% ). There were 22 intervertebral disc injury located above the fracture of the lumbar spine in 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury (45% ), and 19 fracture vertebral bodies with upper and lower intervertebral disc injury (40% ), and 7 intervertebral injuries located below the fracture of the lumbar spine (15% ). Conclusion: Vertebral endplate injury is frequently associated with the adjacent intervertebral disk injury. The clinical diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized in the fracture vertebral endplate damage and adjacent intervertebral disc injury. (authors)

  18. The urbilaterian brain revisited: novel insights into old questions from new flatworm clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Xavier; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Flatworms are classically considered to represent the simplest organizational form of all living bilaterians with a true central nervous system. Based on their simple body plans, all flatworms have been traditionally grouped together in a single phylum at the base of the bilaterians. Current molecular phylogenomic studies now split the flatworms into two widely separated clades, the acoelomorph flatworms and the platyhelminth flatworms, such that the last common ancestor of both clades corresponds to the urbilaterian ancestor of all bilaterian animals. Remarkably, recent comparative neuroanatomical analyses of acoelomorphs and platyhelminths show that both of these flatworm groups have complex anterior brains with surprisingly similar basic neuroarchitectures. Taken together, these findings imply that fundamental neuroanatomical features of the brain in the two separate flatworm groups are likely to be primitive and derived from the urbilaterian brain. PMID:23143292

  19. Mitochondrial molecular clocks and the origin of the major Otocephalan clades (Pisces: Teleostei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Zuogang; He, Shunping; Wang, Jun;

    2006-01-01

    The Otocephala, a clade including ostariophysan and clupeomorph teleosts, represents about a quarter of total fish species diversity, with about 1000 genera and more than 7000 species. A series of recent papers have defended that the origin of this clade and of its major groups may be significantly...... otophysans could have originated before the splitting of the Pangean supercontinent is of extreme importance, since otophysan fishes are among the most useful animal groups for the determination of historical continental relationships. In the present work we examined divergence times for each major...... otocephalan group by an analysis of complete mtDNA sequences, in order to investigate if these divergence times support the hypotheses advanced in recent studies. The complete mtDNA sequences of nine representative non-otocephalan fish species and of twenty-one representative otocephalan species was compared...

  20. Analysis of vertebrate gap junction protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Finbow, M E; Shuttleworth, J.; Hamilton, A.E.; Pitts, J D

    1983-01-01

    A new method for the purification of gap junctions is described which depends on the extraction of cell monolayers or tissue homogenates with Triton X-100. The major band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of junctional preparations from a variety of vertebrate sources has an apparent mol. wt. of 16,000 (16 K). Further evidence for the junctional origin of the 16 K protein is provided by the results of four different experimental approaches. (i) The junctions form a sharp band i...

  1. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage...... regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...

  2. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    ’s intrinsic O2-affinity and its allosteric interaction with cellular effectors (organic phosphates, protons and chloride). Whereas short-term altitudinal adaptations predominantly involve adjustments in allosteric interactions, long-term, genetically-coded adaptations typically involve changes in the....... Molecular heterogeneity (multiple isoHbs with differentiated oxygenation properties) can further broaden the range of physico-chemical conditions where Hb functions under altitudinal hypoxia. This treatise reviews the molecular and cellular mechanisms that adapt haemoglobin-oxygen affinities in mammals......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  3. Streamlining and Core Genome Conservation among Highly Divergent Members of the SAR11 Clade

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Jana; Thrash, J. Cameron; Huggett, Megan J.; Landry, Zachary C.; Carini, Paul; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Rappé, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT SAR11 is an ancient and diverse clade of heterotrophic bacteria that are abundant throughout the world’s oceans, where they play a major role in the ocean carbon cycle. Correlations between the phylogenetic branching order and spatiotemporal patterns in cell distributions from planktonic ocean environments indicate that SAR11 has evolved into perhaps a dozen or more specialized ecotypes that span evolutionary distances equivalent to a bacterial order. We isolated and sequenced genome...

  4. Rapid diversification and not clade age explains high diversity in neotropical Adelpha butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Sean P.; Savage, Wesley K.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Willmott, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    Latitudinal gradients in species richness are among the most well-known biogeographic patterns in nature, and yet there remains much debate and little consensus over the ecological and evolutionary causes of these gradients. Here, we evaluated whether two prominent alternative hypotheses (namely differences in diversification rate or clade age) could account for the latitudinal diversity gradient in one of the most speciose neotropical butterfly genera (Adelpha) and its close relatives. We ge...

  5. Temporal variability of coastal Planctomycetes clades at Kabeltonne station, North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzetti, Ilaria; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wichels, Antje; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    Members of the bacterial phylum Planctomycetes are reported in marine water samples worldwide, but quantitative information is scarce. Here we investigated the phylogenetic diversity, abundance, and distribution of Planctomycetes in surface waters off the German North Sea island Helgoland during different seasons by 16S rRNA gene analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Generally Planctomycetes are more abundant in samples collected in summer and autumn than in samples collected in winter and spring. Statistical analysis revealed that Planctomycetes abundance was correlated to the Centrales diatom bloom in spring 2007. The analysis of size-fractionated seawater samples and of macroaggregates showed that ~90% of the Planctomycetes reside in the >3-μm size fraction. Comparative sequence analysis of 184 almost full-length 16S rRNA genes revealed three dominant clades. The clades, named Planctomyces-related group A, uncultured Planctomycetes group B, and Pirellula-related group D, were monitored by CARD-FISH using newly developed oligonucleotide probes. All three clades showed recurrent abundance patterns during two annual sampling campaigns. Uncultured Planctomycetes group B was most abundant in autumn samples, while Planctomyces-related group A was present in high numbers only during late autumn and winter. The levels of Pirellula-related group D were more constant throughout the year, with elevated counts in summer. Our analyses suggest that the seasonal succession of the Planctomycetes is correlated with algal blooms. We hypothesize that the niche partitioning of the different clades might be caused by their algal substrates. PMID:21642408

  6. Clade- and species-specific features of genome evolution in the Saccharomycetaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Armisén, David; Proux-Wera, Estelle; ÓhÉigeartaigh, Seán S.; Azam, Haleema; Gordon, Jonathan L.; Byrne, Kevin P

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of the genomes of yeast species in the family Saccharomycetaceae have been well conserved during evolution. They have similar genome sizes, genome contents, and extensive collinearity of gene order along chromosomes. Gene functions can often be inferred reliably by using information from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Beyond this conservative picture however, there are many instances where a species or a clade diverges substantially from the S. cerevisiae paradigm—for example, by the ...

  7. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  8. Rapid diversification and not clade age explains high diversity in neotropical Adelpha butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Sean P; Savage, Wesley K; Wahlberg, Niklas; Willmott, Keith R

    2011-06-22

    Latitudinal gradients in species richness are among the most well-known biogeographic patterns in nature, and yet there remains much debate and little consensus over the ecological and evolutionary causes of these gradients. Here, we evaluated whether two prominent alternative hypotheses (namely differences in diversification rate or clade age) could account for the latitudinal diversity gradient in one of the most speciose neotropical butterfly genera (Adelpha) and its close relatives. We generated a multilocus phylogeny of a diverse group of butterflies in the containing tribe Limenitidini, which has both temperate and tropical representatives. Our results suggest there is no relationship between clade age and species richness that could account for the diversity gradient, but that instead it could be explained by a significantly higher diversification rate within the predominantly tropical genus Adelpha. An apparent early larval host-plant shift to Rubiaceae and other plant families suggests that the availability of new potential host plants probably contributed to an increase in diversification of Adelpha in the lowland Neotropics. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that the equatorial peak in species richness observed within Adelpha is the result of increased diversification rate in the last 10-15 Myr rather than a function of clade age, perhaps reflecting adaptive divergence in response to the dramatic host-plant diversity found within neotropical ecosystems. PMID:21106589

  9. Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Alba, David M; Robles, Josep M; Valenciano, Alberto; Rotgers, Cheyenn; Carmona, Raül; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae), has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century. Based on molecular data, it is currently recognized as a true ursid, sister-taxon of the remaining extant bears, from which it would have diverged by the Early Miocene. However, from a paleobiogeographic and chronological perspective, the origin of the giant panda lineage has remained elusive due to the scarcity of the available Miocene fossil record. Until recently, the genus Ailurarctos from the Late Miocene of China (ca. 8-7 mya) was recognized as the oldest undoubted member of the Ailuropodinae, suggesting that the panda lineage might have originated from an Ursavus ancestor. The role of the purported ailuropodine Agriarctos, from the Miocene of Europe, in the origins of this clade has been generally dismissed due to the paucity of the available material. Here, we describe a new ailuropodine genus, Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., based on remains from two Middle Miocene (ca. 12-11 Ma) Spanish localities. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant members of the Ursoidea confirms the inclusion of the new genus into the Ailuropodinae. Moreover, Kretzoiarctos precedes in time the previously-known, Late Miocene members of the giant panda clade from Eurasia (Agriarctos and Ailurarctos). The former can be therefore considered the oldest recorded member of the giant panda lineage, which has significant implications for understanding the origins of this clade from a paleobiogeographic viewpoint. PMID:23155439

  10. Phylogenetic and Molecular Variability Studies Reveal a New Genetic Clade of Citrus leprosis virus C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Breton, Michèle Claire; Arena, Gabriella Dias; Nunes, Maria Andreia; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes a severe disease affecting citrus orchards in the Western hemisphere. This study reveals the molecular variability of the virus by analyzing four genomic regions (p29, p15, MP and RNA2-intergenic region) distributed over its two RNAs. Nucleotide diversity (π) values were relatively low but statistically different over the analyzed genes and subpopulations, indicating their distinct evolutionary history. Values of πp29 and πMP were higher than those of πp15 and πRNA2–IR, whereas πMP was increased due to novel discovered isolates phylogenetically clustered in a divergent clade that we called SJP. Isolate BR_SP_SJP_01 RNA1 and RNA2 sequences, clade SJP, showed an identity of 85.6% and 88.4%, respectively, with those corresponding to CiLV-C, the type member of the genus Cilevirus, and its RNA2 5′-proximal region was revealed as a minor donor in a putative inter-clade recombination event. In addition to citrus, BR_SP_SJP_01 naturally infects the weed Commelina benghalensis and is efficiently transmitted by Brevipalpus yothersi mites. Our data demonstrated that negative selection was the major force operating in the evaluated viral coding regions and defined amino acids putatively relevant for the biological function of cilevirus proteins. This work provides molecular tools and sets up a framework for further epidemiological studies. PMID:27275832

  11. Commensal associations and benthic habitats shape macroevolution of the bivalve clade Galeommatoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchun; Ó Foighil, Diarmaid; Strong, Ellen E

    2016-07-13

    The great diversity of marine life has been shaped by the interplay between abiotic and biotic factors. Among different biotic interactions, symbiosis is an important yet less studied phenomenon. Here, we tested how symbiotic associations affected marine diversification, using the bivalve superfamily Galeommatoidea as a study system. This superfamily contains large numbers of obligate commensal as well as free-living species and is therefore amenable to comparative approaches. We constructed a global molecular phylogeny of Galeommatoidea and compared macroevolutionary patterns between free-living and commensal lineages. Our analyses inferred that commensalism/sediment-dwelling is likely to be the ancestral condition of Galeommatoidea and that secondary invasions of hard-bottom habitats linked to the loss of commensalism. One major clade containing most of the free-living species exhibits a 2-4 times higher diversification rate than that of the commensals, likely driven by frequent niche partitioning in highly heterogeneous hard-bottom habitats. However, commensal clades show much higher within-clade morphological disparity, likely promoted by their intimate associations with diverse hosts. Our study highlights the importance of interactions between different ecological factors in shaping marine macroevolution and that biotic factors cannot be ignored if we wish to fully understand processes that generate marine biodiversity. PMID:27383818

  12. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  13. Avian influenza (H5N1 virus of clade 2.3.2 in domestic poultry in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Nagarajan

    Full Text Available South Asia has experienced regular outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza virus since its first detection in India and Pakistan in February, 2006. Till 2009, the outbreaks in this region were due to clade 2.2 H5N1 virus. In 2010, Nepal reported the first outbreak of clade 2.3.2 virus in South Asia. In February 2011, two outbreaks of H5N1 virus were reported in the State of Tripura in India. The antigenic and genetic analyses of seven H5N1 viruses isolated during these outbreaks were carried out. Antigenic analysis confirmed 64 to 256-fold reduction in cross reactivity compared with clade 2.2 viruses. The intravenous pathogenicity index of the isolates ranged from 2.80-2.95 indicating high pathogenicity to chickens. Sequencing of all the eight gene-segments of seven H5N1 viruses isolated in these outbreaks was carried out. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis revealed high pathogenicity to chickens and susceptibility to the antivirals, amantadine and oseltamivir. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses belong to clade 2.3.2.1 and were distinct to the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated in Nepal. Identification of new clade 2.3.2 H5N1 viruses in South Asia is reminiscent of the introduction of clade 2.2 viruses in this region in 2006/7. It is now important to monitor whether the clade 2.3.2.1 is replacing clade 2.2 in this region or co-circulating with it. Continued co-circulation of various subclades of the H5N1 virus which are more adapted to land based poultry in a highly populated region such as South Asia increases the risk of evolution of pandemic H5N1 strains.

  14. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism. PMID:26545592

  15. Basal divergence of Eriophyoidea (Acariformes, Eupodina) inferred from combined partial COI and 28S gene sequences and CLSM genital anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, P E; Cvrković, T; Makunin, A; Sukhareva, S; Vidović, B; Petanović, R

    2015-10-01

    Eriophyoids are an ancient group of highly miniaturized, morphologically simplified and diverse phytoparasitic mites. Their possible numerous host-switch events have been accompanied by considerable homoplastic evolution. Although several morphological cladistic and molecular phylogenetic studies attempted to reconstruct phylogeny of Eriophyoidea, the major lineages of eriophyoids, as well as the evolutionary relationships between them, are still poorly understood. New phylogenetically informative data have been provided by the recent discovery of the early derivative pentasetacine genus Loboquintus, and observations on the eriophyoid reproductive anatomy. Herein, we use COI and D1-2 rRNA data of 73 eriophyoid species (including early derivative pentasetacines) from Europe, the Americas and South Africa to reconstruct part of the phylogeny of the superfamily, and infer on the basal divergence of eriophyoid taxa. In addition, a comparative CLSM study of the female internal genitalia was undertaken in order to find putative apomorphies, which can be used to improve the taxonomy of Eriophyoidea. The following molecular clades, marked by differences in genital anatomy and prodorsal shield setation, were found in our analyses: Loboquintus(Pentasetacus((Eriophyidae + Diptilomiopidae)(Phytoptidae-1, Phytoptidae-2))). The results of this study suggest that the superfamily Eriophyoidea comprises basal paraphyletic pentasetacines (Loboquintus and Pentasetacus), and two large monophyletic groups: Eriophyidae s.l. [containing paraphyletic Eriophyidae sensu Amrine et al. 2003 (=Eriophyidae s.str.) and Diptilomiopidae sensu Amrine et al. 2003] and Phytoptidae s.l. [containing monophyletic Phytoptidae sensu Boczek et al. 1989 (=Phytoptidae s.str.) and Nalepellidae sensu Boczek et al. 1989]. Putative morphological apomorphies (including genital and gnathosomal characters) supporting the clades revealed in molecular analyses are briefly discussed. PMID:26126634

  16. Formation of vertebral precursors: Past models and future predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Ruth E.; Schnell, Santiago; Maini, Philip K.

    2003-01-01

    Disruption of normal vertebral development results from abnormal formation and segmentation of the vertebral precursors, called somites. Somitogenesis, the sequential formation of a periodic pattern along the antero-posterior axis of vertebrate embryos, is one of the most obvious examples of the segmental patterning processes that take place during embryogenesis and also one of the major unresolved events in developmental biology. We review the most popular models of somite formation: Cooke a...

  17. Pan-vertebrate comparative genomics unmasks retrovirus macroevolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Alexander; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Jern, Patric

    2014-01-01

    For millions of years retroviruses, such as HIV in humans, have attacked vertebrates. Occasionally retroviruses infiltrate germ cells, incorporate themselves into the host’s genome, and transmit vertically to the host’s offspring as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Consequently, ERVs make up large portions of vertebrate genomes and represent a record of past host–retrovirus interactions. We developed pan-vertebrate ERV analyses to provide an overview of host–retrovirus interactions, generating...

  18. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  19. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  20. Degenerative diseases of the vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, D

    1985-07-01

    Several distinct degenerative processes affect the articulations of the vertebral column; each is associated with characteristic radiographic and pathologic abnormalities, and many are accompanied by significant clinical manifestations. A discussion of these processes is best accomplished according to the type of joint that is involved. With regard to cartilaginous articulations, of which the intervertebral disk is most important, intervertebral (osteo)chondrosis, spondylosis deformans, and, in the cervical spine, uncovertebral arthrosis are the major degenerative disorders. Osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis) affects any of the synovium-lined joints of the vertebral column, including the apophyseal, costovertebral, transitional lumbosacral, median atlantoaxial, and sacroiliac articulations. Fibrous articulations, ligaments, or entheses (sites of tendon or ligament attachment to bone) are involved in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, ossification of the posterior spinal ligaments, and Baastrup disease. Of the many complications of these degenerative processes, alignment abnormalities (including segmental instability, degenerative spondylolisthesis, senile kyphosis, and degenerative scoliosis), intervertebral disk displacement, calcification or ossification, and spinal stenosis are the most important. PMID:3923556

  1. Dominance in vertebrate broods and litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Hugh

    2006-03-01

    Drawing on the concepts and theory of dominance in adult vertebrates, this article categorizes the relationships of dominance between infant siblings, identifies the behavioral mechanisms that give rise to those relationships, and proposes a model to explain their evolution. Dominance relationships in avian broods can be classified according to the agonistic roles of dominants and subordinates as "aggression-submission," "aggression-resistance," "aggression-aggression," "aggression-avoidance," "rotating dominance," and "flock dominance." These relationships differ mainly in the submissiveness/pugnacity of subordinates, which is pivotal, and in the specificity/generality of the learning processes that underlie them. As in the dominance hierarchies of adult vertebrates, agonistic roles are engendered and maintained by several mechanisms, including differential fighting ability, assessment, trained winning and losing (especially in altricial species), learned individual relationships (especially in precocial species), site-specific learning, and probably group-level effects. An evolutionary framework in which the species-typical dominance relationship is determined by feeding mode, confinement, cost of subordination, and capacity for individual recognition, can be extended to mammalian litters and account for the aggression-submission and aggression-resistance observed in distinct populations of spotted hyenas and the "site-specific dominance" (teat ownership) of some pigs, felids, and hyraxes. Little is known about agonism in the litters of other mammals or broods of poikilotherms, but some species of fish and crocodilians have the potential for dominance among broodmates. PMID:16602272

  2. Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonz, Michael G; Buck, Leslie T; Perry, Steve F; Schwerte, Thorsten; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons. PMID:25959851

  3. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  4. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Christopher R; Emmett, Warren; Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-05-21

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from precursor messenger RNA transcripts. However, some long Drosophila melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, known as a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis have not been examined. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of an 'RS-exon' that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform owing to competition with a reconstituted 5' splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic promoters or exons that fail to reconstitute an efficient 5' splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion can decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling cryptic elements with inclusion of RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  5. The origins and evolution of vertebrate metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Vincent

    2011-09-27

    Metamorphosis, classically defined as a spectacular post-embryonic transition, is well exemplified by the transformation of a tadpole into a frog. It implies the appearance of new body parts (such as the limbs), the resorption of larval features (such as the tail) and the remodelling of many organs (such as the skin or the intestine). In vertebrates, metamorphosis has been well characterized in anuran amphibians, where thyroid hormones orchestrate the intricate and seemingly contradictory changes observed at the cellular and tissue levels. Thyroid hormones control a complex hierarchical cascade of target genes via binding to specific receptors, TRα and TRβ, ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Metamorphosis is actually widespread in the vertebrates, though quite diverse in the way it manifests in a particular species. Furthermore, evolutionary and ecological variations of this key event, from paedomorphosis to direct development, provide an excellent illustration of how tinkering with a control pathway can lead to divergent life histories. The study of invertebrate chordates has also shed light on the origin of metamorphosis. The available data suggest that post-embryonic remodelling governed by thyroid hormones is an ancestral feature of chordates. According to this view, metamorphosis of the anurans is an extreme example of a widespread life history transition. PMID:21959163

  6. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  7. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  8. How to achieve a predictable basal insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzhals, P

    2005-09-01

    The development of insulin analogues over the last two decades have aimed at optimising the pharmacokinetic profile of subcutaneously injected insulin for therapeutic use in diabetes mellitus. Rapid acting analogues were successfully engineered and marketed in the late 1990's. In engineering long-acting analogues it has been a particular challenge to obtain action profiles that would be predictable from day to day in the same person. The most recent approach has been to acylate the insulin molecule with a fatty acid which provides the insulin molecule with a specific affinity for albumin. The first clinically available agent of this type is insulin detemir. Pharmacological studies have shown that reversible albumin binding will protract absorption following subcutaneous injection but still allow the insulin molecule to be recognised by the insulin receptor following dissociation from the carrier protein. Moreover, the molecular features of insulin detemir are attractive in that the molecule can be formulated as a neutral aqueous solution and does not precipitate after injection. Together with an important buffering mechanism effected by plasma albumin binding, this explains a highly significant reduction of within-subject variability of pharmacodynamic response observed in repeat isoglycaemic clamp studies where insulin detemir was compared to other basal insulin products. No safety considerations have been identified in using albumin as an insulin carrier to protract and buffer insulin action. In assessing the clinical attractiveness of insulin analogues, it is furthermore critically important to consider how the molecular modifications impact efficacy and safety. A number of pharmacological studies have shown that insulin detemir overall retains the molecular pharmacological properties of native human insulin, including a physiological balance between metabolic and mitogenic potencies. Taken together, insulin detemir provides an attractive novel approach for

  9. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Mexican men

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, P.; Cons-Molina, F.; Deleze, M.; Talavera, J. O.; Palermo, L.; Cummings, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 413 in Mexican men is 9.7% (95% CI 6.85–12.55). Increase of vertebral fracture rises with age from 2.0% in the youngest group (50–59 years) to 21.4% in the oldest group (80 years and over). Introduction This is the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Mexican men using a standardized methodology reported in other studies. Methods The presence of radiographic vertebral fractures i...

  10. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Mexican men

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, P.; Cons-Molina, F.; Deleze, M.; Talavera, J. O.; Palermo, L.; Cummings, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 413 in Mexican men is 9.7% (95% CI 6.85–12.55). Increase of vertebral fracture rises with age from 2.0% in the youngest group (50–59 years) to 21.4% in the oldest group (80 years and over). This is the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Mexican men using a standardized methodology reported in other studies. The presence of radiographic vertebral fractures increases with age. This...

  11. Conservation and variation in enamel protein distribution during vertebrate tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Paul G; Anderton, Xochitl; Ryu, Okhee H; Luan, Xianghong; Ortega, Adam J; Opamen, Rene; Berman, Brett J; Witherspoon, David E; Gutmann, James L; Yamane, Akira; Zeichner-David, Margerita; Simmer, James P; Shuler, Charles F; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2002-08-15

    Vertebrate enamel formation is a unique synthesis of the function of highly specialized enamel proteins and their effect on the growth and organization of apatite crystals. Among tetrapods, the physical structure of enamel is highly conserved, while there is a greater variety of enameloid tooth coverings in fish. In the present study, we postulated that in enamel microstructures of similar organization, the principle components of the enamel protein matrix would have to be highly conserved. In order to identify the enamel proteins that might be most highly conserved and thus potentially most essential to the process of mammalian enamel formation, we used immunoscreening with enamel protein antibodies as a means to assay for degrees of homology to mammalian enamel proteins. Enamel preparations from mouse, gecko, frog, lungfish, and shark were screened with mammalian enamel protein antibodies, including amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin, MMP20, and EMSP1. Our results demonstrated that amelogenin was the most highly conserved enamel protein associated with the enamel organ, enamelin featured a distinct presence in shark enameloid but was also present in the enamel organ of other species, while the other enamel proteins, tuftelin, MMP20, and EMSP1, were detected in both in the enamel organ and in other tissues of all species investigated. We thus conclude that the investigated enamel proteins, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin, MMP20, and EMSP1, were highly conserved in a variety of vertebrate species. We speculate that there might be a unique correlation between amelogenin-rich tetrapod and lungfish enamel with long and parallel crystals and enamelin-rich basal vertebrate enameloid with diverse patterns of crystal organization. PMID:12210110

  12. The excision width in surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma originates from pluripotent cells of basal layer of epiderm, external covering of hair follicles, sebaceous glands or other skin adnexa. It is characterized by local infiltrating and sometimes destructive growth. There are several types of basal cell carcinomas that may be manifested in over 12 clinical forms. Surgical treatment depends to a large extent on the histological type, localization and its clinical manifestation. The analysis included 250 patients of both gender and different age, operated for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma and the width of the excision were described. It was concluded that the width of the excision of basal cell cancer was in relation to histological type. .

  13. Efficacy of application of vaccine AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 on Mojosari ducks challenge against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriani R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 outbreaks since September 2012 caused high mortality in ducks. Vaccination is one of strategies recommended by government. However, AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine not yet available during this research, while AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 vaccines available in markets. Therefore it was important to do study on efficay of HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3. vaccines on duck at laboratory scale. Three groups of Mojosari duck were used in this study, they were 1 group vaccinated with A Vaccine, 1 group vaccinated with B Vaccine, and 1 group as control (not vaccinated. Vacination groups consisted of 9 DOD and control group was consisted of 6 DOD. Vaccination was conducted when the duck at three weeks old of age using single dose recommended by producer. At three weeks later (ducks at 6 weeks old of age all Groups of ducks were challenged with virus HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 at dose 106 EID50/ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that Group 1 (vaccinated with A Vaccine produced 67% protection (3 out of 9 ducks died, Group 2 (vaccinated with B Vaccine produced 100% protection (non out of 9 ducks died, and Group 3 (control, not vaccinated produce 0% protection (all of 9 ducks died. This study give an alternative of choise to use AI H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 vaccine with high protection when AI H5N1 Clade 2.3.2 vaccine not available in markets to controll high mortality in ducks caused by HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 outbreaks.

  14. Early Bone Marrow Edema Pattern of the Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture : Can Be Predictor of Vertebral Deformity Types and Prognosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young; Kim, Sung Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an early bone marrow edema pattern predicts vertebral deformity types and prognosis in osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Methods This retrospective study enrolled 64 patients with 75 acute OVCFs who underwent early MRI and followed up MRI. On early MRI, the low SI pattern of OVCF on T1WI were assessed and classified into 3 types (diffuse, globular or patchy, band-like). On followed up MRI, the vertebral deformity types (anterior wedge, biconcave...

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  16. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, JD; Warren, TL; Brainard, MS

    2012-01-01

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential ' actor-models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to s...

  17. Sequence learning in a model of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Søiland, Stian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational model of the basal ganglia that is able to learn sequences and perform action selection. The basal ganglia is a set of structures in the human brain involved in everything from action selection to reinforcement learning, inspiring research in psychology, neuroscience and computer science. Two temporal difference models of the basal ganglia based on previous work have been reimplemented. Several experiments and analyses help understand and describe the or...

  18. Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Circuit models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction have undergone significant changes over time. The previous view that the basal ganglia are centers in which massive convergence of cortical information occurred has now been replaced by a view in which these structures process information in a highly specific manner, participating in anatomical and functional modules that also involve cortex and thalamus. In addition, much has been learned about the intrinsic connections of the basal ga...

  19. PIGMENTED BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A RARE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VARIANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar; Sumanlatha

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumour of skin , commonly referred to as „rodent ulcer‟. It is common in the head and neck region. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits inc reased pigmentation. It is a rare variant that can clinically mimic malignant melanoma. It is more common in males than females. Herein , we are...

  20. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean ± standard error cement volume was 5.1 ± 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of o vs. -1.0 ± 2.7o, P o, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 ± 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  1. Influence of certain forces on evolution of synonymous codon usage bias in certain species of three basal orders of aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T

    2012-12-01

    Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages. PMID

  2. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  3. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  4. Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Forehead: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjčec, Zoran; Lisica-Šikić, Nataša; Kovačić, Marijan

    2012-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carc...

  5. Dominant and novel clades of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis in 18 globally distributed full-scale wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanping; Graham, David W.; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Zhang, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Here we employed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) and 16S rRNA genes to assess relative abundances of dominant clades of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (referred to Accumulibacter) in 18 globally distributed full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from six countries. Accumulibacter were not only detected in the 6 WWTPs performing biological phosphorus removal, but also inhabited in the other 11 WWTPs employing conventional activated sludge (AS) with abundances ranging from 0.02% to 7.0%. Among the AS samples, clades IIC and IID were found to be dominant among the five Accumulibacter clades. The relative abundance of each clade in the Accumulibacter lineage significantly correlated (p biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) WWTPs. The results deepened our understanding of the Accumulibacter diversity in environmental samples.

  6. Congruence between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in Demospongiae: a new hypothesis for relationships within the G4 clade (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C C; Picton, B E; Erpenbeck, D; Boury-Esnault, N; Maggs, C A; Allcock, A L

    2012-01-01

    The current morphological classification of the Demospongiae G4 clade was tested using large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) sequences from 119 taxa. Fifty-three mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) barcoding sequences were also analysed to test whether the 28S phylogeny could be recovered using an independent gene. This is the largest and most comprehensive study of the Demospongiae G4 clade. The 28S and CO1 genetrees result in congruent clades but conflict with the current morphological classification. The results confirm the polyphyly of Halichondrida, Hadromerida, Dictyonellidae, Axinellidae and Poecilosclerida and show that several of the characters used in morphological classifications are homoplasious. Robust clades are clearly shown and a new hypothesis for relationships of taxa allocated to G4 is proposed. PMID:22001855

  7. Dominant and novel clades of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis in 18 globally distributed full-scale wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanping; Graham, David W.; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Zhang, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Here we employed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) and 16S rRNA genes to assess relative abundances of dominant clades of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (referred to Accumulibacter) in 18 globally distributed full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from six countries. Accumulibacter were not only detected in the 6 WWTPs performing biological phosphorus removal, but also inhabited in the other 11 WWTPs employing conventional activated sludge (AS) with abundances ranging from 0.02% to 7.0%. Among the AS samples, clades IIC and IID were found to be dominant among the five Accumulibacter clades. The relative abundance of each clade in the Accumulibacter lineage significantly correlated (p phosphorus removal (EBPR) WWTPs. The results deepened our understanding of the Accumulibacter diversity in environmental samples.

  8. Current and emerging treatment strategies for vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacein-Bey L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lotfi Hacein-BeyRadiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group Inc, Sacramento, CA, USABackground: Vertebral compression fractures are most commonly related to osteoporosis or cancer, both of which are on the rise throughout the world. Once a vertebra is fractured, gradual deterioration of quality of life due to crippling pain and spinal instability usually follows. Although a number of traditional management options have been available to promote pain relief and to allow for increased activities, such as bed rest, bracing, pain medications, and light exercise programs, these have limited effectiveness in the majority of patients. Over 20 years ago, percutaneous vertebroplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure consisting of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate directly into the fractured vertebra, emerged as an effective treatment. Various vertebral augmentation procedures were subsequently designed, all of which aim at eliminating pain, limiting or reversing vertebral collapse, and providing stability to the affected segment of the spine.Objective: This article discusses clinical aspects of vertebral compression fractures, current indications and contraindications and summarizes technical aspects of vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, lordoplasty, and device-implanting vertebral augmentation procedures. Treatment effectiveness, which is significant despite recent criticism of vertebroplasty and other vertebral augmentation procedures, is also discussed. As economic pressures on health care systems are increasing in all countries, it is expected that the appropriateness, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of vertebral augmentation procedures will be increasingly established by outcome analyses.Conclusion: It is important that physicians are familiar with vertebroplasty and other procedures designed to treat vertebral fractures in patients with advanced osteoporosis or cancer. These fractures, which are common and often

  9. Evolution of developmental roles of Pax2/5/8 paralogs after independent duplication in urochordate and vertebrate lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañestro Cristian

    2008-08-01

    sites of epithelial remodeling, and in sensory tissues evokes like functions of Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in vertebrate embryos, and may indicate ancient origins for these functions in the chordate common ancestor. Conclusion Comparative analysis of expression patterns of chordate Pax2/5/8 duplicates, rooted on the single-copy Pax2/5/8 gene of amphioxus, whose lineage diverged basally among chordates, provides new insights into the evolution and development of the heart, thyroid, pharynx, stomodeum and placodes in chordates; supports the controversial conclusion that the atrial siphon of ascidians and the otic placode in vertebrates are homologous; and backs the notion that Pax2/5/8 functioned in ancestral chordates to engineer epithelial fusions and perforations, including gill slit openings.

  10. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Sami N; Reynolds, L Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5. PMID:22879797

  11. Morphological features of the species of the genus Chlamydomonas s.l. (Chlorophyta from various molecular clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria N. Pavlovska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of 78 authentic strains from 5 clades into culture condition was investigated. The complex of phenotype features was established. Such features as: type of mucilage and their origin, mucilage collapse under methylene blue, saving papilla and stigma in not motile stage, extracellular matrix formation inside cell wall, the way of sporangium break, pyrenoid and stigma habit before cell division, cell shape, chloroplast morphology. Diagnostic features for determination of taxa on clades level are discussed.

  12. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  13. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 112 patients with 210 vertebral compression fractures. Forty fractures were due to malignancy; 170 were caused by benign process. Pathological fractures showed low signal intensity (SI) on T1 weighted image (WI) and various SI on T2 WI. In 39 of the 40 fractures caused by malignancy, MRI showed complete replacement of normal bone marrow. Other findings of pathological fractures, such as involvement of posterior structures, paraspinal soft tissue masses, are useful for discrimination between benign and pathologic compression fractures. In 120 of the 157 fractures caused osteoporosis had complete preservation of normal bone marrow and isointense or high intense marrow SI on T1 WI and T2 WI. Compression fractures caused by trauma showed low SI on T1 WI and high SI on T2 WI with an irregular pattern. We suppose MRI may be a useful modality in differenciating benign and metastatic fractures. (author)

  15. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Amer; Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  16. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak;

    2015-01-01

    -oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 ‘trigger’ sites [3] . These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important...... [2] . However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3] . Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians......) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc)....

  17. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, P; Goulão, A

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. PMID:15657789

  18. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  19. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  20. Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

    2004-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

  1. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  2. Vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic change)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Secher; Karppinen, Jaro; Sorensen, Joan S;

    2008-01-01

    objectives of this systematic critical review were to investigate the current literature in relation to the prevalence of VESC (including Modic changes) and the association with non-specific low back pain (LBP). The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SveMED databases were searched for the period 1984 to November 2007......The prevalence of "vertebral endplate signal changes" (VESC) and its association with low back pain (LBP) varies greatly between studies. This wide range in reported prevalence rates and associations with LBP could be explained by differences in the definitions of VESC, LBP, or study sample. The...... populations with ORs from 2.0 to 19.9. This systematic review shows that VESC is a common MRI-finding in patients with non-specific LBP and is associated with pain. However, it should be noted that VESC may be present in individuals without LBP....

  3. {gamma}-irradiation deregulates cell cycle control and apoptosis in nevoid basal cell carcinomas syndrome-derived cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masao [National Children' s Medical Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Sugita, Katsuo; Kohno, Yoichi; Nishie, Haruko; Yasumoto, Shin-ichiro; Furue, Masutaka

    1999-12-01

    The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by nevi, palmar and plantar pits, falx calcification, vertebrate anomalies and basal cell carcinomas. It is well known in NBCCS that {gamma}-irradiation to the skin induces basal cell carcinomas or causes an enlargement of the tumor size, although the details of the mechanism remain unknown. We have established lymphoblastoid cell lines from three NBCCS patients, and we present here the first evidence of abnormal cell cycle and apoptosis regulations. A novel mutation (single nucleotide deletion) in the coding region of the human patched gene, PTCH, was identified in two sibling patients, but no apparent abnormalities were detected in the gene of the remaining patient. Nevertheless, the three established cell lines showed similar features in the following analyses. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that the NBCCS-derived cells were accumulated in the G{sub 2}M phase after {gamma}-irradiation, whereas normal cells showed cell cycle arrest both in the G{sub 0}G{sub 1} and G{sub 2}M phases. The fraction of apoptotic cells after {gamma}-irradiation was smaller in the NBCCS cells. The level of p27 expression markedly decreased after {gamma}-irradiation in the NBCCS cells, although the effects of the irradiation on the expression profiles for p53, p21 and Rb did not differ in normal and NBCCS cells. These findings may provide a clue to the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis in NBCCS. (author)

  4. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is ''typical'' (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an ''atypical'' appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots (''aggressive'' VHs). These ''atypical'' and ''aggressive'' VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. (orig.)

  5. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is ''typical'' (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an ''atypical'' appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots (''aggressive'' VHs). These ''atypical'' and ''aggressive'' VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  7. Preoperative MRI evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging examination in guiding the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Methods: A total of 286 patients with vertebral hemangiomas detected on spine MRI in authors' Department were enrolled in this study. The patient's age, the lesion's size and location, the clinical symptoms, MRI findings, etc. were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 336 vertebral bodies were affected in 286 patients. The lesions were mainly located at the lumbar spine (43.15%) and the thoracic spine (37.80%). The highest incidence of disease was seen in 50-59 years old patients (34.62%). The mean diameter of the lesions was 14.56 mm. Solitary lesion was seen in 85.66% of patients, while two vertebral bodies involved were seen in 10.14% of patients. Twelve cases (4.20%) simply presented as back pain at the related vertebral bodies. Two patients showed signs due to spinal cord compression. All aggressive vertebral hemangiomas were manifested as iso-lower signal on T1-weighted images and higher signal on T2-weighted images. Simple PVP was performed in 4 cases, and subtotal tumor excision together with PVP was carried out in two patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Conclusion: Evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas with MRI performed prior to percutaneous vertebroplasty is very helpful in guiding the selection of therapeutic scheme. (authors)

  8. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  9. Two Distinct Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1a Clades Have Different Geographical Distribution and Association With Natural Resistance to NS3 Protease Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Andrea; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Sierra, Saleta; Prosperi, Mattia; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Torti, Carlo; Caudai, Cinzia; Vicenti, Ilaria; Saladini, Francesco; Almi, Paolo; Grima, Pierfrancesco; Blanc, Pierluigi; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Rossetti, Barbara; Gagliardini, Roberta; Kaiser, Rolf; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zazzi, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide. Subtype 1a, compared with 1b, shows lower response rates and higher propensity to select for drug resistance to NS3 and selected NS5A and nonnucleoside NS5B inhibitors. Two distinct clades of subtype 1a have been described. Methods.  Using Bayesian methodology, we performed a time-scaled phylogeny reconstruction of clade separation and characterized the geographic distribution, phylodynamics, and association with natural resistance variants of NS3 sequences from 362 patients carrying subtype 1a HCV. Results.  All sequences segregated in 2 clearly distinct clades. Clade I showed an earlier origin from the common ancestor compared with clade II. Clade I virus was more prevalent in non-European countries, represented mostly by United States, compared with European (75.7% vs 49.3%; P < .001). The prevalence of the natural NS3 variant Q80K, associated with resistance to the macrocyclic protease inhibitor simeprevir, was detected in 51.6% of clade I and 0% of clade II (P < .001); clade I showed a lower genetic barrier for Q80K, whereas no sign of selective pressure at any protease inhibitor resistance-associated codon was detected. Conclusions.  Hepatitis C virus subtype 1a clades have a clearly different distribution in Europe and the United States, and the natural resistance mutation Q80K is exclusively associated with clade I. PMID:26213689

  10. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies in PANDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S; Loiselle, Christopher R; Lee, Olivia; Minzer, Karen; Swedo, Susan; Grus, Franz H

    2004-04-01

    An autoimmune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for a variety of pediatric movement disorders that occur after a streptococcal infection. In this study, anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in 15 children with the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and compared with those in 15 controls. ELISA and Western immunoblotting (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet (P2), and synaptosomal preparations from adult postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density values did not differ between PANDAS patients and controls across all preparations. Immunoblotting identified multiple bands in all subjects with no differences in the number of bands or their total density. Discriminant analysis, used to assess mean binding patterns, showed that PANDAS patients differed from controls only for the caudate S1 fraction (Wilks' lambda = 0.0236, P tic subjects providing the greatest discrimination. Among the epitopes contributing to differences between PANDAS and control in the caudate S1 fraction, mean binding to the epitope at 183 kDa was the most different between groups. In conclusion, ELISA measurements do not differentiate between PANDAS and controls, suggesting a lack of major antibody changes in this disorder. Further immunoblot analyses using a caudate supernatant fraction are required to completely exclude the possibility of minor antibody repertoire differences in PANDAS subjects, especially in those who primarily have tics. PMID:15077238

  11. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  12. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  13. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Poliakov

    Full Text Available In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT, which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma, but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey, a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa (previously annotated as an RPE65 has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65, coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates

  14. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni C Anselmetti1, Sean M Tutton2, Francis R Facchini3, Larry E Miller4,5, Jon E Block51Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Turin, Italy; 2Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Interventional Radiology, Interventional Oncology, VIR Chicago, Hinsdale, IL, USA; 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 5The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Vertebral metastases are associated with signific...

  15. Basal cell hyperplasia and basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a comprehensive review and discussion of a case with c-erbB-2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Montironi, R; Mazzucchelli, R; Stramazzotti, D; Scarpelli, M; López Beltran, A; Bostwick, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Prostatic basal cell proliferations range from ordinary basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) to florid basal cell hyperplasia to basal cell carcinoma. The distinction between these forms of BCH, including the variant with prominent nucleoli (formerly called atypical BCH), and basal cell carcinoma depends on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria and, in particular, on the degree of cell proliferation. In florid BCH, the proliferation index is intermediate between ordinary BCH and basal cell c...

  16. Evaluation of prognostic factors for osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study evaluated prognostic factors for osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Forty-four patients, 12 men and 32 women, with 50 osteoporotic vertebral fractures were enrolled in the study. The average patient age at the time of injury was 73.3 years. Bony union was obtained in 38 cases, and pseudarthrosis was observed in 12 cases. In each group, the cause of the fracture, the fracture level, and imaging characteristics (including MR images) were evaluated. In the pseudoarthrosis group, the trauma that induced the fracture tended to be much less severe than that in the bone-union group. The ratio of vertebral collapse was not a factor inducing non-union, but injury of the posterior wall of the body may be a factor causing non-union. Large low-intensity changes both on T1- and T2-weighted images suggesting acute hematoma within the vertebral body may be a predictor of pseudoarthrosis following osteoporotic vertebral fracture. (author)

  17. A STUDY ON THORACIC VERTEBRAL SYNOSTOSIS & ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral anomalies are of interest not only to anatomist, but also to orthopedician, neurologist & neurosurgeons. Various vertebral anomalies of anatomic interest have been reported namely; occipitalisation, sacralisation, lumbarisation, absence of posterior elements of vertebral arch & vertebral s ynostosis. The fusion of vertebral column is rare anomalies usually congenital in origin. The fusion of thoracic vertebrae can present many clinical sign including congenital scoliosis. A study on 594 dry adult human vertebrae of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The study was done over a period of 6 months (July to December 2014 during routine osteology classes for 1 year MBBS, we found the fusion of typical thoracic vertebrae between T 3 & T 4 . The cause could be failure of re - segmentation of somitomeres or acquired.

  18. Rapid and repeated limb loss in a clade of scincid lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Michael SY

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian scincid clade Lerista provides perhaps the best available model for studying limb reduction in squamates (lizards and snakes, comprising more than 75 species displaying a remarkable variety of digit configurations, from pentadactyl to entirely limbless conditions. We investigated the pattern and rate of limb reduction and loss in Lerista, employing a comprehensive phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences for a nuclear intron and six mitochondrial genes. Results The inferred phylogeny reveals extraordinary evolutionary mutability of limb morphology in Lerista. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate at least ten independent reductions in the number of digits from a pentadactyl condition, with a further seven reductions proceeding independently from a tetradactyl condition derived from one of these reductions. Four independent losses of all digits are inferred, three from pentadactyl or tetradactyl conditions. These conclusions are not substantially affected by uncertainty in assumed rates of character state transition or the phylogeny. An estimated age of 13.4 million years for Lerista entails that limb reduction has occurred not only repeatedly, but also very rapidly. At the highest rate, complete loss of digits from a pentadactyl condition is estimated to have occurred within 3.6 million years. Conclusion The exceptionally high frequency and rate of limb reduction inferred for Lerista emphasise the potential for rapid and substantial alteration of body form in squamates. An absence of compelling evidence for reversals of digit loss contrasts with a recent proposal that digits have been regained in some species of the gymnophthalmid clade Bachia, possibly reflecting an influence of differing environmental and genetic contexts on the evolution of limb morphology in these clades. Future study of the genetic, developmental, and ecological bases of limb reduction and loss in Lerista promises the elucidation of

  19. Beijing clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are associated with differential survival in HIV-negative Russian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Yanina; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Ignatyeva, Olga; Kontsevaya, Irina; Mironova, Svetlana; Kovalyov, Alexander; Kritsky, Andrey; Rodionova, Yulia; Fedorin, Ivan; Casali, Nicola; Hooper, Richard; Horstmann, Rolf D; Nejentsev, Sergey; Hoffner, Sven; Nuernberg, Peter; Drobniewski, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a prospective study to establish factors associated with survival in tuberculosis patients in Russia including social, clinical and pathogen-related genetic parameters. Specifically we wished to determine whether different strains/clades of the Beijing lineage exerted a differential effect of survival. HIV-negative culture-confirmed cases were recruited during 2008-2010 across Samara Oblast and censored in December 2011. Molecular characterization was performed by a combination of spoligotyping, multilocus VNTR typing and whole genome sequencing (WGS). We analyzed 2602 strains and detected a high prevalence of Beijing family (n=1933; 74%) represented largely by two highly homogenous dominant clades A (n=794) and B (n=402) and non-A/non-B (n=737). Multivariable analysis of 1366 patients with full clinical and genotyping data showed that multi- and extensive drug resistance (HR=1.86; 95%CI: 1.52, 2.28 and HR=2.19; 95%CI: 1.55, 3.11) had the largest impact on survival. In addition older age, extensive lung damage, shortness of breath, treatment in the past and alcohol abuse reduced survival time. After adjustment for clinical and demographic predictors there was evidence that clades A and B combined were associated with poorer survival than other Beijing strains (HR=0.48; 95%CI 0.34, 0.67). All other pathogen-related factors (polymorphisms in genes plcA, plcB, plcC, lipR, dosT and pks15/1) had no effect on survival. In conclusion, drug resistance exerted the greatest effect on survival of TB patients. Nevertheless we provide evidence for the independent biological effect on survival of different Beijing family strains even within the same defined geographical population. Better understanding of the role of different strain factors in active disease and their influence on outcome is essential. PMID:26319998

  20. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-06-21

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny.

  1. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny

  2. ndhF sequence evolution and the major clades in the sunflower family.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K. J.; Jansen, R K

    1995-01-01

    An extensive sequence comparison of the chloroplast ndhF gene from all major clades of the largest flowering plant family (Asteraceae) shows that this gene provides approximately 3 times more phylogenetic information than rbcL. This is because it is substantially longer and evolves twice as fast. The 5' region (1380 bp) of ndhF is very different from the 3' region (855 bp) and is similar to rbcL in both the rate and the pattern of sequence change. The 3' region is more A+T-rich, has higher le...

  3. Candida wangnamkhiaoensis sp. nov., an anamorphic yeast species in the Hyphopichia clade isolated in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limtong, Savitree; Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Nakase, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Two strains representing a single novel yeast species were isolated from a flower of Calycoopteris floribunda Lame (SK170(T)) and insect frass (ST-122) collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region, the two strains were assigned as a single novel Candida species in the Hyphopichia clade for which the name Candida wangnamkhiaoensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SK170(T)=BCC 39604(T)=NBRC 106724(T)=CBS 11695(T)). PMID:22331449

  4. Biogeographic ranges do not support niche theory in radiating Canary Island plant clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Field, Richard; Fernández-Palacios, José María;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Ecological niche concepts, in combination with biogeographic history, underlie our understanding of biogeographic ranges. Two pillars of this understanding are competitive displacement and niche conservatism. The competitive displacement hypothesis holds that very similar (e.g. closely related...... species in radiating clades in oceanic archipelagos, where closely related species exist in both sympatry and allopatry and the species’ entire ranges are known. We took advantage of this natural experimental system to test whether the climatic niche relationships predicted by the two hypotheses are found...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wang QK, Liu JY. Identification of a novel genetic locus on chromosome 8p21.1-q11.23 for idiopathic ... DH. Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ... DH. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr ...

  6. Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT. (orig.)

  7. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  8. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  9. Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

  10. Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.G.; Sun, Y.; Boonen, S.; Nicholson, P.H.F.; Dequeker, J. [Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, U.Z. Pellenberg, Division of Rheumatology, Pellenberg (Belgium); Brys, P. [Radiology Department, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Felsenberg, D. [Radiology Department, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine radiographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

  11. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  12. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Pushpinder S Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; Abhinav, C.; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  13. Cryptosporidium,Giardia, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis genetic variability: cryptic biological species or clonal near-clades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tibayrenc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant literature dealing with the population genetics and taxonomy of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Pneumocystis spp., and Cryptococcus spp., pathogens of high medical and veterinary relevance, has been produced in recent years. We have analyzed these data in the light of new population genetic concepts dealing with predominant clonal evolution (PCE recently proposed by us. In spite of the considerable phylogenetic diversity that exists among these pathogens, we have found striking similarities among them. The two main PCE features described by us, namely highly significant linkage disequilibrium and near-clading (stable phylogenetic clustering clouded by occasional recombination, are clearly observed in Cryptococcus and Giardia, and more limited indication of them is also present in Cryptosporidium and Pneumocystis. Moreover, in several cases, these features still obtain when the near-clades that subdivide the species are analyzed separately ("Russian doll pattern". Lastly, several sets of data undermine the notion that certain microbes form clonal lineages simply owing to a lack of opportunity to outcross due to low transmission rates leading to lack of multiclonal infections ("starving sex hypothesis". We propose that the divergent taxonomic and population genetic inferences advanced by various authors about these pathogens may not correspond to true evolutionary differences and could be, rather, the reflection of idiosyncratic practices among compartmentalized scientific communities. The PCE model provides an opportunity to revise the taxonomy and applied research dealing with these pathogens and others, such as viruses, bacteria, parasitic protozoa, and fungi.

  14. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. PMID:27245694

  15. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  16. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. PMID:27245694

  17. Stems, nodes, crown clades, and rank-free lists: is Linnaeus dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, M J

    2000-11-01

    Recent radical proposals to overhaul the methods of biological classification are reviewed. The proposals of phylogenetic nomenclature are to translate cladistic phylogenies directly into classifications, and to define taxon names in terms of clades. The method has a number of radical consequences for biologists: taxon names must depend rigidly on the particular cladogram favoured at the moment, familiar names may be reassigned to unfamiliar groupings, Linnaean category terms (e.g. phylum, order, family) are abandoned, and the Linnaean binomen (e.g. Homo sapiens) is abandoned. The tenets of phylogenetic nomenclature have gained strong support among some vocal theoreticians, and rigid principles for legislative control of clade names and definitions have been outlined in the PhyloCode. The consequences of this semantic maelstrom have not been worked out. In pratice, phylogenetic nomenclature will bc disastrous, promoting confusion and instability, and it should be abandoned. It is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the difference between a phylogeny (which is real) and a classification (which is utilitarian). Under the new view, classifications are identical to phlylogenies, and so the proponents of phylogenetic nomenclature will end up abandoning classifications altogether. PMID:11117201

  18. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  19. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  20. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  1. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Watanabe

    Full Text Available Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1 highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2 anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3 apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4 a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  2. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  3. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminoski, Kerry [University of Alberta, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Edmonton (Canada); Lentle, Brian [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih [University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Ward, Leanne M. [University of Ottawa, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); Collaboration: The Canadian STOPP Consortium

    2014-04-15

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  4. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

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    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  5. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  6. Vertebral bony tumor of giant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of a 37 years old, masculine patient, in whom a unique primary bone injury was demonstrated, located at T-11, diagnosed as a giant cells tumor (osteoclastoma). Location is described in the literature as unusual. The clinical presentation of the injury is described, as the initial radiological studies and magnetic resonance images 8 years after surgical treatment, with no neoplasic recurrences. The medical literature of these primary bone injuries and its treatment was also reviewed. Objectives: to present a patient with an unusual extramedullar tumor injury, of primary bone origin, benign, treated surgically and who has a post surgical follow-up of 8 years. Local tumor recurrence and not pulmonary metastasis was demonstrated. The medical literature of this bone pathology that affects the spine in an infrequent manner, was also reviewed, specially the related to medical, surgical and radio-therapeutic treatments. Methodology: the clinical history of the patient is described, who was successfully operated, because the expansive tumor was totally drawn out, without neurological injury; inter operating or post-operating vertebral instability was not observed or diagnosed. The patient was controlled in periodic form, with last medical checkup and of magnetic resonance 8 years after the surgery. The medical publications existing are reviewed

  7. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

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    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  8. Cell death in the developing vertebrate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, Elena; Hernández, María; García, Mónica

    2004-01-01

    Programmed cell death occurs naturally, as a physiological process, during the embryonic development of multicellular organisms. In the retina, which belongs to the central nervous system, at least two phases of cell death have been reported to occur during development. An early phase takes place concomitant with the processes of neurogenesis, cell migration and cell differentiation. A later phase affecting mainly neurons occurs when connections are established and synapses are formed, resulting in selective elimination of inappropriate connections. This pattern of cell death in the developing retina is common among different vertebrates. However, the timing and magnitude of retinal cell death varies among species. In addition, a precise regulation of apoptosis during retinal development has been described. Factors such as neurotrophins, among many others, and electrical activity influence the survival of retinal cells during the course of development. In this paper, we present a summary of these different aspects of programmed cell death during retinal development, and examine how these differ among different species. PMID:15558487

  9. Medullar compression caused by vertebral hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is case of a 41 years old feminine patient in whom a unique primary bone tumor injury was demonstrated, diagnosed as a bone hemangioma, located at T-7, with grew and compressed the spinal cord. These bone vascular and frequently observed in the radiological studies and autopsies, in a sporadic form are only symptomatic, growing and affecting the nervous roots and the spinal cord. The clinical history of the patient is described with the preoperative studies and magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery: The medical literature of these primary bony injuries is reviewed and as they are treated. Objectives: to present the clinical history of a patient who consults having medullar compression syndrome caused by an unusual extra-medullar tumor injury, of bony origin, primary and benign, with clinical controls 8 years after the operation and without evidence of tumor recurrences. The medical literature of this bone pathology is reviewed. Methodology: the clinical history of the patient is described, who was treated surgically successfully, because spinal cord was decompressed without neurological sequels. Vertebral instability was not observed and nor diagnosed. The patient was periodically taken care of with last control of magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery and last medical control 8 years later. Medical publications are extensively reviewed

  10. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE FUNCTIONAL IMPORTANCE OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Török-Oance

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertebral column, the sustaining axis of the body, is characterized by resistance and elasticity. Composed of specific structures, an overlapping of bone pieces with cartilaginous discs interposed, the vertebral column is permanently submitted to a static and dynamic strain, each of its segments having its specific involvement in the maintaining of the body position and in the realization of movements. This article presents some aspects of the functional importance of the spine, materialized especially in the types of movements that can be realized by the segments of the vertebral column and in their participation at sustaining the weight of the body.

  11. Evolution of normal vertebral body marrow enhancement in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and determines the pattern, intensity, and evolution of normal marrow enhancement of the vertebral bodies in children. Thirty patients (1-10 years of age) without known pathology of the vertebral body marrow were imaged with a 1.5-T magnet before and after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Short TR(600/30) sequences were performed. Sagittal images were evaluated by inspection and by intensity measurements of regions of interest. Striking enhancement of normal vertebral body marrow was seen in young children. The pattern of enhancement was homogeneous and resembled marrow enhancement seen with diffuse infiltrative processes, such as tumor

  12. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with posterior spinal dysraphism

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    Sujit Kumar G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome, which includes abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs and trunk musculature, is very rare and only few cases have been reported. We report a case of 18-month-old female child with absent ribs, hemivertebrae, superior lumbar hernia (features of lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome and posterior spinal dysraphism, which to our knowledge is the first case in the English literature with such a combination of defects. Embryology and management of the case is discussed.

  13. Vertebral column aggressive osteoblastoma: two cases report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoblastoma is a bone neoplasy that in most circumstances present a low aggressive aspect on radiographic studies, but in some cases may acquire an aggressive pattern, rupturing the bone cortex and invading nearby structures. Most cases occur on the vertebral column, especially at the posterior arch and occasionally involving the vertebral body. Differential diagnosis of the aggressive form is made with osteosarcomas. This review reports two cases of osteoblastomas involving vertebral column, with an aggressive pattern on radiologic studies, and their histologic confirmation. (author)

  14. Synergistic activity profile of griffithsin in combination with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide against HIV-1 clade C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffithsin (GRFT) is possibly the most potent anti-HIV peptide found in natural sources. Due to its potent and broad-spectrum antiviral activity and unique safety profile it has great potential as topical microbicide component. Here, we evaluated various combinations of GRFT against HIV-1 clade B and clade C isolates in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in CD4+ MT-4 cells. In all combinations tested, GRFT showed synergistic activity profile with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide based on the median effect principle with combination indices (CI) varying between 0.34 and 0.79 at the calculated EC95 level. Furthermore, the different glycosylation patterns on the viral envelope of clade B and clade C gp120 had no observable effect on the synergistic interactions. Overall, we can conclude that the evaluated two-drug combination increases their antiviral potency and supports further clinical investigations in pre-exposure prophylaxis for GRFT combinations in the context of HIV-1 clade C infection.

  15. Evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing Campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in Scotland.

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    Samuel K Sheppard

    Full Text Available The common zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter coli is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide but its evolution is incompletely understood. Using multilocus sequence type (MLST data of 7 housekeeping genes from a national survey of Campylobacter in Scotland (2005/6, and a combined population genetic-phylogenetics approach, we investigated the evolutionary history of C. coli. Genealogical reconstruction of isolates from clinical infection, farm animals and the environment, revealed a three-clade genetic structure. The majority of farm animal, and all disease causing genotypes belonged to a single clade (clade 1 which had comparatively low synonymous sequence diversity, little deep branching genetic structure, and a higher number of shared alleles providing evidence of recent clonal decent. Calibration of the rate of molecular evolution, based on within-species genetic variation, estimated a more rapid rate of evolution than in traditional estimates. This placed the divergence of the clades at less than 2500 years ago, consistent with the introduction of an agricultural niche having had an effect upon the evolution of the C. coli clades. Attribution of clinical isolate genotypes to source, using an asymmetric island model, confirmed that strains from chicken and ruminants, and not pigs or turkeys, are the principal source of human C. coli infection. Taken together these analyses are consistent with an evolutionary scenario describing the emergence of agriculture-associated C. coli lineage that is an important human pathogen.

  16. Simple transpedicular vertebral biopsy for diagnosis of malignancy in vertebral compression fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Nien Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transpedicular route in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP is a well-established approach for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs. However, the value of simple transpedicular biopsy in VCFs is less addressed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of transpedicular biopsy during PVP for uncovering the malignancy in VCFs in a 10-year retrospective study. Materials and Methods: During the study period of the 1019 patients who underwent PVP for VCFs, 450 patients comprising of 127 male and 323 female underwent transpedicular biopsy during PVP for 705 fractured vertebras. The medical records were analyzed for age, gender, imaging studies, operation notes, pre-operative and post-operative diagnoses, date of vertebroplasty and biopsy, vertebral level and pathological reports. Results: Pathology of the specimens of the 450 patients confirmed non-malignant VCFs in 389 (86.44% and malignancy in 61 (13.56%. The malignant pathology included: 52 (11.56% distant metastases to vertebra, in 3 (0.67% of the spinal metastases was unsuspected and in 49 (10.89% of them the malignancy was suspected pre-operatively. There were 9 (2% primary spinal malignancies, 2 (0.44% unsuspected multiple myeloma and 7 (1.56% pre-operatively suspected primary malignancies. The frequency of unsuspected malignancy was 1.11% (5/450 in this study. There was no complication associated with transpedicular biopsy during PVP. Conclusions: VCFs harbored 1.11% of unexpected malignancy. During the vertebroplasty, concomitant transpedicular vertebral biopsy is a safe and useful procedure for distinguishing non-malignant from malignant compression fractures, especially in diagnosing unsuspected malignancy.

  17. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles basal cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles basal laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  18. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  19. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic fac...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of a basal teleost, the Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus, Osteoglossidae

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    Yue Gen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA-derived sequences have become popular markers for evolutionary studies, as their comparison may yield significant insights into the evolution of both the organisms and their genomes. From the more than 24,000 teleost species, only 254 complete mtDNA sequences are available (GenBank status on 06 Sep 2006. In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Asian arowana, a basal bonytongue fish species, which belongs to the order of Osteoglossiformes. Results The complete mitochondrial genomic sequence (mtDNA of Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus was determined by using shotgun sequencing method. The length of Asian arowana mtDNA is ca. 16,650 bp (its variation is due to polymorphic repeats in the control region, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes. Twelve of the thirteen protein coding genes were found to be encoded by the heavy strand in the order typically observed for vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, whereas only nad6 was located on the light strand. An interesting feature of Asian arowana mitogenome is that two different repeat arrays were identified in the control region: a 37 bp tandem repeat at the 5' end and an AT-type dinucleotide microsatellite at the 3' end. Both repeats show polymorphism among the six individuals tested; moreover the former one is present in the mitochondrial genomes of several other teleost groups. The TACAT motif described earlier only from mammals and lungfish was found in the tandem repeat of several osteoglossid and eel species. Phylogenetic analysis of fish species representing Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii taxa has shown that the Asian arowana is located near the baseline of the teleost tree, confirming its status among the ancestral teleost lineages. Conclusion The mitogenome of Asian arowana is very similar to the typical vertebrate mitochondrial genome in terms of gene arrangements, codon usage and base composition

  1. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists’ efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15–20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global ‘do-it-yourself’ research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrickTM standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrickTM formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  2. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Grigonyte, Aurelija Marija; Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists' efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15-20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global 'do-it-yourself' research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrick(TM) standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrick(TM) formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  3. Barcoding success as a function of phylogenetic relatedness in Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms

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    Clement Wendy L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chloroplast genes matK and rbcL have been proposed as a “core” DNA barcode for identifying plant species. Published estimates of successful species identification using these loci (70-80% may be inflated because they may have involved comparisons among distantly related species within target genera. To assess the ability of the proposed two-locus barcode to discriminate closely related species, we carried out a hierarchically structured set of comparisons within Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms containing ca. 170 species (some 70 of which are currently used in horticulture. For 112 Viburnum species, we evaluated rbcL + matK, as well as the chloroplast regions rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, trnK, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS. Results At most, rbcL + matK could discriminate 53% of all Viburnum species, with only 18% of the comparisons having genetic distances >1%. When comparisons were progressively restricted to species within major Viburnum subclades, there was a significant decrease in both the discriminatory power and the genetic distances. trnH-psbA and nrITS show much higher levels of variation and potential discriminatory power, and their use in plant barcoding should be reconsidered. As barcoding has often been used to discriminate species within local areas, we also compared Viburnum species within two regions, Japan and Mexico and Central America. Greater success in discriminating among the Japanese species reflects the deeper evolutionary history of Viburnum in that area, as compared to the recent radiation of a single clade into the mountains of Latin America. Conclusions We found very low levels of discrimination among closely related species of Viburnum, and low levels of variation in the proposed barcoding loci may limit success within other clades of long-lived woody plants. Inclusion of the supplementary barcodes trnH-psbA and nrITS increased discrimination rates but

  4. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  5. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  6. GENETIC VARIATION IN CLONAL VERTEBRATES DETECTED BY SIMPLE SEQUENCE FINGERPRINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of clonal heterogeneity is central to understanding evolutionary and population genetics of roughly 50 species of vertebrates lack effective genetic recombination. imple-sequence DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (CAG)5 and (GACA)4 was used to detect hete...

  7. Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... significant complications involving cement leakage following vertebroplasty. Some stud- ies suggest vertebral body height restoration has been ... physi- cal role, vitality, and bodily pain. Other stud- 10 ies also cite significant improvement in qual- ...

  8. A novel form of ischio-vertebral syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassi, Ali A.; Ghachem, Maher B. [Hopital des Enfants Malades, Department of Orthopaedics, Tunis (Tunisia); Chehida, Farid B.; Gharbi, Hassan; Hendaoui, Lofti [Hopital des Enfants Malades, Department of Radiology, Tunis (Tunisia); Latos-Bielenska, Anna [University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Poznan (Poland); Kozlowski, Kazimierz [New Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    We report a boy with ischial hypoplasia, vertebral malsegmentation and multiple other skeletal anomalies which do not fit well with any previously-described disorder. The proband's brother and mother were also slightly affected. We review the pertinent literature, discuss the differential diagnosis and suggest that this may be a previously unreported autosomal dominant disorder, with variable penetrance.We believe that the clinical and radiological features of various syndromes with ischial aplasia/hypoplasia and vertebral malsegmentation are not sufficiently different to justify the current separate categories of ''ischio-vertebral dysplasia'' and ''ischio-spinal dysostosis''. We suggest that the term ''ischio-vertebral syndrome'' should be used until identification of genes affecting ischial and axial morphogenesis is completed. (orig.)

  9. MR manifestations of vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of a vertebral artery injury occurring from major cervical spine trauma. Conventional MR findings of 63 patients and 63 control subjects were compared to detect a possible change in the vertebral arteries resulted from trauma. Plain films, CT and clinical records were also reviewed to correlate the degree of cervical spine injury with vascular change. Nine cases of absent flow signals in vessel lumen were observed in eight patients and one was observed in the control group. Patients more frequently demonstrated other abnormalities such as intraluminal linear signals (n=3) or focal luminal narrowing (n=9) but there was no statistical significance. There was a close relationship between degree of cord damage and occlusion of the vertebral artery. Conventional MR imaging is useful in the detection of vertebral artery occlusion resulting from cervical spine trauma

  10. Case Study: Giant Cell Arteritis with Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Chomlak, R.; Ghazanfari, Farshad; Datta, Mineesh

    2016-01-01

    In giant cell arteritis (GCA), involvement of the vertebral arteries is rare with reported rates of 3%–4% for ischemic events secondary to vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion for those patients with GCA. This case study describes a patient who initially presented with acute onset of vertigo but was also found to have transient, side-alternating upper limb neurological findings. While initial imaging showed no vascular abnormalities, it was not until GCA was eventually confirmed with a temporal artery biopsy that the initial scans were shown to have bilateral narrowing of the vertebral arteries. While rare, vertebral artery involvement is an important complication to consider in the setting of GCA due to the high rate of associated mortality, despite immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27279753

  11. Clinical and radiological evaluation in vertebral artery dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çabalar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vertebral artery dissection (VAD is reported more frequently as a cause of young cerebrovascular accidents. It can occur spontaneously or following a neck manipulation and trauma. The patients were 3 females (mean age: 35±26 years and 7 males (mean age: 37.71±4.96 years. Only 2 patients described neck trauma. Cerebellar findings were prominent in all cases. On radiological investigation, vascular changes of vertebral arteries were detected bilaterally in 2 cases, right in 5 and left in 3 cases. All the cases were treated with anticoagulant therapy and cured but 1 with sequela. Prognosis of vertebral artery dissection is generally good by early diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we reported clinical and radiological properties of 10 vertebral artery dissection cases.

  12. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  13. Treatment of osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmin Zang; Yiheng Liu; Junchang Chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty to treat osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures. Methods: Seventeen patients with compression fractures at 27 different levels came in for percutaneous vertebroplasty. Under the guidance of C-arm image intensifier, bone needle was inserted into the fracture vertebral bodies via a unilateral transpedicular approach.Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was injected slowly under continuous fluoroscopic control. Then the effect was evaluated after operation.Results: Follow-up results among 15 patients were studied, other two patients lost contact. The follow-up period was from three to seven months. No patient had relapse of compression fracture. Leakage of the cement outside the vertebral body was seen in four bodies. All patients had a complete relief after Percutaneous vertebroplasty(PVP). Conclusion: PVP is an efficient minimally invasive technique to treat osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures.

  14. Rate-dependent fracture characteristics of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Umale, Sagar; Shah, Alok S; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental testing incorporating lumbar columns and isolated components is essential to advance the understanding of injury tolerance and for the development of safety enhancements. This study incorporated a whole column axial acceleration model and an isolated vertebral body model to quantify compression rates during realistic loading and compressive tolerance of vertebrae. Eight lumbar columns and 53 vertebral bodies from 23 PMHS were used. Three-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (pmechanics between vertebral bodies obtained from males and females demonstrated non-significant trends, with female vertebral bodies having lower ultimate force that would be associated with decreased injury tolerance. This was likely a result of smaller vertebrae in that population. Combined with existing literature, results presented in this manuscript contribute to the understanding of lumbar spine tolerance during axial loading events that occur in both military and civilian environments with regard to effects of compression rate and gender. PMID:25154535

  15. An amphioxus Krox gene: insights into vertebrate hindbrain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R D; Panopoulou, G D; Holland, P W; Shimeld, S M

    2000-10-01

    The transcription factor Krox-20 has roles in the maintenance of segmentation and specification of segment identity in the vertebrate hindbrain. Overt hindbrain segmentation is a vertebrate novelty, and is not seen in invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus and tunicates. To test if the roles of Krox-20 are also derived, we cloned a Krox-20 related gene, AmphiKrox, from amphioxus. AmphiKrox is related to a small family of vertebrate Krox genes and is expressed in the most anterior region of the amphioxus brain and in the club shaped gland, a secretory organ that develops in the anterior pharynx. Neither expression domain overlaps with the expression of AmphiHox-1, -2, -3 or -4, suggesting that the roles of Krox-20 in hindbrain segmentation and in Hox gene regulation were acquired concomitant with the duplication of Krox genes in vertebrate evolution. PMID:11180801

  16. Origins of the Vertebrate Erythro/Megakaryocytic System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Bartůněk, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Oct 18 (2015). ISSN 2314-6141 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : erythrocytes * thrombocytes * vertebrate Erythro/Megakaryocytic System * progenitors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Prevalence of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures on multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest and/or abdomen. Materials and methods: 323 consecutive patients (196 males, 127 females) with a mean age of 62.6 years (range 20-88) who had undergone chest and/or abdominal MDCT were evaluated. Sagittal reformats of the spine obtained from thin section datasets were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for vertebral fractures. Morphometric analysis using electronic calipers was performed on vertebral bodies which appeared abnormal upon visual inspection. A vertebral body height loss of 15% or more was considered a fracture and graded as mild (15-24%), moderate (25-49%) or severe (more than 50%). Official radiology reports were reviewed and whether the vertebral fractures had been reported or not was noted. Results: 31 out of 323 patients (9.5%) had at least 1 vertebral fracture and 7 of those patients had multiple fractures for a total of 41 fractures. Morphometric grading revealed 10 mild, 16 moderate and 15 severe fractures. Prevalence was higher in women (14.1%) than men (6.6%) and increased with patients age with a 17.1% prevalence in post-menopausal women. Only 6 out 41 vertebral fractures (14.6%) had been noted in the radiology final report while the remaining 35 (85.45) had not. Conclusion: although vertebral fractures represent frequent incidental findings on multidetector CT studies and may be easily identified on sagittal reformats, they are often underreported by radiologists, most likely because of unawareness of their clinical importance.

  18. Prevalence of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalena, Tommaso [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: t.bartalena@email.it; Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Maria Francesca [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, Eugenio [Department of Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via G.C. Pupilli 1 - 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, University of Parma, Via Gramsci, 14 - 43100 Parma (Italy); Gavelli, Giampaolo [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest and/or abdomen. Materials and methods: 323 consecutive patients (196 males, 127 females) with a mean age of 62.6 years (range 20-88) who had undergone chest and/or abdominal MDCT were evaluated. Sagittal reformats of the spine obtained from thin section datasets were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for vertebral fractures. Morphometric analysis using electronic calipers was performed on vertebral bodies which appeared abnormal upon visual inspection. A vertebral body height loss of 15% or more was considered a fracture and graded as mild (15-24%), moderate (25-49%) or severe (more than 50%). Official radiology reports were reviewed and whether the vertebral fractures had been reported or not was noted. Results: 31 out of 323 patients (9.5%) had at least 1 vertebral fracture and 7 of those patients had multiple fractures for a total of 41 fractures. Morphometric grading revealed 10 mild, 16 moderate and 15 severe fractures. Prevalence was higher in women (14.1%) than men (6.6%) and increased with patients age with a 17.1% prevalence in post-menopausal women. Only 6 out 41 vertebral fractures (14.6%) had been noted in the radiology final report while the remaining 35 (85.45) had not. Conclusion: although vertebral fractures represent frequent incidental findings on multidetector CT studies and may be easily identified on sagittal reformats, they are often underreported by radiologists, most likely because of unawareness of their clinical importance.

  19. Pan-Vertebrate Toll-Like Receptors During Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Aya; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2008-01-01

    Human toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to raise innate immune responses. The human TLR family was discovered because of its sequence similarity to fruit fly (Drosophila) Toll, which is involved in an anti-fungal response. In this review, we focus on the origin of the vertebrate TLR family highlighted through functional and phylogenetic analyses of TLRs in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recent extensive genome projects revealed that teleosts conta...

  20. Increased genome sampling reveals novel insights into vertebrate molecular evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, increased vertebrate genome sampling and recent methodological advancements were combined to address three distinct questions pertaining to vertebrate molecular evolution. Gene duplicability is the tendency to retain multiple gene copies after a duplication event. Various factors correlate with gene duplicability, such as protein function and timing of expression during development. The position of a gene’s encoded product in the protein-protein interaction n...

  1. Micromechanics of the Human Vertebral Body for Forward Flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J.; Keaveny, Tony M

    2012-01-01

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant dis...

  2. Case Study: Giant Cell Arteritis with Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Chomlak, R.; Ghazanfari, Farshad; Datta, Mineesh

    2016-01-01

    In giant cell arteritis (GCA), involvement of the vertebral arteries is rare with reported rates of 3%–4% for ischemic events secondary to vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion for those patients with GCA. This case study describes a patient who initially presented with acute onset of vertigo but was also found to have transient, side-alternating upper limb neurological findings. While initial imaging showed no vascular abnormalities, it was not until GCA was eventually confirmed with a temp...

  3. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnesen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and ...

  4. Complications of Posterior Vertebral Resection for Spinal Deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Beom-Cheol; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Lim, Dong-Ju; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Beom-Jung; Suk, Se-Il

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of complications following posterior vertebral resection (PVR) for spinal deformity. Methods A review of 233 patients treated with PVR at one institution over a nine-year period (1997 to 2005) was performed. The average age was 33.5 years. Complications were assessed in terms of surgical techniques (posterior vertebral column resection [PVCR] and decancellation osteotomy) and etiologies of deformity. Results ...

  5. Risk Factors for Vertebral Artery Injuries in Cervical Spine Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Harshavardhana, Nanjundappa S.; Harshad V. Dabke

    2014-01-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians d...

  6. Risk factors for vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Harshavardhana, Nanjundappa S.; Harshad V. Dabke

    2014-01-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians d...

  7. Diabetic foot complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Maddalena; Imbriaco, Chiara; Rigolon, Riccardo; Mingolla, Lucia; Zamboni, Federica; Dal Molin, Francesca; Cioccoloni, Dario; Sanga, Viola; Bruti, Massimiliano; Brocco, Enrico; Conti, Michela; Ravenna, Giorgio; Perrone, Fabrizia; Stoico, Vincenzo; Bonora, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vertebral osteomyelitis (or spondylodiscitis) is steadily increasing in Western countries and often results from hematogenous seeding, direct inoculation during spinal surgery, or contiguous spread from an infection in the adjacent soft tissue. We present the case of a 67-year-old white patient with type 2 diabetes who went to Hospital for high fever, back pain, and worsening of known infected ulcers in the left foot. Despite intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical debridement of the foot infection, high fever and lower back pain continued. Bone biopsy and two consecutive blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, revealing serious osteomyelitis in L4 and L5 complicated by an epidural abscess. Contiguous or other distant focuses of infection were not identified. In this case, diabetic foot could be considered as a primary distant focus for vertebral osteomyelitis. Clinicians should consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a ‘possible’ diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by foot infection that is associated with fever and lower back pain. Learning points Vertebral osteomyelitis is increasing in Western countries, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary focus of infection is the genitourinary tract followed by skin, soft tissue, endocarditis, bursitis, septic arthritis, and intravascular access. Diabetic foot could be a rare primary focus of infection for vertebral osteomyelitis, and, however, vertebral osteomyelitis could be a serious, albeit rare, complication of diabetic foot. Clinicians should keep in mind the many potential complications of diabetic foot ulcerations and consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a “possible” diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers associated with nonspecific symptoms such as lower back pain. Early diagnosis and correct management of vertebral osteomyelitis are crucial to improve clinical outcomes

  8. The evolution of vertebrate Toll-like receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Jared C.; Glusman, Gustavo; Rowen, Lee; Kaur, Amardeep; Purcell, Maureen K.; Smith, Kelly D.; Hood, Leroy E.; Aderem, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The complete sequences of Takifugu Toll-like receptor (TLR) loci and gene predictions from many draft genomes enable comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Strong selective pressure for recognition of and response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns has maintained a largely unchanging TLR recognition in all vertebrates. There are six major families of vertebrate TLRs. This repertoire is distinct from that of invertebrates. TLRs within a family recognize a general class of pathog...

  9. CRDB: Database of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Families in Vertebrate

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Dong; Ke Jin; Xiaoli Wu; Yang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously u...

  10. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  11. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  12. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  13. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis.

  14. The genomic basis of parasitism in the Strongyloides clade of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Vicky L; Tsai, Isheng J; Coghlan, Avril; Reid, Adam J; Holroyd, Nancy; Foth, Bernardo J; Tracey, Alan; Cotton, James A; Stanley, Eleanor J; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Brooks, Karen; Harsha, Bhavana; Kajitani, Rei; Kulkarni, Arpita; Harbecke, Dorothee; Nagayasu, Eiji; Nichol, Sarah; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Quail, Michael A; Randle, Nadine; Xia, Dong; Brattig, Norbert W; Soblik, Hanns; Ribeiro, Diogo M; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Takehiko; Denver, Dee R; Grant, Warwick; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D; Lok, James B; Murayama, Haruhiko; Wastling, Jonathan; Streit, Adrian; Kikuchi, Taisei; Viney, Mark; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodes, including the Strongyloides genus, cause one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides species, including the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living (Rhabditophanes sp. KR3021). A significant paralogous expansion of key gene families-families encoding astacin-like and SCP/TAPS proteins-is associated with the evolution of parasitism in this clade. Exploiting the unique Strongyloides life cycle, we compare the transcriptomes of the parasitic and free-living stages and find that these same gene families are upregulated in the parasitic stages, underscoring their role in nematode parasitism. PMID:26829753

  15. Conservation of HIV-1 T cell epitopes across time and clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitz, Lauren; Koita, Ousmane A; Sangare, Kotou;

    2012-01-01

    HIV genomic sequence variability has complicated efforts to generate an effective globally relevant vaccine. Regions of the viral genome conserved in sequence and across time may represent the "Achilles' heel" of HIV. In this study, highly conserved T-cell epitopes were selected using...... immunoinformatics tools combining HLA-A2 supertype binding predictions with relative global conservation. Analysis performed in 2002 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and again in 2009, on 43,822 sequences, yielded 38 HLA-A2 epitopes. These epitopes were experimentally validated for HLA binding and immunogenicity with...... time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that such epitopes could provide effective coverage of virus diversity and would be appropriate for inclusion in a globally relevant HIV vaccine....

  16. Gene Acquisitions from Bacteria at the Origins of Major Archaeal Clades Are Vastly Overestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussin, Mathieu; Boussau, Bastien; Szöllõsi, Gergely; Eme, Laura; Gouy, Manolo; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Daubin, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Nelson-Sathi et al. (NS) report that the origins of major archaeal lineages (MAL) correspond to massive group-specific gene acquisitions via HGT from bacteria (Nelson-Sathi et al. 2015. Origins of major archaeal clades correspond to gene acquisitions from bacteria. Nature 517(7532):77-80.). If correct, this would have fundamental implications for the process of diversification in microbes. However, a reexamination of these data and results shows that the methodology used by NS systematically inflates the number of genes acquired at the root of each MAL, and incorrectly assumes bacterial origins for these genes. A reanalysis of their data with appropriate phylogenetic models accounting for the dynamics of gene gain and loss between lineages supports the continuous acquisition of genes over long periods in the evolution of Archaea. PMID:26541173

  17. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Subramanyam, S.; Naga Sujata, D.; Sridhar, K.; Pushpanjali, M

    2011-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cysts like radiolucencies are disc...

  18. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Durand, Bénédicte; Timothy L. Megraw

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various...

  19. Prevalence and clinical relevance of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing CT examinations of the cerebrum, the discovery of basal ganglia calcification becomes more frequent. In order to correlate these calcifications to the symptoms believed to be accompanied with Fahr's disease 2318 cranial CT scans were examined. There was an overall incidence of basal ganglia calcification of 12.5%. The most frequent location was the globus pallidus (96.4%). In the examined population there was no correlation found between the calcifications and symptoms having been described with striopallidentate calcifications. (orig.)

  20. Optimization Well-Type on the Conditions of Basal Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaming Zhang; Xiaodong Wu; Guoqing Han; Shudong Li; Jia Zhang

    2013-01-01

    For optimization well-type on the conditions of basal groundwater, inasmuch as an analogy exists between electrical and fluid flow, the electrolytic analogy experiments have been conducted, which made a series of comparisons and evaluations between 9 types of complex well configurations and vertical well in terms of production. Taking into account the boundary condition of basal groundwater, we conducted 3×3×10 experiments in totally, including vertical well, horizontal well, radial well, sna...

  1. Childhood trauma and basal cortisol in people with personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Grossman, Robert; New, Antonia S.; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Siever, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of various forms of childhood abuse on basal cortisol levels in a sample of adults with Axis II personality disorders. Participants included 63 adults (n=19 women) who provided basal plasma cortisol samples and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Linear regression analyses that included all five subscales (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) demonstrated that Physical abuse was related to lowe...

  2. Pseudohypoparathyroidism, parkinsonism syndrome, with no basal ganglia calcification.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, B K; Donley, D K

    1988-01-01

    A 20 year old woman with pseudohypoparathyroidism, Parkinsonism and no basal ganglia calcifications shown by computed tomography is reported. She has typical features of pseudohypoparathyroidism and biochemical evidence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. She is mentally retarded and has tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and stooped posture. The cause of Parkinsonism in pseudohypoparathyroidism is thought to be basal ganglia calcification. This patient must have another pathophysiol...

  3. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  4. Malignant and benign vertebral compression fractures: MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the characters of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)in the benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. Methods: 1H MRS was performed on the vertebral of 30 healthy volunteers, 37 patients with vertebral compression of osteoporosis, and 21 patients with vertebral compression of malignancy. Percent fat fraction (FF%) and lipid-to-water ratios (LWR) of ROI were analyzed. Results: The mean FF% of normal control subjects was (45.0±20.2)% and the mean LWR was 0.76; The mean FF% of the osteoporosis group was (67.0±14.3)% and the mean LWR was 1.75; The mean FF% of the malignant group was (1.8±1.2)% and the mean LWR was 0.1. The FF% and the LWR of osteoporosis group were higher than those of malignant group (t=2.87, P1H MRS can noninvasively provide percent fat fraction and lipid-to-water of vertebral. 1H MRS is helpful in differentiation in between osteoporosis and malignant vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  5. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensimon-Brito Anabela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  6. Design and implementation of degenerate microsatellite primers for the mammalian clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are popular genetic markers in molecular ecology, genetic mapping and forensics. Unfortunately, despite recent advances, the isolation of de novo polymorphic microsatellite loci often requires expensive and intensive groundwork. Primers developed for a focal species are commonly tested in a related, non-focal species of interest for the amplification of orthologous polymorphic loci; when successful, this approach significantly reduces cost and time of microsatellite development. However, transferability of polymorphic microsatellite loci decreases rapidly with increasing evolutionary distance, and this approach has shown its limits. Whole genome sequences represent an under-exploited resource to develop cross-species primers for microsatellites. Here we describe a three-step method that combines a novel in silico pipeline that we use to (1 identify conserved microsatellite loci from a multiple genome alignments, (2 design degenerate primer pairs, with (3 a simple PCR protocol used to implement these primers across species. Using this approach we developed a set of primers for the mammalian clade. We found 126,306 human microsatellites conserved in mammalian aligned sequences, and isolated 5,596 loci using criteria based on wide conservation. From a random subset of ~1000 dinucleotide repeats, we designed degenerate primer pairs for 19 loci, of which five produced polymorphic fragments in up to 18 mammalian species, including the distinctly related marsupials and monotremes, groups that diverged from other mammals 120-160 million years ago. Using our method, many more cross-clade microsatellite loci can be harvested from the currently available genomic data, and this ability is set to improve exponentially as further genomes are sequenced.

  7. CT and MRI diagnosis of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI features of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and investigate the diagnostic value. Methods: 21 cases with traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage diagnosed by clinic, CT and MRI in our hospital were collected in this study Plain CT scan were immediately performed in 21 cases after injury, plain MR scan were performed in 1 to 3 days. 12 cases of them underwent diffusion weighted imagine (DWI). The CT and MRI findings were retrospectively summarized. Results: 8 cases were found with simple traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage. Complexity of basal ganglia hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases, 6 cases combined with subdural hemorrhage, 3 cases with epidural hematoma, 2 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6 cases with brain contusion and laceration in other locations, 4 cases with skull fracture. 26 lesions of basal ganglia hematoma were showed in 21 cases, 14 lesions of pallidum hemorrhage in 11 cases confirmed by MR could not be distinguished from calcification at the fast CT scan. 5 more lesions of brain contusion and laceration and 4 more lesions of brain white matter laceration were found by MR. Conclusion: CT in combination with MRI can diagnose traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and its complications early, comprehensively and accurately, which plays an important role in the clinical therapy selection and prognosis evaluation. (authors)

  8. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas.Purpose: To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome.Methods: Pubmed w...

  9. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty, a minimally invasive interventional radiological procedure, has recently been used effectively for the treatment of symptomatic vertebral body compression fractures. Primary indications for vertebroplasty include osteoporotic compression fracture, osteolytic vertebral metastasis and myeloma, and vertebral hemangioma. We present a case and extend the indication of percutaneous vertebroplasty in a patient with a vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta. (orig.)

  10. Altered disc pressure profile after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture is a risk factor for adjacent vertebral body fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Tzermiadianos, Michael N.; Renner, Susan M.; Phillips, Frank M.; Hadjipavlou, Alexander G.; Zindrick, Michael R.; Havey, Robert M.; Voronov, Michael; Patwardhan, Avinash G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of endplate deformity after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture in increasing the risk for adjacent vertebral fractures. Eight human lower thoracic or thoracolumbar specimens, each consisting of five vertebrae were used. To selectively fracture one of the endplates of the middle VB of each specimen a void was created under the target endplate and the specimen was flexed and compressed until failure. The fractured vertebra was subjected to spinal extension und...

  11. Clinical application of multislice spiral CT angiography in evaluation of anomalous vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of 16-slice spiral computed tomography angiography (MSCTA) in evaluation of anomalous vertebral artery. Methods: MSCTA data from 32 patients with anomalous vertebral artery were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 22 cases had vertebral artery course variation (bended into the C5, C4 or C3 foramen transversarium), 7 cases had variation in the prevertebral segments of vertebral arteries, 15 patients had unilateral vertebral congenital stenosis, 1 case had double vertebral artery branch, 1 case had vertebral arterial fenestration, and 2 cases had vertebral artery in one side that did not converged upon basilar artery and unilateral vertebral artery formed basilar artery. Conclusion: MSCTA is a useful noninvasive imaging tool for the diagnosis of vertebral artery variations. (authors)

  12. The vertebral formula of the last common ancestor of African apes and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Melanie A; Rosenman, Burt A; Suwa, Gen; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2010-03-15

    The modal number of lumbar vertebrae in modern humans is five. It varies between three and four in extant African apes (mean=3.5). Because both chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) possess the same distributions of thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae, it has been assumed from parsimony that the last common ancestor (LCA) of African apes and humans possessed a similarly short lower back. This "short-backed LCA" scenario has recently been viewed favorably in an analysis of the intra- and interspecific variation in axial formulas observed among African apes and humans (Pilbeam, 2004. J Exp Zool 302B:241-267). However, the number of bonobo (Pan paniscus) specimens in that study was small (N=17). Here we reconsider vertebral type and number in the LCA in light of an expanded P. paniscus sample as well as evidence provided by the human fossil record. The precaudal (pre-coccygeal) axial column of bonobos differs from those of chimpanzees and gorillas in displaying one additional vertebra as well as significantly different combinations of sacral, lumbar, and thoracic vertebrae. These findings, along with the six-segmented lumbar column of early Australopithecus and early Homo, suggest that the LCA possessed a long axial column and long lumbar spine and that reduction in the lumbar column occurred independently in humans and in each ape clade, and continued after separation of the two species of Pan as well. Such an explanation is strongly congruent with additional details of lumbar column reduction and lower back stabilization in African apes. PMID:19688850

  13. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln José Michalski

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca and Puma (Puma concolor] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons. Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%. Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all

  14. Under-reporting of osteoporotic vertebral fractures on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: alexandra.firth@virgin.net; Al-Busaidi, Aisha [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: albusaidi@doctors.org.uk; Sparrow, Patrick J. [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: patsparrow@doctors.org.uk; Adams, Judith E. [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Department of Clinical Radiology, Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, Stopford Building, , University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: judith.adams@manchester.ac.uk; Whitehouse, Richard W. [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Richard.Whitehouse@cmmc.nhs.uk

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are frequently asymptomatic. They are often not diagnosed clinically or radiologically. Despite this, prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures predict future osteoporotic fractures and are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Appropriate management of osteoporosis can reduce future fracture risk. Fractures on lateral chest radiographs taken for other conditions are frequently overlooked by radiologists. Our aim was to assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of vertebral fracture and identify the frequency with which significant fractures are missed. Materials and methods: The thoracic CT scans of 100 consecutive male and 100 consecutive female patients over 55 years were reviewed. CT images were acquired on General Electric Lightspeed multi-detector (MD) CT scanners (16 or 32 row) using 1.25 mm slice thickness. Midline sagittal images were reconstructed from the 3D volume images. The presence of moderate (25-40% height loss) or severe (>40% height loss) vertebral fractures between T1 and L1 was determined using an established semi-quantitative method and confirmed by morphological measurement. Results were compared with the formal CT report. Results: Scans of 192 patients were analysed (95 female; 97 male); mean age 70.1 years. Thirty-eight (19.8%) patients had one or more moderate to severe vertebral fractures. Only 5 (13%) were correctly reported as having osteoporotic fractures in the official report. The sensitivity of axial CT images to vertebral fracture was 0.35. Conclusion: Incidental osteoporotic vertebral fractures are under-reported on CT. The sensitivity of axial images in detecting these fractures is poor. Sagittal reformations are strongly recommended to improve the detection rate.

  15. Under-reporting of osteoporotic vertebral fractures on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are frequently asymptomatic. They are often not diagnosed clinically or radiologically. Despite this, prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures predict future osteoporotic fractures and are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Appropriate management of osteoporosis can reduce future fracture risk. Fractures on lateral chest radiographs taken for other conditions are frequently overlooked by radiologists. Our aim was to assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of vertebral fracture and identify the frequency with which significant fractures are missed. Materials and methods: The thoracic CT scans of 100 consecutive male and 100 consecutive female patients over 55 years were reviewed. CT images were acquired on General Electric Lightspeed multi-detector (MD) CT scanners (16 or 32 row) using 1.25 mm slice thickness. Midline sagittal images were reconstructed from the 3D volume images. The presence of moderate (25-40% height loss) or severe (>40% height loss) vertebral fractures between T1 and L1 was determined using an established semi-quantitative method and confirmed by morphological measurement. Results were compared with the formal CT report. Results: Scans of 192 patients were analysed (95 female; 97 male); mean age 70.1 years. Thirty-eight (19.8%) patients had one or more moderate to severe vertebral fractures. Only 5 (13%) were correctly reported as having osteoporotic fractures in the official report. The sensitivity of axial CT images to vertebral fracture was 0.35. Conclusion: Incidental osteoporotic vertebral fractures are under-reported on CT. The sensitivity of axial images in detecting these fractures is poor. Sagittal reformations are strongly recommended to improve the detection rate

  16. An anti-HIV-1 V3 loop antibody fully protects cross-clade and elicits T-cell immunity in macaques mucosally challenged with an R5 clade C SHIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Watkins

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibodies have been shown to protect macaques against SHIV challenge. However, genetically diverse HIV-1 clades have evolved, and a key question left unanswered is whether neutralizing antibodies can confer cross-clade protection in vivo. The novel human monoclonal antibody HGN194 was isolated from an individual infected with an HIV-1 clade AG recombinant circulating recombinant form (CRF. HGN194 targets an epitope in the third hypervariable loop (V3 of HIV-1 gp120 and neutralizes a range of relatively neutralization-sensitive and resistant viruses. We evaluated the potential of HGN194 to protect infant rhesus monkeys against a SHIV encoding a primary CCR5-tropic HIV-1 clade C envelope. After high-dose mucosal challenge, all untreated controls became highly viremic while all HGN194-treated animals (50 mg/kg were completely protected. When HGN194 was given at 1 mg/kg, one out of two monkeys remained aviremic, whereas the other had delayed, lower peak viremia. Interestingly, all protected monkeys given high-dose HGN194 developed Gag-specific proliferative responses of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To test whether generation of the latter involved cryptic infection, we ablated CD8+ cells after HGN194 clearance. No viremia was detected in any protected monkeys, thus ruling out virus reservoirs. Thus, induction of CD8 T-cell immunity may have resulted from transient "Hit and Run" infection or cross priming via Ag-Ab-mediated cross-presentation. Together, our data identified the HGN194 epitope as protective and provide proof-of-concept that this anti-V3 loop mAb can prevent infection with sterilizing immunity after challenge with virus of a different clade, implying that V3 is a potential vaccine target.

  17. CLADES: A Contribution to Action in Latin American and the Caribbean in the Field of Information for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximena, Feliu S.

    1981-01-01

    Deals with conceptualization of problems of information, the empirical results obtained in the program of action launched by the Centro Latinoamericano de Documentacion Economica y Social (CLADES), and the proposal to establish interorganizational cooperation and coordination to draw up a regional plan for information development. A 17-item…

  18. Remototrachyna, a newly recognized tropical lineage of lichens in the Hypotrachyna clade (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota), originated in the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Ferencova, Zuzana; Del Prado, Ruth; Crespo, Ana

    2010-04-01

    Biogeographical studies of lichens used to be complicated because of the large distribution ranges of many species. Molecular systematics has revitalized lichen biogeography by improving species delimitation and providing better information about species range limitations. This study focuses on the major clade of tropical parmelioid lichens, which share a chemical feature, the presence of isolichenan in the cell wall, and a morphological feature, microscopic pores in the uppermost layer. Our previous phylogenetic studies revealed that the largest genus in this clade, Hypotrachyna, is polyphyletic with a clade mainly distributed in South and East Asia clustering distant from the core of the genus. To divide the Hypotrachyna clade into monophyletic groups and to reevaluate morphological and chemical characters in a phylogenetic context, we sampled ITS, nuclear large subunit (nuLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA sequences from 77 species. We are erecting the new genus Remototrachyna for a core group of 15 former Hypotrachyna species. The segregation of Remototrachyna from Hypotrachyna receives support from morphological and chemical data, as well from maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the DNA. We used a likelihood approach to study the geographic range evolution of Remototrachyna and Bulbothrix, which are sister groups. This analysis suggests that the ancestral range of Remototrachyna was restricted to India and that subsequent long-distance dispersal is responsible for the pantropical occurrence of two species of Remototrachyna. PMID:21622420

  19. Memory B cell antibodies to HIV-1 gp140 cloned from individuals infected with clade A and B viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mouquet

    Full Text Available Understanding the antibody response to HIV-1 in humans that show broad neutralizing serologic activity is a crucial step in trying to reproduce such responses by vaccination. Investigating antibodies with cross clade reactivity is particularly important as these antibodies may target conserved epitopes on the HIV envelope gp160 protein. To this end we have used a clade B YU-2 gp140 trimeric antigen and single-cell antibody cloning methods to obtain 189 new anti-gp140 antibodies representing 51 independent B cell clones from the IgG memory B cells of 3 patients infected with HIV-1 clade A or B viruses and exhibiting broad neutralizing serologic activity. Our results support previous findings showing a diverse antibody response to HIV gp140 envelope protein, characterized by differentially expanded B-cell clones producing highly hypermutated antibodies with heterogenous gp140-specificity and neutralizing activity. In addition to their high-affinity binding to the HIV spike, the vast majority of the new anti-gp140 antibodies are also polyreactive. Although none of the new antibodies are as broad or potent as VRC01 or PG9, two clonally-related antibodies isolated from a clade A HIV-1 infected donor, directed against the gp120 variable loop 3, rank in the top 5% of the neutralizers identified in our large collection of 185 unique gp140-specific antibodies in terms of breadth and potency.

  20. Changing patterns in HIV-1 non-B clade prevalence and diversity in Italy over three decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, A; Riva, C; Marconi, A;

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 non-B subtypes have recently entered Western Europe following immigration from other regions. The distribution of non-B clades and their association with demographic factors, over the entire course of the HIV-1 epidemic, have not been fully investigated in Italy....