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Sample records for basal teleost hiodon

  1. Evidence for a divergence in function between two glucocorticoid receptors from a basal teleost

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    Li Yi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplicated glucocorticoid receptors (GR are present in most teleost fish. The evolutionary advantage of retaining two GRs is unclear, as no subtype specific functional traits or physiological roles have been defined. To identify factors driving the retention of duplicate GRs in teleosts, the current study examined GRs in representatives of two basal ray-finned fish taxa that emerged either side of the teleost lineage whole genome duplication event (WGD event, the acipenseriform, Acipenser ruthenus, (pre-WGD and the osteoglossimorph, Pantodon buchholzi, (post-WGD. Results The study identified a single GR in A. ruthenus (ArGR and two GRs in P. buchholzi (PbGR1 and PbGR2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that ArGR formed a distinct branch separate from the teleosts GRs. The teleost GR lineage was subdivded into two sublineages, each of which contained one of the two P. buchholzi GRs. ArGR, PbGR1 and PbGR2 all possess the unique 9 amino acid insert between the zinc-fingers of the DNA-binding domain that is present in one of the teleost GR lineages (GR1, but not the other (GR2. A splice variant of PbGR2 produces an isoform that lacked these 9 amino acids (PbGR2b. Cortisol stimulated transactivation activity of ArGR, PbGR2b and PbGR1 in vitro; with PbGR2b and PbGR1, the glucocorticoid 11-deoxycortisol was a more potent agonist than cortisol. The hormone sensitivity of PbGR2b and PbGR1 differed in the transactivation assay, with PbGR2b having lower EC50 values and greater fold induction. Conclusions The difference in transactivation activity sensitivity between duplicated GRs of P. buchholzi suggests potential functional differences between the paralogs emerged early in the teleost lineage. Given the pleiotropic nature of GR function in vertebrates, this finding is in accordance with the hypothesis that duplicated GRs were potentially retained through subfunctionalisation followed by gene sharing. A 9 amino acid insert in the DNA

  2. Three nuclear and two membrane estrogen receptors in basal teleosts, Anguilla sp.: Identification, evolutionary history and differential expression regulation

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    Lafont, Anne Gaëlle; Rousseau, Karine; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    2016-01-01

    teleosts. Phylogeny and synteny analyses suggest that they result from teleost whole genome duplication (3R). In contrast to conserved 3R-duplicated ESR2 and GPER, one of 3R-duplicated ESR1 has been lost shortly after teleost emergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed that the five receptors are all widely...

  3. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors

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    Steve Bird

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  4. THE TELEOST GUT PERSORBS MICROPARTICULATES

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    Ewen McLean

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the teleost gut to absorb microparticulate material was examined following rectal intubation (3.5 g kg -1 of commercial grade cornstarch (≈21 mm diameter, or potato starch (≈43 mm diameter. Tissue samples were taken from the mid - and hind-gut of control and treated fish 18 h postintubation. Collected samples were processed using standard plastic and staining protocols and resultant photomicrographs examined by computer-assisted image analysis. Cornstarch particles (8-14 mm, were observed to pass from gut lumen to the lamina propria via a paracellular or persorptive route only. No evidence for the like passage of potato starch was found.

  5. Demonstration of the Coexistence of Duplicated LH Receptors in Teleosts, and Their Origin in Ancestral Actinopterygians.

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    Gersende Maugars

    Full Text Available Pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH, control gonad activity in vertebrates, via binding to their respective receptors, FSHR and LHR, members of GPCR superfamily. Until recently, it was accepted that gnathostomes possess a single FSHR and a single LHR, encoded by fshr and lhcgr genes. We reinvestigated this question, focusing on vertebrate species of key-phylogenetical positions. Genome analyses supported the presence of a single fshr and a single lhcgr in chondrichthyans, and in sarcopterygians including mammals, birds, amphibians and coelacanth. In contrast, we identified a single fshr but two lhgcr in basal teleosts, the eels. We further showed the coexistence of duplicated lhgcr in other actinopterygians, including a non-teleost, the gar, and other teleosts, e.g. Mexican tetra, platyfish, or tilapia. Phylogeny and synteny analyses supported the existence in actinopterygians of two lhgcr paralogs (lhgcr1/ lhgcr2, which do not result from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (3R, but likely from a local gene duplication that occurred early in the actinopterygian lineage. Due to gene losses, there was no impact of 3R on the number of gonadotropin receptors in extant teleosts. Additional gene losses during teleost radiation, led to a single lhgcr (lhgcr1 or lhgcr2 in some species, e.g. medaka and zebrafish. Sequence comparison highlighted divergences in the extracellular and intracellular domains of the duplicated lhgcr, suggesting differential properties such as ligand binding and activation mechanisms. Comparison of tissue distribution in the European eel, revealed that fshr and both lhgcr transcripts are expressed in the ovary and testis, but are differentially expressed in non-gonadal tissues such as brain or eye. Differences in structure-activity relationships and tissue expression may have contributed as selective drives in the conservation of the duplicated lhgcr. This study revises the evolutionary scenario and nomenclature of

  6. Adaptation of teleosts to very high salinity

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    Laverty, Gary; Skadhauge, Erik

    2012-01-01

    A number of species of euryhaline teleosts have the remarkable ability to adapt and survive in environments of extreme salinity, up to two or even three times the osmolality of seawater. This review looks at some of the literature describing the adaptive changes that occur, primarily with intesti......A number of species of euryhaline teleosts have the remarkable ability to adapt and survive in environments of extreme salinity, up to two or even three times the osmolality of seawater. This review looks at some of the literature describing the adaptive changes that occur, primarily...

  7. Evolution of space dependent growth in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus.

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    Natalya D Gallo

    Full Text Available The relationship between growth rate and environmental space is an unresolved issue in teleosts. While it is known from aquaculture studies that stocking density has a negative relationship to growth, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, primarily because the growth rate of populations rather than individual fish were the subject of all previous studies. Here we investigate this problem in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of a sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish and several blind cave-dwelling (cavefish forms. Surface fish and cavefish are distinguished by living in spatially contrasting environments and therefore are excellent models to study the effects of environmental size on growth. Multiple controlled growth experiments with individual fish raised in confined or unconfined spaces showed that environmental size has a major impact on growth rate in surface fish, a trait we have termed space dependent growth (SDG. In contrast, SDG has regressed to different degrees in the Pachón and Tinaja populations of cavefish. Mating experiments between surface and Pachón cavefish show that SDG is inherited as a dominant trait and is controlled by multiple genetic factors. Despite its regression in blind cavefish, SDG is not affected when sighted surface fish are raised in darkness, indicating that vision is not required to perceive and react to environmental space. Analysis of plasma cortisol levels showed that an elevation above basal levels occurred soon after surface fish were exposed to confined space. This initial cortisol peak was absent in Pachón cavefish, suggesting that the effects of confined space on growth may be mediated partly through a stress response. We conclude that Astyanax reacts to confined spaces by exhibiting SDG, which has a genetic component and shows evolutionary regression during adaptation of cavefish to confined environments.

  8. Evolution of space dependent growth in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus.

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    Gallo, Natalya D; Jeffery, William R

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between growth rate and environmental space is an unresolved issue in teleosts. While it is known from aquaculture studies that stocking density has a negative relationship to growth, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, primarily because the growth rate of populations rather than individual fish were the subject of all previous studies. Here we investigate this problem in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of a sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and several blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) forms. Surface fish and cavefish are distinguished by living in spatially contrasting environments and therefore are excellent models to study the effects of environmental size on growth. Multiple controlled growth experiments with individual fish raised in confined or unconfined spaces showed that environmental size has a major impact on growth rate in surface fish, a trait we have termed space dependent growth (SDG). In contrast, SDG has regressed to different degrees in the Pachón and Tinaja populations of cavefish. Mating experiments between surface and Pachón cavefish show that SDG is inherited as a dominant trait and is controlled by multiple genetic factors. Despite its regression in blind cavefish, SDG is not affected when sighted surface fish are raised in darkness, indicating that vision is not required to perceive and react to environmental space. Analysis of plasma cortisol levels showed that an elevation above basal levels occurred soon after surface fish were exposed to confined space. This initial cortisol peak was absent in Pachón cavefish, suggesting that the effects of confined space on growth may be mediated partly through a stress response. We conclude that Astyanax reacts to confined spaces by exhibiting SDG, which has a genetic component and shows evolutionary regression during adaptation of cavefish to confined environments.

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  10. Evaluating the radiation of the POMC gene in teleosts: characterization of American eel POMC.

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    Alrubaian, Jasem; Sollars, Cristina; Danielson, Phillip B; Dores, Robert M

    2003-07-01

    A distinctive feature of the pituitary hormone precursor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), is the presence of multiple melanocortin core sequences (HFRW), and one copy of the opioid, beta-endorphin. In the older lineages of ray-finned fish (i.e., orders Acipenseriformes and Semionotiformes), certain extant lobe-finned fish (Australian lungfish and African lungfish), and the tetrapods there are three melanocortin regions in POMC: ACTH/alphaMSH, beta-MSH, and gamma-MSH. However, among the teleosts, the most recent radiation of the ray-finned fishes, the gamma-MSH sequence is absent from the POMC genes of euteleosts like the carp, tilapia, chum salmon, sockeye salmon, and rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma-MSH sequence still may be present in the POMC gene of a more basal lineage of the teleosts such as a representative from subdivision Elopomorpha. To this end, a POMC cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the pituitary of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata (order Anguilliformes, family Anguillidae). The open reading frame of the eel POMC cDNA was 648 nucleotides in length and encoded 216 amino acids. As predicted, eel POMC contained the deduced amino acid sequences for beta-endorphin, ACTH/alpha-MSH, and beta-MSH. These end-products displayed primary sequence features that are common to ray-finned fish. Eel POMC lacks a gamma-MSH sequence and a large portion of the joining peptide region. In this regard, the eel POMC gene thus displays features very similar to the POMC genes that have been sequenced from euteleosts. Although it is conceivable that the gamma-MSH sequence may be present in representatives from the other basal extant lineages of teleosts (i.e., subdivisions Osteoglossomorpha or Clupeomorpha), it is also possible that the deletion that resulted in the loss of the gamma-MSH sequence occurred in the ancestral neopterygian that gave rise to the teleosts. In this case, the gamma-MSH sequence should be absent in all extant

  11. Endocannabinoids affect the reproductive functions in teleosts and amphibians.

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    Cottone, E; Guastalla, A; Mackie, K; Franzoni, M F

    2008-04-16

    Following the discovery in the brain of the bonyfish Fugu rubripes of two genes encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1A and CB1B), investigations on the phylogeny of these receptors have indicated that the cannabinergic system is highly conserved. Among the multiple functions modulated by cannabinoids/endocannabinoids through the CB1 receptors one of the more investigated is the mammalian reproduction. Therefore, since studies performed in animal models other than mammals might provide further insight into the biology of these signalling molecules, the major aim of the present paper was to review the comparative data pointing toward the endocannabinoid involvement in the reproductive control of non-mammalian vertebrates, namely bonyfish and amphibians. The expression and distribution of CB1 receptors were investigated in the CNS and gonads of two teleosts, Pelvicachromis pulcher and Carassius auratus as well as in the anuran amphibians Xenopus laevis and Rana esculenta. In general the large diffusion of neurons targeted by cannabinoids in both fish and amphibian forebrain indicate endocannabinoids as pivotal local messengers in several neural circuits involved in either sensory integrative activities, like the olfactory processes (in amphibians) and food response (in bonyfish), or neuroendocrine machinery (in both). By using immunohistochemistry for CB1 and GnRH-I, the codistribution of the two signalling molecules was found in the fish basal telencephalon and preoptic area, which are key centers for gonadotropic regulation in all vertebrates. A similar topographical codistribution was observed also in the septum of the telencephalon in Rana esculenta and Xenopus laevis. Interestingly, the double standard immunofluorescence on the same brain section, aided with a laser confocal microscope, showed that in anurans a subset of GnRH-I neurons exhibited also the CB1 immunostaining. The fact that CB1-LI-IR was found indeed in the FSH gonadotrophs of the Xenopus

  12. Antarctic teleost immunoglobulins: more extreme, more interesting.

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    Coscia, Maria Rosaria; Varriale, Sonia; Giacomelli, Stefano; Oreste, Umberto

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the immunoglobulin molecule and the genes encoding it in teleosts living in the Antarctic seas at the constant temperature of -1.86 °C. The majority of Antarctic teleosts belong to the suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes), which includes only a few non-Antarctic species. Twenty-one Antarctic and two non-Antarctic Notothenioid species were included in our studies. We sequenced immunoglobulin light chains in two species and μ heavy chains, partially or totally, in twenty species. In the case of heavy chain, genomic DNA and the cDNA encoding the secreted and the membrane form were analyzed. From one species, Trematomus bernacchii, a spleen cDNA library was constructed to evaluate the diversity of VH gene segments. T. bernacchii IgM, purified from the serum and bile, was characterized. Homology Modelling and Molecular Dynamics were used to determine the molecular structure of T. bernacchii and Chionodraco hamatus immunoglobulin domains. This paper sums up the previous results and broadens them with the addition of unpublished data.

  13. An update on MyoD evolution in teleosts and a proposed consensus nomenclature to accommodate the tetraploidization of different vertebrate genomes.

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    Daniel J Macqueen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MyoD is a muscle specific transcription factor that is essential for vertebrate myogenesis. In several teleost species, including representatives of the Salmonidae and Acanthopterygii, but not zebrafish, two or more MyoD paralogues are conserved that are thought to have arisen from distinct, possibly lineage-specific duplication events. Additionally, two MyoD paralogues have been characterised in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. This has lead to a confusing nomenclature since MyoD paralogues have been named outside of an appropriate phylogenetic framework. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we initially show that directly depicting the evolutionary relationships of teleost MyoD orthologues and paralogues is hindered by the asymmetric evolutionary rate of Acanthopterygian MyoD2 relative to other MyoD proteins. Thus our aim was to confidently position the event from which teleost paralogues arose in different lineages by a comparative investigation of genes neighbouring myod across the vertebrates. To this end, we show that genes on the single myod-containing chromosome of mammals and birds are retained in both zebrafish and Acanthopterygian teleosts in a striking pattern of double conserved synteny. Further, phylogenetic reconstruction of these neighbouring genes using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods supported a common origin for teleost paralogues following the split of the Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that myod was duplicated during the basal teleost whole genome duplication event, but was subsequently lost in the Ostariophysi (zebrafish and Protacanthopterygii lineages. We propose a sensible consensus nomenclature for vertebrate myod genes that accommodates polyploidization events in teleost and tetrapod lineages and is justified from a phylogenetic perspective.

  14. Neuroendocrinology of reproduction in teleost fish.

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    Zohar, Yonathan; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio; Elizur, Abigail; Kah, Olivier

    2010-02-01

    This review aims at synthesizing the most relevant information regarding the neuroendocrine circuits controlling reproduction, mainly gonadotropin release, in teleost fish. In teleosts, the pituitary receives a more or less direct innervation by neurons sending projections to the vicinity of the pituitary gonadotrophs. Among the neurotransmitters and neuropeptides released by these nerve endings are gonadotrophin-releasing hormones (GnRH) and dopamine, acting as stimulatory and inhibitory factors (in many but not all fish) on the liberation of LH and to a lesser extent that of FSH. The activity of the corresponding neurons depends on a complex interplay between external and internal factors that will ultimately influence the triggering of puberty and sexual maturation. Among these factors are sex steroids and other peripheral hormones and growth factors, but little is known regarding their targets. However, very recently a new actor has entered the field of reproductive physiology. KiSS1, first known as a tumor suppressor called metastin, and its receptor GPR54, are now central to the regulation of GnRH, and consequently LH and FSH secretion in mammals. The KiSS system is notably viewed as instrumental in integrating both environmental cues and metabolic signals and passing this information onto the reproductive axis. In fish, there are two KiSS genes, KiSS1 and KiSS2, expressed in neurons of the preoptic area and mediobasal hypothalamus. Pionneer studies indicate that KiSS and GPR54 expression seem to be activated at puberty. Although precise information as to the physiological effects of KiSS1 in fish, notably on GnRH neurons and gonadotropin release, is still limited, KiSS neurons may emerge as the "gatekeeper" of puberty and reproduction in fish as in mammals.

  15. The GC-heterogeneity of teleost fishes

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    Gautier Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most striking features of mammalian and birds chromosomes is the variation in the guanine-cytosine (GC content that occurs over scales of hundreds of kilobases to megabases; this is known as the "isochore" structure. Among other vertebrates the presence of isochores depends upon the taxon; isochore are clearly present in Crocodiles and turtles but fish genome seems very homogeneous on GC content. This has suggested a unique isochore origin after the divergence between Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, but before that between Sauropsida and mammals. However during more than 30 years of analysis, isochore characteristics have been studied and many important biological properties have been associated with the isochore structure of human genomes. For instance, the genes are more compact and their density is highest in GC rich isochores. Results This paper shows in teleost fish genomes the existence of "GC segmentation" sharing some of the characteristics of isochores although teleost fish genomes presenting a particular homogeneity in CG content. The entire genomes of T nigroviridis and D rerio are now available, and this has made it possible to check whether a mosaic structure associated with isochore properties can be found in these fishes. In this study, hidden Markov models were trained on fish genes (T nigroviridis and D rerio which were classified by using the isochore class of their human orthologous. A clear segmentation of these genomes was detected. Conclusion The GC content is an excellent indicator of isochores in heterogeneous genomes as mammals. The segmentation we obtained were well correlated with GC content and other properties associated to GC content such as gene density, the number of exons per gene and the length of introns. Therefore, the GC content is the main property that allows the detection of isochore but more biological properties have to be taken into account. This method allows detecting

  16. Evolution of Space Dependent Growth in the Teleost Astyanax mexicanus

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between growth rate and environmental space is an unresolved issue in teleosts. While it is known from aquaculture studies that stocking density has a negative relationship to growth, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, primarily because the growth rate of populations rather than individual fish were the subject of all previous studies. Here we investigate this problem in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of a sighted surface-dwelling form (surfac...

  17. Lack of plasma kallikrein-kinin system cascade in teleosts.

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    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS consists of two major cascades in mammals: "plasma KKS" consisting of high molecular-weight (HMW kininogen (KNG, plasma kallikrein (KLKB1, and bradykinin (BK; and "tissue KKS" consisting of low molecular-weight (LMW KNG, tissue kallikreins (KLKs, and [Lys(0]-BK. Some components of the KKS have been identified in the fishes, but systematic analyses have not been performed, thus this study aims to define the KKS components in teleosts and pave a way for future physiological and evolutionary studies. Through a combination of genomics, molecular, and biochemical methods, we showed that the entire plasma KKS cascade is absent in teleosts. Instead of two KNGs as found in mammals, a single molecular weight KNG was found in various teleosts, which is homologous to the mammalian LMW KNG. Results of molecular phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that the all current teleost genomes lack KLKB1, and its unique protein structure, four apple domains and one trypsin domain, could not be identified in any genome or nucleotide databases. We identified some KLK-like proteins in teleost genomes by synteny and conserved domain analyses, which could be the orthologs of tetrapod KLKs. A radioimmunoassay system was established to measure the teleost BK and we found that [Arg(0]-BK is the major circulating form instead of BK, which supports that the teleost KKS is similar to the mammalian tissue KKS. Coincidently, coelacanths are the earliest vertebrate that possess both HMW KNG and KLKB1, which implies that the plasma KKS could have evolved in the early lobe-finned fish and descended to the tetrapod lineage. The co-evolution of HMW KNG and KLKB1 in lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods may mark the emergence of the plasma KKS and a contact activation system in blood coagulation, while teleosts may have retained a single KKS cascade.

  18. New insights into evolution of IgT genes coming from Antarctic teleosts.

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    Giacomelli, Stefano; Buonocore, Francesco; Albanese, Fabio; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Gerdol, Marco; Oreste, Umberto; Coscia, Maria Rosaria

    2015-12-01

    Cloning and characterization of IgT heavy chain genes were performed in the Antarctic Notothenioid teleost Trematomus bernacchii and in a non-Antarctic Notothenioid species, Bovichtus diacanthus, belonging to a phyletically basal lineage of Notothenioids. Compared to IgT from other non-Antarctic teleost species, including B. diacanthus, T. bernacchii IgT lacked most of the second constant domain but maintained only a few amino acid residues, which could be aligned to B. diacanthus CH2 domain. By analyzing several cDNA clones from a single specimen, three differently sized IgT transcript variants, named Long, Short and Shortest, were identified. Genomic analysis of T. bernacchii and B. diacanthus IgH loci revealed that, in the case of T. bernacchii, within the intron between the exons coding for the entire first and second constant domains a reminiscence of the ancestral second exon was present. The Long and Short variants were found to be encoded by indel alleles, whereas the Shortest variant was generated by alternative splicing that led to the CH2 exonic remnant skipping. Through comparison between genomic and cDNA sequences we hypothesized the presence of three different copies of the IgT heavy chain gene, one of which being considered the functional gene since the corresponding transcripts were identified. Moreover, either Long or Short exonic variants were found to be used in IgT heavy chain membrane form in an unbiased manner, as seen for the secretory form. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the constant region from all teleost IgT available to date, including IgT from another Antarctic Notothenioid species, Notothenia coriiceps, identified by searching the transcriptome. The loss of almost an entire domain together with the conservation of some amino acids such as proline, glycine and cysteine in the CH2 domain remnant, could be interpreted as another distinctive feature of the Antarctic fish genome evolution, providing also new insights into the

  19. The odorant receptor repertoire of teleost fish

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    Alioto Tyler S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate odorant receptors comprise three types of G protein-coupled receptors: the OR, V1R and V2R receptors. The OR superfamily contains over 1,000 genes in some mammalian species, representing the largest gene superfamily in the mammalian genome. Results To facilitate an informed analysis of OR gene phylogeny, we identified the complete set of 143 OR genes in the zebrafish genome, as well as the OR repertoires in two pufferfish species, fugu (44 genes and tetraodon (42 genes. Although the genomes analyzed here contain fewer genes than in mammalian species, the teleost OR genes can be grouped into a larger number of major clades, representing greater overall OR diversity in the fish. Conclusion Based on the phylogeny of fish and mammalian repertoires, we propose a model for OR gene evolution in which different ancestral OR genes or gene families were selectively lost or expanded in different vertebrate lineages. In addition, our calculations of the ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous codon substitutions among more recently expanding OR subgroups in zebrafish implicate residues that may be involved in odorant binding.

  20. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

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    Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed.

  1. Neuroanatomical relationships between FMRFamide-immunoreactive components of the nervus terminalis and the topology of olfactory bulbs in teleost fish.

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    D'Aniello, Biagio; Polese, Gianluca; Luongo, Luciano; Scandurra, Anna; Magliozzi, Laura; Aria, Massimo; Pinelli, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is the most anterior of the vertebrate cranial nerves. In teleost fish, the NT runs across all olfactory components and shows high morphological variability within this taxon. We compare the anatomical distribution, average number and size of the FMRFamide-immunoreactive (ir) NT cells of fourteen teleost species with different positions of olfactory bulbs (OBs) with respect to the ventral telencephalic area. Based on the topology of the OBs, three different neuroanatomical organizations of the telencephalon can be defined, viz., fish having sessile (Type I), pseudosessile (short stalked; Type II) or stalked (Type III) OBs. Type III topology of OBs appears to be a feature associated with more basal species, whereas Types I and II occur in derived and in basal species. The displacement of the OBs is positively correlated with the peripheral distribution of the FMRFamide-ir NT cells. The number of cells is negatively correlated with the size of the cells. A dependence analysis related to the type of OB topology revealed a positive relationship with the number of cells and with the size of the cells, with Type I and II topologies of OBs showing significantly fewer cells and larger cells than Type III. A dendrogram based on similarities obtained by taking into account all variables under study, i.e., the number and size of the FMRFamide-ir NT cells and the topology of OBs, does not agree with the phylogenetic relationships amongst species, suggesting that divergent or convergent evolutionary phenomena produced the olfactory components studied.

  2. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

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    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  3. Elastoidin actinotrichia in Coelacanth fins: a comparison with teleosts.

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    Geraudie, J; Meunier, F J

    1980-01-01

    In this work, we present the first ultrastructural evidences of actinotrichia in the Coelacanth Latimeria. We describe its actinotrichia with the electron microscope (SEM and TEM) and compare their structure to Teleost actinotrichia. Both elements present similar fine structure, i.e. a periodic cross-striation of 60-65 nm; the plesiomorphic character of actinotrichia is discussed in Osteichthyes.

  4. Exploring novel hormones essential for seawater adaptation in teleost fish.

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    Takei, Yoshio

    2008-05-15

    Marine fish are dehydrated in hyperosmotic seawater (SW), but maintain water balance by drinking surrounding SW if they are capable of excreting the excess ions, particularly Na(+) and Cl(-), absorbed with water by the intestine. An integrative approach is essential for understanding the mechanisms for SW adaptation, in which hormones play pivotal roles. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that hormones that have Na(+)-extruding and vasodepressor properties are greatly diversified in teleost fish. Physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these diversified hormones are much more potent and efficacious in teleost fish than in mammals and are important for survival in SW and for maintenance of low arterial pressure in a gravity-free aquatic environment. This is typified by the natriuretic peptide (NP) family, which is diversified into seven members (ANP, BNP, VNP and CNP1, 2, 3 and 4) and exerts potent hyponatremic and vasodepressor actions in marine fish. Another example is the guanylin family, which consists of three paralogs (guanylin, uroguanylin and renoguanylin), and stimulates Cl(-) secretion into the intestinal lumen and activates the absorptive-type Na-K-2Cl cotransporter by local luminocrine actions. The most recent addition is the adrenomedullin (AM) family, which has five members (AM1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), with AM2 and AM5 showing the most potent or efficacious vasodepressor and osmoregulatory effects among known hormones in teleost fish. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates that members of these diversified hormone families play essential roles in SW adaptation in teleost fish. In this short review, the author has attempted to propose a novel approach for identification of new hormones that are important for SW adaptation using comparative genomic and functional studies. The author has also suggested potential hormone families that are diversified in teleost fish and appear to be involved in SW adaptation through their

  5. CALCIFIED ECTODERMAL COLLAGENS OF SHARK TOOTH ENAMEL AND TELEOST SCALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSS, M L; JONES, S J; PIEZ, K A

    1964-08-28

    Amino acid analysis of protein from the enamel of shark teeth and from teleost scales shows the presence of collagens which can be classified chemically as ectodermal. This finding, together with results from a histological examination of the development of these tissues, constitutes strong evidence that both proteins are derived from the ectoderm, like the enamel of higher vertebrates. Since both are calcified, calcification cannot be a specific property of collagens of mesodermal origin alone.

  6. Cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the teleost heart in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, M; Ehrenström, F; Nilsson, S

    1987-01-01

    The tonical cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the heart rate was investigated in vivo in seven species of marine teleosts (pollack, Pollachius pollachius; cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus; ballan wrasse, Labrus berggylta; five-bearded rockling, Ciliata mustela; tadpole fish, Raniceps raninus; eel-pout, Zoarces viviparus and short-spined sea scorpion, Myoxocephalus scor pius) during rest and, in two of the species (P. pollachius and L. mixtus), also during moderate swimming exercise in a Blazka-type swim tunnel. Ventral aortic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded via a catheter implanted in an afferent branchial artery, and the influence of the cholinergic and adrenergic tonus on the heart rate was assessed by injection of atropine and sotalol respectively. During rest the adrenergic tonus was higher than the cholinergic tonus in all species except L. berggylta, where the reverse was true. In P. pollachius and L. mixtus, exercise appeared to produce a lowering of the cholinergic tonus on the heart and, possibly, a slight increase of the adrenergic tonus. The nature of the adrenergic tonus (humoral or neural) is not clear, but the low plasma concentrations of catecholamines both during rest and exercise could be interpreted in favour of a mainly neural adrenergic tonus on the teleost heart. These experiments are compatible with the view that both a cholinergic inhibitory tonus and an adrenergic excitatory tonus are general features in the control of the teleost heart in vivo, both at rest and during moderate swimming exercise.

  7. Immunoglobulin genes and their transcriptional control in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae-Sung; Aoki, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig), which exists only in jawed vertebrates, is one of the most important molecules in adaptive immunity. In the last two decades, many teleost Ig genes have been identified by in silico data mining from the enormous gene and EST databases of many fish species. In this review, the organization of Ig gene segments, the expressed Ig isotypes and their transcriptional controls are discussed. The Ig heavy chain (IgH) locus in teleosts encodes the variable (V), the diversity (D), the joining (J) segments and three different isotypic constant (C) regions including Cμ, Cδ, and Cζ/τ genes, and is organized as a "translocon" type like the IgH loci of higher vertebrates. In contrast, the Ig light (L) chain locus is arranged in a "multicluster" or repeating set of VL, JL, and CL segments. The IgL chains have four isotypes; two κ L1/G and L3/F), σ (L2) and λ. The transcription of IgH genes in teleosts is regulated by a VH promoter and the Eμ3' enhancer, which both function in a B cell-specific manner. The location of the IgH locus, structure and transcriptional function of the Eμ3' enhancer are important to our understanding of the evolutional changes that have occurred in the IgH gene locus.

  8. Central Pathways Integrating Metabolism and Reproduction in Teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md eShahjahan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance plays an important role in the control of reproduction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms connecting the two systems are not well understood especially in teleosts. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of both energy balance and reproduction, and contains a number of neuropeptides, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, orexin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY, ghrelin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, cholecystokinin (CCK, 26RFa, nesfatin, kisspeptin, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH. These neuropeptides are involved in the control of energy balance and reproduction either directly or indirectly. On the other hand, synthesis and release of these hypothalamic neuropeptides are regulated by metabolic signals from the gut and the adipose tissue. Furthermore, neurons producing these neuropeptides interact with each other, providing neuronal basis of the link between energy balance and reproduction. This review summarizes the advances made in our understanding of the physiological roles of the hypothalamic neuropeptides in energy balance and reproduction in teleosts, and discusses how they interact with GnRH, kisspeptin, and pituitary gonadotropins to control reproduction in teleosts.

  9. The evolution and maintenance of Hox gene clusters in vertebrates and the teleost-specific genome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Meyer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Hox genes are known to specify spatial identities along the anterior-posterior axis during embryogenesis. In vertebrates and most other deuterostomes, they are arranged in sets of uninterrupted clusters on chromosomes, and are in most cases expressed in a "colinear" fashion, in which genes closer to the 3-end of the Hox clusters are expressed earlier and more anteriorly and genes close to the 5-end of the clusters later and more posteriorly. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how Hox gene clusters have been modified from basal lineages of deuterostomes to diverse taxa of vertebrates. Our parsimony reconstruction of Hox cluster architecture at various stages of vertebrate evolution highlights that the variation in Hox cluster structures among jawed vertebrates is mostly due to secondary lineage-specific gene losses and an additional genome duplication that occurred in the actinopterygian stem lineage, the teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD).

  10. Immunocytochemical identification and localization of APUD cells in the gut of seven stomachless teleost fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Sheng Pan; Zhi Ping Fang; Ya Xin Zhao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the cell types, localization,distribution density and morphology of APUD cells in the intestinal mucosa of stomachless teleost fishes.METHOD By using the peroxidaseantiperoxidase complex ( PAP )immunocytochemical staining technique the identification, localization and morphology of immunoreactive (IR) endocrine cells seattered in the intestinal mucosa of grass carp ( Cyenopharyngodon idellus ), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus ) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) were investigated with 20 kinds of antisera prepared against mammalian peptide hormones of APUD cells, and likewise by using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC)method those of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead (Aristichthys nobilis ), silver crucian carp (Carassius gibelio ) and bluntnose black bream ( Megalobrama amblyocephala ) were also studied with 5 different antisera. The replacement of the first antiserum by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was employed as a control. IR endocrine cells were counted with a square-mesh ocular micrometer from 10 fields selected randomly in every section of each part of the intestine specimen. The average number of IR endocrine cells per mm2 was counted to quantify their distribution density.RESULT Gastrin (GAS)-, Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-, glucagon (GLU)-, glucagon-like immunoreactants ( GLI )-, bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-, leucine-enkephalin (ENK)-and substance P (SP)-IR endocrine cells were found in the gut of grass carp, black carp and common carp, and somatostatin ( SOM )-IR endocrine cells were only seen in common carp.GAS-, GIP- and GLU-IR endocrine cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of silver carp,bighead, silver crucian carp and bluntnose black bream. Most of IR endocrine cells had the higher distribution density in the foregut and midgut,and were longer in shape. They had a long apical cytoplasmic process extended to the gut lumen and a basal process extended to adjacent cells or basement membrane and

  11. Evolutionary patterns and selective pressures of odorant/pheromone receptor gene families in teleost fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Hashiguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teleost fishes do not have a vomeronasal organ (VNO, and their vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs, V2Rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE, as are odorant receptors (ORs and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs. In this study, to obtain insights into the functional distinction among the four chemosensory receptor families in teleost fishes, their evolutionary patterns were examined in zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, fugu, and spotted green pufferfish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that many lineage-specific gene gains and losses occurred in the teleost fish TAARs, whereas only a few gene gains and losses have taken place in the teleost fish vomeronasal receptors. In addition, synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (K(A/K(S in TAARs tended to be higher than those in ORs and V2Rs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Frequent gene gains/losses and high K(A/K(S in teleost TAARs suggest that receptors in this family are used for detecting some species-specific chemicals such as pheromones. Conversely, conserved repertoires of V1R and V2R families in teleost fishes may imply that receptors in these families perceive common odorants for teleosts, such as amino acids. Teleost ORs showed intermediate evolutionary pattern between TAARs and vomeronasal receptors. Many teleost ORs seem to be used for common odorants, but some ORs may have evolved to recognize lineage-specific odors.

  12. Organization of the histaminergic system in the brain of the teleost, Trachurus trachurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, N; Panula, P; Yamatodani, A; Wada, H

    1991-08-01

    To accumulate phylogenetic information on the central histaminergic system, we investigated the histaminergic system in the brain of a teleost, the jack mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), using the indirect immunofluorescent method with antiserum against histamine. A small number of histamine-immunoreactive cell bodies were observed in the posterior hypothalamus around the posterior recess. Histamine-immunoreactive fibers innervated the telencephalon, diencephalon, tegmentum, and rostral part of the medulla oblongata. The immunoreactive fibers were very sparse or absent in the olfactory bulb, optic tectum, cerebellum, caudal part of the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and hypophysis. Ascending fiber bundles were seen in the basal hypothalamus, supplying fiber collaterals to the telencephalon and diencephalon, whereas descending fibers were observed in the midline of the lower brainstem. These findings suggest that the central histaminergic system of the jack mackerel is homologous to those of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, although poorly developed compared with them. The histamine-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies found in the border area between the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon of the river lamprey were not detected in the brain of the jack mackerel.

  13. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  14. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, H.; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are import...

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides as Mediators of Innate Immunity in Teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Katzenback

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been identified throughout the metazoa suggesting their evolutionarily conserved nature and their presence in teleosts is no exception. AMPs are short (18–46 amino acids, usually cationic, amphipathic peptides. While AMPs are diverse in amino acid sequence, with no two AMPs being identical, they collectively appear to have conserved functions in the innate immunity of animals towards the pathogens they encounter in their environment. Fish AMPs are upregulated in response to pathogens and appear to have direct broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity towards both human and fish pathogens. However, an emerging role for AMPs as immunomodulatory molecules has become apparent—the ability of AMPs to activate the innate immune system sheds light onto the multifaceted capacity of these small peptides to combat pathogens through direct and indirect means. Herein, this review focuses on the role of teleost AMPs as modulators of the innate immune system and their regulation in response to pathogens or other exogenous molecules. The capacity to regulate AMP expression by exogenous factors may prove useful in modulating AMP expression in fish to prevent disease, particularly in aquaculture settings where crowded conditions and environmental stress pre-dispose these fish to infection.

  16. Neutrophil Development, Migration, and Function in Teleost Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Havixbeck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognized that neutrophils are sophisticated cells that are critical to host defense and the maintenance of homeostasis. In addition, concepts such as neutrophil plasticity are helping to define the range of phenotypic profiles available to cells in this group and the physiological conditions that contribute to their differentiation. Herein, we discuss key features of the life of a teleost neutrophil including their development, migration to an inflammatory site, and contributions to pathogen killing and the control of acute inflammation. The potent anti-microbial mechanisms elicited by these cells in bony fish are a testament to their long-standing evolutionary contributions in host defense. In addition, recent insights into their active roles in the control of inflammation prior to induction of apoptosis highlight their importance to the maintenance of host integrity in these early vertebrates. Overall, our goal is to summarize recent progress in our understanding of this cell type in teleost fish, and to provide evolutionary context for the contributions of this hematopoietic lineage in host defense and an efficient return to homeostasis following injury or infection.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides as Mediators of Innate Immunity in Teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenback, Barbara A

    2015-09-25

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified throughout the metazoa suggesting their evolutionarily conserved nature and their presence in teleosts is no exception. AMPs are short (18-46 amino acids), usually cationic, amphipathic peptides. While AMPs are diverse in amino acid sequence, with no two AMPs being identical, they collectively appear to have conserved functions in the innate immunity of animals towards the pathogens they encounter in their environment. Fish AMPs are upregulated in response to pathogens and appear to have direct broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity towards both human and fish pathogens. However, an emerging role for AMPs as immunomodulatory molecules has become apparent-the ability of AMPs to activate the innate immune system sheds light onto the multifaceted capacity of these small peptides to combat pathogens through direct and indirect means. Herein, this review focuses on the role of teleost AMPs as modulators of the innate immune system and their regulation in response to pathogens or other exogenous molecules. The capacity to regulate AMP expression by exogenous factors may prove useful in modulating AMP expression in fish to prevent disease, particularly in aquaculture settings where crowded conditions and environmental stress pre-dispose these fish to infection.

  18. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  19. Phylogenetic consistencies among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes in their bioaccumulation of multiple trace elements from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A., E-mail: R.Jeffree@iaea.org [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco)

    2010-07-15

    Multi-tracer experiments determined the accumulation from seawater of selected radioactive trace elements (Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-134, Am-241, Cd-109, Ag-110m, Se-75 and Cr-51) by three teleost and three chondrichthyan fish species to test the hypothesis that these phylogenetic groups have different bioaccumulation characteristics, based on previously established contrasts between the carcharhiniform chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (dogfish) and the pleuronectiform teleost Psetta maxima (turbot). Discriminant function analysis on whole body: water concentration factors (CFs) separated dogfish and turbot in two independent experiments. Classification functions grouped the perciform teleosts, seabream (Sparus aurata) and seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), with turbot and grouped the chondrichthyans, undulate ray (Raja undulata; Rajiformes) and spotted torpedo (Torpedo marmorata; Torpediniformes), with dogfish, thus supporting our hypothesis. Hierarchical classificatory, multi-dimensional scaling and similarity analyses based on the CFs for the nine radiotracers, also separated all three teleosts (that aggregated lower in the hierarchy) from the three chondrichthyan species. The three chondrichthyans were also more diverse amongst themselves compared to the three teleosts. Particular trace elements that were more important in separating teleosts and chondrichthyans were Cs-134 that was elevated in teleosts and Zn-65 that was elevated in chondrichthyans, these differences being due to their differential rates of uptake rather than loss. Chondrichthyans were also higher in Cr-51, Co-60, Ag-110m and Am-241, whereas teleosts were higher only in Mn-54. These contrasts in bioaccumulation patterns between teleosts and chondrichthyans are interpreted in the context of both proximate causes of underlying differences in physiology and anatomy, as well as the ultimate cause of their evolutionary divergence over more than 500 million years before present (MyBP). Our results

  20. Stress and fear responses in the teleost pallium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Patricia Isabel da Mota E.; Martins, C.I.M.; Khan, Uniza Wahid;

    2015-01-01

    combining skin extract with other challenges are needed to reveal neuroendocrine effects associated with this predator cue. Confinement stress resulted in an elevation of cortisol and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) metabolism in both Dl and Dm. A similar tendency was observed in fish exposed...... been found in the teleost telencephalon. The dorsolateral (Dl) and dorsomedial (Dm) regions of the pallium are thought to perform hippocampus and amygdala-like functions respectively. To what degree these regions are involved in the neuroendocrine responses to stress and predator cues however remains...... largely unknown. In the present study the involvement of Dl and Dm in such responses was investigated by exposing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to a standardized confinement stress and to skin extract from conspecifics. Nile tilapia develops a characteristic anticipatory behaviour to hand feeding...

  1. Regulation of gene expression mediating indeterminate muscle growth in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammad, A K Shakur; Asaduzzaman, Md; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo; Kinoshita, Shigeharu

    2015-08-01

    Teleosts are unique among vertebrates due to their indeterminate muscle growth, i.e., continued production of neonatal muscle fibers until death. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying this property is unknown. Here, we focused on the torafugu (Takifugu rubripes) myosin heavy chain gene, MYHM2528-1, which is specifically expressed in neonatal muscle fibers produced by indeterminate muscle growth. We examined the flanking region of MYHM2528-1 through an in vivo reporter assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and identified a 2100 bp 5'-flanking sequence that contained sufficient promoter activity to allow specific gene expression. The effects of enhanced promoter activity were observed at the outer region of the fast muscle and the dorsal edge of slow muscle in zebrafish larvae. At the juvenile stage, the promoter was specifically activated in small diameter muscle fibers scattered throughout fast muscle and in slow muscle near the septum separating slow and fast muscles. This spatio-temporal promoter activity overlapped with known myogenic zones involved in teleost indeterminate muscle growth. A deletion mutant analysis revealed that the -2100 to -600 bp 5'flanking sequence of MYHM2528-1 is essential for promoter activity. This region contains putative binding sites for several representative myogenesis-related transcription factors and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT), a transcription activator involved in regeneration of mammalian adult skeletal muscle. A significant reduction in the promoter activity of the MYHM2528-1 deletion constructs was observed in accordance with a reduction in the number of these binding sites, suggesting the involvement of specific transcription factors in indeterminate muscle growth.

  2. Conserved structure and expression of hsp70 paralogs in teleost fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzger, David C.H.; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Schulte, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    The cytosolic 70 KDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) are widely used as biomarkers of environmental stress in ecological and toxicological studies in fish. Here we analyze teleost genome sequences to show that two genes encoding inducible hsp70s (hsp70-1 and hsp70-2) are likely present in all teleost...... fish. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that hsp70-1 and hsp70-2 are distinct paralogs that originated prior to the diversification of the teleosts. The promoters of both genes contain a TATA box and conserved heat shock elements (HSEs), but unlike mammalian HSP70s, both genes contain...

  3. The complement system in teleost fish: progress of post-homolog-hunting researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Miki; Tsujikura, Masakazu; Ichiki, Satoko; Vo, Tam K; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2011-12-01

    Studies on the complement system of bony fish are now finishing a stage of homologue-hunting identification of the components, unveiling existence of almost all the orthologues of mammalian complement components in teleost. Genomic and transcriptomic data for several teleost species have contributed much for the homologue-hunting research progress. Only an exception is identification of orthologues of mammalian complement regulatory proteins and complement receptors. It is of particular interest that teleost complement components often exist as multiple isoforms with possible functional divergence. This review summarizes research progress of teleost complement system following the molecular identification and sequence analysis of the components. The findings of extensive expression analyses of the complement components with special emphasis of their prominent extrahepatic expression, acute-phase response to immunostimulation and various microbial infections, and ontogenic development including maternal transfer are discussed to infer teleost-specific functions of the complement system. Importance of the protein level characterization of the complement components is also emphasized, especially for understanding of the isotypic diversity of the components, a unique feature of teleost complement system.

  4. Comparative Evolution of Duplicated Ddx3 Genes in Teleosts: Insights from Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Liu, Wei; Song, Huayu; Wang, Huizhen; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Haitao; Du, Xinxin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-06-24

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication event occurred in the stem lineage of ray-finned fishes. This teleost-specific genome duplication is thought to be responsible for the biological diversification of ray-finned fishes. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family. Although their functions in humans have been well studied, limited information is available regarding their function in teleosts. In this study, two teleost Ddx3 genes were first identified in the transcriptome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We confirmed that the two genes originated from teleost-specific genome duplication through synteny and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression pattern of the two genes in Japanese flounder revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the duplicated Ddx3 genes in teleosts. Thus, the results of this study reveal novel insights into the evolution of the teleost Ddx3 genes and constitute important groundwork for further research on this gene family.

  5. Strategies of vertebrate neurulation and a re-evaluation of teleost neural tube formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Laura Anne; Sive, Hazel

    2004-10-01

    The vertebrate neural tube develops by two distinct mechanisms. Anteriorly, in the brain and future trunk (cervicothoracic) region, 'primary neurulation' occurs, where an epithelial sheet rolls or bends into a tube. Posteriorly, in the future lumbar and tail region, the neural tube forms by 'secondary neurulation', where a mesenchymal cell population condenses to form a solid rod that undergoes transformation to an epithelial tube. Teleost neurulation has been described as different from that of other vertebrates. This is principally because the teleost trunk neural tube initially forms a solid rod (the neural keel) that later develops a lumen. This process has also been termed secondary neurulation. However, this description is not accurate since the teleost neural tube derives from an epithelial sheet that folds. This best fits the description of primary neurulation. It has also been suggested that teleost neurulation is primitive, however, both primary and secondary neurulation are found in groups with a more ancient origin than the teleosts. The similarity between neurulation in teleosts and other vertebrates indicates that this group includes viable models (such as the zebrafish) for understanding human neural tube development.

  6. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  7. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogeny inferred from multiple nuclear DNA-coded genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Osamu

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analyses of jawed vertebrates based on mitochondrial sequences often result in confusing inferences which are obviously inconsistent with generally accepted trees. In particular, in a hypothesis by Rasmussen and Arnason based on mitochondrial trees, cartilaginous fishes have a terminal position in a paraphyletic cluster of bony fishes. No previous analysis based on nuclear DNA-coded genes could significantly reject the mitochondrial trees of jawed vertebrates. Results We have cloned and sequenced seven nuclear DNA-coded genes from 13 vertebrate species. These sequences, together with sequences available from databases including 13 jawed vertebrates from eight major groups (cartilaginous fishes, bichir, chondrosteans, gar, bowfin, teleost fishes, lungfishes and tetrapods and an outgroup (a cyclostome and a lancelet, have been subjected to phylogenetic analyses based on the maximum likelihood method. Conclusion Cartilaginous fishes have been inferred to be basal to other jawed vertebrates, which is consistent with the generally accepted view. The minimum log-likelihood difference between the maximum likelihood tree and trees not supporting the basal position of cartilaginous fishes is 18.3 ± 13.1. The hypothesis by Rasmussen and Arnason has been significantly rejected with the minimum log-likelihood difference of 123 ± 23.3. Our tree has also shown that living holosteans, comprising bowfin and gar, form a monophyletic group which is the sister group to teleost fishes. This is consistent with a formerly prevalent view of vertebrate classification, although inconsistent with both of the current morphology-based and mitochondrial sequence-based trees. Furthermore, the bichir has been shown to be the basal ray-finned fish. Tetrapods and lungfish have formed a monophyletic cluster in the tree inferred from the concatenated alignment, being consistent with the currently prevalent view. It also remains possible that

  8. Inter-Specific Differences in Numerical Abilities Among Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Tagliapietra, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Adults, infants and non-human primates are thought to possess similar non-verbal numerical systems, but there is considerable debate regarding whether all vertebrates share the same numerical abilities. Despite an abundance of studies, cross-species comparison remains difficult because the methodology employed and the context of species examination vary considerably across studies. To fill this gap, we used the same procedure, stimuli, and numerical contrasts to compare quantity abilities of five teleost fish: redtail splitfin, guppies, zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and angelfish. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometrical figures using a food reward. Fish initially were trained on an easy numerical ratio (5 vs. 10 and 6 vs. 12). Once they reached the learning criterion, they were subjected to non-reinforced probe trials in which the set size was constant but numerical ratios varied (8 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 12). They also were subjected to probe trials in which the ratio was constant, but the total set size was increased (25 vs. 50) or decreased (2 vs. 4). Overall, fish generalized to numerosities with a 0.67 ratio, but failed with a 0.75 ratio; they generalized to a smaller set size, but not to a larger one. Only minor differences were observed among the five species. However, in one species, zebrafish, the proportion of individuals reaching the learning criterion was much smaller than in the others. In a control experiment, zebrafish showed a similar lower performance in shape discrimination, suggesting that the observed difference resulted from the zebrafish’s difficulty in learning this procedure rather than from a cross-species variation in the numerical domain. PMID:23162517

  9. Inter-specific differences in numerical abilities among teleost fish

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    Christian eAgrillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adults, infants and non-human primates are thought to possess similar non-verbal numerical systems, but there is considerable debate regarding whether all vertebrates share the same numerical abilities. Despite an abundance of studies, cross-species comparison remains difficult because the methodology employed and the context of species examination vary considerably across studies. To fill this gap, we used the same procedure, stimuli and numerical contrasts to compare quantity abilities of five teleost fish: redtail splitfin, guppies, zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and angelfish. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometrical figures using a food reward. Fish initially were trained on an easy numerical ratio (5 vs. 10 and 6 vs. 12. Once they reached the learning criterion, they were subjected to non-reinforced probe trials in which the set size was constant but numerical ratios varied (8 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 12. They also were subjected to probe trials in which the ratio was constant, but the total set size was increased (25 vs. 50 or decreased (2 vs. 4. Overall, fish generalized to numerosities with a 0.67 ratio, but failed with a 0.75 ratio; they generalized to a smaller set size, but not to a larger one. Only minor differences were observed among the five species. However, in one species, zebrafish, the proportion of individuals reaching the learning criterion was much smaller than in the others. In a control experiment, zebrafish showed a similar lower performance in shape discrimination, suggesting that the observed difference resulted from the zebrafish’s difficulty in learning this procedure rather than from a cross-species variation in the numerical domain.

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

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    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  11. The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons.

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    Braasch, Ingo; Gehrke, Andrew R; Smith, Jeramiah J; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Manousaki, Tereza; Pasquier, Jeremy; Amores, Angel; Desvignes, Thomas; Batzel, Peter; Catchen, Julian; Berlin, Aaron M; Campbell, Michael S; Barrell, Daniel; Martin, Kyle J; Mulley, John F; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Wcisel, Dustin; Cañestro, Cristian; Sydes, Jason; Beaudry, Felix E G; Sun, Yi; Hertel, Jana; Beam, Michael J; Fasold, Mario; Ishiyama, Mikio; Johnson, Jeremy; Kehr, Steffi; Lara, Marcia; Letaw, John H; Litman, Gary W; Litman, Ronda T; Mikami, Masato; Ota, Tatsuya; Saha, Nil Ratan; Williams, Louise; Stadler, Peter F; Wang, Han; Taylor, John S; Fontenot, Quenton; Ferrara, Allyse; Searle, Stephen M J; Aken, Bronwen; Yandell, Mark; Schneider, Igor; Yoder, Jeffrey A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Meyer, Axel; Amemiya, Chris T; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Holland, Peter W H; Guiguen, Yann; Bobe, Julien; Shubin, Neil H; Di Palma, Federica; Alföldi, Jessica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Postlethwait, John H

    2016-04-01

    To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization and development (mediated, for example, by Hox, ParaHox and microRNA genes). Numerous conserved noncoding elements (CNEs; often cis regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles for such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the sums of expression domains and expression levels for duplicated teleost genes often approximate the patterns and levels of expression for gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes and the function of human regulatory sequences.

  12. Teleost microbiomes: progress towards their characterisation, manipulation and applications in aquaculture and fisheries.

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    Martin eLlewellyn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous bacterial flora play a critical role in the lives of their vertebrate hosts. In human and mouse models it is increasingly clear that innate and adaptive immunity develop in close consort with the commensal microbiome. Furthermore several aspects of digestion and nutrient metabolism are governed by intestinal microflora. Research on teleosts has responded relatively slowly to the revolution in microbiomics. Nonetheless, progress has been made in biotic and gnotobiotic zebrafish models, defining a core microbiome and describing its role in development. However, microbiome research in other teleost species, especially those important from an aquaculture perspective, has been relatively slow. In this review, we examine progress in teleost microbiome research to date. We discuss teleost microbiomes in health and disease, microbiome ontogeny, prospects for successful microbiome manipulation (especially in an aquaculture setting and attempt to identify important future research themes. We predict an explosion in research in this sector in line with the increasing global demand for fish protein, and the need to find sustainable approaches to improve aquaculture yield. The reduced cost and increasing ease of next generation sequencing technologies provides the technological backing, and the next 10 years will be an exciting time for teleost microbiome research.

  13. Comparative study of enzymatic antioxidants in muscle of elasmobranch and teleost fishes.

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    Vélez-Alavez, Marcela; De Anda-Montañez, Juan A; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Exercise may cause an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants. In skeletal muscle, oxygen flow can increase considerably during vigorous exercise. The antioxidant system in athletes contributes to neutralize the concomitant rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant system in muscle of three species of elasmobranchs and teleosts, considering differences in swimming capacity among species within each group and evolutionary differences between the two groups. Muscle samples were collected from elasmobranchs (Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Mustelus henlei) and teleosts (Totoaba macdonaldi, Kajikia audax and Coryphaena hippurus) in the coast of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was determined by spectrophotometry. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPx and GST was higher in elasmobranchs, as a group, than in teleosts. In fish species with high swimming capacities, P. glauca, K. audax and C. hippurus, antioxidant enzyme activity was higher in comparison with species with lower swimming capacities, M. henlei and T. macdonaldi. It is possible that antioxidant enzymes, particularly SOD, GPx and GST, contribute to avoidance of oxidative damage in teleost and elasmobranch species with higher swimming capacities. The antioxidant enzyme activities in fish appear to depend mainly on their swimming capacity and life style rather than the evolutionary group (elasmobranchs, teleosts).

  14. Subfunction partitioning, the teleost radiation and the annotation of the human genome.

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    Postlethwait, John; Amores, Angel; Cresko, William; Singer, Amy; Yan, Yi-Lin

    2004-10-01

    Half of all vertebrate species are teleost fish. What accounts for this explosion of biodiversity? Recent evidence and advances in evolutionary theory suggest that genomic features could have played a significant role in the teleost radiation. This review examines evidence for an ancient whole-genome duplication (tetraploidization) event that probably occurred just before the teleost radiation. The partitioning of ancestral subfunctions between gene copies arising from this duplication could have contributed to the genetic isolation of populations, to lineage-specific diversification of developmental programs, and ultimately to phenotypic variation among teleost fish. Beyond its importance for understanding mechanisms that generate biodiversity, the partitioning of subfunctions between teleost co-orthologs of human genes can facilitate the identification of tissue-specific conserved noncoding regions and can simplify the analysis of ancestral gene functions obscured by pleiotropy or haploinsufficiency. Applying these principles on a genomic scale can accelerate the functional annotation of the human genome and understanding of the roles of human genes in health and disease.

  15. The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-to-teleost comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Gehrke, Andrew R.; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Manousaki, Tereza; Pasquier, Jeremy; Amores, Angel; Desvignes, Thomas; Batzel, Peter; Catchen, Julian; Berlin, Aaron M.; Campbell, Michael S.; Barrell, Daniel; Martin, Kyle J.; Mulley, John F.; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P.; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Wcisel, Dustin; Cañestro, Cristian; Sydes, Jason; Beaudry, Felix E. G.; Sun, Yi; Hertel, Jana; Beam, Michael J.; Fasold, Mario; Ishiyama, Mikio; Johnson, Jeremy; Kehr, Steffi; Lara, Marcia; Letaw, John H.; Litman, Gary W.; Litman, Ronda T.; Mikami, Masato; Ota, Tatsuya; Saha, Nil Ratan; Williams, Louise; Stadler, Peter F.; Wang, Han; Taylor, John S.; Fontenot, Quenton; Ferrara, Allyse; Searle, Stephen M. J.; Aken, Bronwen; Yandell, Mark; Schneider, Igor; Yoder, Jeffrey A.; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Meyer, Axel; Amemiya, Chris T.; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Holland, Peter W. H.; Guiguen, Yann; Bobe, Julien; Shubin, Neil H.; Di Palma, Federica; Alföldi, Jessica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Postlethwait, John H.

    2016-01-01

    To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before the teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization, and development (e.g., Hox, ParaHox, and miRNA genes). Numerous conserved non-coding elements (CNEs, often cis-regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles of such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the sum of expression domains and levels from duplicated teleost genes often approximate patterns and levels of gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes, and the function of human regulatory sequences. PMID:26950095

  16. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

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    Sandra A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  17. Evolution history of duplicated smad3 genes in teleost: insights from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Xinxin Du

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD during deuterosome evolution, a third genome duplication occurred in the ray-fined fish lineage and is considered to be responsible for the teleost-specific lineage diversification and regulation mechanisms. As a receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD, the function of SMAD3 was widely studied in mammals. However, limited information of its role or putative paralogs is available in ray-finned fishes. In this study, two SMAD3 paralogs were first identified in the transcriptome and genome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. We also explored SMAD3 duplication in other selected species. Following identification, genomic structure, phylogenetic reconstruction, and synteny analyses performed by MrBayes and online bioinformatic tools confirmed that smad3a/3b most likely originated from the teleost-specific WGD. Additionally, selection pressure analysis and expression pattern of the two genes performed by PAML and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the two SMAD3 paralogs in teleost. Our results indicate that two SMAD3 genes originate from teleost-specific WGD, remain transcriptionally active, and may have likely undergone subfunctionalization. This study provides novel insights to the evolution fates of smad3a/3b and draws attentions to future function analysis of SMAD3 gene family.

  18. Structural and functional diversification in the teleost S100 family of calcium-binding proteins

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    Korsching Sigrun I

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the EF-Hand calcium-binding proteins the subgroup of S100 proteins constitute a large family with numerous and diverse functions in calcium-mediated signaling. The evolutionary origin of this family is still uncertain and most studies have examined mammalian family members. Results We have performed an extensive search in several teleost genomes to establish the s100 gene family in fish. We report that the teleost S100 repertoire comprises fourteen different subfamilies which show remarkable similarity across six divergent teleost species. Individual species feature distinctive subsets of thirteen to fourteen genes that result from local gene duplications and gene losses. Eight of the fourteen S100 subfamilies are unique for teleosts, while six are shared with mammalian species and three of those even with cartilaginous fish. Several S100 family members are found in jawless fish already, but none of them are clear orthologs of cartilaginous or bony fish s100 genes. All teleost s100 genes show the expected structural features and are subject to strong negative selection. Many aspects of the genomic arrangement and location of mammalian s100 genes are retained in the teleost s100 gene family, including a completely conserved intron/exon border between the two EF hands. Zebrafish s100 genes exhibit highly specific and characteristic expression patterns, showing both redundancy and divergence in their cellular expression. In larval tissue expression is often restricted to specific cell types like keratinocytes, hair cells, ionocytes and olfactory receptor neurons as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Conclusion The origin of the S100 family predates at least the segregation of jawed from jawless fish and some extant family members predate the divergence of bony from cartilaginous fish. Despite a complex pattern of gene gains and losses the total repertoire size is remarkably constant between species. On the expression

  19. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

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    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  20. Identification, Phylogeny, and Function of fabp2 Paralogs in Two Non-Model Teleost Fish Species.

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    Kaitetzidou, Elisavet; Chatzifotis, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (IFABP or FABP2) is a cytosolic transporter of long-chain fatty acids, which is mainly expressed in cells of intestinal tissue. Fatty acids in teleosts are an important source of energy for growth, reproduction, and swimming and a main ingredient in the yolk sac of embryos and larvae. The fabp2 paralogs, fabp2a and fabp2b, were identified for 26 teleost fish species including the paralogs for the two non-model teleost fish species, namely the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Despite the high similarity of fabp2 paralogs, as well as the identical organization in four exons, paralogs were mapped to different chromosomes/linkage groups supporting the hypothesis that the identified transcripts are true paralogs originating from a single ancestor gene after genome duplication. This was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using fabp2 sequences of 26 teleosts and by synteny analysis carried out with ten teleosts. Differential expression analysis of the gilthead sea bream and European sea bass fabp2 paralogs in the intestine after fasting and refeeding experiment further revealed their altered implication in metabolism. Additional expression studies in seven developmental stages of the two species detected fabp2 paralogs relatively early in the embryonic development as well as possible complementary or separated roles of the paralogs. The identification and characterization of the two fabp2 paralogs will contribute significantly to the understanding of the fabp2 evolution as well as of the divergences in fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Sequencing and comparative analysis of fugu protocadherin clusters reveal diversity of protocadherin genes among teleosts

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    Rajasegaran Vikneswari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synaptic cell adhesion molecules, protocadherins, are a vertebrate innovation that accompanied the emergence of the neural tube and the elaborate central nervous system. In mammals, the protocadherins are encoded by three closely-linked clusters (α, β and γ of tandem genes and are hypothesized to provide a molecular code for specifying the remarkably-diverse neural connections in the central nervous system. Like mammals, the coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, contains a single protocadherin locus, also arranged into α, β and γ clusters. Zebrafish, however, possesses two protocadherin loci that contain more than twice the number of genes as the coelacanth, but arranged only into α and γ clusters. To gain further insight into the evolutionary history of protocadherin clusters, we have sequenced and analyzed protocadherin clusters from the compact genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes. Results Fugu contains two unlinked protocadherin loci, Pcdh1 and Pcdh2, that collectively consist of at least 77 genes. The fugu Pcdh1 locus has been subject to extensive degeneration, resulting in the complete loss of Pcdh1γ cluster. The fugu Pcdh genes have undergone lineage-specific regional gene conversion processes that have resulted in a remarkable regional sequence homogenization among paralogs in the same subcluster. Phylogenetic analyses show that most protocadherin genes are orthologous between fugu and zebrafish either individually or as paralog groups. Based on the inferred phylogenetic relationships of fugu and zebrafish genes, we have reconstructed the evolutionary history of protocadherin clusters in the teleost fish lineage. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the exceptional evolutionary dynamism of protocadherin genes in vertebrates in general, and in teleost fishes in particular. Besides the 'fish-specific' whole genome duplication, the evolution of protocadherin genes in teleost fishes is influenced by lineage

  2. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

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    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  3. Diversity, molecular characterization and expression of T cell receptor γ in a teleost fish, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

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    Francesco Buonocore

    Full Text Available Two lineages of T cells, expressing either the αβ T cell receptor (TR or the γδ TR, exist in Gnathostomes. The latter type of T cells account for 1-10 % of T cells in blood and up to 30 % in the small intestine. They may recognize unconventional antigens (phosphorylated microbial metabolites, lipid antigens without the need of major histocompatibility class I (MH1 or class II (MH2 presentation. In this work we have described cloning and structural characterization of TR -chain (TRG from the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax. Further, by means of quantitative PCR analysis, we analyzed TRG expression levels both in poly I:C stimulated leukocytes in vitro, and following infection with betanodavirus in vivo. Two full length cDNAs relative to TRG, with the highest peptide and nucleotide identity with Japanese flounder, were identified. A multiple alignment analysis showed the conservation of peptides fundamental for TRG biological functions, and of the FGXG motif in the FR4 region, typical of most TR and immunoglobulin light chains. A 3D structure consisting of two domains mainly folded as beta strands with a sandwich architecture for each domain was also reported. TRG CDR3 of 8-18 AA in length and diversity in the TRG rearrangements expressed in thymus and intestine for a given V/C combination were evidenced by junction length spectratyping. TRG mRNA expression levels were high in basal conditions both in thymus and intestine, while in kidney and gut leukocytes they were up-regulated after in vitro stimulation by poly I:C. Finally, in juveniles the TRG expression levels were up-regulated in the head kidney and down-regulated in intestine after in vivo infection with betanodavirus. Overall, in this study the involvement of TRG-bearing T cells during viral stimulation was described for the first time, leading to new insights for the identification of T cell subsets in fish.

  4. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

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    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  5. Relaxin gene family in teleosts: phylogeny, syntenic mapping, selective constraint, andexpression analysis

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    Glen Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the relaxin family of signaling molecules has been shown to play diverse roles in mammalian physiology, but little is known about its diversity or physiology in teleosts, an infraclass of the bony fishes comprising ~ 50% of all extant vertebrates. In this paper, 32 relaxin family sequences were obtained by searching genomic and cDNA databases from eight teleost species; phylogenetic, molecular evolutionary, and syntenic data analyses were conducted to understand the relationship and differential patterns of evolution of relaxin family genes in teleosts compared with mammals. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR was used to confirm and assess the tissues of expression of five relaxin family genes in Danio rerio and in situ hybridization used to assess the site-specific expression of the insulin 3-like gene in D. rerio testis. Results Up to six relaxin family genes were identified in each teleost species. Comparative syntenic mapping revealed that fish possess two paralogous copies of human RLN3, which we call rln3a and rln3b, an orthologue of human RLN2, rln, two paralogous copies of human INSL5, insl5a and insl5b, and an orthologue of human INSL3, insl3. Molecular evolutionary analyses indicated that: rln3a, rln3b and rln are under strong evolutionary constraint, that insl3 has been subject to moderate rates of sequence evolution with two amino acids in insl3/INSL3 showing evidence of positively selection, and that insl5b exhibits a higher rate of sequence evolution than its paralogue insl5a suggesting that it may have been neo-functionalized after the teleost whole genome duplication. Quantitative PCR analyses in D. rerio indicated that rln3a and rln3b are expressed in brain, insl3 is highly expressed in gonads, and that there was low expression of both insl5 genes in adult zebrafish. Finally, in situ hybridization of insl3 in D. rerio testes showed highly specific hybridization to interstitial Leydig

  6. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of epidermal xanthophores and dermal chromatophores of the teleost Sparus aurata.

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    Ferrer, C; Solano, F; Zuasti, A

    1999-04-01

    We have studied the pigmentary system of the teleost Sparus aurata skin by electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis. Under electron microscopy, we found the dermis to contain the three major types of recognized chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores. Melanophores were more abundant in the dorsal region, whereas the iridophores were more abundant in the ventral region. The most important discovery was that of epidermal xanthophores. Epidermal xanthophores were the only chromatophores in the epidermis, something only found in S aurata and in a teleost species living in the Antartic sea. In contrast, the biochemical analysis did not establish any special characteristics: we found pteridine and flavin pigments located mostly in the pigmented dorsal region. Riboflavin and pterin were two of the most abundant coloured pigment types, but other colourless pigments such as xanthopterin and isoxanthopterin were also detected.

  7. Ultrastructural study of the pituicytes in the pituitary gland of the teleost Diplodus sargus.

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    Ferrandino, Ida; Grimaldi, Maria Consiglio

    2008-01-31

    An electron microscopic study was performed on the pituitary gland of the Mediterranean teleost fish Diplodus sargus to analyse the morphological characteristics of the pituicytes. In this class of vertebrates, the pituicytes have, like other astroglial cells, a trophic and support function, but they may also play an active role in the release of neurohormones. Most of the pituicytes were of the Dark type. Their shape appeared irregular with long, thin processes protruding from the cellular body. The pituicytes protruded from the neurohypophysis as far as the adenohypophysis. Their cellular bodies were mainly located in the posterior neurohypophysis. In the adenohypophysis, pituicytic processes were intermingled with cells of the pars intermedia and pars distalis, though being more numerous in the former. These processes sometimes surrounded the whole adenohypophyseal cell. This provides further evidence for the possible role of the pituicytes in controlling the release of the pituitary hormones given that, in teleost fishes, there is no distinct portal system or true median eminence.

  8. A RAD-tag genetic map for the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) reveals mechanisms of karyotype evolution among teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3-40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24-25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years.

  9. Comparative genomic organization and tissue-specific transcription of the duplicated fabp7 and fabp10 genes in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Manoj B; Wright, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    A whole-genome duplication (WGD) early in the teleost fish lineage makes fish ideal organisms to study the fate of duplicated genes and underlying evolutionary trajectories that have led to the retention of ohnologous gene duplicates in fish genomes. Here, we compare the genomic organization and tissue-specific transcription of the ohnologous fabp7 and fabp10 genes in medaka, three-spined stickleback, and spotted green pufferfish to the well-studied duplicated fabp7 and fabp10 genes of zebrafish. Teleost fabp7 and fabp10 genes contain four exons interrupted by three introns. Polypeptide sequences of Fabp7 and Fabp10 show the highest sequence identity and similarity with their orthologs from vertebrates. Orthology was evident as the ohnologous Fabp7 and Fabp10 polypeptides of teleost fishes each formed distinct clades and clustered together with their orthologs from other vertebrates in a phylogenetic tree. Furthermore, ohnologous teleost fabp7 and fabp10 genes exhibit conserved gene synteny with human FABP7 and chicken FABP10, respectively, which provides compelling evidence that the duplicated fabp7 and fabp10 genes of teleost fishes most likely arose from the well-documented WGD. The tissue-specific distribution of fabp7a, fabp7b, fabp10a, and fabp10b transcripts provides evidence of diverged spatial transcriptional regulation between ohnologous gene duplicates of fabp7 and fabp10 in teleost fishes.

  10. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of epidermal xanthophores and dermal chromatophores of the teleost Sparus aurata

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, C.; Solano, F.; Zuasti, A

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the pigmentary system of the teleost Sparus aurata skin by electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis. Under electron microscopy, we found the dermis to contain the three major types of recognized chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores. Melanophores were more abundant in the dorsal region, whereas the iridophores were more abundant in the ventral region. The most important discovery was that of epidermal xanthophore...

  11. Salinity Regulates Claudin mRNA and Protein Expression in the Teleost Gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Baltzegar, David A; Ozden, Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    The teleost gill carries out NaCl uptake in fresh water (FW) and NaCl excretion in seawater (SW). This transformation with salinity requires close regulation of ion transporter capacity and epithelial permeability. This study investigates the regulation of tight junctional claudins during salinity...... with salinity acclimation and possibly the formation of deeper tight junctions in FW gill. This may reduce ion permeability, which is a critical facet of FW osmoregulation. Key words: osmoregulation, tight junction, tilapia, epithelia....

  12. Sex determination studies in two species of teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus and Leporinus elongatus

    OpenAIRE

    Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Nakayama, Ichiro; FORESTI,FAUSTO; Chourrout, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Genetic analyses of sex determination have identified sex chromosomes in many teleost fish species. However, there are several cases for which sex ratios do not fit perfectly with the expectations of heterogametic systems, suggesting the influence of either minor sex determining genes or environmental influences on the process of sex differentiation. The frequent absence of sex chromosome markers makes the identification of minor sex-determining genes very difficult. It is easier to test firs...

  13. Suspension and optical properties of the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Ronald H H; Gustafsson, Ola S E; Tuminaite, Inga

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the apparatus suspending the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates. Data are presented for Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the actinopterygians Polypteriformes, Polyodontidae (Acipenseriformes), Lepisosteiformes, Amiiformes, and one teleost species, the banded archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix). We also studied the optical properties of the lens in Polypteriformes, Lepisosteiformes, and the archerfish. Together with previously published results, our findings show that there are three basic types of lens suspension in vertebrates. These are i) a rotationally symmetric suspension (Petromyzontida, lampreys; Ceratodontiformes, lungfishes; Tetrapoda), ii) a suspension with a dorso-ventral axis of symmetry and a ventral papilla (all Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes), and iii) an asymmetric suspension with a ventral muscle and a varying number of ligaments (all Actinopterygii except for Acipenseriformes). Large eyes with presumably high spatial resolution have evolved in all groups. Multifocal lenses creating well-focused color images are also present in all groups studied. Stable and exact positioning of the lens, in many cases in combination with accommodative changes in lens position or shape, is achieved by all three types of lens suspension. It is somewhat surprising that lens suspensions are strikingly similar in Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes (Actinopterygii), while the suspension apparatus in Polypteriformes, usually being regarded as an actinopterygian group more basal than Acipenseriformes, are considerably more teleostean-like. This study completes a series of investigations on lens suspensions in nontetrapod vertebrates, covering all major groups except for the rare and highly derived coelacanths.

  14. The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, Henk J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia and their relationships with the thalamocortical system. The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits. These circuits support a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional-motivational brain functions. A main role of the basal ganglia is the learning and selection of the mos...

  15. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  16. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.

  17. Teleost fish osmoregulation: what have we learned since August Krogh, Homer Smith, and Ancel Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David H

    2008-08-01

    In the 1930s, August Krogh, Homer Smith, and Ancel Keys knew that teleost fishes were hyperosmotic to fresh water and hyposmotic to seawater, and, therefore, they were potentially salt depleted and dehydrated, respectively. Their seminal studies demonstrated that freshwater teleosts extract NaCl from the environment, while marine teleosts ingest seawater, absorb intestinal water by absorbing NaCl, and excrete the excess salt via gill transport mechanisms. During the past 70 years, their research descendents have used chemical, radioisotopic, pharmacological, cellular, and molecular techniques to further characterize the gill transport mechanisms and begin to study the signaling molecules that modulate these processes. The cellular site for these transport pathways was first described by Keys and is now known as the mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC). The model for NaCl secretion by the marine MRC is well supported, but the model for NaCl uptake by freshwater MRC is more unsettled. Importantly, these ionic uptake mechanisms also appear to be expressed in the marine gill MRC, for acid-base regulation. A large suite of potential endocrine control mechanisms have been identified, and recent evidence suggests that paracrines such as endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins might also control MRC function.

  18. Prolactin and teleost ionocytes: new insights into cellular and molecular targets of prolactin in vertebrate epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone prolactin is a functionally versatile hormone produced by the vertebrate pituitary. Comparative studies over the last six decades have revealed that a conserved function for prolactin across vertebrates is the regulation of ion and water transport in a variety of tissues including those responsible for whole-organism ion homeostasis. In teleost fishes, prolactin was identified as the “freshwater-adapting hormone”, promoting ion-conserving and water-secreting processes by acting on the gill, kidney, gut and urinary bladder. In mammals, prolactin is known to regulate renal, intestinal, mammary and amniotic epithelia, with dysfunction linked to hypogonadism, infertility, and metabolic disorders. Until recently, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of prolactin action in fishes has been hampered by a paucity of molecular tools to define and study ionocytes, specialized cells that control active ion transport across branchial and epidermal epithelia. Here we review work in teleost models indicating that prolactin regulates ion balance through action on ion transporters, tight-junction proteins, and water channels in ionocytes, and discuss recent advances in our understanding of ionocyte function in the genetically and embryonically accessible zebrafish (Danio rerio). Given the high degree of evolutionary conservation in endocrine and osmoregulatory systems, these studies in teleost models are contributing novel mechanistic insight into how prolactin participates in the development, function, and dysfunction of osmoregulatory systems across the vertebrate lineage.

  19. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  20. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  1. Allometric growth of the trunk leads to the rostral shift of the pelvic fin in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yumie; Tamura, Mika; Aita, Yusuke; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Yasunori; Okabe, Masataka; Okada, Norihiro; Tanaka, Mikiko

    2010-11-01

    The pelvic fin position among teleost fishes has shifted rostrally during evolution, resulting in diversification of both behavior and habitat. We explored the developmental basis for the rostral shift in pelvic fin position in teleost fishes using zebrafish (abdominal pelvic fins) and Nile tilapia (thoracic pelvic fins). Cell fate mapping experiments revealed that changes in the distribution of lateral plate mesodermal cells accompany the trunk-tail protrusion. Presumptive pelvic fin cells are originally located at the body wall adjacent to the anterior limit of hoxc10a expression in the spinal cord, and their position shifts rostrally as the trunk grows. We then showed that the differences in pelvic fin position between zebrafish and Nile tilapia were not due to changes in expression or function of gdf11. We also found that hox-independent motoneurons located above the pelvic fins innervate into the pelvic musculature. Our results suggest that there is a common mechanism among teleosts and tetrapods that controls paired appendage positioning via gdf11, but in teleost fishes the position of prospective pelvic fin cells on the yolk surface shifts as the trunk grows. In addition, teleost motoneurons, which lack lateral motor columns, innervate the pelvic fins in a manner independent of the rostral-caudal patterns of hox expression in the spinal cord.

  2. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  3. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  4. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  5. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  6. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  7. The pH sensitivity of Aqp0 channels in tetraploid and diploid teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvigné, François; Zapater, Cinta; Stavang, Jon Anders; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Cerdà, Joan; Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2015-05-01

    Water homeostasis and the structural integrity of the vertebrate lens is partially mediated by AQP0 channels. Emerging evidence indicates that external pH may be involved in channel gating. Here we show that a tetraploid teleost, the Atlantic salmon, retains 4 aqp0 genes (aqp0a1, -0a2, -0b1, and -0b2), which are highly, but not exclusively, expressed in the lens. Functional characterization reveals that, although each paralog permeates water efficiently, the permeability is respectively shifted to the neutral, alkaline, or acidic pH in Aqp0a1, -0a2, and -0b1, whereas that of Aqp0b2 is not regulated by external pH. Mutagenesis studies demonstrate that Ser(38), His(39), and His(40) residues in the extracellular transmembrane domain of α-helix 2 facing the water pore are critical for the pH modulation of water transport. To validate these findings, we show that both zebrafish Aqp0a and -0b are functional water channels with respective pH sensitivities toward alkaline or acid pH ranges and that an N-terminal allelic variant (Ser(19)) of Aqp0b exists that abolishes water transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The data suggest that the alkaline pH sensitivity is a conserved trait in teleost Aqp0 a-type channels, whereas mammalian AQP0 and some teleost Aqp0 b-type channels display an acidic pH permeation preference.

  8. Electron microscopic studies of the corpuscles of Stannius of an airbreathing teleost (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Firoz Ahmad; A Alim; N S Sen; G Lakra; K P Mishra; Bushra Raza; B Chakarborty; N V A Rao; S E Wendelaar Bonga

    2002-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the corpuscles of Stannius (CS) of Heteropneustes fossilis reveals a homogenous cellular composition characterized by only one cell type, with large secretory granules and abundant ribosomal endoplasmic reticulum. These cells are comparable to the type 1 cell described in the CS of other teleosts; type 2 cells, whose presence is ubiquitous in the CS of freshwater species are absent in H. fossilis. Our data on the CS of H. fossilis demonstrate that not all freshwater species possess type 2 cells in their CS and these are not essential for life in freshwater.

  9. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  10. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  11. Biomarkers for Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Jennifer R.; Torsten O. Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification of breast cancer through identification of subtype-specific biomarkers. This review aims to present an in depth summary and analysis of the current status of basal...

  12. Rapid genome reshaping by multiple-gene loss after whole-genome duplication in teleost fish suggested by mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun; Sato, Yukuto; Sinclair, Robert; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2015-12-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is believed to be a significant source of major evolutionary innovation. Redundant genes resulting from WGD are thought to be lost or acquire new functions. However, the rates of gene loss and thus temporal process of genome reshaping after WGD remain unclear. The WGD shared by all teleost fish, one-half of all jawed vertebrates, was more recent than the two ancient WGDs that occurred before the origin of jawed vertebrates, and thus lends itself to analysis of gene loss and genome reshaping. Using a newly developed orthology identification pipeline, we inferred the post-teleost-specific WGD evolutionary histories of 6,892 protein-coding genes from nine phylogenetically representative teleost genomes on a time-calibrated tree. We found that rapid gene loss did occur in the first 60 My, with a loss of more than 70-80% of duplicated genes, and produced similar genomic gene arrangements within teleosts in that relatively short time. Mathematical modeling suggests that rapid gene loss occurred mainly by events involving simultaneous loss of multiple genes. We found that the subsequent 250 My were characterized by slow and steady loss of individual genes. Our pipeline also identified about 1,100 shared single-copy genes that are inferred to have become singletons before the divergence of clupeocephalan teleosts. Therefore, our comparative genome analysis suggests that rapid gene loss just after the WGD reshaped teleost genomes before the major divergence, and provides a useful set of marker genes for future phylogenetic analysis.

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of ACTH and MSH cells in the hypophysis of the hermaphroditic teleost, Diplodus sargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandino, I; Pica, A; Grimaldi, M C

    2000-01-01

    Hypophyseal ACTH and MSH cells were immunohistochemically characterised in the teleost fish, Diplodus sargus, using anti-ACTH (1-24) and anti alpha-MSH polyclonal antisera. ACTH cells were found both in the pars distalis and in the pars intermedia. In the former region, they appeared small, round-shaped and clustered; in the latter, they were either small or large and elongated. Moreover, a few ACTH-immunoreactive cells resembling microglia were present in the neurohypophysis. Conversely, MSH cells were found only in the pars intermedia, and were similar to the larger ACTH cells of the same region. In the pars intermedia, co-localisation of ACTH and MSH immunoreactivity in the same cell was revealed by double immunostaining, though the two hormones were also observed in distinct cell types. The distribution of ACTH cells appeared quite uniform, without any marked difference between the specimens tested. Conversely, MSH cell amount varied according to the stage of the sexual cycle of this teleost fish, which is characterised by protandrous hermaphroditism. In fact, a lower amount of MSH cells were observed in females, whereas no significant difference was found between immature and male specimens.

  14. Triiodothyronine and melatonin influence antioxidant defense mechanism in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch): in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Divya, L; Vijayasree, A S; Manju, M; Oommen, O V

    2007-06-01

    The effect of the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and melatonin on antioxidant defense system was studied in 6-propyl thiouracil (6-PTU)-treated or photoperiod-exposed teleost Anabas testudineus. 6-PTU (2 microg/g) treatment or photoperiod exposure (24 h) increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) concentrations, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the experimental conditions. T3 or melatonin (10(-6) M) treatment for 15 min in vitro in PTU-treated fish reversed the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione content. T3-treated group showed no change in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, whereas melatonin treatment decreased its activity. T3 inhibited glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Photoperiod exposure (physiological pinealotomy) induced a stressful situation in this teleost, as evidenced by LPO products and antioxidant enzyme activities. Melatonin and T3 treatment for 15 min in vitro also reversed the effect of photoperiod on peroxidation products and the SOD and catalase activities. GR activity decreased in photoperiod-exposed group and melatonin and T3 treatment reversed the activities. The antioxidant enzymes responded to the stress situation after 6-PTU treatment and photoperiod exposure by altering their activities. The study suggested an independent effect of T3 and melatonin on antioxidant defence mechanism in different physiological situations in fish.

  15. Tri-iodothyronine alters superoxide dismutase expression in a teleost Anabas testudineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Oommen, O V

    2008-12-01

    The effect of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression was evaluated in a teleost Anabas testudineus (cuthyroid fish) by native gel eletrophoresis and Western blot analysis. SOD is an essential enzyme for the survival of oxygen-utilizing organisms. Its expression is altered by the stress, presumably due to the increase in concentration of superoxide radical in cells. Variations of thyroid honnone levels are the major physiological modulators of cellular oxidative stress. T3 administration generates an oxidative stress, which to some extent is neutralized by the changed activity of enzymes like SOD. T3 treatment decreased CuZn SOD density in liver and brain of A. testudineus. The activity of CuZn SOD in liver and brain was confirmed by native gel analysis. The different physiological states of thyroid influenced the CuZn SOD activity. Western blot analysis further confirmed that liver and brain CuZn SOD decreased after T3 treatment. From these findings, it was clear that T3 treatment in euthyroid fish created an oxidative stress condition and thyroid hormone effectively maintained antioxidant status to overcome this situation in teleosts.

  16. Duplication and divergence of fgf8 functions in teleost development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovelin, Richard; He, Xinjun; Amores, Angel; Yan, Yi-Lin; Shi, Ruihua; Qin, Baifang; Roe, Bruce; Cresko, William A; Postlethwait, John H

    2007-12-15

    Fibroblast growth factors play critical roles in many aspects of embryo patterning that are conserved across broad phylogenetic distances. To help understand the evolution of fibroblast growth factor functions, we identified members of the Fgf8/17/18-subfamily in the three-spine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, and investigated their evolutionary relationships and expression patterns. We found that fgf17b is the ortholog of tetrapod Fgf17, whereas the teleost genes called fgf8 and fgf17a are duplicates of the tetrapod gene Fgf8, and thus should be called fgf8a and fgf8b. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that the Fgf8/17/18-subfamily expanded during the ray-fin fish genome duplication. In situ hybridization experiments showed that stickleback fgf8 duplicates exhibited common and unique expression patterns, indicating that tissue specialization followed the gene duplication event. Moreover, direct comparison of stickleback and zebrafish embryonic expression patterns of fgf8 co-orthologs suggested lineage-specific independent subfunction partitioning and the acquisition or the loss of ortholog functions. In tetrapods, Fgf8 plays an important role in the apical ectodermal ridge of the developing pectoral appendage. Surprisingly, differences in the expression of fgf8a in the apical ectodermal ridge of the pectoral fin bud in zebrafish and stickleback, coupled with the role of fgf16 and fgf24 in teleost pectoral appendage show that different Fgf genes may play similar roles in limb development in various vertebrates.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of acth and msh cells in the hypophysis of the hermaphroditic teleost, Diplodus sargus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Consiglio Grimaldi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypophyseal ACTH and MSH cells were immunohistochemically characterised in the teleost fish, Diplodus sargus, using anti-ACTH (1-24 and anti a-MSH polyclonal antisera. ACTH cells were found both in the pars distalis and in the pars intermedia. In the former region, they appeared small, round-shaped and clustered; in the latter, they were either small or large and elongated. Moreover, a few ACTH-immunoreactive cells resembling microglia were present in the neurohypophysis. Conversely, MSH cells were found only in the pars intermedia, and were similar to the larger ACTH cells of the same region. In the pars intermedia, co-localisation of ACTH and MSH immunoreactivity in the same cell was revealed by double immunostaining, though the two hormones were also observed in distinct cell types. The distribution of ACTH cells appeared quite uniform, without any marked difference between the specimens tested. Conversely, MSH cell amount varied according to the stage of the sexual cycle of this teleost fish, which is characterised by protandrous hermaphroditism. In fact, a lower amount of MSH cells were observed in females, whereas no significant difference was found between immature and male specimens.

  18. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  19. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  20. Corticotropin-releasing hormone in the teleost stress response: rapid appearance of the peptide in plasma of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepels, P.P.L.M.; Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Balm, P.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations (tip to 600 pg/ml) of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were detected in plasma of the teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) when screening peripheral tissues of tilapia exposed to stress. Notably, the plasma CRH response to stressors in tilapia is much more pronounc

  1. Corticotropin-releasing hormone in the teleost stress response: rapid appearance of the peptide in plasma of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepels, P.P.L.M.; Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Balm, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations (up to 600 pg/ml) of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were detected in plasma of the teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) when screening peripheral tissues of tilapia exposed to stress. Notably, the plasma CRH response to stressors in tilapia is much more pronounce

  2. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in teleosts and amphibians: Endocrine disruption and its consequences to natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J.A.; Patino, R.

    2011-01-01

    Teleosts and pond-breeding amphibians may be exposed to a wide variety of anthropogenic, waterborne contaminants that affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Because thyroid hormone is required for their normal development and reproduction, the potential impact of HPT-disrupting contaminants on natural teleost and amphibian populations raises special concern. There is laboratory evidence indicating that persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, pharmaceutical and personal care products, agricultural chemicals, and aerospace products may alter HPT activity, development, and reproduction in teleosts and amphibians. However, at present there is no evidence to clearly link contaminant-induced HPT alterations to impairments in teleost or amphibian population health in the field. Also, with the exception of perchlorate for which laboratory studies have shown a direct link between HPT disruption and adverse impacts on development and reproductive physiology, little is known about if or how other HPT-disrupting contaminants affect organismal performance. Future field studies should focus on establishing temporal associations between the presence of HPT-disrupting chemicals, the occurrence of HPT alterations, and adverse effects on development and reproduction in natural populations; as well as determining how complex mixtures of HPT contaminants affect organismal and population health. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  3. The hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis in teleosts and amphibians: Endocrine disruption and its consequences to natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J.A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Teleosts and pond-breeding amphibians may be exposed to a wide variety of anthropogenic, waterborne contaminants that affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Because thyroid hormone is required for their normal development and reproduction, the potential impact of HPT-disrupting contaminants on natural teleost and amphibian populations raises special concern. There is laboratory evidence indicating that persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, pharmaceutical and personal care products, agricultural chemicals, and aerospace products may alter HPT activity, development, and reproduction in teleosts and amphibians. However, at present there is no evidence to clearly link contaminant-induced HPT alterations to impairments in teleost or amphibian population health in the field. Also, with the exception of perchlorate for which laboratory studies have shown a direct link between HPT disruption and adverse impacts on development and reproductive physiology, little is known about if or how other HPT-disrupting contaminants affect organismal performance. Future field studies should focus on establishing temporal associations between the presence of HPT-disrupting chemicals, the occurrence of HPT alterations, and adverse effects on development and reproduction in natural populations; as well as determining how complex mixtures of HPT contaminants affect organismal and population health.

  4. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  5. Duplication of the dystroglycan gene in most branches of teleost fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giardina Bruno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dystroglycan (DG complex is a major non-integrin cell adhesion system whose multiple biological roles involve, among others, skeletal muscle stability, embryonic development and synapse maturation. DG is composed of two subunits: α-DG, extracellular and highly glycosylated, and the transmembrane β-DG, linking the cytoskeleton to the surrounding basement membrane in a wide variety of tissues. A single copy of the DG gene (DAG1 has been identified so far in humans and other mammals, encoding for a precursor protein which is post-translationally cleaved to liberate the two DG subunits. Similarly, D. rerio (zebrafish seems to have a single copy of DAG1, whose removal was shown to cause a severe dystrophic phenotype in adult animals, although it is known that during evolution, due to a whole genome duplication (WGD event, many teleost fish acquired multiple copies of several genes (paralogues. Results Data mining of pufferfish (T. nigroviridis and T. rubripes and other teleost fish (O. latipes and G. aculeatus available nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of two functional paralogous DG sequences. RT-PCR analysis proved that both the DG sequences are transcribed in T. nigroviridis. One of the two DG sequences harbours an additional mini-intronic sequence, 137 bp long, interrupting the uncomplicated exon-intron-exon pattern displayed by DAG1 in mammals and D. rerio. A similar scenario emerged also in D. labrax (sea bass, from whose genome we have cloned and sequenced a new DG sequence that also harbours a shorter additional intronic sequence of 116 bp. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of DG protein products in all the species analysed including two teleost Antarctic species (T. bernacchii and C. hamatus. Conclusion Our evolutionary analysis has shown that the whole-genome duplication event in the Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish involved also DAG1. We unravelled new important molecular genetic details

  6. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  7. Genome evolution and meiotic maps by massively parallel DNA sequencing: spotted gar, an outgroup for the teleost genome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Ferrara, Allyse; Fontenot, Quenton; Postlethwait, John H

    2011-08-01

    Genomic resources for hundreds of species of evolutionary, agricultural, economic, and medical importance are unavailable due to the expense of well-assembled genome sequences and difficulties with multigenerational studies. Teleost fish provide many models for human disease but possess anciently duplicated genomes that sometimes obfuscate connectivity. Genomic information representing a fish lineage that diverged before the teleost genome duplication (TGD) would provide an outgroup for exploring the mechanisms of evolution after whole-genome duplication. We exploited massively parallel DNA sequencing to develop meiotic maps with thrift and speed by genotyping F(1) offspring of a single female and a single male spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) collected directly from nature utilizing only polymorphisms existing in these two wild individuals. Using Stacks, software that automates the calling of genotypes from polymorphisms assayed by Illumina sequencing, we constructed a map containing 8406 markers. RNA-seq on two map-cross larvae provided a reference transcriptome that identified nearly 1000 mapped protein-coding markers and allowed genome-wide analysis of conserved synteny. Results showed that the gar lineage diverged from teleosts before the TGD and its genome is organized more similarly to that of humans than teleosts. Thus, spotted gar provides a critical link between medical models in teleost fish, to which gar is biologically similar, and humans, to which gar is genomically similar. Application of our F(1) dense mapping strategy to species with no prior genome information promises to facilitate comparative genomics and provide a scaffold for ordering the numerous contigs arising from next generation genome sequencing.

  8. Bioconcentration and Elimination of the Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Polycarbamate in Marine Teleost Fish and Polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the bioconcentration and elimination of polycarbamate, a popular antifoulant classified as a dithiocarbamate fungicide, in a marine teleost fish, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), and a polychaete (Perinereis nuntia). Following polycarbamate exposure and depuration, the calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) and elimination rate constant (k2) were 3.1 and 0.17 day(-1) in fish and 1.5-7.8 and 0.13-0.18 day(-1) in the polychaete, indicating that the fungicide has low bioconcentration potential in both organisms. Given the BCF of 3.1, the permissible environmental concentration level of polycarbamate in water was calculated to be 6.1 µg L(-1) to satisfy the threshold pesticide residue levels in fish permitted by law, which is far below the permissible levels in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Therefore, we consider that the current polycarbamate contamination level in terms of bioconcentration is not likely to be an alarming issue in coastal environments.

  9. Brain derived neurotrophic factor in the retina of the teleost N. furzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Claudia; Castaldo, Luciana; Cellerino, Alessandro; de Girolamo, Paolo; Lucini, Carla; D'Angelo, Livia

    2014-07-01

    BDNF plays an important role in the development and maintenance of visual circuitries in the retina and brain visual centers. In adulthood, BDNF signaling is involved in neural protection and regeneration of retina. In this survey, we investigated the expression of BDNF in the retina of adult Nothobranchius furzeri, a teleost fish employed for age research. After describing the retina of N. furzeri and confirming that the structure is organized in layers as in all vertebrates, we have studied the localization of BDNF mRNA and protein throughout the retinal layers. BDNF mRNA is detectable in all layers, whereas the protein is lacking in the photoreceptors. The occurrence of BDNF provides new insights on its role in the retina, particularly in view of age-related disease of retina.

  10. ZFOR2, a new opioid receptor-like gene from the teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrallo, A; González-Sarmiento, R; Alvar, F; Rodríguez, R E

    2000-12-08

    A new opioid receptor-like (ZFOR2) has been cloned and characterized in an anamniote vertebrate, the teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio). ZFOR2 encodes a 384-amino-acid protein with seven potential transmembrane domains, and its predicted amino acid sequence presents an overall 74% degree of identity to mammalian mu opioid receptors. Its inclusion in a dendrogram generated from the alignment of the opioid receptor's protein sequences, confirms its classification as a mu opioid receptor. Divergences in sequence are greater in the regions corresponding to extracellular loops, suggesting possible differences in ligand selectivity with respect to the classical mu opioid receptors. The genomic structure of ZFOR2 is also highly conserved throughout the phylogenetic scale, supporting the origin of opioid receptors early in evolution. Nevertheless, ZFOR2 lacks the fourth exon found in human and rodent mu opioid receptors, that is known to be involved in desensibilization and internalization processes.

  11. Diversity of trypanorhynch metacestodes in teleost fishes from coral reefs off eastern Australia and New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beveridge Ian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanorhynch metacestodes were examined from teleosts from coral reefs in eastern Australia and from New Caledonia. From over 12,000 fishes examined, 33 named species of trypanorhynchs were recovered as well as three species of tentacularioids which are described but not named. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, including more than 100 new host records. Lacistorhynchoid and tentacularioid taxa predominated with fewer otobothrioid and gymnorhynchoids. Five species, Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Floriceps minacanthus, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum, Pseudolacistorhynchus heroniensis and Ps. shipleyi, were particularly common and exhibited low host specificity. Limited data suggested a higher diversity of larval trypanorhynchs in larger piscivorous fish families. Several fish families surveyed extensively (Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Kyphosidae and Scaridae yielded no trypanorhynch larvae. The overall similarity between the fauna of the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia was 45%. Where available, information on the adult stages in elasmobranchs has been included.

  12. Effects of four rice herbicides on some metabolic and toxicology parameters of teleost fish (Leporinus obtusidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Loro, Vania Lúcia; Glusczak, Lissandra; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Marchezan, Enio; de Oliveira Machado, Sérgio

    2007-07-01

    Effects of different herbicides on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase and TBARS formation in teleost fish (Leporinus obtusidens) were studied. Fish were exposed during 30 days at concentrations of herbicides used in rice field. AChE activity in the brain decreased significantly after exposure to the herbicides clomazone and quinclorac. However, AChE activity increased significantly in muscle tissue after exposure to clomazone, propanil and metsulfuron methyl. Fish exposed to quinclorac, propanil and metsulfuron methyl showed TBARS decreased levels in brain and muscle tissues. However, TBARS and catalase activity increased in liver tissue after clomazone and propanil exposure. This study pointed out long-term effects on AChE activity, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme catalase in tissues of L. obtusidens after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of rice field herbicides. These parameters have been used to monitor fish toxicity in rice field system.

  13. The occurrence of spermatozoa in the ovary of the gynogenetic viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (POECILIIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; De la Rosa-Cruz, Gabino; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    The reproductive mode of the female viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (Poeciliidae) represents the phenomenon known as gynogenesis; that is, parthenogenetic development is initiated by spermatozoa which are needed for physiological activation of the egg and the initiation of gestation, but spermatozoa are prevented from contributing to the genome of the embryo. For the reason that no previous histological analyses of the ovary of this species during the reproductive cycle has been published the present study has been conducted. This study examined the histology of the ovary of P. formosa during nongestation and gestation phases and identified the presence of spermatozoa inside the ovary. Spermatozoa were observed in folds of the ovarian epithelium of P. formosa during both the nongestation and gestation phases. Sperm storage as documented in this study is a very important trait for the gynogenetic viviparous fish P. formosa contributing to the understanding of this species reproduction.

  14. Genotypic sex determination in teleosts: insights from the testis-determining amhy gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Fernandino, Juan Ignacio; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel

    2013-10-01

    The master sex-determining genes identified so far in fishes are clearly not conserved, as evidenced by several unrelated genes reported to play critical roles in sex determination. In this study, we reviewed the molecular process of sex determination in the Patagonian pejerrey Odontesthes hatcheri, an emerging model due to the recent discovery that a Y-chromosome linked, duplicated copy of the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, amhy plays a pivotal role in sex determination. A comparative analysis with other newly found sex-determining genes of teleost fish, DMY/dmrt1bY, sdY, amhr2, and gsdf(Y) is performed and alternative ideas are proposed to explain the mechanism involved in the rise of various types of non-homologous sex-determining genes.

  15. A comparison of myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density and ligand binding affinity among selected teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, H I; Yee, N; Shiels, H A; Brauner, C; Farrell, A P

    2000-11-01

    This study quantified the cell surface beta-adrenoreceptor density and ligand binding affinity in the ventricular tissue of seven teleost species; skipjack tuna (Katsowonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), mahimahi (dolphin fish; Coryphaena hippurus), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and an Antarctic nototheniid (Trematomus bernacchii). Beta-Adrenoreceptor density varied by almost fourfold among these species, being highest for the athletic fish: sockeye salmon among the salmonids and skipjack tuna among the scombrids. Beta-Adrenoreceptor density was lowest for the Antarctic icefish. Beta-Adrenoreceptor binding affinity varied by almost threefold. We conclude that there is a significant species-specific variability in myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density and binding affinity and these interspecific differences cannot be attributed to temperature even though intraspecifically cold temperature can stimulate an increase in myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density. Instead, we suggest that interspecifically myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density is highest in fish that inhabit tropical water.

  16. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lagman

    Full Text Available Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  17. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E; Larhammar, Dan; Abalo, Xesús M

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  18. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  19. Patterns of Parental Investment and Sexual Selection in Teleost Fishes: Do They Support Bateman's Principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar

    2005-11-01

    Bateman demonstrated differences in variance for fertility and mating success between the sexes, with males usually having a greater variance than females. Thus in general, male reproductive success increases with number of mates acquired. These results have been referred to as "Bateman's principles" and taken together with other parameters (e.g., relative parental investment) have been proposed to estimate a component of sexual selection. For this review I examine patterns of parental care and sexual selection in teleost fishes (substrate brooding and with internal fertilization). I present data for the pumpkinseed sunfish Lepomis gibbosus, in which I estimated cost of paternal care and compared direct measures of the intensity of selection on possible sexually selected traits to measures of sexual selection based on Bateman's principles.Despite high levels of paternal care in substrate brooding fishes, sexual selection tends to act more strongly on males than on females, which suggests that maternal investment is higher than paternal investment and that parental care does not limit the reproductive rate for males. In pumpkinseed sunfish, selection favors parents with high levels of defense that may exclude predators more effectively and, as suggested by Bateman's measures, alternative reproductive strategies may decrease the opportunity for sexual selection within the parental strategy. In teleost fishes with internal fertilization, patterns of parental investment and intensity of sexual selection seem to support Bateman's principles, but further studies using these systems and these measures of selection will improve the understanding of factors affecting the intensity of sexual selection and its relation to mating systems.

  20. Spatial distribution and cellular composition of adult brain proliferative zones in the teleost, Gymnotus omarorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eOlivera-Pasilio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of stem/progenitor cells during development provides for the generation of mature cell types in the CNS. While adult brain proliferation is highly restricted in the mammals, it is widespread in teleosts. The extent of adult neural proliferation in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum has not yet been described. To address this, we used double thymidine analog pulse-chase labeling of proliferating cells to identify brain proliferation zones, characterize their cellular composition, and analyze the fate of newborn cells in adult G. omarorum. Short thymidine analog chase periods revealed the ubiquitous distribution of adult brain proliferation, similar to other teleosts, particularly Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Proliferating cells were abundant at the ventricular-subventricular lining of the ventricular-cisternal system, adjacent to the telencephalic subpallium, the diencephalic preoptic region and hypothalamus, and the mesencephalic tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. Extraventricular proliferation zones, located distant from the ventricular-cisternal system surface, were found in all divisions of the rombencephalic cerebellum. We also report a new adult proliferation zone at the caudal-lateral border of the electrosensory lateral line lobe. All proliferation zones showed a heterogeneous cellular composition. The use of short (24hs and long (30d chase periods revealed abundant fast cycling cells (potentially intermediate amplifiers, sparse slow cycling (potentially stem cells, cells that appear to have entered a quiescent state, and cells that might correspond to migrating newborn neural cells. Their abundance and migration distance differed among proliferation zones: greater numbers and longer range and/or pace of migrating cells were associated with subpallial and cerebellar proliferation zones.

  1. Advances in the Fc receptor of teleosts%鱼类Fc受体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵茜; 安利国; 杨桂文

    2009-01-01

    Fc受体是免疫细胞表面一种重要受体分子,通过与免疫球蛋白Fc段结合触发多种生物学功能,是联系体液免疫和细胞免疫的桥梁.部分硬骨鱼中已经发现了Fc受体,在斑马鱼、斑点叉尾鲴和鲤鱼中都克隆到了Fc受体的γ亚基,在鲨鱼和大西洋鲑中证明有能够与免疫球蛋白结合的Fc受体存在,并在斑点叉尾鲴、河豚和虹鳟中存在着类似α亚基的Fc受体.对鱼类Fc受体的发现和研究必将为了解鱼类的免疫机制及免疫进化提供重要的资料.%Fc receptors(FcRs) of immunoglobulins on immune cell play an important role in immune system by providing a link between antibody-antigen complexes and the effect cell. FcRs supply an essential link between humoral and cellular immunity. FcRs have been cloned in teleost fish, the γ subunit of Fc receptor has been cloned from zebrafish, catfish and common carp, while the subunits binding to immunoglobulins have been identified from shark, atlantic salmon, catfish, fugu and rainbow trout. Identification of subunits of the Fc receptors could lead to a farther investigation of the immune mechanism in teleosts and the phylogeny of Fc receptors.

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  3. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje H; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R;

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  4. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  5. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  6. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  7. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  8. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  9. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  10. Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing—Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Manousaki; Alexandros Tsakogiannis; Taggart, John B.; Christos Palaiokostas; Dimitris Tsaparis; Jacques Lagnel; Dimitrios Chatziplis; Antonios Magoulas; Nikos Papandroulakis; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S

    2016-01-01

    Common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking the genotype to phenotype allowing fine-mapping of ...

  11. Cytochrome P450IA1 induction and localization in endothelium of vertebrate (teleost) heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, J J; Miller, M R; Hinton, D E

    1989-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high levels of cytochrome P450 can occur in cardiac microsomes of vertebrates [Mol. Pharmacol. 21:517-526, (1982)]. Here we identify the dominant cardiac P450 in the marine fish scup as P450E, a teleost representative of P450IA1, and we describe its restricted cellular localization in the heart. Treatment of scup with beta-naphthoflavone produced an unusually strong (10-fold) induction of spectrally measured P450 in cardiac microsomes, with specific content reaching levels (0.5 nmol/mg) similar to those induced in scup liver. Microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities, catalytic functions of scup P450E, were induced in parallel with P450 content. Similar induction was seen in both atrium and ventricle. Immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibody 1-12-3, specific to scup P450E and other vertebrate P450IA1 proteins, showed that this hydrocarbon-inducible P450 is the dominant and possibly sole P450 form in heart microsomes of experimentally induced animals. Immunohistochemical analysis of scup heart sections (2-4-microns) with monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 revealed that P450E was detectable only in endothelial cells of the endocardium and of the coronary vasculature. A similar endothelial cell localization of the monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 epitope was observed in heart of rainbow trout, induced with beta-naphthoflavone, indicating a general nature for the endothelial localization of induced cardiac P450. Morphometric analysis showed that endothelium could constitute 8-9% of the volume of teleost heart, from which we calculate that P450IA1 could account for as much as 25% of the endothelial cell microsomal protein. Heart microsomes of untreated animals from contaminated environments also contained high levels of P450E, indicating that induction like that caused by beta-naphthoflavone could occur with chemicals in the environment. Strongly induced P450E (P450IA1) in endothelium could play a critical

  12. Insulin regulates ionic metabolism in a fresh water teleost, anabas testudineus (bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasree, A S; Divya, L; Sreejith, P; Cyril, J; Smita, M; Oommen, O V

    2005-08-01

    Short term effects of insulin on total brain and branchial Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase and Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions were investigated in A. testudineus. The increase in brain Ca2+ ATPase after alloxan treatment may account for an increased amount of intracellular calcium required for biochemical events taking place inside the cells. Branchial Na+K+ATPase was significantly stimulated while Ca2+ ATPase significantly inhibited after alloxan treatment. This suggests that alloxan exerts its inhibitory effect on the ATP-driven Ca2+ transport via; its action on the Ca2+ pump protein rather than the membrane permeability to Ca2+. The increased activity of brain Na+K+ ATPase at 3 and 24 hr by insulin to alloxan pretreated fish may account for the stimulated co-transport of glucose and its utilization for energy requirements and the excitatory action on neurons in the brain. The elevated brain Ca2+ ATPase may be due to the role of calcium as a second messenger in hormone action. At 24 hr, the activity of branchial Na+K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase in alloxan pretreated specimens was significantly stimulated by insulin. This may be due to increased synthesis of these enzyme units. Administration of insulin (lU/fish) in normal fish significantly inhibited the activity of brain and branchial Na+K+ ATPase while brain Ca2+ ATPase showed a stimulatory effect at 3 and 24 hr compared to control. Inhibition of total branchial Ca2+ ATPase activity by insulin may be due to increased Ca2+ concentration. Higher plasma glucose level in alloxan treated groups confirms the diabetic effect of alloxan. Insulin reverses this effect. The possible mechanism by which insulin controls Na+K+ ATPase activity appears to be tissue specific. The results seem to be the first report on the effect of insulin on ATPase activity in a teleost. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that insulin performs a role in hydro mineral regulation in freshwater teleosts.

  13. Phylogenetic perspectives on the evolution of functional hermaphroditism in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Brad E; Petersen, Christopher W; Hastings, Philip A; Warner, Robert R

    2013-10-01

    Hermaphroditism is taxonomically widespread among teleost fishes and takes on many forms including simultaneous, protogynous, and protandrous hermaphroditism, bidirectional sex change, and androdioecy. The proximate mechanisms that influence the timing, incidence, and forms of hermaphroditism in fishes are supported by numerous theoretical and empirical studies on their mating systems and sexual patterns, but few have examined aspects of sex-allocation theory or the evolution of hermaphroditism for this group within a strict phylogenetic context. Fortunately, species-level phylogenetic reconstructions of the evolutionary history of many lineages of fishes have emerged, providing opportunities for understanding fine-scale evolutionary pathways and transformations of sex allocation. Examinations of several families of fishes with adequate data on phylogeny, patterns of sex allocation, mating systems, and with some form of hermaphroditism reveal that the evolution and expression of protogyny and other forms of sex allocation show little evidence of phylogenetic inertia within specific lineages but rather are associated with particular mating systems in accordance with prevalent theories about sex allocation. Transformations from protogyny to gonochorism in groupers (Epinephelidae), seabasses (Serranidae), and wrasses and parrotfishes (Labridae) are associated with equivalent transformations in the structure of mating groups from spawning of pairs to group spawning and related increases in sperm competition. Similarly, patterns of protandry, androdioecy, simultaneous hermaphroditism, and bidirectional sex change in other lineages (Aulopiformes, Gobiidae, and Pomacentridae) match well with particular mating systems in accordance with sex-allocation theory. Unlike other animals and plants, we did not find evidence that transitions between hermaphroditism and gonochorism required functional intermediates. Two instances in which our general conclusions might not hold

  14. Characterization of two different melatonin binding sites in peripheral tissues of the teleost Tinca tinca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Patiño, M A; Guijarro, A I; Alonso-Gómez, A L; Delgado, M J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to localize and characterize 2-iodo-melatonin ([(125)I]Mel) binding sites in peripheral tissues of the teleost Tinca tinca. A wide distribution of [(125)I]Mel binding sites in peripheral locations of the tench is found, with highest densities being measured in the heart, gills and kidney, and low density of [(125)I]Mel binding sites in gastrointestinal tract, spleen, liver and gonads. Saturation, kinetics, and pharmacological approaches revealed the presence of, at least, two different [(125)I]Mel binding sites in the tench peripheral tissues. The unique characterized subtype in the heart fulfils all the criteria for a canonical melatonin receptor belonging to MT(1) family (the binding is saturable, reversible, and inhibited by GTP analogs), and gives support for the presence of a functional melatonin receptor in the heart of the tench. In contrast, kinetic and pharmacological studies in the kidney revealed the preponderance of a melatonin binding site belonging to the MT(3)-like receptor subtype. Moreover, the decrease of specific binding in both, heart and kidney membranes, and the decrease of affinity in the kidney, produced by the addition of a non-hydrolysable GTP analog, and sodium cations suggest the presence of G(i/o)-proteins (that mediate inhibition of cAMP formation) coupled to such melatonin binding sites. Our results also point to different G(i/o)-proteins involved in the underlying mechanism of melatonin binding sites activation in the kidney. Additionally, the kinetics of [(125)I]Mel binding in kidney membrane preparations is a highly thermosensitive process, being necessary to perform the assays at 4 °C since the equilibrium was not reached at 25 °C assay temperature. The time needed to complete association of [(125)I]Mel at such low temperature is only 15s, whereas 100s is required to displace [(125)I]Mel specific binding by the unlabeled melatonin in kidney membranes. Present results support previous reports on

  15. Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing-Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Tereza; Tsakogiannis, Alexandros; Taggart, John B; Palaiokostas, Christos; Tsaparis, Dimitris; Lagnel, Jacques; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Magoulas, Antonios; Papandroulakis, Nikos; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S

    2015-12-29

    Common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking genotype to phenotype, allowing fine-mapping of loci responsible for beneficial traits. In this study, we applied ddRAD methodology to identify polymorphic markers in a full-sib family of common pandora. Employing the Illumina MiSeq platform, we sampled and sequenced a size-selected genomic fraction of 99 individuals, which led to the identification of 920 polymorphic loci. Downstream mapping analysis resulted in the construction of 24 robust linkage groups, corresponding to the karyotype of the species. The common pandora linkage map showed varying degrees of conserved synteny with four other teleost genomes, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and medaka (Oryzias latipes), suggesting a conserved genomic evolution in Sparidae. Our work exploits the possibilities of genotyping by sequencing to gain novel insights into genome structure and evolution. Such information will boost the study of cultured species and will set the foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex evolutionary history of teleosts.

  16. Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing—Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Manousaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking genotype to phenotype, allowing fine-mapping of loci responsible for beneficial traits. In this study, we applied ddRAD methodology to identify polymorphic markers in a full-sib family of common pandora. Employing the Illumina MiSeq platform, we sampled and sequenced a size-selected genomic fraction of 99 individuals, which led to the identification of 920 polymorphic loci. Downstream mapping analysis resulted in the construction of 24 robust linkage groups, corresponding to the karyotype of the species. The common pandora linkage map showed varying degrees of conserved synteny with four other teleost genomes, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, and medaka (Oryzias latipes, suggesting a conserved genomic evolution in Sparidae. Our work exploits the possibilities of genotyping by sequencing to gain novel insights into genome structure and evolution. Such information will boost the study of cultured species and will set the foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex evolutionary history of teleosts.

  17. Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing—Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Tereza; Tsakogiannis, Alexandros; Taggart, John B.; Palaiokostas, Christos; Tsaparis, Dimitris; Lagnel, Jacques; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Magoulas, Antonios; Papandroulakis, Nikos; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S.

    2015-01-01

    Common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking genotype to phenotype, allowing fine-mapping of loci responsible for beneficial traits. In this study, we applied ddRAD methodology to identify polymorphic markers in a full-sib family of common pandora. Employing the Illumina MiSeq platform, we sampled and sequenced a size-selected genomic fraction of 99 individuals, which led to the identification of 920 polymorphic loci. Downstream mapping analysis resulted in the construction of 24 robust linkage groups, corresponding to the karyotype of the species. The common pandora linkage map showed varying degrees of conserved synteny with four other teleost genomes, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and medaka (Oryzias latipes), suggesting a conserved genomic evolution in Sparidae. Our work exploits the possibilities of genotyping by sequencing to gain novel insights into genome structure and evolution. Such information will boost the study of cultured species and will set the foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex evolutionary history of teleosts. PMID:26715088

  18. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  19. Temporal pattern of loss/persistence of duplicate genes involved in signal transduction and metabolic pathways after teleost-specific genome duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Yukuto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genomic studies have revealed a teleost-specific third-round whole genome duplication (3R-WGD event occurred in a common ancestor of teleost fishes. However, it is unclear how the genes duplicated in this event were lost or persisted during the diversification of teleosts, and therefore, how many of the duplicated genes contribute to the genetic differences among teleosts. This subject is also important for understanding the process of vertebrate evolution through WGD events. We applied a comparative evolutionary approach to this question by focusing on the genes involved in long-term potentiation, taste and olfactory transduction, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, based on the whole genome sequences of four teleosts; zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and green spotted puffer fish. Results We applied a state-of-the-art method of maximum-likelihood phylogenetic inference and conserved synteny analyses to each of 130 genes involved in the above biological systems of human. These analyses identified 116 orthologous gene groups between teleosts and tetrapods, and 45 pairs of 3R-WGD-derived duplicate genes among them. This suggests that more than half [(45×2/(116+45] = 56.5% of the loci, probably more than ten thousand genes, present in a common ancestor of the four teleosts were still duplicated after the 3R-WGD. The estimated temporal pattern of gene loss suggested that, after the 3R-WGD, many (71/116 of the duplicated genes were rapidly lost during the initial 75 million years (MY, whereas on average more than half (27.3/45 of the duplicated genes remaining in the ancestor of the four teleosts (45/116 have persisted for about 275 MY. The 3R-WGD-derived duplicates that have persisted for a long evolutionary periods of time had significantly larger number of interacting partners and longer length of protein coding sequence, implying that they tend to be more multifunctional than the singletons after the 3R-WGD. Conclusion

  20. Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelaide, J.; Finetti, P.; Bekhouche, I.; Repellini, L.; Geneix, J.; Sircoulomb, F.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Cervera, N.; Desplans, J.; Parzy, D.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Viens, P.; Jacquemier, J.; Birnbaum, D.; Bertucci, F.; Chaffanet, M.

    2007-01-01

    Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal

  1. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species.

  2. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M.; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G.; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V.; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L.; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  3. A proteinaceous organic matrix regulates carbonate mineral production in the marine teleost intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L.; Lemoine, Christophe M. R.; Pelin, Adrian; Corradi, Nicolas; Warren, Wesley C.; Grosell, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Marine teleost fish produce CaCO3 in their intestine as part of their osmoregulatory strategy. This precipitation is critical for rehydration and survival of the largest vertebrate group on earth, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reaction are unknown. Here, we isolate and characterize an organic matrix associated with the intestinal precipitates produced by Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Toadfish precipitates were purified using two different methods, and the associated organic matrix was extracted. Greater than 150 proteins were identified in the isolated matrix by mass spectrometry and subsequent database searching using an O. beta transcriptomic sequence library produced here. Many of the identified proteins were enriched in the matrix compared to the intestinal fluid, and three showed no substantial homology to any previously characterized protein in the NCBI database. To test the functionality of the isolated matrix, a micro-modified in vitro calcification assay was designed, which revealed that low concentrations of isolated matrix substantially promoted CaCO3 production, where high concentrations showed an inhibitory effect. High concentrations of matrix also decreased the incorporation of magnesium into the forming mineral, potentially providing an explanation for the variability in magnesium content observed in precipitates produced by different fish species.

  4. Preference of the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus for different macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cuihong; Zeng, Fangui; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-06-01

    The decomposition of a large amount of unexploited macroalgal resource along the coast of China often results in heavy environmental pollution. In order to pave a way of using macroalgae as the dietary ingredient of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, one of a few farmed herbivorous marine teleosts in China, its preference (feeding selectivity) for different macroalgae was determined in this study. Seven seaweed species abundantly inhabiting the coast of east Guangdong Province were exposed simultaneously to rabbitfish juveniles in laboratory (multiple-choice feeding) with their content and absolute intake assayed. It was found that the most preferred algae were Ulva prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Chaetomorpha linum, less preferred algae were U. pertusa and Porphyra haitanensis, and least preferred ones were Sargassum fusiforme and Corallina sessilis. Such an order did not change when one to four relatively preferred seaweeds were removed. The preferred seaweeds were richer in protein and soluble sugar thus higher in energy than the least preferred. In addition, this fish was found to favor filamentous and flat algae rather than calcified ones. Accordingly, the richness of nutrients and morphological characteristics determined the preference of S. canaliculatus for tested macroalgae.

  5. Spatial memory and hippocampal pallium through vertebrate evolution: insights from reptiles and teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F; López, J C; Vargas, J P; Broglio, C; Gómez, Y; Salas, C

    The forebrain of vertebrates shows great morphological variation and specialized adaptations. However, an increasing amount of neuroanatomical and functional data reveal that the evolution of the vertebrate forebrain could have been more conservative than previously realized. For example, the pallial region of the teleost telencephalon contains subdivisions presumably homologous with various pallial areas in amniotes, including possibly a homologue of the medial pallium or hippocampus. In mammals and birds, the hippocampus is critical for encoding complex spatial information to form map-like cognitive representations of the environment. Here, we present data showing that the pallial areas of reptiles and fish, previously proposed as homologous to the hippocampus of mammals and birds on an anatomical basis, are similarly involved in spatial memory and navigation by map-like or relational representations of the allocentric space. These data suggest that early in vertebrate evolution, the medial pallium of an ancestral fish group that gave rise to the extant vertebrates became specialized for processing and encoding complex spatial information, and that this functional trait has been retained through the evolution of each independent vertebrate lineage.

  6. Mechanisms controlling Pax6 isoform expression in the retina have been conserved between teleosts and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakowski, Jörn; Majumder, Anirban; Lauderdale, James D

    2007-07-15

    The Pax6 gene plays several roles in retinal development, including control of cell proliferation, maintenance of the retinogenic potential of progenitor cells, and cell fate specification. Emerging evidence suggests that these different aspects of Pax6 gene function are mediated by different isoforms of the Pax6 protein; however, relatively little is known about the spatiotemporal expression of Pax6 isoforms in the vertebrate retina. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology, we modified a zebrafish Pax6a BAC such that we could distinguish paired-containing Pax6a transcripts from paired-less Pax6a transcripts. In the zebrafish, the spatial and temporal onset of expression of these transcripts suggests that the paired-less isoform is involved in the cell fate decision leading to the generation of amacrine cells; however, because of limitations associated with transient transgenic analysis, it was not feasible to establish whether this promoter was active in all amacrine cells or in a specific population of amacrine cells. By making mice transgenic for the zebrafish Pax6a BAC reporter transgene, we were able to show that paired-containing and paired-less Pax6a transcripts were differentially expressed in amacrine subpopulations. Our study also directly demonstrates the functional conservation of the regulatory mechanisms governing Pax6 transcription in teleosts and mammals.

  7. Conservation of toll-like receptor signaling pathways in teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Smith, K.D.; Aderem, A.; Hood, L.; Winton, J.R.; Roach, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In mammals, toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize ligands, including pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and respond with ligand-specific induction of genes. In this study, we establish evolutionary conservation in teleost fish of key components of the TLR-signaling pathway that act as switches for differential gene induction, including MYD88, TIRAP, TRIF, TRAF6, IRF3, and IRF7. We further explore this conservation with a molecular phylogenetic analysis of MYD88. To the extent that current genomic analysis can establish, each vertebrate has one ortholog to each of these genes. For molecular tree construction and phylogeny inference, we demonstrate a methodology for including genes with only partial primary sequences without disrupting the topology provided by the high-confidence full-length sequences. Conservation of the TLR-signaling molecules suggests that the basic program of gene regulation by the TLR-signaling pathway is conserved across vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, leukocytes from a model fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were stimulated with known mammalian TLR agonists including: Diacylated and triacylated forms of lipoprotein, flagellin, two forms of LPS, synthetic double-stranded RNA, and two imidazoquinoline compounds (loxoribine and R848). Trout leukocytes responded in vitro to a number of these agonists with distinct patterns of cytokine expression that correspond to mammalian responses. Our results support the key prediction from our phylogenetic analyses that strong selective pressure of pathogenic microbes has preserved both TLR recognition and signaling functions during vertebrate evolution. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A proteinaceous organic matrix regulates carbonate mineral production in the marine teleost intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L.; LeMoine, Christophe M. R.; Pelin, Adrian; Corradi, Nicolas; Warren, Wesley C.; Grosell, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Marine teleost fish produce CaCO3 in their intestine as part of their osmoregulatory strategy. This precipitation is critical for rehydration and survival of the largest vertebrate group on earth, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reaction are unknown. Here, we isolate and characterize an organic matrix associated with the intestinal precipitates produced by Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Toadfish precipitates were purified using two different methods, and the associated organic matrix was extracted. Greater than 150 proteins were identified in the isolated matrix by mass spectrometry and subsequent database searching using an O. beta transcriptomic sequence library produced here. Many of the identified proteins were enriched in the matrix compared to the intestinal fluid, and three showed no substantial homology to any previously characterized protein in the NCBI database. To test the functionality of the isolated matrix, a micro-modified in vitro calcification assay was designed, which revealed that low concentrations of isolated matrix substantially promoted CaCO3 production, where high concentrations showed an inhibitory effect. High concentrations of matrix also decreased the incorporation of magnesium into the forming mineral, potentially providing an explanation for the variability in magnesium content observed in precipitates produced by different fish species. PMID:27694946

  9. Preference of the Herbivorous Marine Teleost Siganus canaliculatus for Different Macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Cuihong; ZENG Fangui; WANG Shuqi; LI Yuanyou

    2014-01-01

    The decomposition of a large amount of unexploited macroalgal resource along the coast of China often results in heavy environmental pollution. In order to pave a way of using macroalgae as the dietary ingredient of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, one of a few farmed herbivorous marine teleosts in China, its preference (feeding selectivity) for different macroalgae was determined in this study. Seven seaweed species abundantly inhabiting the coast of east Guangdong Province were exposed simultaneously to rab-bitfish juveniles in laboratory (multiple-choice feeding) with their content and absolute intake assayed. It was found that the most preferred algae were Ulva prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Chaetomorpha linum, less preferred algae were U. pertusa and Porphyra haitanensis, and least preferred ones were Sargassum fusiforme and Corallina sessilis. Such an order did not change when one to four relatively preferred seaweeds were removed. The preferred seaweeds were richer in protein and soluble sugar thus higher in energy than the least preferred. In addition, this fish was found to favor filamentous and flat algae rather than calcified ones. Ac-cordingly, the richness of nutrients and morphological characteristics determined the preference of S. canaliculatus for tested macro-algae.

  10. Lipid droplet biology and evolution illuminated by the characterization of a novel perilipin in teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granneman, James G; Kimler, Vickie A; Zhang, Huamei; Ye, Xiangqun; Luo, Xixia; Postlethwait, John H; Thummel, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Perilipin (PLIN) proteins constitute an ancient family important in lipid droplet (LD) formation and triglyceride metabolism. We identified an additional PLIN clade (plin6) that is unique to teleosts and can be traced to the two whole genome duplications that occurred early in vertebrate evolution. Plin6 is highly expressed in skin xanthophores, which mediate red/yellow pigmentation and trafficking, but not in tissues associated with lipid metabolism. Biochemical and immunochemical analyses demonstrate that zebrafish Plin6 protein targets the surface of pigment-containing carotenoid droplets (CD). Protein kinase A (PKA) activation, which mediates CD dispersion in xanthophores, phosphorylates Plin6 on conserved residues. Knockout of plin6 in zebrafish severely impairs the ability of CD to concentrate carotenoids and prevents tight clustering of CD within carotenoid bodies. Ultrastructural and functional analyses indicate that LD and CD are homologous structures, and that Plin6 was functionalized early in vertebrate evolution for concentrating and trafficking pigment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21771.001 PMID:28244868

  11. Interference of endocrine disrupting chemicals with aromatase CYP19 expression or activity, and consequences for reproduction of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Ksenia; Pakdel, Farzad; Segner, Helmut; Kah, Olivier; Eggen, Rik I L

    2008-01-01

    Many natural and synthetic compounds present in the environment exert a number of adverse effects on the exposed organisms, leading to endocrine disruption, for which they were termed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A decrease in reproduction success is one of the most well-documented signs of endocrine disruption in fish. Estrogens are steroid hormones involved in the control of important reproduction-related processes, including sexual differentiation, maturation and a variety of others. Careful spatial and temporal balance of estrogens in the body is crucial for proper functioning. At the final step of estrogen biosynthesis, cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by the cyp19 gene, converts androgens into estrogens. Modulation of aromatase CYP19 expression and function can dramatically alter the rate of estrogen production, disturbing the local and systemic levels of estrogens. In the present review, the current progress in CYP19 characterization in teleost fish is summarized and the potential of several classes of EDCs to interfere with CYP19 expression and activity is discussed. Two cyp19 genes are present in most teleosts, cyp19a and cyp19b, primarily expressed in the ovary and brain, respectively. Both aromatase CYP19 isoforms are involved in the sexual differentiation and regulation of the reproductive cycle and male reproductive behavior in diverse teleost species. Alteration of aromatase CYP19 expression and/or activity, be it upregulation or downregulation, may lead to diverse disturbances of the above mentioned processes. Prediction of multiple transcriptional regulatory elements in the promoters of teleost cyp19 genes suggests the possibility for several EDC classes to affect cyp19 expression on the transcriptional level. These sites include cAMP responsive elements, a steroidogenic factor 1/adrenal 4 binding protein site, an estrogen-responsive element (ERE), half-EREs, dioxin-responsive elements, and elements related to diverse other nuclear

  12. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma and its mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80% is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

  13. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  14. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  15. Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Ji, Qiang; Dilcher, David L; Zheng, Shaolin; Nixon, Kevin C; Wang, Xinfu

    2002-05-03

    Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their characters are included in a combined three-gene molecular and morphological analysis. Their reproductive axes lack petals and sepals and bear stamens in pairs below conduplicate carpels.

  16. Identification and quantification of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in the teleost fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Sumpter, John P

    2013-09-15

    The steroid hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is one of the most physiologically important androgens in male vertebrates, with the exception of teleost fish, in which it is generally assumed that DHT does not play any major physiological role. However, this assumption is challenged by the fact that all the components involved in DHT biosynthesis and action are present and evolutionary conserved in teleost fish. In fact, testosterone (T) is converted into DHT by two isoforms of the enzyme steroid-5-alpha-reductase (5αR), and both 5αRs gene expression and enzymatic activity have been detected in several tissues of different teleost species, which also have an androgen receptor with high binding affinity to DHT. This body of evidence strongly suggest that DHT is synthesised by teleost fish. We investigated this hypothesis using the cyprinid fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as the experimental model. The study of the evolutionary and functional conservation of 5αRs in teleost fish was used to support the experimental approach, based on an ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method to identify and measure simultaneously T and DHT in fathead minnow biological fluids and tissues. The analyses were performed using plasma samples collected from both male and female adult fish and samples of testicular tissue collected from sexually mature males. Both T and DHT were identified and quantified in all the samples analysed, and in particular, the high concentrations of DHT quantified in the testes suggested that these organs are a likely site of synthesis of DHT in the teleost fathead minnow, as they are in mammals. These results may represent the basis for future studies aimed at elucidating the physiological role, if any, of DHT in teleost fish.

  17. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  18. Functional identification of dendritic cells in the teleost model, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bassity

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are specialized antigen presenting cells that bridge innate and adaptive immunity in mammals. This link between the ancient innate immune system and the more evolutionarily recent adaptive immune system is of particular interest in fish, the oldest vertebrates to have both innate and adaptive immunity. It is unknown whether dendritic cells co-evolved with the adaptive response, or if the connection between innate and adaptive immunity relied on a fundamentally different cell type early in evolution. We approached this question using the teleost model organism, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, with the aim of identifying dendritic cells based on their ability to stimulate naïve T cells. Adapting mammalian protocols for the generation of dendritic cells, we established a method of culturing highly motile, non-adherent cells from trout hematopoietic tissue that had irregular membrane processes and expressed surface MHCII. When side-by-side mixed leukocyte reactions were performed, these cells stimulated greater proliferation than B cells or macrophages, demonstrating their specialized ability to present antigen and therefore their functional homology to mammalian dendritic cells. Trout dendritic cells were then further analyzed to determine if they exhibited other features of mammalian dendritic cells. Trout dendritic cells were found to have many of the hallmarks of mammalian DCs including tree-like morphology, the expression of dendritic cell markers, the ability to phagocytose small particles, activation by toll-like receptor-ligands, and the ability to migrate in vivo. As in mammals, trout dendritic cells could be isolated directly from the spleen, or larger numbers could be derived from hematopoietic tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

  19. Vanadium and cadmium in vivo effects in teleost cardiac muscle: metal accumulation and oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Gutiérrez-Merino, C; Aureliano, M

    2008-03-01

    Several biological studies associate vanadium and cadmium with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes alterations. The present study aims to analyse and compare the oxidative stress responses induced by an acute intravenous exposure (1 and 7 days) to a sub-lethal concentration (5 mM) of two vanadium solutions, containing different vanadate n-oligomers (n=1-5 or n=10), and a cadmium solution on the cardiac muscle of the marine teleost Halobatrachus didactylus (Lusitanian toadfish). It was observed that vanadium is mainly accumulated in mitochondria (1.33+/-0.26 microM), primarily when this element was administrated as decameric vanadate, than when administrated as metavanadate (432+/-294 nM), while the highest content of cadmium was found in cytosol (365+/-231 nM). Indeed, decavanadate solution promotes stronger increases in mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase: +120%; superoxide dismutase: +140%) than metavanadate solution. On contrary, cadmium increases cytosolic catalase (+111%) and glutathione peroxidases (+50%) activities. It is also observed that vanadate oligomers induce in vitro prooxidant effects in toadfish heart, with stronger effects induced by metavanadate solution. In summary, vanadate and cadmium are differently accumulated in blood and cardiac subcellular fractions and induced different responses in enzymatic antioxidant defence mechanisms. In the present study, it is described for the first time the effects of equal doses of two different metals intravenously injected in the same fish species and upon the same exposure period allowing to understand the mechanisms of vanadate and cadmium toxicity in fish cardiac muscle.

  20. Five gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in a teleost fish: isolation, tissue distribution and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncaut, Natalia; Somoza, Gustavo; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M

    2005-06-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the main neurohormone controlling gonadotrophin release in all vertebrates, and in teleost fish also of growth hormone and possibly of other adenohypophyseal hormones. Over 20 GnRHs have been identified in vertebrates and protochoordates and shown to bind cognate G-protein couple receptors (GnRHR). We have searched the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, genome sequencing database, identified five GnRHR genes and proceeded to isolate the corresponding complementary DNAs in European sea bass, Dicentrachus labrax. Phylogenetic analysis clusters the European sea bass, puffer fish and all other vertebrate receptors into two main lineages corresponding to the mammalian type I and II receptors. The fish receptors could be subdivided in two GnRHR1 (A and B) and three GnRHR2 (A, B and C) subtypes. Amino acid sequence identity within receptor subtypes varies between 70 and 90% but only 50-55% among the two main lineages in fish. All European sea bass receptor mRNAs are expressed in the anterior and mid brain, and all but one are expressed in the pituitary gland. There is differential expression of the receptors in peripheral tissues related to reproduction (gonads), chemical senses (eye and olfactory epithelium) and osmoregulation (kidney and gill). This is the first report showing five GnRH receptors in a vertebrate species and the gene expression patterns support the concept that GnRH and GnRHRs play highly diverse functional roles in the regulation of cellular functions, besides the "classical" role of pituitary function regulation.

  1. Structural and functional characterization of neuromedin S in the teleost fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huapu; Huang, Hongxin; Chen, Xinggui; Deng, Siping; Zhu, Chunhua; Huang, Hai; Li, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS) has been demonstrated to have important roles in many vertebrate physiological processes. However, the function of NMS in teleost fishes remains unclear. We explored the physiological roles of the NMS gene in the zebrafish model. An NMS cDNA was cloned from zebrafish brain tissue, and the full-length cDNA sequence was 521 bp in length and encoded a precursor of 110 amino acid residues. Interestingly, fish prepro-NMS is predicted to generate a short 34-residue peptide, designated as NMS-related peptide (NMSRP). Zebrafish prepro-NMS does not contain the NMS peptide which is found in the NMS precursors of mammals, and just retains the MNSRP peptide. A multiple-species sequence alignment showed that NMSRPs are conserved among the other sampled vertebrates. Zebrafish NMS mRNA was detected by RT-PCR revealing a tissue-specific distribution with high levels of expression in the brain, spleen, ovary, pituitary, and muscle. Furthermore, the locations of NMS-expressing cells in the zebrafish brain were detected by in situ hybridization in the parvocellular preoptic nucleus (PPa), the ventral zone of the periventricular hypothalamus (Hv), and lateral hypothalamic nucleus (LH). The levels of NMS mRNA in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after three days of food deprivation. Administration of zebrafish NMSRP by intraperitoneal injection significantly promoted the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin, suggesting an orexigenic role for NMSRP in zebrafish. The present study offers a new understanding of the NMS gene in vertebrates and increases our knowledge of the neuroendocrine regulation of feeding.

  2. Functional identification of dendritic cells in the teleost model, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassity, Elizabeth; Clark, Theodore G

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells are specialized antigen presenting cells that bridge innate and adaptive immunity in mammals. This link between the ancient innate immune system and the more evolutionarily recent adaptive immune system is of particular interest in fish, the oldest vertebrates to have both innate and adaptive immunity. It is unknown whether dendritic cells co-evolved with the adaptive response, or if the connection between innate and adaptive immunity relied on a fundamentally different cell type early in evolution. We approached this question using the teleost model organism, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with the aim of identifying dendritic cells based on their ability to stimulate naïve T cells. Adapting mammalian protocols for the generation of dendritic cells, we established a method of culturing highly motile, non-adherent cells from trout hematopoietic tissue that had irregular membrane processes and expressed surface MHCII. When side-by-side mixed leukocyte reactions were performed, these cells stimulated greater proliferation than B cells or macrophages, demonstrating their specialized ability to present antigen and therefore their functional homology to mammalian dendritic cells. Trout dendritic cells were then further analyzed to determine if they exhibited other features of mammalian dendritic cells. Trout dendritic cells were found to have many of the hallmarks of mammalian DCs including tree-like morphology, the expression of dendritic cell markers, the ability to phagocytose small particles, activation by toll-like receptor-ligands, and the ability to migrate in vivo. As in mammals, trout dendritic cells could be isolated directly from the spleen, or larger numbers could be derived from hematopoietic tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

  3. Molecular structural and functional characterization of STAT1 gene regulatory region in teleost Channa argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weizhang; Zhou, Xiuxia

    2010-05-15

    The transcription factor STAT1 is involved in signal transduction of type I and II interferons (IFNs). However, the molecular characteristics of the STAT1 regulatory region still remain to be elucidated in teleosts. In the present study, the complete cDNA and the regulatory region of the STAT1 gene were isolated from snakehead (Channa argus). More than 2.4kb 5'-flanking region of STAT1 shares the regulatory elements of IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and IFN-gamma activation site (GAS). Consensus ISRE and GAS were located from -373 to -361 and -716 to -724 in the promoter region, respectively. Moreover, it is noticeable that the crucial elements of ISRE (+698 to +710) and GAS (+294 and +301) are present in the first intron of snakehead STAT1. Comparisons of six vertebrate STAT1 5'-flanking regions all present the common sequence characteristics of IFN-induced gene promoter, which include ISRE, GAS and Sp1 sites. In order to further characterize the snakehead STAT1 regulatory region, six reporter constructs of snakehead STAT1 promoter and first intron were generated to examine the specificity to human interferon-gamma (hIFN-gamma). Only those constructs containing the ISRE element showed notable reporter activity after stimulation of Hela cells with hIFN-gamma. However, sequential deletions of putative transcription factor binding sites indicated that GAS elements have little effect on the promoter and intronic activity in response to hIFN-gamma. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulatory mechanisms of IFN-signalling appear to be mediated in a similar manner in fish and mammals.

  4. Cell differentiation in the retina of an epibenthonic teleost, the Tench (Tinca tinca, Linneo 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; DeGrip, Willem J; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2009-09-01

    Here we present a detailed study of the major events in the retinal histogenesis in a freshwater epibenthonic fish species, the Tench (Tinca tinca, Linneo 1758) during embryonic, prolarval, larval, and juvenile stages, using classical histological and immunohistological methods, providing a complete neurochemical characterization of retinal cells. We find a morphologically undifferentiated retina during embryonic stages and even at the hatching stage (postnatal day 0, P0). However, the emergence of the different retinal layers occurs in the first postnatal day (P1). Proliferating PCNA-positive cells are found in the retina of all postnatal individuals included in the present study, located in the circumferential germinal zone (CGZ), and in sparse cells dispersed throughout the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the outer nuclear layer (ONL). All neurochemical markers used start to express between P0 and P2. Anti-opsin, -alpha-protein kinase C, -alpha-tyrosine hydroxylase, -glutamine synthetase antibodies stain selectively different subpopulations of photoreceptor, bipolar, amacrine, and Müller cells respectively. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity is detected in amacrine and displaced amacrine cells. Several subpopulations of calretinin-positive ganglion, amacrine, and bipolar cells are detected in tench retina. Islet1 expression is confined to the nuclei of subpopulations of ganglion, amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells. All the maturational events described are first detected in the central retina and, as development progresses, they spread to the rest of the retina following a central-to-peripheral gradient. Therefore, tench postnatal retinal differentiation is a remarkable process not observed in the more common models of teleosts used in developmental biology.

  5. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

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    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  6. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H

    1976-01-01

    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  7. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  8. Structure of the female gonoduct of the viviparous teleost Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) during nongestation and gestation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Caballero, Juan Carlos; Uribe, Mari Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Female teleosts do not have oviducts because Müllerian ducts do not develop. Instead, the caudal region of the ovary, the gonoduct, connects to the exterior. Because of the lack of oviducts in viviparous teleosts, the embryos develop in the ovary, as an intraovarian gestation, unique in vertebrates. This is the first study to address the histology of the gonoduct in a viviparous teleost. The gonoduct of Poecilia reticulata was analyzed during previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, and gestation. The gonoduct lacks germinal cells. From deep to superficial, the wall has simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium, loose connective tissue, longitudinal layer of smooth muscle, and visceral peritoneum. Cells of the immune system occur in the lumen and in the mucosa. The gonoduct was divided in three regions: 1) cephalic, 2) middle, and 3) caudal. At the initial part of each region, thin mucosal folds extend into the lumen. The cephalic region forms a tubular structure with light and irregular folds. The middle region has a wider lumen and is more irregular due to ventral invaginations and irregular and short mucosal folds; beneath the epithelium there are melano-macrophage centers. The caudal region is delimited from the middle region by folds; however, they are thinner than these of the other regions. Ventral invaginations form exocrine glands, and the smooth muscle is thicker than in the other regions. During gestation, cells of the immune system are abundant; melano-macrophage centers become larger and the glands exhibit desquamated cells. These observations suggest roles of the gonoduct in reducing the diameter of the lumen; receiving sperm during vitellogenesis; producing secretions, more abundant during vitellogenesis; and in immunological activity throughout the reproductive cycle. The ciliated epithelium and the thick muscle of the caudal region may be involved during birth.

  9. Identification of FXYD Protein Genes in a Teleost: Tissue-specific Expression and Response to Salinity Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly clear, that alterations in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase kinetics to fit the demands in specialized cell types, is vital for the enzyme to execute its different physiological roles in diverse tissues. In addition to tissue dependent expression of isoforms of the conventional subunits, alph....... In addition to identify novel FXYD isoforms, these studies are the first to show the tissue dependence in their expression and modulation by salinity in any teleosts. Key words: Atlantic salmon, Na+,K+-ATPase, Osmoregulation, Salmo salar, QPCR....

  10. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  11. The Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus) genome provides new insights into the evolution of an early lineage of teleosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, Chao; Hu, Yinchang; Ravi, Vydianathan

    2016-01-01

    The Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus), one of the world's most expensive cultivated ornamental fishes, is an endangered species. It represents an ancient lineage of teleosts: the Osteoglossomorpha. Here, we provide a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome of a female golden-variety aro......The Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus), one of the world's most expensive cultivated ornamental fishes, is an endangered species. It represents an ancient lineage of teleosts: the Osteoglossomorpha. Here, we provide a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome of a female golden...... (eels and relatives), with the two clades together forming a sister group of Clupeocephala which includes all the remaining teleosts. The arowana genome retains the full complement of eight Hox clusters unlike the African butterfly fish (Pantodon buchholzi), another bonytongue fish, which possess only...

  12. Spermatozoal ultrastructures of two marine perciform teleost fishes, the goatfish, Paraupeneus spilurus (Mullidae) and the rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae) from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, J-C; Yang, W-T; Kuo, M-C; Takemura, A; Cheng, H-Y

    2004-02-01

    Mature spermatozoa of two perciform teleost fishes, Paraupeneus spilurus (Mullidae) and Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae) from Taiwan were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Despite the fact that spermatozoa of both species are of the primitive type, the results of the present study highlight the potential application of spermatozoal morphology in studies of fish phylogenetic relationships. To our knowledge, the flattened nucleus observed in P. spilurus spermatozoa is reported for the first time. Several features common to Sigandae spermatozoa-the unusual almost parallel situation of the centrioles, the arrangement of mitochondria and the near absence of shallow nuclear fossa-are significantly different from other common teleost sperm types. These unique features may be synapomorphies for the Siganidae and Mullidae and evidently contribute to the study of phylogenetic relationships in teleosts.

  13. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  14. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

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    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  15. Assessment of gold nanoparticle effects in a marine teleost (Sparus aurata) using molecular and biochemical biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, M., E-mail: mteles0@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Fierro-Castro, C. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Na-Phatthalung, P. [Department of Microbiology and Excellent Research Laboratory on Natural Products, Faculty of Science and Natural Product Research Center of Excellence, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Tvarijonaviciute, A. [Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Trindade, T. [Department of Chemistry & CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Tort, L. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AuNP effects were investigated at molecular and biochemical levels in Sparus aurata. • AuNP coated with PVP exerts more effects than AuNP coated with citrate. • AuNP-PVP induced changes in antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related-genes mRNA levels. • The increase in plasma TOS indicates that AuNP-PVP generates oxidative stress. • AuNP-PVP induced in S. aurata a non-monotonic response pattern. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are increasingly employed in a variety of applications and are likely to be increasing in the environment, posing a potential emerging environmental threat. Information on possible hazardous effects of engineered nanoparticles is urgently required to ensure human and environmental safety and promote the safe use of novel nanotechnologies. Nevertheless, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge on AuNP effects in marine species. The present study aimed to assess AuNP effects in a marine teleost, Sparus aurata, by combining endpoints at different biological levels (molecular and biochemical). For that purpose, fish were exposed via water for 96 h to 4, 80 and 1600 μg L{sup −1} of AuNP (∼40 nm) coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Results revealed a significant impact of AuNP-PVP in the hepatic expression of antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related genes. Total oxidative status was increased in plasma after exposure to the lowest concentration of AuNP-PVP, although without altering the total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, AuNP did not induce significant damage in the liver since the activity of neither hepatic indicator (aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) increased. Overall, the present study demonstrated that AuNP, even with a biocompatible coating is able to alter oxidative status and expression of relevant target genes in marine fish. Another important finding is that effects are mainly induced by the lowest and intermediate concentrations of the PVP coated AuNP revealing

  16. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason.

  17. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  18. Influence of indomethacin on the regenerative process of the tail fin of teleost: morphometric and ultrastructural analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK. Böckelmann

    Full Text Available When partially amputated or severely injured, teleost fins suffer a regenerative process called epimorphic regeneration characterised by the following stages: the formation of a multistratified epidermal layer, the disorganisation and distal migration of multipotent mesenchymal cells, the proliferation of these cells in order to form the blastema, continuous proliferation of distal blastema to facilitate the growth, and differentiation of the proximal blastema in order to restore its lost structure. The regeneration of the fin is extremely sensitive to the action of some drugs that can interfere in its structure restoration. For this reason, and also based on papers relating that indomethacin can interfere somehow in the tissue restoration of many different organisms, the aim of this work is to evaluate the possible effects of this drug in three different doses in the regeneration of the teleost fish tail fin, taking into consideration the synthesis, the disposition and organisation of lepidotrichial matrix components, the restoration of actinotrichia, as well as the fin area itself. Therefore, histochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric analysis were done and it was observed that indomethacin in doses of 20 and 30 mg.L-1 caused a delay in the regenerative process of the dermal skeleton (lepidotrichia and actinotrichia of the tail fins. These doses could have interfered, momentarily, in the process of blastemal cell differentiation in the cells responsible for the synthesis and disposition of actinotrichia and lepidotrichia or, even interfered in the signalling necessary for the recent differentiated cells to begin synthesising the components of the dermal skeleton.

  19. A novel GH secretagogue, A233, exhibits enhanced growth activity and innate immune system stimulation in teleosts fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebeca; Ubieta, Kenia; Herrera, Fidel; Forellat, Alina; Morales, Reynold; de la Nuez, Ania; Rodriguez, Rolando; Reyes, Osvaldo; Oliva, Ayme; Estrada, Mario P

    2012-09-01

    In teleosts fish, secretion of GH is regulated by several hypothalamic factors that are influenced by the physiological state of the animal. There is an interaction between immune and endocrine systems through hormones and cytokines. GH in fish is involved in many physiological processes that are not overtly growth related, such as saltwater osmoregulation, antifreeze synthesis, and the regulation of sexual maturation and immune functions. This study was conducted to characterize a decapeptide compound A233 (GKFDLSPEHQ) designed by molecular modeling to evaluate its function as a GH secretagogue (GHS). In pituitary cell culture, the peptide A233 induces GH secretion and it is also able to increase superoxide production in tilapia head-kidney leukocyte cultures. This effect is blocked by preincubation with the GHS receptor antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP6. Immunoneutralization of GH by addition of anti-tilapia GH monoclonal antibody blocked the stimulatory effect of A233 on superoxide production. These experiments propose a GH-mediated mechanism for the action of A233. The in vivo biological action of the decapeptide was also demonstrated for growth stimulation in goldfish and tilapia larvae (P<0.001). Superoxide dismutase levels, antiprotease activity, and lectin titer were enhanced in tilapia larvae treated with this novel molecule. The decapeptide A233 designed by molecular modeling is able to function as a GHS in teleosts and enhance parameters of the innate immune system in the fish larvae.

  20. Development of an in vitro model system to study the interactions between Mycobacterium marinum and teleost neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Jordan W; Ge, Jun-Qing; Katzenback, Barbara A; Havixbeck, Jeffrey J; Barreda, Daniel R; Stafford, James L; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a reliable mammalian neutrophil in vitro culture system has restricted our ability to examine their precise roles in mycobacterial infections. Previously, we developed the procedures for the isolation and culture of primary kidney-derived neutrophil-like cells from goldfish that are functionally and morphologically similar to mammalian neutrophils. The cultured primary goldfish neutrophils exhibited prolonged viability and functional effector responses. In this study, we demonstrate that when exposed to live or heat-killed Mycobacterium marinum, goldfish neutrophils increased their mRNA levels for several pro-inflammatory cytokines (il-1β1, il-1β2, tnfα-1, tnfα-2) and the cytokine receptors (ifngr1-1, tnfr1, tnfr2). These neutrophils also exhibited chemotaxis toward live mycobacteria, internalized the bacilli, and produced reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in response to pathogen exposure. The survival of intracellular mycobacteria was significantly reduced in activated neutrophils, indicating a robust killing response by these teleost granulocytes. We suggest that this goldfish primary neutrophil in vitro model system will provide important information regarding neutrophil-mediated host defense mechanisms against mycobacteria in teleosts as well as in higher vertebrates.

  1. Manipulation of Fgf and Bmp signaling in teleost fishes suggests potential pathways for the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, William R; Davies, Shelby H; Lyons, David B; Stauder, Caitlin K; Denton-Schneider, Benjamin R; Jowdry, Andrea; Aigler, Sharon R; Vogel, Scott A; Stock, David W

    2013-01-01

    Teeth with two or more cusps have arisen independently from an ancestral unicuspid condition in a variety of vertebrate lineages, including sharks, teleost fishes, amphibians, lizards, and mammals. One potential explanation for the repeated origins of multicuspid teeth is the existence of multiple adaptive pathways leading to them, as suggested by their different uses in these lineages. Another is that the addition of cusps required only minor changes in genetic pathways regulating tooth development. Here we provide support for the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that manipulation of the levels of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling produces bicuspid teeth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species lacking multicuspid teeth in its ancestry. The generality of these results for teleosts is suggested by the conversion of unicuspid pharyngeal teeth into bicuspid teeth by similar manipulations of the Mexican Tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). That these manipulations also produced supernumerary teeth in both species supports previous suggestions of similarities in the molecular control of tooth and cusp number. We conclude that despite their apparent complexity, the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth is positively constrained, likely requiring only slight modifications of a pre-existing mechanism for patterning the number and spacing of individual teeth.

  2. Comparative epigenomics in distantly related teleost species identifies conserved cis-regulatory nodes active during the vertebrate phylotypic period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Juan J.; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Vázquez-Marín, Javier; Parra-Acero, Helena; Cross, Joe W.; Rigby, Peter W.J.; Carvajal, Jaime J.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L.; Martínez-Morales, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    The complex relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny has been the subject of attention and controversy since von Baer’s formulations in the 19th century. The classic concept that embryogenesis progresses from clade general features to species-specific characters has often been revisited. It has become accepted that embryos from a clade show maximum morphological similarity at the so-called phylotypic period (i.e., during mid-embryogenesis). According to the hourglass model, body plan conservation would depend on constrained molecular mechanisms operating at this period. More recently, comparative transcriptomic analyses have provided conclusive evidence that such molecular constraints exist. Examining cis-regulatory architecture during the phylotypic period is essential to understand the evolutionary source of body plan stability. Here we compare transcriptomes and key epigenetic marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) from medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), two distantly related teleosts separated by an evolutionary distance of 115–200 Myr. We show that comparison of transcriptome profiles correlates with anatomical similarities and heterochronies observed at the phylotypic stage. Through comparative epigenomics, we uncover a pool of conserved regulatory regions (≈700), which are active during the vertebrate phylotypic period in both species. Moreover, we show that their neighboring genes encode mainly transcription factors with fundamental roles in tissue specification. We postulate that these regulatory regions, active in both teleost genomes, represent key constrained nodes of the gene networks that sustain the vertebrate body plan. PMID:24709821

  3. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  4. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  5. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-09

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity.

  6. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  7. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  8. Different environmental temperatures affect amino acid metabolism in the eurytherm teleost Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) as indicated by changes in plasma metabolites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costas, B.; Aragao, C.; Ruiz-Jarabo, I.; Vargas-Chacoff, L.; Arjona, F.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Dinis, M.T.; Conceicao, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a eurytherm teleost that under natural conditions can be exposed to annual water temperature fluctuations between 12 and 26 degrees C. This study assessed the effects of temperature on sole metabolic status, in particular in what concerns plasma free amino aci

  9. Primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions for DNA barcoding teleost fish based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear rhodopsin genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevilla, R.G.; Diez, A.; Noren, M.; Mouchel, O.; Jerome, M.; Verrez-Bagnis, V.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a set of 21 polymerase chain reaction primers and amplification conditions developed to barcode practically any teleost fish species according to their mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear rhodopsin gene sequences. The method was successfully tested in more than 200 marine fi

  10. CsBAFF, a Teleost B Cell Activating Factor, Promotes Pathogen-Induced Innate Immunity and Vaccine-Induced Adaptive Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sun

    Full Text Available B cell activating factor (BAFF is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family that is known to play an important role in B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation in mammals. However, studies of BAFF in teleosts are very limited and its function, in particular that under in vivo conditions, is essentially unknown. In this study, we conducted in vivo as well as in vitro functional analyses of a BAFF homologue (CsBAFF from the teleost fish tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis. CsBAFF is composed of 261 residues and shares moderate sequence identities with known BAFFs of other teleosts. CsBAFF expression was most abundant in immune organs and was upregulated during bacterial infection. Purified recombinant CsBAFF (rCsBAFF bound to tongue sole lymphocytes and promoted cellular proliferation and survival. The results of an in vivo study showed that CsBAFF overexpression in tongue sole significantly enhanced macrophage activation and reduced bacterial infection in fish tissues, whereas knockdown of CsBAFF expression resulted in increased bacterial dissemination and colonization in fish tissues. Furthermore, vaccination studies showed that CsBAFF enhanced the immunoprotection of a DNA vaccine and augmented the production of specific serum antibodies. Taken together, these results provide the first in vivo evidence to indicate that teleost BAFF is an immunostimulator that significantly contributes to the innate antibacterial immune response and vaccine-induced adaptive immune response.

  11. Fractional rate of change of swim-bladder volume is reliably related to absolute depth during vertical displacements in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Holbrook, Robert Iain; de Perera, Theresa Burt

    2010-09-06

    Fish must orient in three dimensions as they navigate through space, but it is unknown whether they are assisted by a sense of depth. In principle, depth can be estimated directly from hydrostatic pressure, but although teleost fish are exquisitely sensitive to changes in pressure, they appear unable to measure absolute pressure. Teleosts sense changes in pressure via changes in the volume of their gas-filled swim-bladder, but because the amount of gas it contains is varied to regulate buoyancy, this cannot act as a long-term steady reference for inferring absolute pressure. In consequence, it is generally thought that teleosts are unable to sense depth using hydrostatic pressure. Here, we overturn this received wisdom by showing from a theoretical physical perspective that absolute depth could be estimated during fast, steady vertical displacements by combining a measurement of vertical speed with a measurement of the fractional rate of change of swim-bladder volume. This mechanism works even if the amount of gas in the swim-bladder varies, provided that this variation occurs over much longer time scales than changes in volume during displacements. There is therefore no a priori physical justification for assuming that teleost fish cannot sense absolute depth by using hydrostatic pressure cues.

  12. Androgen Receptor in Teleosts%硬骨鱼类雄激素受体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲鲁鲁; 张子平; 王艺磊; 陈芸

    2011-01-01

    The biological activity of androgens is mediated by the nuclear androgen receptor (nAR) in vertebrates, nAR is a ligand-regulated transcriptional factor, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily.nAR has been characterized from mammals to teleosts. The nAR subtype is found to exist in two different isoforms in several fish species due to a teleost specific gene duplication event. These subtypes of nAR form two distinct molecular clusters and display different tissue distributions and expression patterns during embryogenesis and gonad development. Recently, increasing evidence has shown the nongenomic or cell surface receptor ( the membrane androgen receptor, mAR )-mediated actions of androgen. Here we review the gene structure;molecular and biological characteristics; tissue distribution; and ligand-binding features of nAR. Furthermore,we also review the characteristics, distribution and relationship of mAR with regards to the reproductive cycle in teleost fish.%在脊椎动物中,雄激素的生理作用主要是通过核雄激素受体(nuclear androgen receptor,nAR)介导的,这种转录因子属于核受体超家族成员.从哺乳动物到硬骨鱼类,均存在nAR.与高等脊椎动物不同的是,由于基因倍增等原因,部分硬骨鱼类nAR存在2种亚型.它们在鱼类胚胎发育和性腺发育过程中表现为不同的组织分布和表达类型.新近研究表明,雄激素也可以引起细胞的非基凶组效应,即不通过经典的核受体做出反应,而是在质膜通过膜雄激素受体(membrane androgen receptor,mAR)来调节.本文就nAR的基凶结构、分子生物学特性、组织分布、激素亲和力等方面的研究进行综述的同时,也对鱼类mAR的激素亲和特性、组织分布及其与生殖周期关系等方面的研究做了介绍.

  13. Lamprey parasitism of sharks and teleosts: high capacity urea excretion in an extant vertebrate relic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Turnbull, Steven; Bird, Jonathan; Wang, Yuxiang S; Claude, Jaime F; Youson, John H

    2004-08-01

    We observed 10 sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) parasitizing basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), the world's second largest fish, in the Bay of Fundy. Due to the high concentrations of urea in the blood and tissues of ureosmotic elasmobranchs, we hypothesized that sea lampreys would have mechanisms to eliminate co-ingested urea while feeding on basking sharks. Post-removal urea excretion rates (J(Urea)) in two lampreys, removed from separate sharks by divers, were initially 450 ( approximately 9000 micromol N kg-1 h-1) and 75 times ( approximately 1500 micromol N kg-1 h-1) greater than basal (non-feeding) rates ( approximately 20 micromol N kg-1 h-1). In contrast, J(Urea) increased by 15-fold after parasitic lampreys were removed from non-ureosmotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Since activities of the ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) were relatively low in liver and below detection in intestine and muscle, it is unlikely that the excreted urea arose from de novo urea synthesis. Measurements of arginase activity suggested that hydrolysis of dietary arginine made a minor contribution to J(Urea.). Post-feeding ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) were 15- to 25-fold greater than basal rates in lampreys removed from both basking sharks and rainbow trout, suggesting that parasitic lampreys have a high capacity to deaminate amino acids. We conclude that the sea lamprey's ability to penetrate the dermal denticle armor of sharks, to rapidly excrete large volumes of urea and a high capacity to deaminate amino acids, represent adaptations that have contributed to the evolutionary success of these phylogenetically ancient vertebrates.

  14. WDR55 is a nucleolar modulator of ribosomal RNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and teleost organ development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Iwanami

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a vertebrate-specific organ where T lymphocytes are generated. Genetic programs that lead to thymus development are incompletely understood. We previously screened ethylnitrosourea-induced medaka mutants for recessive defects in thymus development. Here we report that one of those mutants is caused by a missense mutation in a gene encoding the previously uncharacterized protein WDR55 carrying the tryptophan-aspartate-repeat motif. We find that WDR55 is a novel nucleolar protein involved in the production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA. Defects in WDR55 cause aberrant accumulation of rRNA intermediates and cell cycle arrest. A mutation in WDR55 in zebrafish also leads to analogous defects in thymus development, whereas WDR55-null mice are lethal before implantation. These results indicate that WDR55 is a nuclear modulator of rRNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and embryonic organogenesis including teleost thymus development.

  15. Immunoreactive neuronal pathways of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) in the brain and pituitary of the teleost Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J X; Lechan, R M; Lin, H D; Jackson, I M

    1985-01-01

    Using an antiserum directed against the C-terminus of hGRH(1-44)NH2 and another recognizing the mid portion to C-terminal of hGRH(1-40)OH, we identify two immunocytochemically distinct GRH-immunoreactive systems in the brain of the codfish, Gadus morhua. The antiserum directed against GRF(1-44)NH2 stains cell bodies exclusively in the rostral pars distalis. The other antiserum immunoreactive with GRF(1-40)OH reacts with a population of parvocellular and magnocellular neuronal cell bodies in the hypothalamus and with two major axonal pathways which project toward the median eminence and terminate primarily in the pars nervosa. These results indicate the presence of at least two forms of hGRH-like peptides in the teleost which may have different roles in the regulation of pituitary function.

  16. Expression and distribution of the glucocorticoid receptor DlGR1 in the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Parrinello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is the main corticosteroid secreted by the interrenal cells of the head kidney and it exerts a role in mantaining the omeostatic status in fish. In teleosts its effects are mediated through intracellular receptors expressed in several tissues, that are ligand-dependent transcription factors by binding to specific tissue DNA sequences. In Dicentrarchus labrax we previously cloned and sequenced a glucocorticoid receptor, DlGR1, isolated from leukocytes of peritoneal cavity. In this work we showed mRNA expression and tissue immunohistochemical localization of brain DlGR1 by in situ hybridization assays, with a riboprobe with DlGR1 cDNA trascriptional activation domain, and by immunohistochemical methods, using a specific antibody for a selected sequence of the receptor tran- scriptional domain. The mRNA and the protein are expressed in pyramidal cells of the optic lobe and in the small globular neurons of the diencephalon.

  17. Biochemical and Functional Insights into the Integrated Regulation of Innate Immune Cell Responses by Teleost Leukocyte Immune-Type Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Across vertebrates, innate immunity consists of a complex assortment of highly specialized cells capable of unleashing potent effector responses designed to destroy or mitigate foreign pathogens. The execution of various innate cellular behaviors such as phagocytosis, degranulation, or cell-mediated cytotoxicity are functionally indistinguishable when being performed by immune cells isolated from humans or teleost fishes; vertebrates that diverged from one another more than 450 million years ago. This suggests that vital components of the vertebrate innate defense machinery are conserved and investigating such processes in a range of model systems provides an important opportunity to identify fundamental features of vertebrate immunity. One characteristic that is highly conserved across vertebrate systems is that cellular immune responses are dependent on specialized immunoregulatory receptors that sense environmental stimuli and initiate intracellular cascades that can elicit appropriate effector responses. A wide variety of immunoregulatory receptor families have been extensively studied in mammals, and many have been identified as cell- and function-specific regulators of a range of innate responses. Although much less is known in fish, the growing database of genomic information has recently allowed for the identification of several immunoregulatory receptor gene families in teleosts. Many of these putative immunoregulatory receptors have yet to be assigned any specific role(s, and much of what is known has been based solely on structural and/or phylogenetic relationships with mammalian receptor families. As an attempt to address some of these shortcomings, this review will focus on our growing understanding of the functional roles played by specific members of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs, which appear to be important regulators of several innate cellular responses via classical as well

  18. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  19. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  20. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsych...

  1. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  2. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  3. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, T.; I. Fernandes; Costa, V.; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  4. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly t...

  5. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry eLeisman; Orit eBraun-Benjamin; Robert eMelillo

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-bas...

  6. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases.

  7. An MRI atlas of the mouse basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Paxinos, George; Reutens, David C

    2014-07-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subpallial nuclei that play an important role in motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Morphological changes and disrupted afferent/efferent connections in the basal ganglia have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders including psychiatric and movement disorders. While high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize changes in brain structure in mouse models of these disorders, no systematic method for segmentation of the C57BL/6 J mouse basal ganglia exists. In this study we have used high-resolution MR images of ex vivo C57BL/6 J mouse brain to create a detailed protocol for segmenting the basal ganglia. We created a three-dimensional minimum deformation atlas, which includes the segmentation of 35 striatal, pallidal, and basal ganglia-related structures. In addition, we provide mean volumes, mean T2 contrast intensities and mean FA and ADC values for each structure. This MR atlas is available for download, and enables researchers to perform automated segmentation in genetic models of basal ganglia disorders.

  8. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  9. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  10. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  11. A third broad lineage of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in teleost fish; MHC class II linkage and processed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Johannes Martinus; Katagiri, Takayuki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ototake, Mitsuru; Aoki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Keiichiro; Shiina, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Most of the previously studied teleost MHC class I molecules can be classified into two broad lineages: "U" and "Z/ZE." However, database reports on genes in cyprinid and salmonid fishes show that there is a third major lineage, which lacks detailed analysis so far. We designated this lineage "L" because of an intriguing linkage characteristic. Namely, one zebrafish L locus is closely linked with MHC class II loci, despite the extensively documented nonlinkage of teleost class I with class II. The L lineage consists of highly variable, nonclassical MHC class I genes, and has no apparent orthologues outside teleost fishes. Characteristics that distinguish the L lineage from most other MHC class I are (1) absence of two otherwise highly conserved tryptophan residues W51 and W60 in the alpha1 domain, (2) a low GC content of the alpha1 and alpha2 exons, and (3) an HINLTL motif including a possible glycosylation site in the alpha3 domain. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) we analyzed several intact L genes in detail, including their genomic organization and transcription pattern. The gene Onmy-LAA is quite different from the genes Onmy-LBA, Onmy-LCA, Onmy-LDA, and Onmy-LEA, while the latter four are similar and categorized as "Onmy-LBA-like." Whereas the Onmy-LAA gene is organized like a canonical MHC class I gene, the Onmy-LBA-like genes are processed and lack all introns except intron 1. Onmy-LAA is predominantly expressed in the intestine, while the Onmy-LBA-like transcripts display a rather homogeneous tissue distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an MHC class I lineage with multiple copies of processed genes, which are intact and transcribed. The present study significantly improves the knowledge of MHC class I variation in teleosts.

  12. Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue expression of vasotocin and isotocin precursor genes from Ostariophysian catfishes: Phylogeny and evolutionary considerations in teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putul eBanerjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic and neutral neurohypophyseal (NH nonapeptides have evolved from vasotocin (VT by a gene duplication at the base of the gnathostome lineage. In teleosts, VT and IT are the basic and neutral peptides, respectively. In the present study, VT and IT precursor genes of Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus (Siluriformes, Ostariophysi were cloned and sequenced. The channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus NH precursor sequences were obtained from EST database. The catfish NH sequences were used along with the available Acanthopterygii and other vertebrate NH precursor sequences to draw phylogenetic inference on the evolutionary history of the teleost NH peptides. Synteny analysis of the NH gene loci in various teleost species was done to complement the phylogenetic analysis. In H. fossilis, the NH transcripts were also sequenced from the ovary. The cloned genes and the deduced precursor proteins showed conserved characteristics of the NH nonapeptide precursors. The genes are expressed in brain and ovary (follicular envelope of H. fossilis with higher transcript abundance in the brain. The addition of the catfish sequences in the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VT and IT precursors of the species-rich superorders of teleosts have a distinct phylogenetic history with the Acanthopterygii VT and IT precursors sharing a less evolutionary distance and the Ostariophysi VT and IT having a greater evolutionary distance. The genomic location of VT and IT precursors, and synteny analysis of the NH loci lend support to the phylogenetic inference and suggest a footprint of fish- specific whole genome duplication (3R and subsequent diploidization in the NH loci. The VT and IT precursor genes are most likely lineage-specific paralogs resulting from differential losses of the 3R NH paralogs in the two superorders. The independent yet consistent retention of VT and IT in the two superorders might be directed by a stringent ligand-receptor selectivity.

  13. Patterns of superficial fibre formation in the European pearlfish (Rutilus frisii meidingeri) provide a general template for slow muscle development in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, W; Haslett, J R; Goldschmid, A; Sänger, A M

    1998-06-01

    The debate about the pattern of muscle formation in teleost fish has recently been heightened in the literature. Here we examine superficial muscle development in the pearlfish, a cyprinid endemic to a small area of Central Europe, and uninfluenced by economic interest and breeding. Using light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques, we report that: (1) Superficial fibre precursors originate close to the notochord, are part of the same cell population as the so-called muscle pioneer cells, and are transferred laterally to end up at the surface of the myotome. (2) Superficial fibre maturation is exceptionally rapid. Structural and enzymatic functionality is attained at a time when prospective deep fibres have not passed beyond the early myotube state. This strong contrast weakens as the embryo develops. (3) Apart from the muscle pioneers, the superficial fibres appear to be capable of functioning before they receive any direct innervation, implying that signals are transferred to these fibres via cell-to-cell junctions. We suggest that the capability of rapid superficial fibre maturation is a rather general feature among teleosts and may aid pre-hatch survival under a variable environment. Our results indicate that muscle formation in teleost fish may follow a common basic pattern that is open to considerable ontogenetic and phylogenetic modification in response to habitat conditions.

  14. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain can be applied and resolve such cases. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, cryotherapy

  15. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  16. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  17. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Makoto; Takahashi, Shinichiro (Mito National Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Ohara, Kazuo

    1983-07-01

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan.

  18. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

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    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  19. Molecular characterization of Italian nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, L; Cusano, R; Nasti, S; Faravelli, F; Forzano, F; Baldo, C; Barile, M; Gliori, S; Muggianu, M; Ghigliotti, G; Lacaita, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Bianchi-Scarra, G

    2005-03-01

    Mutations in the PTCH gene, the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene, have been found to lead to the autosomal dominant disorder termed Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS, also called Gorlin Syndrome). Patients display an array of developmental anomalies and are prone to develop a variety of tumors, with multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas occurring frequently. We provide here the results of molecular testing of a set of Italian Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients. Twelve familial patients belonging to 7 kindreds and 5 unaffected family members, 6 non-familial patients and an additional set of 7 patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the disease were examined for mutations in the PTCH gene. All of the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients were found to carry variants of the PTCH gene. We detected nine novel mutations (1 of which occurring twice): 1 missense mutation (c.1436T>G [p.L479R]), 1 nonsense mutation (c.1138G>T [p.E380X]), 6 frameshift mutations (c.323_324ins2, c.2011_2012dup, c.2535_2536dup, c.2577_2583del, c.3000_3005del, c.3050_3051del), 1 novel splicing variant (c.6552A>T) and 3 mutations that have been previously reported (c.3168+5G>A, c.1526G>T [p.G509V], and c.3499G>A [p.G1167R]). None of the patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the syndrome, carried germline coding region mutations.

  20. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  1. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  2. Ultrastructural studies of Henneguya rhamdia n. sp. (Myxozoa) a parasite from the Amazon teleost fish, Rhamdia quelen (Pimelodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Edilson; Tajdari, Jessica; Azevedo, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Henneguya rhamdia n. sp. is described in the gill filaments of the teleost fish Rhamdia quelen, collected from the Peixe Boi River, State of Pará, Brazil. This myxosporean produced spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 300 microm in diameter, which contained developmental stages, including spores. Several dense bodies up to 2 microm in diameter were observed among the spores. The spore body was ellipsoidal (13.1 microm in length, 5.2 microm in width, and 2.5 microm in thickness) and each of the two valves presented a tapering tail (36.9 microm in length). These valves surrounded the binucleated sporoplasm cell and two equal ellipsoidal polar capsules (4.7 x 1.1 microm), which contained 10-11 (rarely 12) polar filament coils. The sporoplasm contained sporoplasmosomes with a laterally eccentric dense structure with a half-crescent section. Based on the data obtained by electron microscopy and on the host specificity, the spores differed from previously described Henneguya species, mainly in their shape and size, number and arrangement of the polar filament coils, and sporoplasmosome morphology.

  3. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  4. Influence of the Cholinergic System on the Immune Response of Teleost Fishes: Potential Model in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Toledo-Ibarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes are the phylogenetically oldest vertebrate group, which includes more than one-half of the vertebrates on the planet; additionally, many species have ecological and economic importance. Fish are the first evolved group of organisms with adaptive immune mechanisms; consequently, they are an important link in the evolution of the immune system, thus a potential model for understanding the mechanisms of immunoregulation. Currently, the influence of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh on the cells of the immune system is widely studied in mammalian models, which have provided evidence on ACh production by immune cells (the noncholinergic neuronal system; however, these neuroimmunomodulation mechanisms in fish and lower vertebrates are poorly studied. Therefore, the objective of this review paper was to analyze the influence of the cholinergic system on the immune response of teleost fish, which could provide information concerning the possibility of bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems in these organisms and provide data for a better understanding of basic issues in neuroimmunology in lower vertebrates, such as bony fishes. Thus, the use of fish as a model in biomedical research may contribute to a better understanding of human diseases and diseases in other animals.

  5. Distinct localization and target specificity of galanin-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons of a teleost, the filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, K; Kadota, T; Atobe, Y; Nakano, M; Hibiya, K; Goris, R C; Kishida, R

    2000-03-15

    Immunoreactivity for galanin was examined in the sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord, adrenal glands, sympathetic ganglia, and some sensory ganglia of the filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer. Galanin-immunoreactive neurons were found only in the rostral part, but not in the caudal part of the central autonomic nucleus (a column of sympathetic preganglionic neurons of teleosts). Many galanin-immunoreactive nerve terminals were found in contact with neurons in the celiac ganglia and the cranial sympathetic ganglia on both sides of the body. Most neurons encircled by galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were negative for tyrosine hydroxylase. Galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were very sparse in the spinal sympathetic paravertebral ganglia. No galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in the adrenal glands. No sensory neurons of the trigeminal, vagal, or spinal dorsal root ganglia were positive for galanin-immunoreactivity. These results suggest that galanin-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons have distinct segmental localization and might project specifically to a population of non-adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the celiac and cranial sympathetic ganglia.

  6. Sesamin modulation of lipid class and fatty acid profile in early juvenile teleost, Lates calcarifer, fed different dietary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Carter, Chris G; Nichols, Peter D

    2012-10-15

    Sesamin, a major sesame seed lignan, has diverse biological functions including the modulation of molecular actions in lipid metabolic pathways and reducing cholesterol levels. Vertebrates have different capacities to biosynthesize long-chain PUFA from dietary precursors and sesamin can enhance the biosynthesis of ALA to EPA and DHA in marine teleost. Early juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer, were fed for two weeks on diets rich in ALA or SDA derived from linseed or Echium plantagineum, respectively. Both diets contained phytosterols and less cholesterol compared with a standard fish oil-based diet. The growth rates were reduced in the animals receiving sesamin regardless of the dietary oil. However, the relative levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in total lipid, but not the phospholipid, increased in the whole body by up to 25% in animals fed on sesamin with ALA or SDA. Sesamin reduced the relative levels of triacylglycerols and increased polar lipid, and did not affect the relative composition of phospholipid subclasses or sterols. Sesamin is a potent modulator for LC-PUFA biosynthesis in animals, but probably will have more effective impact at advanced ages. By modulating certain lipid metabolic pathways, sesamin has probably disrupted the body growth and development of organs and tissues in early juvenile barramundi.

  7. Effect of Copper on the Humoral and Biochemical Indices of the Teleost fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskaran Nair Girish KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of copper and the ameliorating capacity of vitamin C on the humoral and biochemical parameters in the teleost fish, Anabas testudineus, were investigated. The 96 h LC 50 value of copper for A. testudineus was determined by Probit method and was found to be 1.74 mg/L. The blood of fish from two sub-lethal concentrations along with vitamin supplemented media and control medium, were analysed. The haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, erythrocyte count (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were reduced (p > 0.0001 in copper exposed fish compared to the control. The leucocyte (WBC count increased (p < 0.0001 with dose and duration. Immature and amitotic RBCs, hypoxia, hypochromia, and crenation were observed in highest nominal concentrations and last exposures. The plasma glucose, cortisol, GOT (Glutamate oxalate transaminase, GPT (Glutamate pyruvate transaminase, ALP (Alkaline phosphatase and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase increased (p < 0.0001, and serum protein decreased. However, on day 28, the Hb, RBC count, MCH, MCHC, and the oxygen carrying capacity increased, and glucose, cortisol and LDH decreased, markedly. The administration of vitamin C improved the blood parameters, illustrating its prophylactic capacity to overwhelm the trace metal stress.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.78

  8. Ultrastructure of the neurohypophysis of the teleost Poecilia latipinna in relation to neural control of the adenohypophysial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, T F; Ball, J N

    1977-12-19

    The structure of the neurohypophysis of Poecilia latipinna (green molly, sailfin molly) was studied with the electron microscope. Profile diameters of neurosecretory granules in the non-myelinated neurohypophysial nerve fibres were measured and mathematically corrected for error due to section thickness. Six different types of nerve fibres could be distinguished by statistical classification of their granules and by other ultrastructural features. One fibre-type (type B) contained granules with a mean diameter of 85 nm, and the other five types (types Ala, Alb, A2, A3 and A4) all contained granules with mean diameters greater than 100 nm. Synaptic contacts were observed between type B fibres and all the adenohypophysial cell-types, although in the case of the ACTH cells the synapses were separated from the cell membrane by a continuous double basement membrane. Type A fibres were observed to contact the cells of the proximal pars distalis and pars intermedia, but did not form synapses. However, synapses occurred between type A fibres and pituicytes, and between type A fibres and the pericapillary basement membrane in the interior of the neurohypophysis. The possible roles of the different types of nerve fibres in controlling the adenohypophysial cells are discussed in the context of evidence from other teleosts.

  9. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  10. Characterization and anions inhibition studies of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Deniz; Ceyhun, Saltuk Buğrahan; Sentürk, Murat; Erdem, Deryanur; Küfrevioğlu, Omer İrfan; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-01-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) was purified from the gill of the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass). The purification procedure consisted of a single step affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B-tyrosine-sulfanilamide. The enzyme was purified 84.9-fold with a yield of 58%, and a specific activity of 838.9 U/mg proteins. It has an optimum pH at 8.0; an optimum temperature at 10°C. The kinetic parameters of this enzyme were determined for its esterase activity, with 4-nitrophenyl acetate (NPA) as substrate. The following anions, H₂NSO₃⁻, I⁻, SCN⁻, NO₃⁻, NO₂⁻, N₃⁻, Br⁻, Cl⁻, SO₄²⁻, and F⁻ showed inhibitory effects on the enzyme. Sulfamic acid, iodide, and thiocyanate exhibited the strongest inhibitory action, in the micromolar range (K(i)s of 87-187 μM). NO₃⁻, NO₂⁻ and N₃⁻ were moderate inhibitors, whereas other anions showed only weak actions. All tested anions inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner. Our findings indicate that these anions inhibit the fish enzyme in a similar manner to other α-CAs from mammals investigated earlier, but the susceptibility to various anions differs significantly between the fish and mammalian CAs.

  11. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  12. Development of a widely applicable immunoassay for insulin in marine teleosts that regulates cross-reactivity using biotinylation and inhibits interference by plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Tadashi

    2016-01-15

    Amino acids are important insulinotropins in fish, and their effects vary between amino acids and fish species. Insulin levels are indicative of growth efficiency and stress levels in fish; however, interspecies comparisons of insulin levels are hampered by the difficulty of measuring insulin concentration in each fish. We developed a widely applicable competitive immunoassay using biotinylated yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) insulin for measuring insulin in marine teleosts, including yellowtail and red seabream (Pagrus major), which are the most common species raised by aquaculture in Japan. Amino acid sequence substitution was limited at the ninth residue of the A-chain (A9) between these two species, and analysis of the primary structures of insulins from six phylogenetically far teleosts suggested that the sequences of yellowtail and red seabream insulins are identical to those of many teleosts, except the A9 residue. However, A9 is known to be an epitope that confers cross-reactive differences on insulin. We solved this problem through immunoreactive invalidation of this residue by biotinylation. The binding-inhibition curves of yellowtail and red seabream insulins were identical following the use of this technique. However, yellowtail and red seabream plasma was found to contain components that interfere with immunoassays. This problem was solved by the extraction of plasma using equal volume of acid-ethanol in yellowtail and by cooling at 0°C during the cross-reaction between the ligand and antibody in red seabream. Serially diluted plasma samples from both species exhibited linearity after these treatments. In a recovery test using plasma with added yellowtail insulin, the average recovery varied from 96.2% to 109.4%. A post-feeding rise in insulin was confirmed by this immunoassay in yellowtail, and peak of the rise was 39.8±7ng/ml at 1h postfeeding from 3.9±1.1ng/ml at 0h. This indicates that this assay is sufficient for measuring the baseline

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  15. PERIANTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASAL MONOCOT TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA (JUNCAGINACEAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.;

    2006-01-01

    Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflores- cence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie...

  16. Metacomprehension during Basal Reader Instruction: Do Teachers Promote It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Baumann, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes elementary teachers' interactions with students during guided reading of basal reader selections to determine the extent to which the interactions promote students' metacomprehension abilities. Finds that teachers assumed most of the responsibility for students' comprehension themselves rather than conducting the lessons in a manner that…

  17. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  18. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  19. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  20. Basal ganglia play a crucial role in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the striatum, located at the interface of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit, consists of separate circuits that serve distinct functions It plays an important role in motor planning, value processing, and decision making.

  1. Normal sexual dimorphism in the human basal ganglia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Everaerd, D.S.; Pol, C.; Franke, B.; Tendolkar, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Male and female brains differ in both structure and function. Investigating this sexual dimorphism in healthy subjects is an important first step to ultimately gain insight into sex-specific differences in behavior and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The basal ganglia are among the main regions

  2. [Successful therapy of metastatic basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutt, M; Mazur, F; Bergmann, M; Lemke, A J; Kaune, K M

    2014-11-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with giant basal cell carcinoma on the abdomen which had metastasized. He was treated with oral vismodegib. Both the primary ulcerated tumor on the abdomen and the metastases responded. Vismodegib was well tolerated without significant side effects. The tumor recurred promptly after vismodegib was discontinued, and then was resistant to therapy when vismodegib was re-administered.

  3. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-03

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  4. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  5. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  6. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Godwin, John

    2011-01-01

    The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP) males and territorial, terminal phase (TP) males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  7. Modulation of NaCl absorption by [HCO(3)(-)] in the marine teleost intestine is mediated by soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Grosell, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal HCO(3)(-) secretion and NaCl absorption are essential for counteracting dehydration in marine teleost fish. We investigated how these two processes are coordinated in toadfish. HCO(3)(-) stimulated a luminal positive short-circuit current (I(sc)) in intestine mounted in Ussing chamber, bathed with the same saline solution on the external and internal sides of the epithelium. The I(sc) increased proportionally to the [HCO(3)(-)] in the bath up to 80 mM NaHCO(3), and it did not occur when NaHCO(3) was replaced with Na(+)-gluconate or with NaHCO(3) in Cl(-)-free saline. HCO(3)(-) (20 mM) induced a approximately 2.5-fold stimulation of I(sc), and this [HCO(3)(-)] was used in all subsequent experiments. The HCO(3)(-)-stimulated I(sc) was prevented or abolished by apical application of 10 muM bumetanide (a specific inhibitor of NKCC) and by 30 microM 4-catechol estrogen [CE; an inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)]. The inhibitory effects of bumetanide and CE were not additive. The HCO(3)(-)-stimulated I(sc) was prevented by apical bafilomycin (1 microM) and etoxolamide (1 mM), indicating involvement of V-H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrases, respectively. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of an NKCC2-like protein in the apical membrane and subapical area of epithelial intestinal cells, of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in basolateral membranes, and of an sAC-like protein in the cytoplasm. We propose that sAC regulates NKCC activity in response to luminal HCO(3)(-), and that V-H(+)-ATPase and intracellular carbonic anhydrase are essential for transducing luminal HCO(3)(-) into the cell by CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) hydration/dehydration. This mechanism putatively coordinates HCO(3)(-) secretion with NaCl and water absorption in toadfish intestine.

  8. Cold-shock eliminates female nucleus in fertilized eggs to induce androgenesis in the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, a teleost fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishima Kagayaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgenesis (all-male inheritance is generally induced by means of irradiating the eggs to inactivate the maternal genome, followed by fertilization with normal sperm. In fish, the conventional technique for induced androgenesis has been applied for rapid fixation to traits, recovery of cryopreserved genotypes, sex-control, etc. A new method of androgenesis that eliminates the need to irradiate the egg was proposed using the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (a teleost fish. Results When the eggs of wild-type females were fertilized with sperm of albino or orange phenotype males and cold-shocked at 0 to 3°C for 60 min duration just after fertilization, generally more than 30% (with a peak of 100% of the hatched progeny were androgenotes. While a few of them were the normal diploid, most of them turned out to be abnormal haploid. All-male inheritance was verified by the expression of the recessive color trait (albino or orange and microsatellite genotypes comprising only paternally derived alleles. Nuclear behavior after the cold-shock treatment was traced by microscopic observation of DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained samples and hematoxylin-eosin stained histological sections, and the extrusion of egg (maternal nucleus was observed in eggs treated in the optimum timing. Conclusion In this paper, we demonstrate that cold-shock treatment (at 0 and 3°C of loach eggs for 60 min just after fertilization successfully induces androgenetic haploid development. The most likely mechanism of cold-shock induced androgenesis is an elimination of the egg nucleus together along with the second polar body and subsequent development of a decondensed sperm nucleus or male pronucleus.

  9. Catecholaminergic fiber innervation of the vocal motor system is intrasexually dimorphic in a teleost with alternative reproductive tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Zachary N.; Timothy, Miky; Kaur, Gurpreet; Gorbonosov, Michelle; Chernenko, Alena; Forlano, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines, which include the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline, are known modulators of sensorimotor function, reproduction, and sexually motivated behaviors across vertebrates, including vocal-acoustic communication. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the vocal-motor system in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichtys notatus, a seasonal breeding marine teleost that produces vocal signals for social communication. There are two distinct male reproductive morphs in this species: Type I males establish nests and court females with a long duration advertisement call, while type II males sneak-spawn to steal fertilizations from type I males. Like females, type II males can only produce brief, agonistic, grunt-type vocalizations. Here, we tested the hypothesis that intrasexual differences in the numbers of CA neurons and their fiber innervation patterns throughout the vocal-motor pathway may provide neural substrates underlying divergence in reproductive behavior between morphs. We employed immunofluorescence (-ir) histochemistry to measure tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis) neuron numbers in several forebrain and hindbrain nuclei as well as TH-ir fiber innervation throughout the vocal pathway in type I and type II males collected from nests during the summer reproductive season. After controlling for differences in body size, only one group of CA neurons displayed an unequivocal difference between male morphs: the extraventricular vagal-associated TH-ir neurons, located just lateral to the dimorphic vocal motor nucleus (VMN), were significantly greater in number in type II males. In addition, type II males exhibited greater TH-ir fiber density within the VMN and greater numbers of TH-ir varicosities with putative contacts on vocal motor neurons. This strong inverse relationship between the predominant vocal morphotype and CA innervation of vocal motor neurons suggests

  10. CCR7 is mainly expressed in teleost gills, where it defines an IgD+IgM- B lymphocyte subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rosario; Bromage, Erin; Abós, Beatriz; Pignatelli, Jaime; González Granja, Aitor; Luque, Alfonso; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-02-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR7, the receptor for both CCL19 and CCL21 chemokines, regulates the recruitment and clustering of circulating leukocytes to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Even though teleost fish do not have either of these secondary lymphoid structures, we have recently reported a homolog to CCR7 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the present work, we have studied the distribution of leukocytes bearing extracellular CCR7 in naive adult tissues by flow cytometry, observing that among the different leukocyte populations, the highest numbers of cells with membrane (mem)CCR7 were recorded in the gill (7.5 ± 2% CCR7(+) cells). In comparison, head kidney, spleen, thymus, intestine, and peripheral blood possessed CCR7(+) cells. When CCR7 was studied at early developmental stages, we detected a progressive increase in gene expression and protein CCR7 levels in the gills throughout development. Surprisingly, the majority of the CCR7(+) cells in the gills were not myeloid cells and did not express membrane CD8, IgM, nor IgT, but expressed IgD on the cell surface. In fact, most IgD(+) cells in the gills expressed CCR7. Intriguingly, the IgD(+)CCR7(+) population did not coexpress memIgM. Finally, when trout were bath challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, the number of CCR7(+) cells significantly decreased in the gills while significantly increased in head kidney. These results provide evidence of the presence of a novel memIgD(+)memIgM(-) B lymphocyte subset in trout that expresses memCCR7 and responds to viral infections. Similarities with IgD(+)IgM(-) subsets in mammals are discussed.

  11. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McCaffrey

    Full Text Available The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP males and territorial, terminal phase (TP males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  12. Melatonin receptors in brain areas and ocular tissues of the teleost Tinca tinca: characterization and effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Patiño, M A; Alonso-Gómez, A L; Guijarro, A; Isorna, E; Delgado, M J

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the central melatonin receptors in brain areas and ocular tissues of the teleost Tinca tinca. We investigated the temperature-dependence of 2-iodo-melatonin ([(125)I]Mel) binding in the optic tectum-tegmentum area and the neural retina. The binding of [(125)I]Mel showed a widespread distribution in brain and ocular tissues, with the highest density in the optic tectum-thalamus and the lowest in hindbrain. The [(125)I]Mel affinity was similar in all the studied tissues, and it was on the order of the low pM range. Saturation, kinetic and pharmacological studies showed the presence of a unique MT(1)-like melatonin binding site. In addition, the non-hydrolysable GTP analog, the GTPgammaS, and sodium cations induced a specific binding decrease in the optic tectum and neural retina, suggesting that such melatonin binding sites in the tench are coupled to G protein. Thus, these melatonin binding sites in optic tectum and neural retina fulfil the requirements of a real hormone receptor, the specific binding is rapid, saturable, and reversible, and is inhibited by GTP analogs. Additionally, a clear effect of temperature on such central melatonin receptors was found. Temperature did not modify the B(max) and K(d), but the kinetics of [(125)I]Mel binding resulted in a highly thermosensitive process in both tissues. Both association and dissociation rates (K(+1) and K(-1)) significantly increased with assay temperature (15-30 degrees C), but the K(d) constant (estimated as K(-1)/K(+1)) remained unaltered. In conclusion, this high thermal dependence of the melatonin binding to its receptors in the tench central nervous system supports the conclusion that temperature plays a key role in melatonin signal transduction in fish.

  13. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  14. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.I.; Yoon, P.H.; Ryu, Y.H.; Jeon, P.; Hwang, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  15. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  16. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  17. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  18. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  19. Basal autophagy is required for the efficient catabolism of sialyloligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2013-09-13

    Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5(-/-) cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans.

  20. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  1. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxid...

  2. The proprioception and neuromuscular stability of the basal thumb joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mobargha, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The basal thumb joint, or the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) is an enigmatic construction. The concavo-convex shape of the CMC1 and wide range of movement, allows for both precision and power grips and is particularly susceptible to the development of osteoarthritis. Previous theories regarding the development of CMC1 osteoarthritis have focused on the role of gender, excessive joint load and ligament laxity as causative factors. An emerging theory is the role o...

  3. Translating structure to clinical properties of an ideal basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, A G; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Sahay, R K

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for ideal basal insulin which can overcome the unmet need of a truly once daily insulin, with a flat peakless profile. Useful for all types of patients Insulin degludec is next generation insulin with a unique mode of protraction of forming soluble multi-hexamers and slow continuous absorption giving it a flat profile compared to the existing basal insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes, at steady-state, the mean terminal half-life of insulin degludec was 25 hours, i.e., approximately twice as long as for insulin glargine (half-life of 12.1 hours). In once-daily dosing regimen it reaches steady state after approximately 3 days. The duration of action of insulin degludec was estimated to be beyond 42 hours in euglycaemic clamp studies and this gives the unique opportunity of flexible time dosing which is not an available option with the existing basal insulin. The glucose-lowering effect is evenly distributed across a 24-hour dosing interval with insulin degludec having 4 times lower variability than insulin glargine. This is an important attribute given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin and the goal of achieving night time and inter-prandial glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia, a goal that is challenging given the variability of absorption and lower PK half-lives of current basal insulin products. The combination of the ultra-long, flat and stable profile with an improved hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability could present an improved risk-benefit trade-off with the lower risk of hypoglycaemia, allowing for targeting improved levels of glycaemic control.

  4. Positive selection pressure within teleost Toll-like receptors tlr21 and tlr22 subfamilies and their response to temperature stress and microbial components in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Consuegra, Sonia; Kiron, Viswanath; Fernandes, Jorge M O

    2012-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in host defence, since they trigger immune response following recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in potential infectious agents. TLRs have been found in numerous organisms, including mammals, birds and teleosts. Some TLR members are commonly retained across all species, whilst others were lost, gained or diverged independently during evolution. Our knowledge about the evolution and specific functions of tlr21, tlr22 and tlr23 in teleosts are still scarce. Phylogenetic analysis of 18 tlr13, tlr21, tlr22 and tlr23 genes from 9 different fish species divided them in two groups. All tlr21 genes were under the first clade, while the second comprised tlr22, tlr23 and tlr13 from Atlantic salmon. Evidence of positive selection was detected at three sites within the leucine-rich repeat regions of Tlr22, which may influence PAMP recognition. Immunostimulation experiments revealed that expression of zebrafish tlr22 is modulated by several unrelated PAMPs. Up to a 3-fold increase in tlr21 and tlr22 expression was detected in larvae exposed to immunostimulants such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan or poly I:C. We found that zebrafish tlrs are expressed mainly in immune-related organs, such as spleen and kidney as well as in testis and temperature stress did not have an effect on the expression of tlr21 and tlr22 in the early stages of development in zebrafish larvae. Our data indicates that these teleost tlrs may play a role in innate host defence. In particular, tlr22 is evolving under positive selection, which indicates functional diversification and adaptation of the response to different PAMPs.

  5. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  6. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest.

  7. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2......)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P...... = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44...

  8. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  9. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  10. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  11. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  12. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  13. A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kudoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence.

  14. Acute and chronic effects of diazinon on the activities of three dehydrogenases in the digestive system of a freshwater teleost fish Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K V; Malik, P V

    1982-01-01

    The effect of acute exposure to LC50 for 96 h (3.1 mg/l) and chronic exposure to a sublethal concentration (0.31 mg/l) of diazinon has been studied in the liver, stomach, intestine and pyloric ceca of a freshwater teleost fish, Channa punctatus. In acute exposure succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was elevated in intestine and pyloric ceca. No alteration was noted in lactate dehydrogenase activity but pyruvate dehydrogenase was inhibited in pyloric ceca. Chronic exposure resulted in inhibition of the activities of the three dehydrogenases in all the four parts at both intervals.

  15. Identification of IL-34 in teleost fish: differential expression of rainbow trout IL-34, MCSF1 and MCSF2, ligands of the MCSF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiehui; Kono, Tomoya; Monte, Milena M; Kuse, Haruka; Costa, Maria M; Korenaga, Hiroki; Maehr, Tanja; Husain, Mansourah; Sakai, Masahiro; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-04-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system is composed of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and has crucial roles in inflammation, autoimmunity, infection, cancer, organ transplantation and in maintaining organismal homeostasis. Interleukin-34 (IL-34) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF), both signalling through the MCSF receptor, regulate the mononuclear phagocyte system. A single IL-34 and MCSF gene are present in tetrapods. Two types of MCSF exist in teleost fish which is resulted from teleost-wide whole genome duplication. In this report, we first identified and sequence analysed six IL-34 genes in five teleost fish, rainbow trout, fugu, Atlantic salmon, catfish and zebrafish. The fish IL-34 molecules had a higher identity within fish group but low identities to IL-34s from birds (27.2-33.8%) and mammals (22.2-31.4%). However, they grouped with tetrapod IL-34 molecules in phylogenetic tree analysis, had a similar 7 exon/6 intron gene organisation, and genes in the IL-34 loci were syntenically conserved. In addition, the regions of the four main helices, along with a critical N-glycosylation site were well conserved. Taken together these data suggest that the teleost IL-34 genes described in this report are orthologues of tetrapod IL-34. Comparative expression study of the three trout MCSFR ligands revealed that IL-34, MCSF1 and MCSF2 are differentially expressed in tissues and cell lines. The expression of MCSF1 and MCSF2 showed great variance in different tissues and cell lines, suggesting a role in the differentiation and maintenance of specific macrophage lineages in specific locations. The relatively high levels of IL-34 expression across different tissues suggests a homeostatic role of IL-34 for the macrophage lineage in fish. One striking observation in the present study was the lack of induction of MCSF1 and MCSF2 expression but the quick induction of IL-34 expression by PAMPs and inflammatory cytokines in cell lines and primary head kidney

  16. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  17. Impacts of ocean acidification on respiratory gas exchange and acid-base balance in a marine teleost, Opsanus beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Heuer, Rachael; Grosell, Martin

    2012-10-01

    The oceanic carbonate system is changing rapidly due to rising atmospheric CO(2), with current levels expected to rise to between 750 and 1,000 μatm by 2100, and over 1,900 μatm by year 2300. The effects of elevated CO(2) on marine calcifying organisms have been extensively studied; however, effects of imminent CO(2) levels on teleost acid-base and respiratory physiology have yet to be examined. Examination of these physiological processes, using a paired experimental design, showed that 24 h exposure to 1,000 and 1,900 μatm CO(2) resulted in a characteristic compensated respiratory acidosis response in the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Time course experiments showed the onset of acidosis occurred after 15 min of exposure to 1,900 and 1,000 μatm CO(2), with full compensation by 2 and 4 h, respectively. 1,900-μatm exposure also resulted in significantly increased intracellular white muscle pH after 24 h. No effect of 1,900 μatm was observed on branchial acid flux; however, exposure to hypercapnia and HCO(3)(-) free seawater compromised compensation. This suggests branchial HCO(3)(-) uptake rather than acid extrusion is part of the compensatory response to low-level hypercapnia. Exposure to 1,900 μatm resulted in downregulation in branchial carbonic anhydrase and slc4a2 expression, as well as decreased Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity after 24 h of exposure. Infusion of bovine carbonic anhydrase had no effect on blood acid-base status during 1,900 μatm exposures, but eliminated the respiratory impacts of 1,000 μatm CO(2). The results of the current study clearly show that predicted near-future CO(2) levels impact respiratory gas transport and acid-base balance. While the full physiological impacts of increased blood HCO(3)(-) are not known, it seems likely that chronically elevated blood HCO(3)(-) levels could compromise several physiological systems and furthermore may explain recent reports of increased otolith growth during exposure to elevated CO(2).

  18. Genes coding for intermediate filament proteins closely related to the hagfish "thread keratins (TK)" alpha and gamma also exist in lamprey, teleosts and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffeld, Michael; Schultess, Jan

    2006-05-15

    The "thread keratins (TK)" alpha and gamma so far have been considered highly specialized intermediate filament (IF) proteins restricted to hagfish. From lamprey, we now have sequenced five novel IF proteins closely related to TKalpha and TKgamma, respectively. Moreover, we have detected corresponding sequences in EST and genomic databases of teleosts and amphibians. The structure of the TKalpha genes and the positions of their deduced amino acid sequences in a phylogenetic tree clearly support their classification as type II keratins. The genes encoding TKgamma show a structure typical for type III IF proteins, whereas their positions in phylogenetic trees favor a close relationship to the type I keratins. Considering that most keratin-like sequences detected in the lancelet also exhibit a gene structure typical for type III IF proteins, it seems likely that the keratin gene(s) originated from an ancient type III IF protein gene. According to EST analyses, the expression of the thread keratins in teleost fish and amphibians may be particularly restricted to larval stages, which, in conjunction with the observed absence of TKalpha and TKgamma genes in any of the available Amniota databases, indicates a thread keratin function closely related to larval development in an aquatic environment.

  19. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates.

  20. The miR-33 gene is identified in a marine teleost: a potential role in regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in Siganus canaliculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghao; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Dong, Yewei; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-09-19

    As the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus provides a good model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. Here the potential roles of miR-33 in such regulation were investigated. The miR-33 gene was identified within intron 16 of the gene encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp1), an activator of LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Expression of miR-33 in rabbitfish tissues correlated with that of srebp1, while its expression in liver was highly responsive to ambient salinities and PUFA components, factors affecting LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Srebp1 activation promoted the expression of Δ4 and Δ6 Δ5 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad), key enzymes for LC-PUFA biosynthesis, accompanied by elevated miR-33 abundance in rabbitfish hepatocytes. miR-33 overexpression induced the expression of the two fad, but suppressed that of insulin-induced gene 1 (insig1), which encodes a repressor blocking Srebp proteolytic activation and has targeting sites of miR-33. These results indicated that miR-33, cooperating with Srebp1, may be involved in regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis by facilitating fad expression, probably through targeting insig1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the participation of miR-33 in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in vertebrates.

  1. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  2. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  3. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  4. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Pamela; Doiron, Brent; Rubin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  5. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  6. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  7. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  8. The basal ganglia: an overview of circuits and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Amy A; Basso, Michele A

    2008-01-01

    The technique of electrical stimulation of brain tissue-known clinically as deep brain stimulation (DBS)-is at the fore of treatment of human neurological disease. Here we provide a general overview highlighting the anatomy and circuitry of the basal ganglia (BG). We introduce common disease states associated with BG dysfunction and current hypotheses of BG function. Throughout this introductory review we direct the reader to other reviews in this special issue of Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews highlighting the interaction between basic science and clinical investigation to more fully understand the BG in both health and disease.

  9. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Mihaila D.; Foia L; Solovan C

    2013-01-01

    Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in ...

  10. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Monda, Vincenzo; Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity. PMID:28197081

  11. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Malaki, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  12. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  13. Basal autophagy protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Marcela; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Martínez, Gonzalo J; Chiong, Mario; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-08-31

    Doxorubicin (Doxo) is one of the most effective anti-neoplastic agents but its cardiotoxicity has been an important clinical limitation. The major mechanism of Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity is associated to its oxidative capacity. However, other processes are also involved with significant consequences for the cardiomyocyte. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity but to date it is not clear how Doxo alters that process and its consequence on cardiomyocytes viability. Here we investigated the effect of Doxo 1uM for 24h of stimulation on cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We showed that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy. This inhibition is due to both Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation and Beclin 1 level decrease. To assess the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death, we evaluated the effects 3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 (BafA), siRNA Beclin 1 (siBeclin 1) and rapamycin (Rapa) on cell viability. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA, BafA and siBeclin 1 increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release but, when autophagy was induced by Rapa, Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death was decreased. These results suggest that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy and contributes to cardiomyocyte death. Activation of autophagy could be used as a strategy to protect the heart against Doxo toxicity.

  14. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  15. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  16. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  17. Carcinogenesis of basal cell carcinomas: genetics and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J P

    2002-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer in humans. Like squamous cell carcinomas, they are also believed to be ultraviolet (UV)-induced, but several data suggest that some differences might exist in the mechanisms of their UV induction. The originating cells may arise from interfollicular basal cells, hair follicles or sebaceous glands, thus from a deeper zone than the SCC ones, which probably means exposure to different doses or wavelengths of UV. The p53 gene and the patched gene (PTCH) are major targets of UV for BCC induction. Mutations in p53 are present in about 56% of human BCC, even small early lesions. The "UV signature" is observed in 65% of them. Mutations in the PTCH play also a major role in BCC development, being responsible for hereditary BCCs in Gorlin's syndrome, sporadic BCC, and BCCs isolated from xeroderma pigmentosum, although with a lower incidence of "UV signature". Smoothened-activating mutations and PTCH2 mutations are also involved in BCC formation. Transgenic mice overexpressing Smoothened or Sonic hedgehog in the skin spontaneously produce skin lesions resembling human BCCs, but contrary to findings in the hairless albino mouse and with SCC, no data on experimental UV induction of BCCs are available.

  18. Treatment of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is characterized by various embryological deformities and carcinoma formation. It is caused by PTCHI gene mutations and is autosomal dominantly inherited. Some of the main symptoms of NBCCS are multiple basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) of the mandible, hyperkeratosis of the palmar and plantar, skeletal deformity, calcification of the falx cerebri, and facial defomity. Recurrent KCOT is the main symptom of NBCCS and is present in approximately 90% of patients. In NBCCS, KCOTs typically occur in multiples. KCOTs can be detected in patients under the age of 10, and new and recurring cysts develop until approximately the age of 30. The postoperation recurrence rate is approximately 60%. This case report presents a 14-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of a cyst found in the maxilla and mandible. The patient was diagnosed with NBCCS, and following treatment of marsupialization and enucleation, the clinical results were satisfactory. PMID:27847737

  19. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  1. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  2. Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Niwińska (Anna); W. Olszewski (Wojciech); M. Murawska (Magdalena); K. Pogoda (Katarzyna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive t

  3. Marine ice sheet model performance depends on basal sliding physics and sub-shelf melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  5. Genomic analysis of smoothened inhibitor resistance in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Hayley J; Pau, Gregoire; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Modrusan, Zora; Januario, Thomas; Tsui, Vickie; Durham, Alison B; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Haverty, Peter M; Bourgon, Richard; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y; Dirix, Luc; Fisher, David C; Rudin, Charles M; Sofen, Howard; Migden, Michael R; Yauch, Robert L; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2015-03-09

    Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors are under clinical investigation for the treatment of several cancers. Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Most BCC patients experience significant clinical benefit on vismodegib, but some develop resistance. Genomic analysis of tumor biopsies revealed that vismodegib resistance is associated with Hedgehog (Hh) pathway reactivation, predominantly through mutation of the drug target SMO and to a lesser extent through concurrent copy number changes in SUFU and GLI2. SMO mutations either directly impaired drug binding or activated SMO to varying levels. Furthermore, we found evidence for intra-tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that a combination of therapies targeting components at multiple levels of the Hh pathway is required to overcome resistance.

  6. Basal Secretion of Lysozyme from Human Airways in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Roger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the basal release of lysozyme from isolated human lung tissues. Measurements of lysozyme in the fluids derived from lung preparations were performed using a rate-of-lysis assay subsequent to acidification of the biological samples. Lysozyme released from bronchial preparations into fluids was greater than that observed for parenchymal tissues. The lysozyme quantities detected in bronchial fluids were not modified by removal of the surface epithelium. Furthermore, the quantities of lysozyme in bronchial fluids was correlated with the size of the bronchial preparations. These results suggest that the lysozyme was principally secreted by the human bronchi (submucosal layer rather than by parenchyma tissues and that a greater release was observed in the proximal airways.

  7. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  8. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  9. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan;

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still...... use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data...... use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration...

  10. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  11. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  12. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    was 66.1 years. The most common localisations were the forehead (31.3%), the nose (31.0%) and the cheek (14.7%). Primary BCC comprised 54.0%; the remaining cases were relapses, most frequently after curettage (36.9%), radiotherapy (18.9%) and photodynamic therapy (11.7%). MMS leads to 40% smaller skin......INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... of the surrounding healthy skin, and it also offers higher cure rates than standard tumour excision with a predefined margin of healthy skin. The superiority of MMS relies on the fact that the entire (100%) margin of the excised tissue is examined microscopically for residual tumour in contrast to the traditional...

  13. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cotrufo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal lamina (BL is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation.We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens.We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study.We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RTPCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin a2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type

  14. Auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear responses in chinchillas.

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    Alex León

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cochlear microphonics (CM, auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments. We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the

  15. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

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    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  16. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

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    CARMEN BERGHES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  18. A highly conserved N-terminal sequence for teleost vitellogenin with potential value to the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmar, L.D.; Denslow, N.D.; Wallace, R.A.; LaFleur, G.; Gross, T.S.; Bonomelli, S.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    N-terminal amino acid sequences for vitellogenin (Vtg) from six species of teleost fish (striped bass, mummichog, pinfish, brown bullhead, medaka, yellow perch and the sturgeon) are compared with published N-terminal Vtg sequences for the lamprey, clawed frog and domestic chicken. Striped bass and mummichog had 100% identical amino acids between positions 7 and 21, while pinfish, brown bullhead, sturgeon, lamprey, Xenopus and chicken had 87%, 93%, 60%, 47%, 47-60%) for four transcripts and had 40% identical, respectively, with striped bass for the same positions. Partial sequences obtained for medaka and yellow perch were 100% identical between positions 5 to 10. The potential utility of this conserved sequence for studies on the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis is discussed.

  19. Embryo and larva development in Dentex dentex, a marine pelagophil teleost: an endeavor to find a series of new fatty acid interrelations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaee, Seyed-Mohammadreza; Estévez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Although the fatty acid (FA) requirements of marine teleosts not only are a function of the amount of each FA individually, but also of the relative proportions of the FAs; mostly, the interactions have been ignored and merely limited to a few interrelations of 20:4[n-6], 20:5[n-3], and 22:6[n-3]. To address this shortcoming, viable eggs of Dentex dentex were obtained from broodfish in captivity. Nine viability parameters (VP) (i.e., floating rate (FR), hatching rate (HR), and survival rate (SR) from day 0 to 5 posthatch (dph)) that are currently used in mariculture systems were determined. Egg FAs were characterized and quantified. One hundred and twenty ratios were made based on the FA contents estimated. Sixty-four ratios were significantly and strongly correlated to embryo/larva success through 201 simple regression models (r(2) = 0.640-0.948; P = 0.006-P larva success.

  20. A Novel Basal Body Protein That Is a Polo-like Kinase Substrate Is Required for Basal Body Segregation and Flagellum Adhesion in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-10-01

    The Polo-like kinase (PLK) in Trypanosoma brucei plays multiple roles in basal body segregation, flagellum attachment, and cytokinesis. However, the mechanistic role of TbPLK remains elusive, mainly because most of its substrates are not known. Here, we report a new substrate of TbPLK, SPBB1, and its essential roles in T. brucei. SPBB1 was identified through yeast two-hybrid screening with the kinase-dead TbPLK as the bait. It interacts with TbPLK in vitro and in vivo, and is phosphorylated by TbPLK in vitro. SPBB1 localizes to both the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle, and co-localizes with TbPLK at the basal body during early cell cycle stages. RNAi against SPBB1 in procyclic trypanosomes inhibited basal body segregation, disrupted the new flagellum attachment zone filament, detached the new flagellum, and caused defective cytokinesis. Moreover, RNAi of SPBB1 confined TbPLK at the basal body and the bilobe structure, resulting in constitutive phosphorylation of TbCentrin2 at the bilobe. Altogether, these results identified a basal body protein as a TbPLK substrate and its essential role in promoting basal body segregation and flagellum attachment zone filament assembly for flagellum adhesion and cytokinesis initiation.

  1. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α (HNF4α) Is a Transcription Factor of Vertebrate Fatty Acyl Desaturase Gene as Identified in Marine Teleost Siganus canaliculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yewei; Wang, Shuqi; Chen, Junliang; Zhang, Qinghao; Liu, Yang; You, Cuihong; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-01-01

    Rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus was the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the capability of biosynthesizing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 precursors, and to possess a Δ4 fatty acyl desaturase (Δ4 Fad) which was the first report in vertebrates, and is a good model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. In order to understand regulatory mechanisms of transcription of Δ4 Fad, the gene promoter was cloned and characterized in the present study. An upstream sequence of 1859 bp from the initiation codon ATG was cloned as the promoter candidate. On the basis of bioinformatic analysis, several binding sites of transcription factors (TF) including GATA binding protein 2 (GATA-2), CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), nuclear factor 1 (NF-1), nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and sterol regulatory element (SRE), were identified in the promoter by site-directed mutation and functional assays. HNF4α and NF-1 were confirmed to interact with the core promoter of Δ4 Fad by gel shift assay and mass spectrometry. Moreover, over-expression of HNF4α increased promoter activity in HEK 293T cells and mRNA level of Δ4 Fad in rabbitfish primary hepatocytes, respectively. The results indicated that HNF4α is a TF of rabbitfish Δ4 Fad. To our knowledge, this is the first report on promoter structure of a Δ4 Fad, and also the first demonstration of HNF4α as a TF of vertebrate Fad gene involved in transcription regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis.

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.

  3. The miR-33 gene is identified in a marine teleost: a potential role in regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in Siganus canaliculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghao; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Dong, Yewei; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-01-01

    As the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus provides a good model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. Here the potential roles of miR-33 in such regulation were investigated. The miR-33 gene was identified within intron 16 of the gene encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp1), an activator of LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Expression of miR-33 in rabbitfish tissues correlated with that of srebp1, while its expression in liver was highly responsive to ambient salinities and PUFA components, factors affecting LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Srebp1 activation promoted the expression of Δ4 and Δ6 Δ5 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad), key enzymes for LC-PUFA biosynthesis, accompanied by elevated miR-33 abundance in rabbitfish hepatocytes. miR-33 overexpression induced the expression of the two fad, but suppressed that of insulin-induced gene 1 (insig1), which encodes a repressor blocking Srebp proteolytic activation and has targeting sites of miR-33. These results indicated that miR-33, cooperating with Srebp1, may be involved in regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis by facilitating fad expression, probably through targeting insig1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the participation of miR-33 in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in vertebrates. PMID:27640649

  4. Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of the Na +/K+ ATPase α subunit isoforms during development and salinity challenge in a teleost fish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Paula; Campinho, Marco A; Rodríguez-Rúa, Ana; Cousin, Xavier; Power, Deborah M; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, five genes encoding different Na(+),K(+) ATPase (NKA) α-isoforms in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation across teleosts and mammals. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the five genes into three main clades: α1 (designated atp1a1a and atp1a1b), α2 (designated atp1a2) and α3 (designated atp1a3a and atp1a3b) isoforms. Transcriptional analysis in larvae showed distinct expression profiles during development. In juvenile tissues, the atp1a1a gene was highly expressed in osmoregulatory organs, atp1a2 in skeletal muscle, atp1a1b in brain and heart and atp1a3a and atp1a3b mainly in brain. Quantification of mRNA abundance after a salinity challenge showed that atp1a1a transcript levels increased significantly in the gill of soles transferred to high salinity water (60 ppt). In contrast, atp1a3a transcripts increased at low salinity (5 ppt). In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis revealed that the number of ionocytes expressing atp1a1a transcripts in the primary gill filaments was higher at 35 and 60 ppt than at 5 ppt and remained undetectable or at very low levels in the lamellae at 5 and 35 ppt but increased at 60 ppt. Immunohistochemistry showed a higher number of positive cells in the lamellae. Whole-mount analysis of atp1a1a mRNA in young sole larvae revealed that it was localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, yolk sac ionocytes and chordacentrum. Moreover, atp1a1a mRNAs increased at mouth opening (3 DPH) in larvae incubated at 36 ppt with a greater signal in gills.

  5. The bioactivity of teleost IL-6: IL-6 protein in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) induces Th2 cell differentiation pathway and antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Han-Tso; Foung, Yi-Fan; Han-You Lin, John

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a protein secreted by T cells and macrophages and plays an important role in immune response. IL-6 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, and elicits immunoglobulin production in B cells. In this study, the cDNA il-6 (gil-6) sequence of the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was obtained. The deduced IL-6 (gIL-6) protein comprised 223 amino acids, the sequence shared approximately 30% similarity with mammalian IL-6, and between 47% and 69% similarity with other available teleost IL-6. The protein comprises the signal peptide, the IL-6 family signature, and conserved amino acid residues found in IL-6 sequences of other teleost. In order to understand the bioactivity and influence of gIL-6 on humoral immune response, recombinant gIL-6 (rgIL-6) synthesized by prokaryotes was injected into orange spotted groupers, and the immune-related gene expression at various times in various organs was observed. Our results revealed that the Th1 specific transcription factor t-bet was down-regulated and Th2 specific transcription factors gata3, and c-maf were up-regulated in immune organs, following IL-6 stimulation. Additionally, higher levels of igm mRNA and translated protein were detected in rgIL-6 stimulated fish. These results indicate that IL-6 in groupers regulates the differentiation of naїve T helper cells into Th2 cells and elicits the production of antibodies.

  6. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpandev Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216 switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6% to week 24 (1.0% in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001, while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort.

  7. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpandev; Shetty, Raman; Rajkumar, C; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216) switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6%) to week 24 (1.0%) in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001), while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort. PMID:25143902

  8. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree......Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated...... of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required...

  9. Basal forebrain degeneration precedes and predicts the cortical spread of Alzheimer's pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Taylor W.; Nathan Spreng, R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Leslie M Shaw; Khachaturian, Zaven

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received ne...

  10. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

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    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  11. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed: A report of rare two cases and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Tarun Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. The general incidence of TBGH is reported between 2.4% and 3% of closed head injury. However, the incidence is higher in postmortem studies (9.8%). Bilateral traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is extremely rare. Descriptions are limited to case reports.

  12. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eHelie; Srinivasa eChakravarthy; Ahmed A. Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  13. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas.

  14. Thresholds in the sliding resistance of simulated basal ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Emerson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We report laboratory determinations of the shear resistance to sliding melting ice with entrained particles over a hard, impermeable surface. With higher particle concentrations and larger particle sizes, Coulomb friction at particle-bed contacts dominates and the shear stress increases linearly with normal load. We term this the sandy regime. When either particle concentration or particle size is reduced below a threshold, the dependence of shear resistance on normal load is no longer statistically significant. We term this regime slippery. We use force and mass balance considerations to examine the flow of melt water beneath the simulated basal ice. At high particle concentrations, the transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle size is comparable to the thickness of the melt film that separates the sliding ice from its bed. For larger particle sizes, a transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle concentration drops sufficiently that the normal load is no longer transferred completely to the particle-bed contacts. We estimate that the melt films separating the particles from the ice are approximately 0.1 µm thick at this transition. Our laboratory results suggest the potential for abrupt transitions in the shear resistance beneath hard-bedded glaciers with changes in either the thickness of melt layers or the particle loading.

  15. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  16. Everolimus for Compassionate Use in Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eibenschutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Everolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and has been shown to have antineoplastic activity in addition to its use as an immunosuppressive agent for the prevention of organ transplant rejection. We report the use of everolimus for the compassionate treatment of four elderly, nontransplant patients presenting with multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC. All patients had a long history of BCC, had refused surgery as a current treatment option, and did not respond to alternative treatments (including topical 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod. Patients were treated with oral everolimus (1.5–3.0 mg daily for 12 months or longer: a complete and sustained response was seen in one case, and partial responses were seen in two other cases. Everolimus was well tolerated in these elderly patients. These promising preliminary data suggest that further dose-finding, controlled clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of everolimus in patients affected by BCC who cannot or will not undergo surgery.

  17. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  18. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  19. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  20. Vismodegib: in locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-07-30

    Vismodegib is the first Hedgehog pathway inhibitor to be approved in the US, where it is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC), or with locally advanced BCC that has recurred following surgery or who are not candidates for surgery, and who are not candidates for radiation. Vismodegib selectively and potently inhibits the Hedgehog signalling pathway by binding to Smoothened, thereby inhibiting the activation of Hedgehog target genes. Oral vismodegib was effective in the treatment of patients with locally advanced (n = 63) or metastatic (n = 33) BCC, according to the results of an ongoing, noncomparative, multinational, pivotal, phase II trial (ERIVANCE BCC). In this trial (using a clinical cutoff date of 26 November 2010), the independent review facility overall response rate was 42.9% in patients with locally advanced BCC and 30.3% in patients with metastatic BCC. In both patients with locally advanced BCC and those with metastatic BCC, the median duration of response was 7.6 months and median progression-free survival was 9.5 months. Oral vismodegib had an acceptable tolerability profile in patients with advanced BCC.

  1. Basal magnetic flux and the local solar dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Stenflo, J O

    2012-01-01

    The average unsigned magnetic flux density in magnetograms of the quiet Sun is generally dominated by instrumental noise. Due to the entirely different scaling behavior of the noise and the solar magnetic pattern it has been possible to determine the standard deviation of the Gaussian noise distribution and remove the noise contribution from the average unsigned flux density for the whole 15-yr SOHO/MDI data set and for a selection of SDO/HMI magnetograms. There is a very close correlation between the MDI disk-averaged unsigned vertical flux density and the sunspot number, and regression analysis gives a residual level of 2.7 G when the sunspot number is zero. The selected set of HMI magnetograms, which spans the most quiet phase of solar activity, has a lower limit of 3.0 G to the noise-corrected average flux density. These apparently cycle-independent levels may be identified as a basal flux density, which represents an upper limit to the possible flux contribution from a local dynamo, but not evidence for ...

  2. Fissura palatina reparada: fechamento velofaríngeo antes e durante o som basal Cleft palate repair: velopharyngeal closure before and during the basal tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseane Conterno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de fissura palatina apresentam inadequado fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF, com consequente hipernasalidade vocal que pode ser diminuída com o som basal. OBJETIVO: Comparar o FVF durante a realização do som basal com a emissão em registro modal, em pacientes com fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de Casos com quatro homens adultos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. Imagens do FVF por nasofaringoscopia, durante a emissão da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal. Julgamento das imagens realizado por quatro otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: Em três sujeitos, não houve mudança no tipo de FVF entre os registros analisados; as modificações que ocorreram na maioria dos sujeitos referem-se apenas ao grau de movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, pois, em registro basal, o movimento das paredes laterais da faringe se manteve, o movimento da parede posterior da faringe estabilizou, o movimento do véu palatino diminuiu discretamente, e a Prega de Passavant se evidenciou. CONCLUSÕES: O tipo de FVF se manteve em três dos quatro sujeitos analisados, quando comparado o registro modal com o basal, havendo modificações no grau da movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, evidenciando a Prega de Passavant.Patients with palatine fissure have inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC, with consequent vocal hypernasality which can be reduced by a basal tone. AIM: to compare VPC during a basal tone with the emission of a modal recording, in patients with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: case study with four adult men, all with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. VPC images through nasal-pharyngoscopy during the emission o f the [a] vowel in a modal and basal recording. The images were studied by four ENTs. RESULTS: in three subjects there was no change in the type of VPC considering the recordings analyzed; the changes which happened to most of the subjects

  3. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.;

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  4. [Neurobiology of parkinsonism. I. Neural substrates an neurochemistry of the basal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, S; Garcia-Cairasco, N

    1995-09-01

    Movement disorders, in general, are characterized by a breakdown in the integrated coordination of posture and motion by multiple brain and muscular systems. In the expression of parkinsonism, in particular, critical and altered structures such as substantia nigra, appear to be related to the cortex-basal ganglia and thalamus-basal ganglia sub-circuits.

  5. Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Cheng, Yen-Po; Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2015-05-01

    Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery.

  6. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

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    Ying Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required for luminal-basal fusions, and we identified EN1, TBX18, and TCF4 as candidate transcriptional regulators of the luminal-to-basal switch. Our findings highlight the remarkable epigenetic plasticity of breast cancer cells.

  7. Metacognitive Theory Applied: Strategic Reading Instruction in the Current Generation of Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Hopkins, Carol J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the content of eight basal reading series (published in 1989) to determine how and the extent to which lessons and activities that promote metacomprehension behaviors necessary for independent reading were included. Finds that basal authors made considerable efforts to incorporate activities and lessons that promote or foster strategic…

  8. Expression of basal cell keratins in human prostate cancer metastases and cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Aalders, M.W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Ruiter, D.J.; Schalken, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Within normal human prostate epithelium, basal and luminal cells can be discriminated by their expression of keratins (K). While basal cells express K5/14, luminal cells show expression of K8/18 and an intermediate cell population can be identified by co-expression of K5/18. Prostate cancer is predo

  9. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  10. Association of basal forebrain volumes and cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D; Grothe, M; Fischer, F U; Heinsen, H; Kilimann, I; Teipel, S; Fellgiebel, A

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) is known to undergo moderate neurodegenerative alterations during normal aging and severe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that functional and structural alterations of the BFCS mediate cognitive performance in normal aging and AD. But, it is still unclear to what extend age-associated cognitive decline can be related to BFCS in normal aging. We analyzed the relationship between BFCS volume and cognition using MRI and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery in a cohort of 43 healthy elderly subjects spanning the age range from 60 to 85 years. Most notably, we found significant associations between general intelligence and BFCS volumes, specifically within areas corresponding to posterior nuclei of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (Ch4p) and the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Associations between specific cognitive domains and BFCS volumes were less pronounced. Supplementary analyses demonstrated that especially the volume of NSP but also the volume of Ch4p was related to the volume of widespread temporal, frontal, and parietal gray and white matter regions. Volumes of these gray and white matter regions were also related to general intelligence. Higher volumes of Ch4p and NSP may enhance the effectiveness of acetylcholine supply in related gray and white matter regions underlying general intelligence and hence explain the observed association between the volume of Ch4p as well as NSP and general intelligence. Since general intelligence is known to attenuate the degree of age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of developing late-onset AD, the BFCS might, besides the specific contribution to the pathophysiology in AD, constitute a mechanism of brain resilience in normal aging.

  11. Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Cagri T; Pare, Denis; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2015-01-14

    In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. Light-induced stimulation of BFc axons produced different effects depending on the BLA cell type. In late-firing interneurons, BFc inputs elicited fast nicotinic EPSPs. In contrast, no response could be detected in fast-spiking interneurons. In principal BLA neurons, two different effects were elicited depending on their activity level. When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. In contrast, with stronger depolarizing currents, eliciting firing above ∼ 6-8 Hz, these muscarinic IPSPs lost their efficacy because stimulation of BFc inputs prolonged current-evoked afterdepolarizations. All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity.

  12. Erosion and basal forces in granular flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extreme mass wasting avalanche events such as rock, snow and ice avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows are among the most hazardous geological phenomena. These events driven by gravity, can travel for long distance and high speed, increasing their volumes as they can entertain material along their path. The erosion of material and its entrainment can greatly affect the overall dynamics of transportation, either enhancing or impeding the avalanche mobility depending on flow dynamics and characteristics of the substrate. However, the mechanisms and processes acting at the base as they travel over deformable or erodible substrates are still poor understood. Experiments, simulations and field measurements indicate that large fluctuations can occur in basal forces and stresses, which may be the result of non-uniform load transfer within the mass, and rolling, bouncing and sliding of the particles along the bed. In dense granular materials, force distributions can propagate through filamentary chain structures that carry a large fraction of the forces within the system. Photoelastic experiments on two-dimensional, monodisperse, gravity-driven flows have shown that force chains can transmit high localized forces to the boundary of dense granular flows. Here we describe the preliminary setup and results of 2D experiments on polydisperse granular flows of photoelastic disks down a small flume designed to acquire the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow and to analyze their effects on an erodible bed. The intended outcome of this research is to provide better information on the complex mechanism of erosion and its effects on avalanche behaviour.

  13. Laser ablation of basal cell carcinomas guided by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Heidy; Cordova, Miguel; Nehal, Kishwer; Rossi, Anthony; Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Laser ablation offers precise and fast removal of superficial and early nodular types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Nevertheless, the lack of histological confirmation has been a limitation. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging combined with a contrast agent can offer cellular-level histology-like feedback to detect the presence (or absence) of residual BCC directly on the patient. We conducted an ex vivo bench-top study to provide a set of effective ablation parameters (fluence, number of passes) to remove superficial BCCs while also controlling thermal coagulation post-ablation to allow uptake of contrast agent. The results for an Er:YAG laser (2.9 um and pulse duration 250us) show that with 6 passes of 25 J/cm2, thermal coagulation can be effectively controlled, to allow both the uptake of acetic acid (contrast agent) and detection of residual (or absence) BCCs. Confirmation was provided with histological examination. An initial in vivo study on 35 patients shows that the uptake of contrast agent aluminum chloride) and imaging quality is similar to that observed in the ex vivo study. The detection of the presence of residual tumor or complete clearance was confirmed in 10 wounds with (additional) histology and in 25 lesions with follow-up imaging. Our results indicate that resolution is sufficient but further development and use of appropriate contrast agent are necessary to improve sensitivity and specificity. Advances in RCM technology for imaging of lateral and deep margins directly on the patient may provide less invasive, faster and less expensive image-guided approaches for treatment of BCCs.

  14. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Tang, Dean G

    2016-02-29

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features.

  15. Basal body structure and composition in the apicomplexans Toxoplasma and Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa encompasses numerous important human and animal disease-causing parasites, including the Plasmodium species, and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively. Apicomplexans proliferate by asexual replication and can also undergo sexual recombination. Most life cycle stages of the parasite lack flagella; these structures only appear on male gametes. Although male gametes (microgametes) assemble a typical 9+2 axoneme, the structure of the templating basal body is poorly defined. Moreover, the relationship between asexual stage centrioles and microgamete basal bodies remains unclear. While asexual stages of Plasmodium lack defined centriole structures, the asexual stages of Toxoplasma and closely related coccidian apicomplexans contain centrioles that consist of nine singlet microtubules and a central tubule. There are relatively few ultra-structural images of Toxoplasma microgametes, which only develop in cat intestinal epithelium. Only a subset of these include sections through the basal body: to date, none have unambiguously captured organization of the basal body structure. Moreover, it is unclear whether this basal body is derived from pre-existing asexual stage centrioles or is synthesized de novo. Basal bodies in Plasmodium microgametes are thought to be synthesized de novo, and their assembly remains ill-defined. Apicomplexan genomes harbor genes encoding δ- and ε-tubulin homologs, potentially enabling these parasites to assemble a typical triplet basal body structure. Moreover, the UNIMOD components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP, and BLD10/CEP135) are conserved in these organisms. However, other widely conserved basal body and flagellar biogenesis elements are missing from apicomplexan genomes. These differences may indicate variations in flagellar biogenesis pathways and in basal body arrangement within the phylum. As apicomplexan basal bodies are distinct from their metazoan counterparts, it may be possible to

  16. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST-enriched genetic map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus: a useful framework for comparative genomics across model and farmed teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouza Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus is a relevant species in European aquaculture. The small turbot genome provides a source for genomics strategies to use in order to understand the genetic basis of productive traits, particularly those related to sex, growth and pathogen resistance. Genetic maps represent essential genomic screening tools allowing to localize quantitative trait loci (QTL and to identify candidate genes through comparative mapping. This information is the backbone to develop marker-assisted selection (MAS programs in aquaculture. Expressed sequenced tag (EST resources have largely increased in turbot, thus supplying numerous type I markers suitable for extending the previous linkage map, which was mostly based on anonymous loci. The aim of this study was to construct a higher-resolution turbot genetic map using EST-linked markers, which will turn out to be useful for comparative mapping studies. Results A consensus gene-enriched genetic map of the turbot was constructed using 463 SNP and microsatellite markers in nine reference families. This map contains 438 markers, 180 EST-linked, clustered at 24 linkage groups. Linkage and comparative genomics evidences suggested additional linkage group fusions toward the consolidation of turbot map according to karyotype information. The linkage map showed a total length of 1402.7 cM with low average intermarker distance (3.7 cM; ~2 Mb. A global 1.6:1 female-to-male recombination frequency (RF ratio was observed, although largely variable among linkage groups and chromosome regions. Comparative sequence analysis revealed large macrosyntenic patterns against model teleost genomes, significant hits decreasing from stickleback (54% to zebrafish (20%. Comparative mapping supported particular chromosome rearrangements within Acanthopterygii and aided to assign unallocated markers to specific turbot linkage groups. Conclusions The new gene-enriched high-resolution turbot

  17. Evidence for growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis regulation of seawater acclimation in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of ovine growth hormone (oGH), recombinant bovine insulin- like growth factor I (rbIGF-I), recombinant human insulin-like growth factor II (rhIGF-II), and bovine insulin to increase hypoosmoregulatory capacity in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus was examined. Fish acclimated to brackish water (BW, 10 ppt salinity, 320 mOsm/kg H2O) were injected with a single dose of hormone and transferred to seawater (SW, 35 ppt salinity, 1120 mOsm/kg H2O) 2 days later. Fish were sampled 24 h after transfer and plasma osmolality, plasma glucose, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were examined. Transfer from BW to SW increased plasma osmolality and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Transfer from BW to BW had no effect on these parameters. rbIGF-I (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 ??g/g) improved the ability to maintain plasma osmolality and to increase gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. oGH (0.5, 1, and 2 ??g/g) also increased hypoosmoregulatory ability but only the higher doses (2 ??g/g) significantly increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. oGH (1 ??g/g) and rbIGF-I (0.1 ??g/g) had a significantly greater effect on plasma osmolality and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than either hormone alone. rhIGF-II (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 ??g/g) and bovine insulin (0.01 and 0.05 ??g/g) were without effect. The results suggest a role of GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in seawater acclimation of E heteroclitus. Based on these findings and previous studies, it is concluded that the capacity of the GH/IGF-I axis to increase hypoosmoregulatory ability may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts.

  18. Evolution of the CT/CGRP family: comparative study with new data from models of teleosts, the eel, and cephalopod molluscs, the cuttlefish and the nautilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Dufour, Sylvie; Fouchereau-Peron, Martine

    2007-01-01

    In mammals, alternative splicing of the calcitonin gene generates two distinct peptides: calcitonin (CT), synthesised in the thyroid C cells and involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), brain neuromediator synthesised in the peripheral and central nerves. CGRP is well represented and molecularly conserved during evolution whereas CT has not been detected in any of the invertebrates analysed so far. In order to better understand the evolution of this CT/CGRP peptide family we reviewed the major data concerning its evolution from the literature and our recent data obtained in models of teleosts and cephalopod molluscs. The presence of both CGRP-like molecules and its specific bindings sites in the central nervous system of eel, cuttlefish and nautilus, suggests that the brain neurotransmitter role of CGRP could represent an ancient role in metazoa, already present in cephalopods and conserved among vertebrates, as still observed in mammals. In contrast, the presence of CGRP specific binding sites, and not the peptide itself, in the gills suggests an endocrine role for CGRP, in cephalopods and teleosts, that may have been lost during the evolution of the tetrapod lineage. These data, and the absence of CT-like molecules that we observed in cephalopods, support the hypothesis that CGRP represents the ancestral molecule of the CT/CGRP family, appeared in metazoa before the vertebrate emergence. The distinction between CT and CGRP receptors appears to be an event posterior to the emergence of ecdysozoan and lophotrochozoan protostomes, probably in relation to the CT appearance. The evolution of the CT/CGRP peptide family is probably similar to the evolution of the CT/CGRP receptor family. In fact, the genic duplication that induced the appearance of the two separate molecules, CT and CGRP, may constitute an event close to that, which induced the appearance of the two specific receptors. These events remain to be

  19. Thyroid status alters gill ionic metabolism and chloride cell morphology as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short and long term in vivo study.

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    Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Prasad, G; Sunny, F; Oommen, O V

    2007-12-01

    Gill is the main organ of osmotic regulation in teleosts and chloride cells are the sites of ion transport across gill epithelium. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the regulation of osmotic balance in teleosts also. Treatment with 6-propyl thiouracil (6-PTU) inhibited the membrane bound enzyme Na+K+ ATPase in the gill while triiodothyronine (T3) injection stimulated it in a short-term in vivo study in the teleost Anabas testudineus. Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions were also decreased in the 6-PTU treated fish and the T3 treatment increased their concentrations in the gill lamellae. The gill morphology also changed according to the thyroid status in the long term study. 6-PTU treatment altered the typical serrated morphology of the gill lamellae, while the T3 treatment reversed it. T3 injection increased the density of pavement and chloride cells as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that physiological status of the thyroid influences gill Na+ pump activity and chloride cell morphological changes. Further, the study suggests a regulatory role of T3 on gill ions (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), Na+K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity and the different gill cell types in A. testudineus.

  20. Prognostic Value of Basal Serum Thyroglobulin Levels, but Not Basal Antithyroglobulin Antibody (TgAb Levels, in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

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    Isa Neshandar Asli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prognostic values of serum thyroglobulin (Tg and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb levels, measured immediately before I-131remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, have been advocated by some researchers; however, it had controversial outcomes. This study was carried out to examine this dilemma and to check the clinical significance of basal serum Tg and TgAb levels and postablation iodine 131whole body scan(WBS findings in DTC patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of 500 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, who had undergone treatment between 2003 and 2010, were assessed. Of those, 149 patients with results of basal serum thyroglobulin concentration and whole body scan using radioactive iodine were included. Age, sex, tumour histology, basal thyroglobulin (Tg, anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb and TSH concentration, radioactive iodine doses in each hospitalization, numbers of hospitalization, and results of whole body scans were recorded. The relationship among basal Tg, TgAb, TSH, and whole body scan with hospitalization number and total radioactive iodine doses were assessed. Results: A total of 149 patients, including 123 (83% females and 26 (17% males, with a mean age of 40±15 years, took part in the study. The mean (SD basal Tg, TgAb, and TSH were 91.7±169.2 ng/mL (0.1-1000 ng/mL, 250±893 U/mL (0-9000 U/m L, and 64.8±61.5 µU/mL (30-689 U/mLµ, respectively. A total of 52 (34.9% cases had TgAb levels greater than 100 U/mL. The mean basal Tg in patients who were admitted three or more times was significantly greater than that of patients with one hospitalization (p=0.026. In addition, the mean of Tg in patients who received 7.4 GBq radioactive iodine or less was significantly lower than the others (p=0.003. The mean of TgAb and TSH were not different between these groups. In the results of the whole body scans, patients with metastasis had higher frequency of

  1. Characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yating Kong; Xifeng Pan; Qimei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce the characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions.DATA SOURCES: Articles related to stroke, subcortical aphasia, basal ganglia aphasia and language rehabilitation published in Chinese from January 1988 to December 2005 were searched in Chinese journal full-text database (CJFD) using the keywords of"stroke, basal ganglia aphasia, language rehabilitation" in Chinese. Meanwhile, English articles about aphasia published from January 1982 to December 2005 were searched in and Pubmed database. Besides, several books associated with the contents were looked through manually.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, the articles about the pathomechanism and neurolinguistic characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, diagnostic methods of aphasia and language rehabilitation were selected, and those had no obvious relation with the above contents were excluded.Inclusive criteria: literatures explain the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, neurolinguistic pathogenesis and methods of rehabilitation therapy in details. The repetitive studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 95 literatures about basal ganglia aphasia were collected, including 31 about the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, 45 about its neurolinguistic pathogenesis, 5 about the evaluation and classification of aphasia, and 14 about its rehabilitation therapy. Thirty accorded with the inclusive criteria were used for review, and the other 65 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: Concisely introduced the definition, past investigation of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke, then dwelled on the multiplicity neurolinguistics characteristics. Aphasia evaluation was dependent upon clinical aphasic symptoms. The relationship between symptom and focus of infection was explored, and the mechanism of pathosis language behavior on basal ganglia aphasia patients was understood to provide consequence data that could

  2. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

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    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  3. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

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    Freeman Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92% to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%. Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However

  4. HBV genotypes prevalence, precore and basal core mutants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baha, Warda; Ennaji, My Mustapha; Lazar, Fatiha; Melloul, Marouane; El Fahime, Elmostafa; El Malki, Abdelouahad; Bennani, Abdelouaheb

    2012-08-01

    The study of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomic heterogeneity has become a major issue in investigations aimed at understanding the relationship between HBV mutants and the wide spectrum of clinical and pathological conditions associated with HBV infection. The objective of the current study was to find out the pattern of HBV genotypes circulating in Morocco and to investigate the precore (PC) and basal core promoter (BCP) mutants' status in Moroccan chronic hepatitis B patients. Viral genotypes were determined in 221 chronic carriers using INNO-LiPA HBV assay and hemi-nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed in 70 samples, and multiplex PCR method was used to confirm some genotyping results. PC and CP mutants were determined using Inno-Lipa. All isolates were successfully genotyped. The genotype distribution was D in 90.45% of cases, A (5.9%), E (1 case), and mixed genotypes (5 A/D and 2 D/F) in 3.17% patients. HBV carried in the HBV/D samples could be assigned to D7 (63.3%), D1 (32.7%) and 2% of strains to each D4 and D5, all HBV/A belonged to A2 subgenotype and HBV/E strain could not be sub-genotyped. In 70 studied strains, HBV mutants were detected in 88.6% of cases; PC mutants were detected in (40%) of patients and 21.5% present a mixture of wild type and G1896A mutation. BCP mutants were observed in 65.7% of cases, 22.9% were found to have the T1762/1764A double mutation, 18.6% had A1762/1764T mutation and 22.9% of patients showed the A1762T/G1764A double mutation with either A1762T/G1764T mutation. Co-infection by PC and BCP mutants was detected in 52.9% of cases. Movement from place to place most likely shapes the observed genotype distribution and consequent prevalence of genotypes other than A2 or D7 in this population. High circulation of PC and BCP mutants is common in chronic hepatitis B infection in Morocco.

  5. [Basal cell carcinoma of prostate: a report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Ma, L L; Zhang, S D; Lu, M; Tian, Y; He, Q; Jin, J

    2016-02-18

    To explore the clinical pathological characteristics and improve the recognition in the diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of prostate. Three cases of BCC of prostate were reported and the relevant literature was reviewed to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. We analyzed three cases of prostatic BCC. Their ages were within a range of 57 to 83 years. One of them complained of hematuria and two complained of dysuria. All of them presented with prostatic hyperplasia. Two of them presented with high prostate specific antigen (PSA) and one with normal PSA. Case 1 had prostate cancer invasion of bladder, rectal fascia, with lymph node metastasis, bone metastasis and lung metastases. The patient received bladder resection+bilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy+lymph node dissection on November 2, 2014 . Postoperative pathological diagnosis showed BCC. Reexamination of pelvic enhanced MRI in January 8, 2015 suggested pelvic recurrence. Abdominal enhanced CT showed multiple liver metastases and pancreatic metastasis on July 11, 2015. Prostate cancer specific death occurred in October 2015. Case 2 was diagnosed as BCC in prostate biopsy on March 27, 2015. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) showed pulmonary metastasis and bone metastasis. Then the patient received chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and local radiation therapy. Reexamination of PET-CT on January 11, 2016 showed that the lung metastase tumors and bone metastase tumors were larger than before. Up to January 10, 2016, the patient was still alive. Postoperative pathological changes of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in case 3 showed BCC might be considered. The PET-CT suggested residual prostate cancer, which might be associated with bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. In April 20, 2016, the review of PET-CT showed pelvic huge irregular hybrid density shadow, about 14.5 cm×10.0 cm×12.9 cm in size, and tumor recurrence was

  6. Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere by Basal Magma Accretion

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    Hamza, V. M.; Cardoso, R. R.; Alexandrino, C. H.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal models of the lithosphere proposed to date have failed to provide satisfactory accounts of some of the important features in large-scale variations of ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow. The systematic difference between model calculations and observational data have given rise to the so-called “oceanic heat flow paradox”, for which no satisfactory solution has been found for over the last forty years. In the present work, we point out that this paradox is a consequence of the assumption that lateral temperature variations are absent in the sub-lithospheric mantle. In the present work we propose a simple magma accretion model and examine its implications for understanding the thermal field of oceanic lithosphere. The new model (designated VBA) assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, similar in character to those observed in magma solidification processes in the upper crust. However, unlike the previous thermal models of the lithosphere, the ratio of advection to conduction heat transfer (the Peclet number) is considered a space dependent variable. The solution to the problem of variable basal heat input has been obtained by the method of integral transform. The results of VBA model simulations reveal that the thickness of the young lithosphere increases with distance from the ridge axis, at rates faster than those predicted by Half-Space Cooling and Plate models. Another noteworthy feature of the new model is its ability to account for the main observational features in the thermal behavior of both young and old oceanic lithosphere. Thus, heat flow and bathymetry variations calculated on the basis of the VBA model provide vastly improved fits to respective observational datasets. More importantly, the improved fits to bathymetry and heat flow have been achieved for the entire age range of oceanic lithosphere and without the need to invoke

  7. Myogenesis in the basal bilaterian Symsagittifera roscoffensis (Acoela

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    Wanninger Andreas

    2008-09-01

    , Symsagittifera roscoffensis shows a very complex musculature. Although data on presumably basal acoel clades are still scarce, the information currently available suggests an elaborated musculature with longitudinal, circular and U-shaped muscles as being part of the ancestral acoel bodyplan, thus increasing the possibility that Urbilateria likewise had a relatively complicated muscular ground pattern.

  8. Are the basal cells of the mammalian epididymis still an enigma?

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    Arrighi, S

    2014-10-01

    Basal cells are present in the columnar pseudostratified epithelium covering the epididymis of all mammalian species, which regulates the microenvironment where the functionally incompetent germ cells produced by the testis are matured and stored. Striking novelties have come from investigations on epididymal basal cells in the past 30-40 years. In addition to an earlier hypothesised scavenger role for basal cells, linked to their proven extratubular origin and the expression of macrophage antigens, basal cells have been shown to be involved in cell-cell cross-talk, as well as functioning as luminal sensors to regulate the activity of principal and clear cells. Involvement of basal cells in the regulation of electrolyte and water transport by principal cells was hypothesised. This control is suggested to be mediated by the local formation of prostaglandins. Members of the aquaporin (AQP) and/or aquaglyceroporin family (AQP3, AQP7 and AQP8) are also specifically expressed in the rat epididymal basal cells. Transport of glycerol and glycerylphosphorylcholine from the epithelium of the epididymis to the lumen in relation to sperm maturation may be mediated by AQP. Most probably basal cells collaborate to the building up of the blood-epididymis barrier through cell adhesion molecules, implying an involvement in immune control exerted towards sperm cells, which are foreigners in the environment in which they were produced.

  9. Reconstructing basal boundary conditions in a regional ice sheet model: Application to Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Maxwell, D. A.; Truffer, M.

    2012-04-01

    A crucial assumption in all ice sheet models concerns the nature and parametrization of the basal boundary condition. Direct observations on large spatial scales are not possible, but inverse methods can be used to determine the distribution of basal properties from surface measurements. We developed open-source iterative inverse algorithms and applied them to PISM, a hybrid ice sheet model that solves a combination of the Shallow Ice and Shallow Shelf Approximations. In a regional-scale model of Jakobshavn Isbræ, the fastest flowing ice stream of Greenland, we invert for basal stickiness over the entire drainage basin. The sensitivity of the reconstructed basal stickiness to the following modeling choices is evaluated: temperature distribution within the ice, definition of the misfit functional, tolerance for the stopping criterion and initial estimates of basal stickiness. The effects and the management of missing data are analyzed. In 2002 the floating tongue of Jakobshavn Isbræ disintegrated catastrophically, leading to increased speeds and rapid thinning of the inland ice. Detailed velocity maps from before and after this breakup allow us to compare retrieved basal parameters and to track the continuing evolution of the basal boundary condition.

  10. Organizational changes of the daughter basal complex during the parasite replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Ke Hu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, many of which are important human and animal pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. These parasites cause disease only when they replicate, and their replication is critically dependent on the proper assembly of the parasite cytoskeletons during cell division. In addition to their importance in pathogenesis, the apicomplexan parasite cytoskeletons are spectacular structures. Therefore, understanding the cytoskeletal biogenesis of these parasites is important not only for parasitology but also of general interest to broader cell biology. Previously, we found that the basal end of T. gondii contains a novel cytoskeletal assembly, the basal complex, a cytoskeletal compartment constructed in concert with the daughter cortical cytoskeleton during cell division. This study focuses on key events during the biogenesis of the basal complex using high resolution light microscopy, and reveals that daughter basal complexes are established around the duplicated centrioles independently of the structural integrity of the daughter cortical cytoskeleton, and that they are dynamic "caps" at the growing ends of the daughters. Compartmentation and polarization of the basal complex is first revealed at a late stage of cell division upon the recruitment of an EF-hand containing calcium binding protein, TgCentrin2. This correlates with the constriction of the basal complex, a process that can be artificially induced by increasing cellular calcium concentration. The basal complex is therefore likely to be a new kind of centrin-based contractile apparatus.

  11. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

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    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the variation (98.8 % in basal rate of metabolism (BMR in 70 species of marsupials is correlated with body mass, although lowland species have higher basal rates than highland species and burrowers have lower basal rates than non-burrowers. These factors collectively account for 99.2 % of the variation in marsupial BMR. Marsupials differ in BMR from eutherians by having no species with a high basal rate by general mammalian standards, even when consuming vertebrates or grass, food habits that are associated with very high basal rates in eutherians. The absence of high basal rates in marsupials reflects the absence of a correlation of rate of reproduction with basal rate, a correlation present in eutherians. These differences have two consequences: (1 marsupials are less tolerant of cold environments than eutherians, and (2 marsupials coexist with eutherians only when both have food habits associated with low basal rates and therefore when eutherians have reduced rates of reproduction. In Australia and South America marsupial carnivores diversified in the absence of eutherian equivalents. The importation to mainland Australia of dingos by humans appears to have been the immediate cause for the extinction of thylacines, Tasmanian devils, and eastern quolls. Carnivorous marsupials in South America were replaced by eutherians with the completion of the Panamanian land bridge. Macropods, which have lower basal rates than eutherian grazers, survive in central Australia probably because of their adjustment to xeric environments, whereas introduced domestic stock require the provision of water by humansGran parte de la variación (98,5 en la tasa metabólica basal de 70 especies de marsupiales se correlaciona con la masa corporal, aunque las especies de tierras bajas tienes tasas basales mayores que las de tierras altas, y las especies subterráneas tienes BMR’s menores que las no subterráneas. Colectivamente, estos factores dan cuenta de un

  12. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  13. The nature of exocytosis in the yolk trophoblastic layer of silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) juvenile, the representative of ancient teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewska, Marta; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    We have chosen the silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), a representative of the most ancient teleost family Osteoglossidae, to address the question of yolk nutrients utilization. Silver arowana have particularly large eggs (1-1.5 cm of diameter) and a unique morphology of the yolk. We present evidence that the yolk cytoplasmic zone (ycz) in the "yolksac juveniles" is a very complex structure involved in sequential processes of yolk hydrolysis, lipoprotein particles synthesis, their transport, and exocytosis. Vacuoles filled with yolk granules in different stages of digestion move from the vitellolysis zone through the ycz to be emptied into the microvillar interspace in the process of exocytosis. The area of the ycz with the abundance of the mitochondria must play an important role in providing energy for both the transport of vacuoles and the release of their contents. Therefore, we postulate that the function of yolk syncytial layer (ysl) as the "early embryonic patterning center" transforms in fish larvae or yolksac juveniles into a predominantly specialized role as the yolk trophoblastic layer (ytl) involved in yolk nutrients utilization. In addition to discovering the mechanism of transformation of the ysl function into ytl function, we suggest that the machinery involved in nutrient mobilization and exocytosis in yolk of arowana yolksac juveniles can be very attractive system for studies of regulatory processes in almost all secretory pathways in animal cells.

  14. Molecular cloning, pathologically-correlated expression and functional characterization of the colonystimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) gene from a teleost, Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Li, Ming-Yun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-03-18

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) is an important regulator of monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ). Although several CSF-1R genes have been identified in teleosts, the precise role of CSF- 1R in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the CSF-1R homologue from P. altivelis, and named it PaCSF-1R. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaCSF-1R was most closely related to that of Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes). Tissue distribution and expression analysis showed that the PaCSF-1R transcript was mainly expressed in the head kidney-derived MO/MΦ, spleen, and head kidney, and its expression was significantly altered in various tissues upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. After PaCSF-1R neutralization for 48 h, the phagocytic activity of MO/MΦ was significantly decreased, suggesting that PaCSF-1R plays a role in regulating the phagocytic function of ayu MO/MΦ.

  15. 硬骨鱼类细胞核移植的研究进展%Progress of Nuclear Transplantation in Teleost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘同明; 吴清江

    2000-01-01

    自1997年世界首例体细胞核移植绵羊”多莉”诞生以来,动物细胞核移植引起世界范围内人们的关注。硬骨鱼类具有很多优点,是研究核移植良好的材料。作者综述了硬骨鱼类细胞核移植技术的发展和完善以及在核质互作、细胞核发育全能性、鱼类育种及纯系建立等方面的应用,并对鱼类核移植存在的问题和前景进行了概括。%Since the first cloned sheep,Dolly,from cultured mammary somatic cells was bom in 1997, the nuclear transfer of animal was paid world- wide attention. Fishes have many advantages, so they are good materials to study nuclear transfer. This article smmmarized development and perfection of the technique of the nuclear transfer, the interactions between donor nuclei and recipient cytoplasm during the process of nuclei transfer,developmental totipotency of nuclei, breeding and establishment of pure line in teleost, the problem existing in this area and the application in the future were also briefly summarized.

  16. Specific cerebral heat shock proteins and histamine receptor cross-talking mechanisms promote distinct lead-dependent neurotoxic responses in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusi, Giuseppina; Alò, Raffaella; Crudo, Michele; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Canonaco, Marcello

    2008-03-01

    Recent interests are beginning to be directed towards toxic neurobiological dysfunctions caused by lead (Pb) in aquatic vertebrates. In the present work, treatment with a maximum acceptable toxic concentration of this heavy metal was responsible for highly significant (pheat shock protein70/90 (HSP90/70) orthologs were reported for the first time in hypothalamic and mesencephalic areas of Pb-treated teleosts. In particular, an up-regulation of HSP70 was readily detected when this heavy metal was given concomitantly with Cim, while the histamine subtype 3 antagonist (H(3)R) thioperamide (Thio), instead, blocked Pb-dependent up-regulatory trends of both chaperones in mostly hypothalamic areas. Moreover, intense neuronal damages of the above brain regions coincided with altered expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 when treated only with Cim. Overall these first results show that distinct H(n)R are able to exert a net neuroprotective role arising from their interaction with chaperones in fish exposed to Pb-dependent stressful conditions making this a potentially key interaction especially for T. pavo, aquatic species which plays an important ecological role towards the survival of other commercially vital fishes.

  17. Insights into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate zic3 locus from a teleost-specific zic6 gene in the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael J; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2007-07-01

    The Zic gene family of zinc-finger transcription factors includes five orthologues, zic1-5, that are common to the Euteleostian vertebrates (fish, frogs, birds, and mammals). The Zic genes have been implicated as regulators of a number of critical developmental processes, including neurulation, neuronal differentiation, neural crest specification, the establishment of left-right asymmetry, and regulation of cell proliferation. The different Zic genes encode proteins that are expressed in broadly overlapping spatial domains, have conserved DNA-binding domains that recognize a common motif, are capable of physical interactions, and can co-regulate one another's transcription. Thus, the transcriptional regulation of individual proteins and their effects on downstream targets must be assessed within the context of co-expression with other family members. We describe a novel gene, zic6, that is specific to the teleost fishes and lacks the lateral and rostral expression domains typical of the other Zic family members. We present evidence that zic6 is an ancestral locus arising by chromosomal duplication early in the Euteleostomi that was subsequently lost in the terrestrial vertebrates.

  18. The evolution and appearance of C3 duplications in fish originate an exclusive teleost c3 gene form with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Forn-Cuní

    Full Text Available The complement system acts as a first line of defense and promotes organism homeostasis by modulating the fates of diverse physiological processes. Multiple copies of component genes have been previously identified in fish, suggesting a key role for this system in aquatic organisms. Herein, we confirm the presence of three different previously reported complement c3 genes (c3.1, c3.2, c3.3 and identify five additional c3 genes (c3.4, c3.5, c3.6, c3.7, c3.8 in the zebrafish genome. Additionally, we evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the different c3 genes during ontogeny and in different tissues under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, while reconciling the phylogenetic tree with the fish species tree, we uncovered an event of c3 duplication common to all teleost fishes that gave rise to an exclusive c3 paralog (c3.7 and c3.8. These paralogs showed a distinct ability to regulate neutrophil migration in response to injury compared with the other c3 genes and may play a role in maintaining the balance between inflammatory and homeostatic processes in zebrafish.

  19. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and Pcontrols. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non-triple-negative tumours have similar vascular characteristics in terms of lymphatic vessel density and vascular invasion but higher microvessel density, suggesting that such groups may

  20. Basal buoyancy and fast-moving glaciers: in defense of analytic force balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric approach to force balance advocated by T. Hughes in a series of publications has challenged the analytic approach by implying that the latter does not adequately account for basal buoyancy on ice streams, thereby neglecting the contribution to the gravitational driving force associated with this basal buoyancy. Application of the geometric approach to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, yields physically unrealistic results, and it is argued that this is because of a key limiting assumption in the geometric approach. A more traditional analytic treatment of force balance shows that basal buoyancy does not affect the balance of forces on ice streams, except locally perhaps, through bridging effects.

  1. Mechanisms and efficacy of vismodegib in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shivan H; Motamedi, Kevin K; Ochsner, Matthew C; Song, Tara E; Hybarger, C Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Historically patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma have been subjected to large surgical resections for the treatment of their disease. However, with the development of vismodegib, a first in class molecule that acts to inhibit the hedgehog pathway, patients with advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma may have renewed hope in limiting the morbidity involved with surgery. Preliminary data shows a relatively good safety profile and promising results, although further research remains to be conducted. Current progress on utilization of vismodegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma is reviewed in this article. Only literature with objective clinical evidence was included in this review.

  2. Rapid Assessment for basal cavities on Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge: Implications for Present and Future Bat Conservation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey of mature forested areas on the refuge was done to examine trees with basal cavities for bats. Though the refuge supports many large diameter trees with basal...

  3. Basal-like phenotype is not associated with patient survival in estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Jumppanen, Mervi; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia; Kauraniemi, Päivikki; Tanner, Minna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lundin, Mikael; Krogh, Morten; Kataja, Pasi; Borg, Åke; Fernö, Mårten; Isola, Jorma

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Basal-phenotype or basal-like breast cancers are characterized by basal epithelium cytokeratin (CK5/14/17) expression, negative estrogen receptor (ER) status and distinct gene expression signature. We studied the clinical and biological features of the basal-phenotype tumors determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cDNA microarrays especially within the ER-negative subgroup. Methods IHC was used to evaluate the CK5/14 status of 445 stage II breast cancers. The gene expression...

  4. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  5. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  6. Endoscopic considerations treating hydrocephalus caused by basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Roth

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Endoscopic surgery may potentially play a significant role in the initial management of patients with large basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Technical nuances and individualized goals are crucial for optimal outcomes.

  7. Altitude of the top of the basal confining unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the basal confining unit in the Powder River basin. The data are...

  8. ATG12-ATG3 connects basal autophagy and late endosome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    In addition to supporting cell survival in response to starvation or stress, autophagy promotes basal protein and organelle turnover. Compared to our understanding of stress-induced autophagy, little is known about how basal autophagy is regulated and how its activity is coordinated with other cellular processes. We recently identified a novel interaction between the ATG12-ATG3 conjugate and the ESCRT-associated protein PDCD6IP/Alix that promotes basal autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Moreover, ATG12-ATG3 is required for diverse PDCD6IP-mediated functions including late endosome distribution, exosome secretion, and viral budding. Our results highlight the importance of late endosomes for basal autophagic flux and reveal distinct roles for the core autophagy proteins ATG12 and ATG3 in controlling late endosome function.

  9. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Basal Cell Carcinomas in Gorlin Syndrome: A Review of 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome (Naevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the PTCH gene with a birth incidence of approximately 1 in 19,000. Patients develop multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin frequently in early life and also have a predisposition to additional malignancies such as medulloblastoma. Gorlin Syndrome patients also have developmental defects such as bifid ribs and other complications such as jaw keratocysts. We studied the incidence and frequency of basal cell carcinomas in 202 Gorlin syndrome patients from 62 families and compared this to their gender and mutation type. Our data suggests that the incidence of basal cell carcinomas is equal between males and females and the mutation type cannot be used to predict disease burden.

  11. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  12. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  13. Triple negative breast carcinomas: similarities and differences with basal like carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agusti; Prat, Jaime

    2009-12-01

    The cDNA microarrays allows the classification of breast cancers into 6 groups: luminal A, luminal B, luminal C, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, and basal-like. This latter is characterized by the expression of basal cytokeratins (CKs), and frequent negativity for hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. There is a marked parallelism between triple negative breast carcinomas and basal-like carcinoma, but these are not equivalent terms. Estimated concordance is around 80%. CK5 seems to be the best marker for the identification of these tumors. Other good markers to identify these tumors are CK14, CK17, and epidermal growth factor receptor. A subset of triple negative breast carcinomas has myoepithelial differentiation, with positivities for smooth muscle actin, p63, S-100, and CD10 among others. Recent studies suggest that basal like carcinomas are originated from mammary stem cells.

  14. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basal cell nevus syndrome. For example, the drug vismodegib (Erivedge) has been shown to lower the number ... do, these cancers can be hard to treat. Vismodegib and sonidegib, drugs that target the hedgehog signaling ...

  15. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  16. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  17. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J H; Doyle, D.; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of haematoma. Intracranial haematoma is usually thought to be a secondary event, that is a complication of the ori...

  18. Successful imiquimod treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Mirjam; Urosevic, Mirjana; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Dummer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who developed five basal cell carcinomas 23 years after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease. In 1980 he received radiation therapy twice. Due to relapses, he was treated with aggressive polychemotherapy and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, which then led to complete remission. Until now he is in complete remission. However, multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas have developed on irradiation fields that have been successfully treated by imiquimod.

  19. Changes in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Okuchi, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka Police Hospital (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Sakaki, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Hiramatsu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Tominaga, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Kamada, Y. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Iwasaki, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    We report specific changes bilaterally in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia. A 69-year-old man, resuscitated after cardiac arrest, showed symmetrical low-density lesions in the head of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus on CT. MRI revealed methaemoglobin derived from minor haemorrhage in the basal ganglia and thalamus, not evident on CT. We suggest that this haemorrhage results from diapedesis of red blood cells through the damaged capillary endothelium following reperfusion. (orig.)

  20. Rationale supporting basal insulin-incretin combined therapies in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by an insulin secretory defect that cannot compensate for insulin resistance. Such relative defect is present in the fasting state (insufficient basal insulin levels) and contributes to overnight hyperglycaemia; it is even more pronounced in the postprandial state when it is then the main responsible factor for hyperglycaemia following meals. An original approach to correct these two disturbances is to propose a therapy combining the injection of a basal insul...

  1. The Basal Ganglia as a Substrate for the Multiple Actions of Amphetamines

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Reka; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs with high abuse potential. Acute and chronic doses of amphetamines affect dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei that are anatomically positioned to integrate cognitive, motor and sensorimotor inputs from the cortex. Amphetamines can differentially alter the functioning of specific BG circuits to produce neurochemical changes that affect cognition, movement, and drug seeking behavior thro...

  2. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Wenjun Huang; Zhineng Li; Haiyan Lv; Hongwen Huang; Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    The Crabs Claw (CRC) YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and character...

  3. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  4. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  5. Urticaria after methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher M; Green, W Harris; Hatfield, H Keith; Cognetta, Armand B

    2012-11-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is utilized in several countries for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, but allergic sensitization has been reported by the manufacturer. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of urticaria following MAL-PDT in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Prophylactic use of antihistamines may allow continued use of MAL-PDT in this setting.

  6. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy...

  7. The Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus as a Motor and Cognitive Interface between the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Fumika Mori; Ken-ichi Okada; Taishin Nomura; Yasushi Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control ...

  8. Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mice disrupt idiothetic navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Hamlin

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer's disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic or uncued (idiothetic recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze, and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks.

  10. Dissociating hippocampal and basal ganglia contributions to category learning using stimulus novelty and subjective judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Dennison, Christina S; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Peterson, Erik J; Roark, Aubrey A

    2011-04-15

    We identified factors leading to hippocampal and basal ganglia recruitment during categorization learning. Subjects alternated between blocks of a standard trial and error category learning task and a subjective judgment task. In the subjective judgments task subjects categorized the stimulus and then instead of receiving feedback they indicated the basis of their response using 4 options: Remember: Conscious episodic memory of previous trials. Know-Automatic: Automatic, rapid response accompanied by conscious awareness of category membership. Know-Intuition: A "gut feeling" without fully conscious knowledge of category membership. Guess: Guessing. In addition, new stimuli were introduced throughout the experiment to examine effects of novelty. Categorization overall recruited both the basal ganglia and posterior hippocampus. However, basal ganglia activity was found during Know judgments (both Automatic and Intuition), whereas posterior hippocampus activity was found during Remember judgments. Granger causality mapping indicated interactions between the basal ganglia and hippocampus, with the putamen exerting directed influence on the posterior hippocampus, which in turn exerted directed influence on the posterior caudate nucleus. We also found a region of anterior hippocampus that showed decreased activity relative to baseline during categorization overall, and showed a strong novelty effect. Our results indicate that subjective measures may be effective in dissociating basal ganglia from hippocampal dependent learning, and that the basal ganglia are involved in both conscious and unconscious learning. They also indicate a dissociation within the hippocampus, in which the anterior regions are sensitive to novelty, and the posterior regions are involved in memory based categorization learning.

  11. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

  12. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, Prasad S.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M .J.; Paden, John D; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state.

  13. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior.

  14. Bax/bcl-2: cellular modulator of apoptosis in feline skin and basal cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, B R; Gandour-Edwards, R; Edwards, B F; Matthews, K R; Griffey, S M

    2001-01-01

    Bcl-2 and bax are two members of the BCL-2 gene family that play a prominent role in the regulation of apoptosis. Bax and bcl-2 expression were examined immunohistochemically in normal (healthy) feline skin and in 24 benign feline cutaneous basal cell tumours. The tumours were also examined for cellular proliferation by measurement of reactivity for the proliferation marker Ki-67, and for apoptosis by in-situ labelling for fragmented DNA. Bcl-2 was detected in normal basal epithelium and in 23 of 24 basal cell tumours. Bax was detected in both basal and suprabasal epithelium, but in only seven of 24 tumours. For tumours that expressed both bax and bcl-2, the bax:bcl-2 ratio was low. Neither bax nor bcl-2 expression was detected in 14 feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. Basal cell tumours showed modest cellular proliferation (median, 17.5% Ki-67- reactive cells), but few (less than 1%) apoptotic cells. The slow, indolent growth of feline cutaneous basal cells in these benign skin tumours may be a response, at least in part, to opposing regulatory expressions of bcl-2 and bax.

  15. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

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    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  16. Acid-base responses to feeding and intestinal Cl- uptake in freshwater- and seawater-acclimated killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, an agastric euryhaline teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Bucking, Carol; Grosell, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Marine teleosts generally secrete basic equivalents (HCO(3)(-)) and take up Na(+) and Cl(-) in the intestine so as to promote absorption of H(2)O. However, neither the integration of these functions with feeding nor the potential role of the gut in ionoregulation and acid-base balance in freshwater have been well studied. The euryhaline killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is unusual in lacking both an acid-secreting stomach and a mechanism for Cl(-) uptake at the gills in freshwater. Responses to a satiation meal were evaluated in both freshwater- and seawater-acclimated killifish. In intact animals, there was no change in acid or base flux to the external water after the meal, in accord with the absence of any post-prandial alkaline tide in the blood. Indeed, freshwater animals exhibited a post-prandial metabolic acidosis ('acidic tide'), whereas seawater animals showed no change in blood acid-base status. In vitro gut sac experiments revealed a substantially higher rate of Cl(-) absorption by the intestine in freshwater killifish, which was greatest at 1-3 h after feeding. The Cl(-) concentration of the absorbate was higher in preparations from freshwater animals than from seawater killifish and increased with fasting. Surprisingly, net basic equivalent secretion rates were also much higher in preparations from freshwater animals, in accord with the 'acidic tide'; in seawater preparations, they were lowest after feeding and increased with fasting. Bafilomycin (1 micromol l(-1)) promoted an 80% increase in net base secretion rates, as well as in Cl(-) and fluid absorption, at 1-3 h post-feeding in seawater preparations only, explaining the difference between freshwater and seawater fish. Preparations from seawater animals at 1-3 h post-feeding also acidified the mucosal saline, and this effect was associated with a marked rise in P(CO(2)), which was attenuated by bafilomycin. Measurements of chyme pH from intact animals confirmed that intestinal fluid (chyme) pH and

  17. Persistent and Pervasive Basal Freeze-on: Implications for the Preservation of the Oldest Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Braaten, D. A.; Corr, H. F.; Creyts, T. T.; Das, I.; Frearson, N.; Jordan, T. A.; Studinger, M.; Wolovick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate records from ice cores are based on the assumption that the stratigraphy is relatively simple and that the ice at the bottom of the ice sheet is undisturbed. The search for the oldest ice has targeted low accumulation areas such as Dome A and deep basins such as the Aurora Basin. The preservation of old ice will be significantly altered if there is widespread freeze-on at the base of the ice sheet. Previous evidence for basal freeze-on from the interior of major ice sheets has been limited to the thin layers of sediment-laden ice at the base of deep ice cores and the accretion ice from Lake Vostok. Here we present the first evidence for widespread freeze-on to the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet from data collected by a seven nation International Polar Year Expedition to Dome A. In the extensive radar data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, we have identified distinct near-bed reflectors in the generally homogenous basal ice. The near-bed reflectors originate at the ice sheet bed coincident with flat, bright reflectors, sites associated with basal water. We interpret these near-bed reflectors as the interface between meteoric ice and ice frozen onto the base of the ice sheet. These frozen-on reflectors can be traced up to 100 km along flow. The thickness of the frozen-on basal ice reaches a maximum of 1100m that, in this case, represents 10-20% of the ice thickness along flowlines. In some sites, the frozen-on ice deflects the overlying meteoric ice upward 100's of meters indicating the ice accretion process influences the entire overlying ice sheet. The process of basal freeze-on beneath large ice sheets is likely persistent and pervasive. We infer that a significant fraction of the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet contains frozen-on ice and the process of widespread accretion must be considered in the search for the oldest ice. For example, the upper 70m thick accretion ice (accretion ice 1) from the Vostok ice core may be the result

  18. Delta-8 desaturation activity varies among fatty acyl desaturases of teleost fish: high activity in delta-6 desaturases of marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Li, Yuanyou; Tocher, Douglas R

    2011-08-01

    The benefits of dietary fish and fish oil are derived from n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) that have beneficial effects in a range of human diseases and pathologies such as cardiovascular and other inflammatory disorders, neural development and neurological pathologies. The precursor of n-3 LC-PUFA, 18:3n-3 does not have the same beneficial effects prompting interest in the pathways of endogenous synthesis of LC-PUFA in vertebrates. The LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway classically involves Δ6 and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad), but it was recently shown that Δ6 Fad in mammals also displayed Δ8 activity demonstrating a possible alternative "Δ8-pathway" for the synthesis of LC-PUFA. Our primary hypothesis was that Δ8 desaturase activity would be a common feature of vertebrate Δ6 Fads, and so the aim of the present study was to determine the ability of teleostei Fads for Δ8 desaturation activity. To this end, cDNAs for Fads from a range of freshwater, diadromous and marine teleost fish species were assayed for Δ8 activity in the heterologous yeast expression system. In summary, the present study has demonstrated that Δ8 desaturation activity was also a characteristic of fish orthologs, although the activity varied notably between freshwater/diadromous and marine fish species, with the latter possessing Fads2-like proteins with Δ8 activity far higher than mammalian FADS2. The data showed that, generally, the fish Fad are technically υ-3 desaturases, with new double bonds introduced 3C beyond a pre-existing double bond. However, the ability of zebrafish and rabbitfish Fads, previously characterised as Δ6/Δ5 bifunctional desaturases, to introduce non-methylene interrupted double bonds in 20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6 suggested that a novel combination of regioselectivity modes operates within these enzymes.

  19. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: Identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, K.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Winton, J.R.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results. Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. ?? 2008 Laing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. TGF-β1 exerts opposing effects on grass carp leukocytes: implication in teleost immunity, receptor signaling and potential self-regulatory mechanisms.

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    Mu Yang

    Full Text Available In fish immunity, the regulatory role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 has not been fully characterized. Here we examined the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in grass carp peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL and head kidney leukocytes (HKL. It is interesting that TGF-β1 consistently stimulated the cell viability and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tnfα and Ifnγ and T/B cell markers [Cd4-like (Cd4l, Cd8α, Cd8β and Igμ] in PBL, which contrasted with its inhibitory tone in HKL. Further studies showed that grass carp TGF-β1 type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5, was indispensable for the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in PBL and HKL. Notably, TGF-β1 persistently attenuated ALK5 expression, whereas immunoneutralization of endogenous grass carp TGF-β1 could increase ALK5 mRNA and protein levels. It is consistent with the observation that TGF-β1 decreased the number of ALK5(+ leukocytes in PBL and HKL, revealing a negative regulation of TGF-β1 signaling at the receptor level. Moreover, transient treatment with TGF-β1 for 24 h was sufficient to induce similar cellular responses compared with the continuous treatment. This indicated a possible mechanism by which TGF-β1 triggered the down-regulation of ALK5 mRNA and protein, leading to the desensitization of grass carp leukocytes toward TGF-β1. Accordingly, our data revealed a dual role of TGF-β1 in teleost immunity in which it can serve as a positive or negative control device and provided additional mechanistic insights as to how TGF-β1 controls its signaling in vertebrate leukocytes.

  1. Structural and functional characterization of salmon STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9 homologs sheds light on interferon signaling in teleosts

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    Mehrdad Sobhkhez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian IRF9 and STAT2, together with STAT1, form the ISGF3 transcription factor complex, which is critical for type I interferon (IFN-induced signaling, while IFNγ stimulation is mediated by homodimeric STAT1 protein. Teleost fish are known to possess most JAK and STAT family members, however, description of their functional activity in lower vertebrates is still scarce. In the present study we have identified two different STAT2 homologs and one IRF9 homolog from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Both proteins have domain-like structures with functional motifs that are similar to higher vertebrates, suggesting that they are orthologs to mammalian STAT2 and IRF9. The two identified salmon STAT2s, named STAT2a and STAT2b, showed high sequence identity but were divergent in their transactivation domain (TAD. Like STAT1, ectopically expressed STAT2a and b were shown to be tyrosine phosphorylated by type I IFNs and, interestingly, also by IFNγ. Microscopy analyses demonstrated that STAT2 co-localized with STAT1a in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells, while IFNa1 and IFNγ stimulation seemed to favor their nuclear localization. Overexpression of STAT2a or STAT2b together with STAT1a activated a GAS-containing reporter gene construct in IFNγ-stimulated cells. The highest induction of GAS promoter activation was found in IFNγ-stimulated cells transfected with IRF9 alone. Taken together, these data suggest that salmon STAT2 and IRF9 may have a role in IFNγ-induced signaling and promote the expression of GAS-driven genes in bony fish. Since mammalian STAT2 is primarily an ISGF3 component and not involved in IFNγ signaling, our finding features a novel role for STAT2 in fish.

  2. Differences in the activity of prolactin cells in male and female fresh water teleostMastacembelus armatus (Lacepede) during gonadal cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushant Kumar Verma; Abdul Alim

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the differences in the activity of pituitary prolactin cells between male and female fresh water teleostMastacembelus armatus(M. armatus) during their reproductive cycle.Methods:Fishes were sampled every month throughout the year.They were dissected, gonads weighed for the determination ofGSI.Blood samples were collected for estimation of plasma calcium,17β-estradiol of females and testosterone of males and prolactin.Nuclear diameter ofPRL cells, diameter of oocyte and testicular lobule was measured by image analyzer microscope.An experiment was also conducted in which female and male fishes were injected with17β-estradiol and17 alpha-methyltestosterone respectively and the blood samples were analyzed for plasma calcium, prolactin and sex steroids levels.Results:Negligible change in plasma calcium and prolactin level and little variation in nuclear diameter ofPRL cells were recorded throughout the year in relation to testicular cycle as well as after17 alpha-methyltestosterone administration in male.Variations in level of plasma calcium and prolactin and a large range of difference in nuclear diameter ofPRL cells were noted during ovarian cycle as well as after17β-estradiol administration in female.Conclusion:Difference in the activity ofPRL cells was noted between male and femaleM. armatus.It act as hypercalcemic factor in females whose level increase along with maturation of ovary with the influence of increasing level of17β-estradiol from ovarian follicles to fulfill the increased demand of calcium for vitellogenesis and thus directly effecting reproduction.No such role of prolactin was observed for male fishes.

  3. Temperature-dependent modification of muscle precursor cell behaviour is an underlying reason for lasting effects on muscle cellularity and body growth of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Peter; Marschallinger, Julia; Obermayer, Astrid; Neuhofer, Alois; Sänger, Alexandra M; Stoiber, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Temperature is an important factor influencing teleost muscle growth, including a lasting ('imprinted') influence of embryonic thermal experience throughout all further life. However, little is known about the cellular processes behind this phenomenon. The study reported here used digital morphometry and immunolabelling for Pax7, myogenin and H3P to quantitatively examine the effects of thermal history on muscle precursor cell (MPC) behaviour and muscle growth in pearlfish (Rutilus meidingeri) until the adult stage. Fish were reared at three different temperatures (8.5, 13 and 16°C) until hatching and subsequently kept under the same (ambient) thermal conditions. Cellularity data were combined with a quantitative analysis of Pax7+ MPCs including those that were mitotically active (Pax7+/H3P+) or had entered differentiation (Pax7+/myogenin+). The results demonstrate that at hatching, body lengths, fast and slow muscle cross-sectional areas and fast fibre numbers are lower in fish reared at 8.5 and 13°C than at 16°C. During the larval period, this situation changes in the 13°C-fish, so that these fish are finally the largest. The observed effects can be related to divergent cellular mechanisms at the MPC level that are initiated in the embryo during the imprinting period. Embryos of 16°C-fish have reduced MPC proliferation but increased differentiation, and thus give rise to larger hatchlings. However, their limited MPC reserves finally lead to smaller adults. By contrast, embryos of 13°C-fish and, to a lesser extent, 8.5°-fish, show enhanced MPC proliferation but reduced differentiation, thus leading to smaller hatchlings but allowing for a larger MPC pool that can be used for enhanced post-hatching growth, finally resulting in larger adults.

  4. A comparative assessment of the adrenotoxic effects of cadmium in two teleost species, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, Alexandra; Hontela, Alice

    2004-03-30

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) have a different sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) in vivo (troutteleosts. Adrenocortical cells were exposed to Cd for 60 min, then stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP or with pregnenolone, a cortisol precursor. Cd inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in a dose-dependent manner in both fish species, however, the EC50s (concentration resulting in 50% inhibition of cortisol secretion) was significantly lower in trout (EC50=0.09 mM) than perch (EC50=0.26 mM). To test the specificity of Cd to act as an endocrine disrupter, the LC50 (concentration that kills 50% of the cells) was also evaluated to determine the LC50/EC50 ratio (LC50/EC50{sub O.mykiss}=175.6>LC50/EC50{sub P.flavescens}=37.7). Adrenocortical cells of trout were more sensitive than those of perch and Cd had a higher endocrine-disrupting potential and specificity in trout than in perch. However, in both species, Cd had the same effect on ACTH, dbcAMP and pregnenolone-stimulated cortisol secretion, with pregnenolone maintaining cortisol secretion until cell viability was impaired. These results confirm that for both species, Cd interferes in the signalling pathway of cortisol synthesis in a step prior to the pregnenolone formation. Data provided by the present study revealed important differences in vulnerability of adrenal steroidogenesis between rainbow trout and yellow perch.

  5. Rh versus pH: the role of Rhesus glycoproteins in renal ammonia excretion during metabolic acidosis in a freshwater teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2014-08-15

    Increased renal ammonia excretion in response to metabolic acidosis is thought to be a conserved response in vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins in the kidney of the freshwater common carp, Cyprinus carpio, play a crucial role in regulating renal ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Exposure to water pH 4.0 (72 h) resulted in a classic metabolic acidosis with reduced plasma arterial pH and [HCO3(-)], no change in PCO2 and large changes in renal function. Urine [NH4(+)] as well as [titratable acidity-HCO3(-)] rose significantly over the acid exposure, but the profound reduction (fivefold) in urine flow rates eliminated the expected elevations in renal ammonia excretion. Low urine flow rates may be a primary strategy to conserve ions, as urinary excretion rates of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+) were significantly lower during the acid exposure relative to the control period. Interestingly, renal Rhcg1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in acid-exposed relative to control groups, along with mRNA levels of several ion transporters, including the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a strong apical Rhcg1 signal in distal tubules. Taken together, these data show that renal Rh glycoproteins and associated ion transporters are responsive to metabolic acidosis, but conservation of ions through reduced urine flow rates takes primacy over renal acid-base regulation in the freshwater C. carpio. We propose that an 'acid/base-ion balance' compromise explains the variable renal responses to metabolic acidosis in freshwater teleosts.

  6. Cortisol-induced masculinization: does thermal stress affect gonadal fate in pejerrey, a teleost fish with temperature-dependent sex determination?

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    Ricardo S Hattori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gonadal fate in many reptiles, fish, and amphibians is modulated by the temperature experienced during a critical period early in life (temperature-dependent sex determination; TSD. Several molecular processes involved in TSD have been described but how the animals "sense" environmental temperature remains unknown. We examined whether the stress-related hormone cortisol mediates between temperature and sex differentiation of pejerrey, a gonochoristic teleost fish with marked TSD, and the possibility that it involves glucocorticoid receptor- and/or steroid biosynthesis-modulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Larvae maintained during the period of gonadal sex differentiation at a masculinizing temperature (29 degrees C; 100% males consistently had higher cortisol, 11-ketotestoterone (11-KT, and testosterone (T titres than those at a feminizing temperature (17 degrees C; 100% females. Cortisol-treated animals had elevated 11-KT and T, and showed a typical molecular signature of masculinization including amh upregulation, cyp19a1a downregulation, and higher incidence of gonadal apoptosis during sex differentiation. Administration of cortisol and a non-metabolizable glucocorticoid receptor (GR agonist (Dexamethasone to larvae at a "sexually neutral" temperature (24 degrees C caused significant increases in the proportion of males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest a role of cortisol in the masculinization of pejerrey and provide a possible link between stress and testicular differentiation in this gonochoristic TSD species. Cortisol role or roles during TSD of pejerrey seem(s to involve both androgen biosynthesis- and GR-mediated processes. These findings and recent reports of cortisol effects on sex determination of sequential hermaphroditic fishes, TSD reptiles, and birds provide support to the notion that stress responses might be involved in various forms of environmental sex determination.

  7. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

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    Winton James R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish.

  8. Two types of TNF-α exist in teleost fish: phylogeny, expression, and bioactivity analysis of type-II TNF-α3 in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Suhee; Li, Ronggai; Xu, Qiaoqing; Secombes, Chris J; Wang, Tiehui

    2013-12-15

    TNF-α is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and regulation of immune cells. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages as a membrane or secreted form. In rainbow trout, two TNF-α molecules were described previously. In this article, we report a third TNF-α (TNF-α3) that has only low identities to known trout molecules. Phylogenetic tree and synteny analyses of trout and other fish species suggest that two types (named I and II) of TNF-α exist in teleost fish. The fish type-II TNF-α has a short stalk that may impact on its enzymatic release or restrict it to a membrane-bound form. The constitutive expression of trout TNF-α3 was generally lower than the other two genes in tissues and cell lines, with the exception of the macrophage RTS-11 cell line, in which expression was higher. Expression of all three TNF-α isoforms could be modulated by crude LPS, peptidoglycan, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, and rIFN-γ in cell lines and primary macrophages, as well as by bacterial and viral infections. TNF-α3 is the most responsive gene at early time points post-LPS stimulation and can be highly induced by the T cell-stimulant PHA, suggesting it is a particularly important TNF-α isoform. rTNF-α3 produced in CHO cells was bioactive in different cell lines and primary macrophages. In the latter, it induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17C, and TNF-αs), negative regulators (SOCS1-3, TGF-β1b), antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidin-1 and hepcidin), and the macrophage growth factor IL-34, verifying its key role in the inflammatory cytokine network and macrophage biology of fish.

  9. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

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    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  10. Importance of basal processes in simulations of a surging Svalbard outlet glacier

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    R. Gladstone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outlet glacier of Basin 3 (B3 of Austfonna icecap, Svalbard, is one of the fastest outlet glaciers in Svalbard, and shows dramatic changes since 1995. In addition to previously observed seasonal summer speed up associated with the melt season, the winter speed of B3 has accelerated approximately five fold since 1995. We use the Elmer/Ice full Stokes model for ice dynamics to infer spatial distributions of basal drag for the winter seasons of 1995, 2008 and 2011. This "inverse" method is based on minimising discrepancy between modelled and observed surface velocities, using satellite remotely sensed velocity fields. We generate steady state temperature distributions for the three time periods. Frictional heating caused by basal sliding contributes significantly to basal temperatures of the B3 outlet glacier, which exhibits a uniform steady state basal temperature at pressure melting point in all three cases. We present a sensitivity experiment consisting of transient simulations under present day forcing to demonstrate that using a temporally fixed basal drag field obtained through inversion can lead to thickness change errors of the order of 2 m per year. Hence it is essential to incorporate the evolution of basal processes in future projections of the basin. Informed by a combination of our inverse method results and previous studies, we hypothesize a system of processes and feedbacks involving till deformation and basal hydrology to explain both the seasonal accelerations and the ongoing inter-annual speed up, and speculate on the wider relevance of deformable till mechanics to non-surging glaciers.

  11. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior and during its 1982–1983 surge

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    O. Gagliardini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-year dataset, consisting in surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wave length changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodical changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. It confirms that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to infer realistic scenarios for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  12. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here.

  13. Influence of montmorillonites exchange capacity on the basal spacing of cation–anion organo-montmorillonites

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    Sanqin, Wu [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zepeng, Zhang, E-mail: unite508@163.com [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Yunhua, Wang [Zhejiang Fenghong New Material Co., Ltd. (China); Libing, Liao [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Jiansheng, Zhang [Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: This picture shows the distribution of organic modifier (CTAB and SDS) in Mt interlayer and the basal spacing changes of Mt modified by CTAB and SDS. Organic modifier molecule in Mt interlayer is more and more orderly. The basal spacing of Mt is from 1.5 nm to 5 nm as modifier added. - Highlights: • The d{sub 001} of Ca-Mt, R-Na-Mt, Na-Mt modified by CTAB and SDS can reach 5 nm. • It is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater d{sub 001} if CEC is lower. • The organic molecules distribution in cation–anion OMt was analyzed. • The influence mechanism of Ca-Mt CEC on the d{sub 001} was discussed. - Abstract: With cationic and anionic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as modifiers, Ca-montmorillonites (Ca-Mt), artificial Na-montmorillonites (R-Na-Mt) and natural Na-montmorillonites (Na-Mt) with different cation exchange capacity (CEC) were modified by solution intercalation method, respectively. Then cation–anion organo-montmorillonites (OMt) were prepared. The influence of CEC on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt and the influence mechanism were discussed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential testing. The results indicate that the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt is related to CEC. For the same type montmorillonites, the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt decreases with the increase of CEC and it is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater basal spacing when CEC is lower. Moreover, the CEC of Na-Mt has the greatest influence on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt.

  14. Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. and M. hydrocyni Kostoingue & Toguebaye, 1994, Myxosporea (Myxozoa parasites of centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae (Teleosts of the Sanaga basin in Cameroon (Central Africa

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    Fomena A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of 102 teleost freshwater fishes of Sanaga basin in Cameroon revealed the presence of three myxosporean species, among which two were new. Host fishes were of three families: Centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae. New species were identified as Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., a gill parasite of Lates niloticus and Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. found in the kidney and spleen of Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia mariae. Myxobolus hydrocyni Kostoïngue & Toguebaye, 1994, previously described in Chad, was also found in Cameroon; complementary informations were given on that parasite which seemed to be specific to its host.

  15. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The basal ganglia occupy a commanding place in neuroscience research, in clinical neurology and in biomedical education. The paucity of our understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in normal everyday life combined with our more extensive knowledge of their deficiencies in a variety of clinical syndromes is a potent spur to continuing investigation. That some of these neurodegenerative syndromes-such as Parkinson's disease-are already common only heightens the need for insight in the face of a population with increasing expectations of longevity. About a decade ago an explosion of information on the connectivity and immunocytochemistry of forebrain structures gave rise to concepts which have shaped the fabric of basal ganglia theory-'patch and matrix', 'disinhibition', 'parallel circuits'. Some of these ideas seemed to facilitate an understanding of the basal ganglia, others to render them more complex and impenetrable. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the work of the last decade has tended towards consolidation and refinement. However, several new developments are receiving attention, many of them related to disorders of the basal ganglia. The realisation that some forms of Parkinson's disease have a genetic determinant is gaining strength. The molecular biology of the dopaminergic synapse on the one hand and of the production of insoluble proteins on the other will clearly influence future research into therapeutic options and neuroprotection. The importance of apoptosis, neural plasticity and free radical formation remains unresolved but these are potential areas of promise. Meanwhile, scanning techniques for brain imaging are allowing real time investigation of the working striatum in normal and disordered humans and animals.We believe that the time is opportune for a broad review of current thinking on the basal ganglia in health and disease. The following articles are based on presentations given at a Symposium on the Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia held at

  16. Lacustrine Basal Ages Constrain the Last Deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

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    Munroe, Jeffrey; Laabs, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Basal radiocarbon ages from 21 high-elevation lakes limit the timing of final Pleistocene deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, USA. The lakes are located in glacial valleys and cirques 5 to 20 km upstream from LGM terminal moraines at elevations from 2830 to 3475 m. Many are impounded behind recessional moraines. Cores were retrieved from a floating platform with a percussion corer driven to the point of refusal. All penetrated inorganic silty clay beneath gyttja. AMS radiocarbon analyses were made on terrestrial macrofossils, daphnia ephippia, pollen concentrates, and bulk sediment retrieved from the base of each core. No radiocarbon reservoir effect was observed when bulk dates were checked against terrestrial material. Radiocarbon results were converted to calendar years using the IntCal09 calibration curve in OxCal 4.1. Given the stratigraphy observed in the cores, these calibrated basal ages are considered close limits on the timing of the local deglaciation and lake formation. The oldest three lakes have basal radiocarbon ages that calibrate to a few centuries after the Bölling/Alleröd warming, indicating that the landscape was becoming ice free at this time. These are followed by an overlapping group of five lakes with basal ages between 13.5 and 13.0 ka BP. Five more cores, from four separate lakes, have basal ages tightly clustered between 13.0 and 12.5 ka BP. Three of these lakes are dammed by moraines, suggesting glacial activity during the early part of the Younger Dryas interval. The lone kettle lake in the study yielded a basal age of 12.3 ka BP, considerably younger than the basal age of 13.9 ka BP from a nearby lake filling a bedrock basin, indicating that buried ice may have been locally stable for more than a millennium after deglaciation. The remaining seven lakes have basal ages between 12.0 and 11.0 ka BP. Four of these lakes are also dammed by moraines. These two non-overlapping clusters of basal ages for moraine

  17. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

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    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  18. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  19. Acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemia: diffusion-weighted MRI

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    Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sup [Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Koyang-City, Gyunggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jong-Ho [Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Koyang (Korea); Ihn, Yon kwon; Kim, Young Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seon Kyu [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We studied four patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure who developed sudden choreic movement disorders. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, MR imaging findings, and clinical outcome in each patient were evaluated. All four patients had long-term diabetes mellitus and severe azotaemia. Brain MR findings consisted of bilateral symmetric basal ganglia lesions, with decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All three patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) showed signal intensities similar to those of the surroundings in regions corresponding to increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with slightly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Two of the patients showed small focal areas of restricted diffusion within the basal ganglia lesions. After haemodialysis, follow-up MR imaging in all patients demonstrated that the basal ganglia lesions had regressed markedly, with some residual changes. The movement disorders also improved in all patients. A syndrome associated with acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemic patients is rare, with reversible changes demonstrated by clinical and imaging findings. DWI showed that the bilateral basal ganglia lesions in this syndrome were primarily vasogenic in origin, although there were small foci of cytotoxic oedema within the lesions. (orig.)

  20. Sensitivity of basal conditions in an inverse model: Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet/Svalbard

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    M. Schäfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Vestfonna ice cap (Svalbard are dominated by fast-flowing outlet glaciers. Its mass balance is poorly known and affected dynamically by these fast-flowing outlet glaciers. Hence, it is a challenging target for ice flow modeling. Precise knowledge of the basal conditions and implementation of a good sliding law are crucial for the modeling of this ice cap. Here we use the full-Stokes finite element code Elmer/Ice to model the 3-D flow over the whole ice cap. We use a Robin inverse method to infer the basal friction from the surface velocities observed in 1995. Our results illustrate the importance of the basal friction parameter in reproducing observed velocity fields. We also show the importance of having variable basal friction as given by the inverse method to reproduce the velocity fields of each outlet glacier – a simple parametrization of basal friction cannot give realistic velocities in a forward model. We study the robustness and sensitivity of this method with respect to different parameters (mesh characteristics, ice temperature, errors in topographic and velocity data. The uncertainty in the observational parameters and input data proved to be sufficiently small as not to adversely affect the fidelity of the model.

  1. Childhood onset generalised dystonia can be modelled by increased gain in the indirect basal ganglia pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, T D

    2003-11-01

    Clinical experience suggests an important role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway in the genesis of childhood onset generalised dystonia, but it has been difficult to reconcile the increased muscle activity in dystonia with the current model of basal ganglia function in which the indirect pathway is considered primarily inhibitory. The aim of this study was to present a modification of the direct-indirect pathway model, in which the indirect pathway is inverting rather than purely inhibitory, so that while high signals are inhibited, low signals are amplified. As the basal ganglia may be a feedback loop that modifies cortical activity, instability from excessive gain in this feedback loop could explain features of dystonia. A detailed mathematical model is provided, together with simulations of cortical cell population spiking behaviour when connected through a basal ganglia loop. The simulations show that increased gain in the indirect pathway relative to the direct pathway can lead to unstable uncontrolled synchronous oscillations in cortex and basal ganglia. This behaviour could result in dystonia. The model provides a consistent explanation for the association of dystonia with parkinsonism and disorders characterised by dopamine depletion, the ability to treat some dystonias with dopamine, the ability of neuroleptic drug treatment to cause an acute dystonic reaction treatable with anticholinergic drugs, and the ability of pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum to alleviate symptoms of generalised dystonia.

  2. Sub-Kilometer Scale Basal Roughness of the Siple Coast Ice Streams, West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    The anastomosing series of dynamic, basally lubricated ice streams found on the Siple Coast of West Antarctica play an important role in regulating the mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Geological controls on lubrication, elucidated by gravity, magnetics and seismic data, have proven important in understanding the evolution of these features. An additional indicator of basal properties, the basal roughness of ice sheets, may be an indicator of crustal geology and glacial modification, as well as a controlling parameter on ice dynamics and subglacial hydrology. For the Siple Coast ice streams, Fourier analysis of > 5 kilometer morphology (Siegert et al. 2004) revealed a correlation between ice streams and low bed roughness. Coherent high resolution data allows analysis of along track roughness at tens of meters resolution (Peters et al. 2005), however these data are limited in coverage. We extend roughness estimates into to the hundreds-of-meters length scale, using both frequency domain and autocorrelation methods, using incoherent 60 MHz radio echo sounding data collected between 1991 and 1996 on a five kilometer grid. The data cover the Bentley Subglacial Trench, Bindschadler Ice Stream, Siple Dome and the onset region of Kamb Ice Stream. SAR-processed coherent sounding data collected in 2001 are used to confirm these methods. We test for confinement of ice stream rapid basal motion to distinct morphological provinces; assess the hypothesis that marine sediments blanket much of interior of the basal WAIS; and look for correlation between ice flow and textural anisotropy.

  3. Primary cilia in the basal cells of equine epididymis: a serendipitous finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Occurrence of a solitary cilium was an unexpected discovery while studying the ultrastructure of epididymal epithelium in equidae. Primary cilia were detected in epididymal basal cells of all individuals of the equines studied - horses, donkey and mules - independently from age and tract of the duct, emerging from the basal cell surface and insinuating into the intercellular spaces. More rarely solitary cilia occurred also at the luminal surface of the principal cells. The ciliary apparatus was constituted by a structurally typical basal body continuous with the finger-like ciliary shaft extending from the cell surface, and an adjacent centriole oriented at right angles to the basal body. The cilium was structured as the typical primary, non-motile cilia found in many mammalian cells, having a 9+0 microtubular pattern. The basal diplosome was randomly associated with other cellular organelles including the Golgi complex, the endoplasmic reticulum, the microfilament network, the plasma membrane, vesicles and pits. Primary ciliogenesis is a new and unexpected finding in the epididymal epithelium. A monitoring role of luminal factors and extracellular liquids might be attributed to this organelle, likely acting as chemical receptor of the luminal environment, thus modulating the epithelial function by a cell-to-cell crosstalk involving the entire epithelium.

  4. Cholinergic modulation differs between basal and apical dendritic excitation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Stan; Péloquin, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesize that endogenous cholinergic modulation of dendritic processing of hippocampal CA1 is layer specific, and it specifically enhances spike output resulting from basal as compared with the apical dendritic excitation. Laminar profiles of evoked field potentials were recorded in the CA1 area of urethane-anesthetized rats using multichannel silicon probes and analyzed as current source density. High-frequency stimulation of the pontis oralis (PnO) attenuated the midapical more than the basal or distal apical dendritic excitatory sink. Population spike (PS) and excitatory sink-PS potentiation resulting from basal dendritic excitation were facilitated, while the PS evoked by apical dendritic stimulation was attenuated by PnO stimulation. Perfusion of cholinergic agonist carbachol onto hippocampal slices in vitro also attenuated the apical more than the basal dendritic excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Excitatory sink attenuation and PS changes after PnO stimulation were blocked by systemic or local scopolamine and by intracerebroventricular (icv) M1 receptor antagonist pirenzepine but not by icv M2 receptor antagonist AFDX-116 or nicotinic antagonists. However, a hippocampal theta rhythm activated by PnO stimulation was blocked by systemic but not by local scopolamine. We conclude that endogenous acetylcholine mediates a stronger presynaptic inhibition of the midapical than basal and distal apical excitation mainly through M1 receptors.

  5. Expression of basal cell marker revealed by RAM11 antibody during epithelial regeneration in rabbits.

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    Tadeusz Cichocki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.

  6. An unusual basal Therizinosaur dinosaur with an ornithischian dental arrangement from northeastern China.

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    Hanyong Pu

    Full Text Available Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians.

  7. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies.

  8. Basal keratin expression in breast cancer by quantification of mRNA and by immunohistochemistry

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    Pluciennik Elzbieta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definitions of basal-like breast cancer phenotype vary, and microarray-based expression profiling analysis remains the gold standard for the identification of these tumors. Immunohistochemical identification of basal-like carcinomas is hindered with a fact, that on microarray level not all of them express basal-type cytokeratin 5/6, 14 and 17. We compared expression of cytokeratin 5, 14 and 17 in 115 patients with operable breast cancer estimated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Despite the method of dichotomization and statistical analysis, there were cases with discordant results comparing immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. For dichotomisation based on quartiles and ROC, 14% of cases were negative on immunohistochemical examination for CK5/6, but presented high CK5 mRNA levels. There were also 48-55% cases, which were CK5/6-immunopositive, but were negative by mRNA examination. Similar discordances were observed for CK14 and CK17. Basal keratin mRNAs did not correlate with ER mRNA levels, while immunohistochemistry produced significant relationship with ER status. Our observation suggest that both method may produce different results in a small proportion of cases. Discordance between immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR may confound attempts to establish a simple methods for identification of basal-like tumors.

  9. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

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    Amouzadeh Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

  10. Basal HIF-1a expression levels are not predictive for radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, D.; Multhoff, G. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz Center Munich, CCG - Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, Munich (Germany). German Research Center for Environmental Health - Inst. of Pathology; Bayer, C.; Emmerich, K.; Molls, M.; Vaupel, P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Huber, R.M. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Pneumology

    2012-04-15

    High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a in tumors are reported to be associated with tumor progression and resistance to therapy. To examine the impact of HIF-1a on radioresistance under normoxia, the sensitivity towards irradiation was measured in human tumor cell lines that differ significantly in their basal HIF-1a levels. HIF-1a levels were quantified in lysates of H1339, EPLC-272H, A549, SAS, XF354, FaDu, BHY, and CX- tumor cell lines by ELISA. Protein levels of HIF-1a, HIF-2a, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), and GAPDH were assessed by Western blot analysis. Knock-down experiments were performed using HIF-1a siRNA. Clonogenic survival after irradiation was determined by the colony forming assay. According to their basal HIF-1a status, the tumor cell lines were divided into low (SAS, XF354, FaDu, A549, CX-), intermediate (EPLC-272H, BHY), and high (H1339) HIF-1a expressors. The functionality of the high basal HIF-1a expression in H1339 cells was proven by reduced CA IX expression after knocking-down HIF-1a. Linear regression analysis revealed no correlation between basal HIF-1a levels and the survival fraction at either 2 or 4 Gy in all tumor cell lines investigated. Our data suggest that basal HIF-1a levels in human tumor cell lines do not predict their radiosensitivity under normoxia. (orig.)

  11. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, David A.; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Kiupel, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer s...

  12. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

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    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  13. Lichen planopilaris after imiquimod 5% cream for multiple BCC in basal cell naevus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Alessandra; Pichler, Janine; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Longo, Caterina; Lallas, Aimilios; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell naevus syndrome is an inherited autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterised by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), skeletal, neurological and opthalmological abnormalities. The treatment of choice of the often multiple and large BCC consists of a combined approach including surgery, liquid nitrogen and other topical treatment modalities. Imiquimod 5% cream is an immune-response-modifying drug with antiviral and anti-tumour activity. Recent reports have associated the immune-stimulant properties of imiquimod with the exacerbation of several autoimmune skin diseases, such as eczema, psoriasis, vitiligo and lichenoid dermatitis. Here we report a patient with basal cell naevus syndrome who developed a lichen planopilaris on the same site of the scalp, which had been previously treated with two cycles of imiquimod for multiple BCC.

  14. Ocean heat drives rapid basal melt of the Totten Ice Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich; Silvano, Alessandro; Pena-Molino, Beatriz; van Wijk, Esmee; Rosenberg, Mark; Greenbaum, Jamin Stevens; Blankenship, Donald D

    2016-12-01

    Mass loss from the West Antarctic ice shelves and glaciers has been linked to basal melt by ocean heat flux. The Totten Ice Shelf in East Antarctica, which buttresses a marine-based ice sheet with a volume equivalent to at least 3.5 m of global sea-level rise, also experiences rapid basal melt, but the role of ocean forcing was not known because of a lack of observations near the ice shelf. Observations from the Totten calving front confirm that (0.22 ± 0.07) × 10(6) m(3) s(-1) of warm water enters the cavity through a newly discovered deep channel. The ocean heat transport into the cavity is sufficient to support the large basal melt rates inferred from glaciological observations. Change in ocean heat flux is a plausible physical mechanism to explain past and projected changes in this sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and its contribution to sea level.

  15. An Interesting Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Raynaud's Phenomenon Following Chronic Arsenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulshan, S; Rahman, M J; Sarkar, R; Ghosh, S; Hazra, R

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is commonly known to be associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Among the lesser known associations is basal cell carcinoma and even rarer is its effect on blood vessels causing peripheral vascular disease. Here we present a case of a 55 yr old man with ulceroproliferative lesions on scalp and forehead along with several hyperpigmented patches on trunk and extremities. He had symptoms suggestive of Raynaud's phenomenon that eventually led to digital gangrene. FNAC was done which was suggestive of basal cell carcinoma. On further enquiry, he was found to reside in an arsenic endemic zone and was investigated for blood arsenic level which was elevated. Punch biopsy from different lesions from body confirmed nodular basal cell carcinoma. Presently the patient has stopped drinking water from the local tubewell. On follow-up he shows improvement of Raynaud's phenomenon and skin lesions.

  16. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  17. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.

  18. Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L

    2009-10-01

    Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH.

  19. Nevoid Basal-Cell Syndrome: literature review and case report in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio José Tincani

    Full Text Available The Nevoid Basal-Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCC, or as it is also referred to, basal-cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is characterized by multiple early-appearing basal cell carcinomas, keratocytosis of the mandible, and anomalies of the ocular, skeletal reproductive system. We describe four patients in the same family, all of them possessing a large number of skin tumors associated with other typical clinical and X-Ray anomalies of NBCC. The definitive treatment of NBCC has yet to be established, however, early diagnosis is very important as well as the periodical follow-up examination of ten patients, mainly due to the transformations in the skin lesions that may occur.

  20. Adolescent personality: associations with Basal, awakening, and stress-induced cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Odilia M; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A G; Ormel, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress-induced HPA-axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA-axis functioning would have a stronger association with personality based on the neuroendocrine literature. Data (n = 343) were used from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents. We studied the association between facets of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness and basal cortisol, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and four measures of stress-induced HPA-axis activity. Basal cortisol levels were related to facets of all three personality traits. The CAR and stress-induced cortisol were not related to personality. Possibly due to its more trait-like nature, basal cortisol seems more informative than stress-induced cortisol when investigating trait-like characteristics such as personality facets.

  1. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  2. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L;

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  3. Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica B Ericson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Marica B Ericson1,2, Ann-Marie Wennberg1, Olle Larkö11Department of Dermatology; 2Department of Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, SwedenAbstract: The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide, and so also the demand for effective treatment modalities. Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT using aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester has recently become good treatment options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma; especielly when treating large areas and areas with field cancerization. The cure rates are usually good, and the cosmetic outcomes excellent. The only major side effect reported is the pain experienced by the patients during treatment. This review covers the fundamental aspects of topical PDT and its application for treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Both potentials and limitations will be reviewed, as well as some recent development within the field.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma

  4. Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Albert, Mareike; Taverna, Elena; Namba, Takashi; Brandl, Holger; Lewitus, Eric; Haffner, Christiane; Sykes, Alex; Wong, Fong Kuan; Peters, Jula; Guhr, Elaine; Klemroth, Sylvia; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Naumann, Ronald; Nüsslein, Ina; Dahl, Andreas; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

    2015-03-27

    Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex.

  5. Mediator is an intrinsic component of the basal RNA polymerase II machinery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Thierry; Poh, Siew Lay; Barbey, Régine; Kuras, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Mediator is a prominent multisubunit coactivator that functions as a bridge between gene-specific activators and the basal RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation machinery. Here, we study the poorly documented role of Mediator in basal, or activator-independent, transcription in vivo. We show that Mediator is still present at the promoter when the Pol II machinery is recruited in the absence of an activator, in this case through a direct fusion between a basal transcription factor and a heterologous DNA binding protein bound to the promoter. Moreover, transcription resulting from activator-independent recruitment of the Pol II machinery is impaired by inactivation of the essential Mediator subunit Med17 due to the loss of Pol II from the promoter. Our results strongly support that Mediator is an integral component of the minimal machinery essential in vivo for stable Pol II association with the promoter.

  6. Coupling in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit is aberrant in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Ivan; Nicolás, María Jesús; Arrieta, Sandra; Lopetegui, Eneko; López-Azcárate, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Artieda, Julio; Valencia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). Spectral estimates of the oscillatory activity, phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling interactions (CFC) and imaginary event-related coherence together with animals׳ behavior were analyzed. Oscillatory patterns in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit were highly altered by the effect of ketamine. CFC between the phases of low-frequency activities (delta, 1-4; theta 4-8Hz) and the amplitude of high-gamma (~80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) (~150Hz) increased dramatically and correlated with the movement increment shown by the animals. Between-structure analyses revealed that ketamine had also a massive effect in the low-frequency mediated synchronization of the HFO's across the whole circuit. Our findings suggest that ketamine administration results in an aberrant hypersynchronization of the whole cortico-basal circuit where the tandem theta/HFO seems to act as the main actor in the hyperlocomotion shown by the animals. Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients.

  7. High Resolution Ice Surface of the Ross Ice Shelf: Accuracy and Links to Basal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    We use airborne laser altimetry data from IcePod and IceBridge to map the surface across the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Laser altimetry and radar data is analyzed from the IcePod 2014 and 2015 field campaigns as well as IceBridge 2013. Icepod is a multi sensor suite that includes ice penetrating radars, a swath scanning laser, visible and IR cameras as well as GPS mounted on a LC-130. Using shallow ice radar data from both IcePod and IceBridge we identify the base of the ice shelf. Across the shelf we observe distinct areas of high reflectivity in the radar data suggesting basal crevassing. In some regions, the basal reflector is not well defined. Laser altimetry profiles correlate surface morphology with features at the base including basal crevasses and marine ice formed by freezing on to the base of the ice shelf. Building Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the laser altimetry data, we investigate the relationship between the surface expressions of these ice shelf dynamics including thickness changes, potential sites of marine ice at the base and basal morphology in regions where a well defined basal reflector does not exist in the radar profiles. We present accuracy of the IcePod laser altimetry dataset using ground control points and GPS grids from Greenland and Antarctica as well as Photogrammetric DEMs. Our laser altimetry analysis resolves sub-meter surface features which, combined with coincident radar, provides a link between basal processes and their surface expressions.

  8. Maspin expression is frequent and correlates with basal markers in triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara Yasuaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maspin is a unique member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily and its expression is found in myoepithelial cells of normal mammary glands; therefore, it has been considered to be a myoepithelial marker. We previously reported that maspin was frequently expressed in biologically aggressive breast cancers. In turn, triple-negative (TN breast cancer is a subtype of tumor with aggressive clinical behavior and shows frequent expression of basal markers. We hypothesized that maspin expression may be frequent and correlate with basal rather than myoepithelial markers in TN breast cancer. Methods Paraffin-embedded 135 TN invasive ductal carcinoma tissue samples were immunohistochemically investigated using the Dako Envision+ kit and primary antibodies for maspin, basal (CK5/6, EGFR, CK14 and myoepithelial markers (p63, CD10. The correlation between maspin expression and relapse-free survival (RFS was investigated by the log-rank test. Results The positive rate for maspin was 85.9% and significantly correlated with younger age (P = 0.0015, higher histological grade (P = 0.0013, CK5/6 positivity (P P = 0.0034 and the basal-like subtype defined by CK5/6, EGFR and CK14 positivity (P = 0.013. The positive rates for CK5/6, EGFR, CK14, CD10 and p63 were 59.2%, 48.9%, 34.1%, 17.8% and 12.6%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between maspin expression and RFS. Conclusions The positive rate for maspin is the highest among known basal and myoepithelial markers, and strongly correlates with basal markers in TN breast cancer. These results suggested that maspin could be a candidate for a therapeutic target for TN breast cancer.

  9. Global dysrhythmia of cerebro-basal ganglia-cerebellar networks underlies motor tics following striatal disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCairn, Kevin W; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2013-01-09

    Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic expression remain unknown. We performed multisite, multielectrode recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials from the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex using a pharmacologic monkey model of motor tics/TS. Following microinjections of bicuculline into the sensorimotor putamen, periodic tics occurred predominantly in the orofacial region, and a sizable number of cerebellar neurons showed phasic changes in activity associated with tic episodes. Specifically, 64% of the recorded cerebellar cortex neurons exhibited increases in activity, and 85% of the dentate nucleus neurons displayed excitatory, inhibitory, or multiphasic responses. Critically, abnormal discharges of cerebellar cortex neurons and excitatory-type dentate neurons mostly preceded behavioral tic onset, indicating their central origins. Latencies of pathological activity in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex substantially overlapped, suggesting that aberrant signals may be traveling along divergent pathways to these structures from the basal ganglia. Furthermore, the occurrence of tic movement was most closely associated with local field potential spikes in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex, implying that these structures may function as a gate to release overt tic movements. These findings indicate that tic-generating networks in basal ganglia mediated tic disorders extend beyond classical cerebro-basal ganglia circuits, leading to global network dysrhythmia including cerebellar circuits.

  10. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, T.; Sapart, C. J.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Popp, T.; El Amri, S.; Tison, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Basal ice is a common expression to describe debris-laden ice layers found close to the ice-bedrock interface under glaciers and ice sheets. The study of basal ice properties provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of subglacial environments and processes and to refine ice sheet behaviour modelling. Here, we present and discuss the results of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD), ice fabrics, debris weight and gas content of the basal part of the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project) ice core. Below a depth of 2533.85 m, almost 10 m of basal debris-rich material were retrieved from the borehole. The sequence is composed of an alternation of three visually contrasting types of ice: clear ice with specks of particulate inclusions, stratified debris-rich layers, and ice containing dispersed debris. The use of water stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δD) together with other parameters, allows to discriminate between the different types of ice and to unravel the processes involved in their formation and transformation. The basal debris-rich material presents δ18O values [-39.9 ‰; -34.4 ‰] within the range of the above last 300 m of unaltered meteoric ice [-44.9 ‰; -30.6 ‰] spanning a glacial-interglacial range of values. This rules out the hypothesis of a basal ice layer originating from pre-ice sheet ice overridden by the growing ice sheet (as previously suggested e.g. in the case of the GRIP ice core), since the latter would result in an heavier isotopic signature for ice formed at a much lower altitude. We show that clear basal ice with specks corresponds to altered meteoric glacial ice where a climatic signal is preserved. On the other hand, both stratified debris-rich layers and ice containing dispersed debris layers express an "open" or "closed" system melting/refreezing signature, somewhat blurred by mixing processes. Climatic reconstruction is therefore prohibited from these ice types. We propose a first

  11. Developmental Venous Anomaly With Asymmetrical Basal Ganglia Calcification: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Developmental venous anomaly (DVA is a common lesion formerly known as venous angioma. DVAs drain normal brain parenchyma; however, parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVAs have been reported. Unilateral putamen and caudate calcification in the drainage territory of DVAs has so far been reported in 7 cases, all with deep venous drainage. We present two additional cases of DVAs, one with superficial and the other one with deep venous drainage, associated with basal ganglia calcifications. We emphasize that DVAs should be in the differential diagnosis of unilateral basal ganglia calcifications.

  12. The influence of the atomic structure of basal planes on interplanar distance in pyrolytic carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgardt, N. I.; Prihodko, A. S.; Seibt, M.

    2016-12-01

    The atomic structure of carbon materials is studied using the example of pyrocarbon and boronrich pyrocarbon by means of the method of reconstruction of the wave function in transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the digital processing of the phase distributions of these functions allows us to find the average distance between the basal planes. Using the method of molecular dynamics for the formation of the test structures and obtaining for them the calculated phase distributions, the effect of depletion of the basal planes of the carbon atoms on the interplanar distance in the pyrocarbon materials is quantified.

  13. Thermogenic alterations in the woman. II. Basal body, afternoon, and bedtime temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuspan, K J; Zuspan, F P

    1974-10-15

    19 female college students aged 17-20 years volunteered to participate in an experiment whereby they took their temperatures on 1st rising, at 5 p.m., and at bedtime for a minimum of 1 complete ovulation cycle. 3 parallel curves were found with the afternoon temperature being .7 degrees Farenheit higher than the basal and .3 degrees higher than the bedtime temperature. Several graphs illustrate the curve patterns. It is concluded that either the afternoon or the evening temperature can be used instead of the rising (or basal body) temperature, with an adjustment of the correct amount.

  14. Production of Basal Bodies in bulk for dense multicilia formation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Centriole number is normally under tight control and is directly linked to ciliogenesis. In cells that use centrosomes as mitotic spindle poles, one pre-existing mother centriole is allowed to duplicate only one daughter centriole per cell cycle. In multiciliated cells, however, many centrioles are generated to serve as basal bodies of the cilia. Although deuterosomes were observed more than 40 years ago using electron microscopy and are believed to produce most of the basal bodies in a mother centriole-independent manner, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unknown until recently. From these findings arise more questions and a call for clarifications that will require multidisciplinary efforts.

  15. A rare occurrence of basal cell adenoma of palate: A case report with comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Pal Singh Sodhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma (BCA of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphic adenoma which constitutes 1% of all salivary gland tumors. It most commonly involves parotid gland, while it rarely occurs in minor salivary glands. Upper lip, buccal mucosa, and lower lip are the common intraoral sites; whereas, palate being the rarest one. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC is mandatory. Considering the rarity of this lesion and histologic paradox regarding its diagnosis, we report a case of BCA of palate with emphasis on need of comprehensive immunohistochemical (IHC analysis.

  16. Benign Pigmented Dermal Basal Cell Tumor in a Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3.5-year-old wild born cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, living in a large enclosure on a private Namibian farm, developed a large exophytic nodular neoplasm in its skin at the height of the left shoulder blade. We describe the clinical appearance, the surgical removal, and histological examination of the tumor, which was diagnosed as a moderately pigmented benign basal cell tumor. A three-year follow-up showed no evidence of recurrence after the surgery. Although neoplasia is reported in nondomestic felids, only very few concern cheetahs. So far, no case of basal cell tumor was described in this species.

  17. Positive and negative regulation of basal expression of a yeast HSP70 gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, H O; Craig, E A

    1989-01-01

    The SSA1 gene, one of the heat-inducible HSP70 genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also displays a basal level of expression during logarithmic growth. Multiple sites related to the heat shock element (HSE) consensus sequence are present in the SSA1 promoter region (Slater and Craig, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:1906-1916, 1987). One of the HSEs, HSE2, is important in the basal expression of SSA1 as well as in heat-inducible expression. A promoter containing a mutant HSE2 showed a fivefold-low...

  18. Basal-like型乳腺癌新辅助化疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云姝; 吴克瑾

    2011-01-01

    @@ 随着基因表达分析(gene expression profile, GEP)的进展,人们发现组织特点相似的肿瘤出现不同临床表现可能与分子表达差异有关.Basal-like型乳腺癌(Basal-likebreast cancer, BLBC )因其特异的分子生物学特点和不良预后引起普遍关注.化疗是月前最具活性的治疗手段,本文就常用化疗药物对BLBC的影响做一综述.

  19. A basal dinosaur from the dawn of the dinosaur era in southwestern Pangaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricardo N; Sereno, Paul C; Alcober, Oscar A; Colombi, Carina E; Renne, Paul R; Montañez, Isabel P; Currie, Brian S

    2011-01-14

    Upper Triassic rocks in northwestern Argentina preserve the most complete record of dinosaurs before their rise to dominance in the Early Jurassic. Here, we describe a previously unidentified basal theropod, reassess its contemporary Eoraptor as a basal sauropodomorph, divide the faunal record of the Ischigualasto Formation with biozones, and bracket the formation with (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages. Some 230 million years ago in the Late Triassic (mid Carnian), the earliest dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial carnivores and small herbivores in southwestern Pangaea. The extinction of nondinosaurian herbivores is sequential and is not linked to an increase in dinosaurian diversity, which weakens the predominant scenario for dinosaurian ascendancy as opportunistic replacement.

  20. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Goossens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal ice is a common expression to describe debris-laden ice layers found close to the ice–bedrock interface under glaciers and ice sheets. The study of basal ice properties provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of subglacial environments and processes and to refine ice sheet behaviour modelling. Here, we present and discuss the results of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD, ice fabrics, debris weight and gas content of the basal part of the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project ice core. Below a depth of 2533.85 m, almost 10 m of basal debris-rich material were retrieved from the borehole. The sequence is composed of an alternation of three visually contrasting types of ice: clear ice with specks of particulate inclusions, stratified debris-rich layers, and ice containing dispersed debris. The use of water stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δD together with other parameters, allows to discriminate between the different types of ice and to unravel the processes involved in their formation and transformation. The basal debris-rich material presents δ18O values [−39.9 ‰; −34.4 ‰] within the range of the above last 300 m of unaltered meteoric ice [−44.9 ‰; −30.6 ‰] spanning a glacial–interglacial range of values. This rules out the hypothesis of a basal ice layer originating from pre-ice sheet ice overridden by the growing ice sheet (as previously suggested e.g. in the case of the GRIP ice core, since the latter would result in an heavier isotopic signature for ice formed at a much lower altitude. We show that clear basal ice with specks corresponds to altered meteoric glacial ice where a climatic signal is preserved. On the other hand, both stratified debris-rich layers and ice containing dispersed debris layers express an "open" or "closed" system melting/refreezing signature, somewhat blurred by mixing processes. Climatic reconstruction is therefore prohibited from these ice types. We

  1. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapunt, Sirunya; Chen, Leon; Migden, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss. PMID:27583029

  2. Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S; Gauba, K

    2007-01-01

    Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome involves multiple organ system. The most common findings include multiple odontogenic keratocysts in the jaws and basal cell nevus on the skin that have an early age onset. These multiple odontogenic keratocysts warrant aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications associated with them. Recurrence in these lesions is the most characteristic feature that has to be taken in consideration while explaining the prognosis to the patient. A case report of a child affected with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome diagnosed, treated and followed at this hospital is presented here.

  3. Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome involves multiple organ system. The most common findings include multiple odontogenic keratocysts in the jaws and basal cell nevus on the skin that have an early age onset. These multiple odontogenic keratocysts warrant aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications associated with them. Recurrence in these lesions is the most characteristic feature that has to be taken in consideration while explaining the prognosis to the patient. A case report of a child affected with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome diagnosed, treated and followed at this hospital is presented here.

  4. Sequence and Expression Analysis of Interferon Regulatory Factor 10 (IRF10 in Three Diverse Teleost Fish Reveals Its Role in Antiviral Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqing Xu

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor (IRF 10 was first found in birds and is present in the genome of other tetrapods (but not humans and mice, as well as in teleost fish. The functional role of IRF10 in vertebrate immunity is relatively unknown compared to IRF1-9. The target of this research was to clone and characterize the IRF10 genes in three economically important fish species that will facilitate future evaluation of this molecule in fish innate and adaptive immunity.In the present study, a single IRF10 gene was cloned in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, and two, named IRF10a and IRF10b, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The fish IRF10 molecules share highest identities to other vertebrate IRF10s, and have a well conserved DNA binding domain, IRF-associated domain, and an 8 exon/7 intron structure with conserved intron phase. The presence of an upstream ATG or open reading frame (ORF in the 5'-untranslated region of different fish IRF10 cDNA sequences suggests potential regulation at the translational level, and this has been verified by in vitro transcription/translation experiments of the trout IRF10a cDNA, but would still need to be validated in fish cells.Both trout IRF10 paralogues are highly expressed in thymus, blood and spleen but are relatively low in head kidney and caudal kidney. Trout IRF10b expression is significantly higher than IRF10a in integumentary tissues i.e. gills, scales, skin, intestine, adipose fin and tail fins, suggesting that IRF10b may be more important in mucosal immunity. The expression of both trout IRF10 paralogues is up-regulated by recombinant IFN-γ. The expression of the IRF10 genes is highly induced by Poly I:C in vitro and in vivo, and by viral infection, but is less responsive to peptidoglycan and bacterial infection, suggesting an important role of fish IRF10 in antiviral defense.

  5. A novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in teleost fish: carp SITR is involved in the nitric oxide-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

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    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I- type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a

  6. 17α-Ethynylestradiol alters the immune response of the teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) both in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabas, Isabel; Liarte, Sergio; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano; García-Ayala, Alfonsa

    2012-03-01

    There is increasing public attention concerning the effect of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) on the immune system. One important group belonging to EDCs are the environmental estrogens. Commonly found in the effluents in wastewater treatment plants, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) which is used in contraceptive pills, is an endocrine disruptor with strong estrogenic effects. This study aims to investigate the capacity of EE(2) to modulate in vivo and in vitro the innate immune response of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a teleost species of great commercial value. For this purpose, adult specimens were bath-exposed to EE(2) (0, 5 and 50 ng/L) and then immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of the adjuvant aluminum. The results indicate that, after 15 days of EE(2)-exposure, the disruptor was able to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner the induction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene expression, but did not significantly alter the specific antibody titer. To shed light on the role played by EE(2) into seabream immune response, leukocytes were exposed in vitro to several concentrations of EE(2) (0, 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 ng/ml) for 3, 16 and 48 h and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, the phagocytic activity and the gene expression profile of these cells were analyzed. EE(2) was seen to inhibit both cellular activities and to alter the immune gene expression profile in primary macrophages. Thus, low concentrations of EE(2) increase the mRNA levels of IL-1 β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor α and tumour growth factor β in non-activated macrophages. In contrast, EE(2) treatment of activated macrophages resulted in the decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and the increased expression of genes encoding anti-inflammatory and tissue remodeling/repair enzymes. Taken together, our results suggest that EE(2) might alter the capacity of fish to appropriately respond to infection although it does not behave as an immunosuppressor.

  7. Mouse Model for Spontaneous Basal-Like Breast Cancer%自发Basal-like乳腺癌小鼠模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹芳; 孙保存; 赵秀兰; 崔艳芬; 徐少艳; 董学易; 车娜

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨TA2小鼠自发乳腺癌生物学行为、形态及免疫表型特征,比较其与人Basal-like乳腺癌的相似程度,研究TA2小鼠乳腺癌发生与妊娠及小鼠乳腺癌病毒 (mouse mammary tumor virus,MMTV) 的关系.方法:收集TA2自发乳腺癌小鼠84只,采用H&E染色和免疫组织化学染色检测TA2自发乳腺癌组织形态、免疫表型与转移情况,比较与人Basal-like乳腺癌的相似程度.电化学法检测TA2自发乳腺癌小鼠 (n=10)、妊娠15天小鼠 (n=6) 与正常小鼠 (n=6) 血清雌二醇和孕酮水平.电镜观察肿瘤细胞内是否存在MMTV病毒颗粒,使用PCR和Real-time PCR分别检测MMTV LTR在TA2正常小鼠乳腺、妊娠小鼠乳腺和乳腺癌中基因组与mRNA表达变化.结果:TA2自发乳腺癌小鼠平均见瘤年龄 (329.81±95.32) 天,平均分娩次数 (2.70±1.82) 次,且肿瘤在妊娠期内迅速增长.肿瘤多发生内脏转移,淋巴结转移未见,80.0% (64/80) 发生肺转移.TA2自发乳腺癌形态一致,癌巢由胞浆稀少的小圆细胞构成,周围被发育良好的基质包绕.实性癌巢中央为未分化或分化差的癌细胞,且核分裂像多见,中央可见坏死; 癌巢边缘的癌细胞多发生分化,呈腺泡状,腺管状或乳头状; 腺泡状癌巢周围有单层或多层肌上皮和致密基质包绕; 腺管状分化癌巢中央可见粉色分泌物积聚; 实性癌巢中央可见坏死.免疫组化染色显示TA2自发乳腺癌不表达ER、PR和HER2,高表达Cyclin D1、PCNA、p53和CK5/6.电镜观察显示肿瘤细胞内存在MMTV病毒颗粒.TA2自发乳腺癌小鼠血清雌二醇和孕酮浓度及瘤组织内MMTV LTR mRNA表达均升高,其改变与妊娠小鼠相似.结论:TA2小鼠自发乳腺癌形态、免疫表型和生物学特征与人Basal-like乳腺癌极为相似,能够反映Basal-like乳腺癌发生发展的全过程,是研究Basal-like乳腺癌的良好模型.妊娠激素水平升高导致的MMTV激活在Basal-like乳腺癌发

  8. A review of pathologies associated with high T1W signal intensity in the basal ganglia on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ga...

  9. Vismodegib hedgehog-signaling inhibition and treatment of basal cell carcinomas as well as keratocystic odontogenic tumors in Gorlin syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Booms, Patrick; Harth, Marc; Sader, Robert; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib hedgehog signaling inhibition treatment has potential for reducing the burden of multiple skin basal cell carcinomas and jaw keratocystic odontogenic tumors. They are major criteria for the diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome, also called nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Clinical features of Gorlin syndrome are reported, and the relevance of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibition by oral vismodegib for maxillofacial surgeons is highlighted. In summary, progressed basal cell carcinoma ...

  10. Effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition on basal- and serotonin-induced ion transport in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2002-01-01

    . 5-HT and PGE2 both induced a concentration-dependent increase in SCC by activation of multiple receptors. The response to 5-HT was bumetanide-sensitive. Neither the non-selective COX inhibitor piroxicam, nor the selective COX-2 inhibitor SC-'236, altered basal- SCC or 5-HT-induced SCC. Indomethacin...... reduced both basal- and 5-HT-induced SCC in both segments. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid reduced the 5-HT-induced increase in SCC, but did not change basal SCC. 5-HT-induced a concentration-dependent release of PGE2. Only high concentrations of piroxicam and indomethacin reduced basal PGE2 release and 5-HT...

  11. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: An integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eHelie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 basal ganglia models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the basal ganglia that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the basal ganglia in behavioral functions.

  12. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  13. Basal melting and Eemian ice along the main ice ridge in northern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Susanne Lilja

    The variation of the basal melt rate and the location of the Eemian layer in the ice column are investigated along the ice divide between the NorthGRIP and NEEM ice core drill sites in northern Greenland. At NorthGRIP an ice core was drilled in the period 1996-2004, and the stable isotope record (d...... the line. A Dansgaard-Johnsen model is then used to simulate the ice flow along the flow line from NorthGRIP to NEEM. One- as well as two-dimensional approaches are taken. The basal melt rates and other unknown flow parameters are determined using a Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo solution...... is constrained by isochrones revealed in radio-echo sounding images of the ice. The obtained results indicate a high spatial variability in the basal melt rate in the area, and values between zero and 25 mm/yr are found. The results indicate that there is little or no basal melting at NEEM. The location...

  14. Structural findings in the basal ganglia in genetically determined and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Gaser, Christian; Klein, Christine

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral compensatory increase of basal ganglia (BG) gray matter value (GMV) was recently demonstrated in asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers, who likely have an increased risk to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized BG morphological changes in symptomatic Parkin mutation carrie...

  15. Callibrachion and Datheosaurus, two historical and previously mistaken basal caseasaurian synapsids from Europe

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    Frederik Spindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a re-investigation of two historical fossil discoveries, Callibrachion gaudryi (Artinskian of France and Datheosaurus macrourus (Gzhelian of Poland, that were originally classified as haptodontine-grade sphenacodontians and have been lately treated as nomina dubia. Both taxa are here identified as basal caseasaurs based on their overall proportions as well as dental and osteological characteristics that differentiate them from any other major synapsid subclade. As a result of poor preservation, no distinct autapomorphies can be recognized. However, our detailed investigations of the virtually complete skeletons in the light of recent progress in basal synapsid research allow a novel interpretation of their phylogenetic positions. Datheosaurus might represent an eothyridid or basal caseid. Callibrachion shares some similarities with the more derived North American genus Casea. These new observations on Datheosaurus and Callibrachion provide new insights into the early diversification of caseasaurs, reflecting an evolutionary stage that lacks spatulate teeth and broadened phalanges that are typical for other caseid species. Along with Eocasea, the former ghost lineage to the Late Pennsylvanian origin of Caseasauria is further closed. For the first time, the presence of basal caseasaurs in Europe is documented.

  16. Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia

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    Gurusidheshwar M Wali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute movement disorder associated with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions occurring in the background of diabetic end stage renal disease is a recently described condition. It has distinct clinico-radiological features and is commonly described in Asian patients. We report the first Indian case report of this potentially reversible condition and discuss its various clinico-radiological aspects.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma Of The Lower Extremities - A Report Of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Rita