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Sample records for basal serum calcitonin

  1. Benefit of measuring basal serum calcitonin to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma in a Danish population with a high prevalence of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselgren, Martin; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Godballe, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine measurement of serum calcitonin to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) continues to be fiercely debated, although less attention has been paid to the positive predictive value (PPV) of this method. METHODS: We collected data from 959 patients with nontoxic nodular goiter...... were classified correctly initially. The sensitivity of serum calcitonin for detection of MTC was 100%, the specificity was 95.3%, the positive predictive value was 15.4%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. CONCLUSION: Serum calcitonin has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of MTC....... The low PPV might lead to unnecessary thyroid surgery. Thus, the result of serum calcitonin measurement should always be interpreted in the context of other clinical variables. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009....

  2. Stimulation of calcitonin secretory capacity by increased serum levels of testosterone in men treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopman, W; Slager, E; Hackeng, W H; Mulder, H

    1987-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sex steroids, including both oestrogen and testosterone, influence calcitonin secretion. However, a negative effect of gonadotrophins on calcitonin has not been excluded. Twelve men with infertility and low-normal serum levels of testosterone were studied before and during tamoxifen therapy. Increases in the serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone and calcitonin were observed after treatment. Our findings suggest that testosterone has a direct influence on calcitonin secretion. PMID:3123401

  3. Reference values of serum calcitonin with calcium stimulation tests by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay before/after total thyroidectomy in Japanese patients with thyroid diseases other than medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Minoru; Miyauchi, Akira; Kudo, Takumi; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miya, Akihiro

    2016-07-30

    Calcitonin is a very sensitive tumor marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). MTC patients usually have very high values of serum calcitonin that can be used to diagnose the disease. To improve the diagnostic sensitivity in family members with small MTCs and to evaluate the postoperative biochemical cure status, a calcium stimulation test is widely used. Serum calcitonin has been measured using several methods, but in Japan, only an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) is currently performed to determine serum calcitonin. Reference values for the calcium stimulation test using an ECLIA have not been reported. Here we conducted a calcium stimulation tests in 26 patients without MTC before and after total thyroidectomy. Preoperatively, the basal calcitonin values of all patients were within normal limits and increased to a mean of 14.4 pg/mL after calcium stimulation. We transformed the peak values before total thyroidectomy to a logarithmic distribution and calculated the normalized mean ± 1.96× standard deviation; the reference upper limit was thus expressed. In the female patients with non-MTC, the reference upper limit was 67.6 pg/mL. In all patients, the calcium stimulation test results after total thyroidectomy showed undetectable basal and stimulated calcitonin values (<0.5 pg/mL). This is the first study to determine reference values to be used for the calcium stimulation test along with an ECLIA in non-MTC patients. We propose that female patients are regarded as biochemically cured or normal when the stimulated calcitonin values by ECLIA are <67.6 pg/mL before surgery and <0.5 pg/mL after total thyroidectomy. PMID:27097651

  4. Decrease of serum testosterone by cyproterone acetate accompanied by an unexpected increase of calcitonin secretion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, H; Eland, D; Hackeng, W H; Schopman, W

    1987-08-01

    The interaction between testosterone and calcitonin secretion capacity was studied in 9 patients with prostatic cancer. Treatment with the antiandrogenic agent cyproterone acetate resulted in an expected decrease in serum testosterone but an unexpected and unexplained increase in calcitonin secretion capacity. The previous statement that a positive correlation between sex hormones and calcitonin secretion capacity can be recognized probably requires revision. This unexpected effect of cyproterone acetate had possible additive beneficial advantages for treatment, such as bone mass sparing and its analgesic effect. PMID:2955132

  5. Pentagastrin, calcium and whisky stimulated serum calcitonin in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmertsen, K K; Nielsen, H E; Mosekilde, L; Hansen, H H

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency of pentagastrin, calcium and whisky in raising serum immunoreactive calcitonin (S-iCT) concentrations was analysed in 6 patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and in 8 healthy controls. All 6 patients responded to pentagastrin with a significant increase in S-iCT, 5 responded to calcium and only 3 to whisky. In the 8 controls no or only a modest increase in S-iCT occurred following pentagastrin, calcium and whisky with no difference between the three. It is concluded that pentagastrin is the most useful stimulative agent for ICT secretion in patients with C-cell neoplasms. In selected cases the additional use of calcium could be advantageous.

  6. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P;

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...

  7. Usefulness of Serum Calcitonin in Patients Without a Suspicious History of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and with Thyroid Nodules Without an Indication for Fine-Needle Aspiration or with Benign Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, P W; Calsolari, M R

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of serum calcitonin (Ctn) in subjects without a suspicious history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or with benign cytology. This was a prospective study that evaluated 421 patients with nodular disease without an indication for FNA and 602 patients with benign cytology. Patients with basal Ctn>10 pg/ml were submitted to calcium stimulation testing. Patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were submitted to total thyroidectomy. Basal Ctn was10 pg/ml, 16/22 exhibited stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml. Two of these 16 patients had MTC. The 2 patients with MTC had undetectable basal Ctn 6 months after surgery. Using a cut-off of 30 pg/ml in women and 60 pg/ml in men for basal Ctn, the 2 cases of MTC of our series would have been identified and there would have been no false-positive case. It should be noted that 14/16 patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were false-positive cases. Although uncommon, even subjects without a suspicious history and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for FNA or with benign cytology can have MTC. The measurement of Ctn permits the diagnosis of these cases. Our results favor the hypothesis that basal Ctn could be superior to stimulated Ctn. PMID:27203410

  8. Changes in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide and serum neuron specific enolase in rats with acute cerebral ischemia after low-frequency electrical stimulation with different waveforms and intensities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Gao; Yonghong Yang; Shasha Li; Jing He; Chengqi He

    2011-01-01

    Following acute cerebral ischemia in rats, plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide decreased and the level of serum neuron specific enolase and the volume of the infarction increased. Square-wave and triangular-wave electrical stimulation with low or high intensities could increase the plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide, decrease the serum neuron specific enolase and reduce the infarction volume in the brain in rats with cerebral ischemia. There was no significant difference between different wave forms and intensities. The experimental findings indicate that low-frequency electrical stimulation with varying waveforms and intensities can treat acute cerebral ischemia in rats.

  9. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L;

    1997-01-01

    a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  10. Circulating parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in rats after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Fung, Paul; Popova, Irina A.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone and calcithonin, two major calcium-regulating hormones, were measured in the plasma of five experimental groups of rats to evaluate postflight calcium homeostasis after the 14-day Cosmos 2044 flight. Parathyroid hormone values were slightly higher in the flight animals (F) than in the appropriate cage and diet controls (S) (44 +/- 21 vs 21 +/- 4 pg/ml, P less than 0.05), but they were the same as in the vivarium controls (V), which had different housing and feeding schedules. The difference in F and V (22 +/- 11 vs 49 +/- 16 pg/ml, P less than 0.05) was most likely due to failure of circulating calcitonin in F to show the normal age-dependent increase which was demonstrated in age-matched controls in a separate experiment. Basal values for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin were unchanged after 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, a flight simulation model, in age-matched and younger rats. From a time course experiment serum calcium was higher and parathyroid hormone lower after 4 wk than in ambulatory controls. Postflight circulating levels of parathyroid hormone appear to reflect disturbances in calcium homeostasis from impaired renal function of undetermined cause, whereas levels of calcitonin reflect depression of a normal growth process.

  11. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  12. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Mullerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, E Scott

    2011-12-02

    Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79) and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+\\/- SD) age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45) yrs, and mean (+\\/- SD) terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +\\/- 4056 pmol\\/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65) was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44) was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61), suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol\\/l; p = 0.029). Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  13. Calcitonin substitution in calcitonin deficiency reduces particle-induced osteolysis

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    Grabellus Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprosthetic osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in joint arthroplasty. This study investigates the impact of CT (calcitonin deficiency and CT substitution under in-vivo circumstances on particle-induced osteolysis in Calca -/- mice. Methods We used the murine calvarial osteolysis model based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles in 10 C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice and twenty Calca -/- mice. The mice were divided into six groups: WT without UHMWPE particles (Group 1, WT with UHMWPE particles (Group 2, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles (Group 3, Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particles (Group 4, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles and calcitonin substitution (Group 5, and Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particle implantation and calcitonin substitution (Group 6. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine. Bone resorption was measured by bone histomorphometry. The number of osteoclasts was determined by counting the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP + cells. Results Bone resorption was significantly increased in Calca -/- mice compared with their corresponding WT. The eroded surface in Calca -/- mice with particle implantation was reduced by 20.6% after CT substitution. Osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in Calca -/- mice after particle implantation. Serum OPG (osteoprotegerin increased significantly after CT substitution. Conclusions As anticipated, Calca -/- mice show extensive osteolysis compared with wild-type mice, and CT substitution reduces particle-induced osteolysis.

  14. Prognostic Value of Basal Serum Thyroglobulin Levels, but Not Basal Antithyroglobulin Antibody (TgAb Levels, in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

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    Isa Neshandar Asli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prognostic values of serum thyroglobulin (Tg and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb levels, measured immediately before I-131remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, have been advocated by some researchers; however, it had controversial outcomes. This study was carried out to examine this dilemma and to check the clinical significance of basal serum Tg and TgAb levels and postablation iodine 131whole body scan(WBS findings in DTC patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of 500 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, who had undergone treatment between 2003 and 2010, were assessed. Of those, 149 patients with results of basal serum thyroglobulin concentration and whole body scan using radioactive iodine were included. Age, sex, tumour histology, basal thyroglobulin (Tg, anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb and TSH concentration, radioactive iodine doses in each hospitalization, numbers of hospitalization, and results of whole body scans were recorded. The relationship among basal Tg, TgAb, TSH, and whole body scan with hospitalization number and total radioactive iodine doses were assessed. Results: A total of 149 patients, including 123 (83% females and 26 (17% males, with a mean age of 40±15 years, took part in the study. The mean (SD basal Tg, TgAb, and TSH were 91.7±169.2 ng/mL (0.1-1000 ng/mL, 250±893 U/mL (0-9000 U/m L, and 64.8±61.5 µU/mL (30-689 U/mLµ, respectively. A total of 52 (34.9% cases had TgAb levels greater than 100 U/mL. The mean basal Tg in patients who were admitted three or more times was significantly greater than that of patients with one hospitalization (p=0.026. In addition, the mean of Tg in patients who received 7.4 GBq radioactive iodine or less was significantly lower than the others (p=0.003. The mean of TgAb and TSH were not different between these groups. In the results of the whole body scans, patients with metastasis had higher frequency of

  15. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pump is now primed. To use the nasal spray, follow these steps: Keep your head up and place the nozzle in one nostril. Press down on the pump ... reach of children. Store unopened calcitonin salmon nasal spray in the ... the nozzle clean. Opened calcitonin salmon stored at room temperature ...

  16. Basal serum anti-müllerian hormone and antral follicle count are predictors of ovarian response for Asian women in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mee

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Both basal serum AMH and AFC were reliable ovarian reserve markers for predicting poor and high ovarian response to COS in Asian women. Basal AMH was the only significant predictor for clinical pregnancy outcome.

  17. Secretion of calcitonin and gastrin in rats with transplanted medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats transplanted with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MCT) were followed with radio-immuno assay of serum calcitonin (iCT) using antisera to human CT and I125 labelled calcitonin-M. From the 4th month after transplantation, serum from the tumour rats contained iCT in concentrations 8-10 fold higher than serum from the control rats. The tumour cells had retained their ability to react on pentagastrin and calcium injections with increased CT release. It was further shown that the tumour bearing rats had elevated basal gastrin concentrations in serum. While calcium injection lead to a rise in the serum gastrin concentration in the control group, the adverse effect was seen in the tumour bearing rats. The morphological features and the responsiveness of the rat tumour cells to physiological secretagogues make this tumour a suitable animal model for the study of interactions between CT and gastro-intestinal factors. It is suggested that the gastrin response to calcium might be of interest also in the diagnosis of human MCT. (author)

  18. Calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor of thyroid gland mimicking anaplastic carcinoma: an unusual entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Berkesoglu, Mustafa; Dag, Ahmet; Sezer, Emel; Bal, Kemal Koray; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of thyroid with mostly both secreting calcitonin and immunohistochemically showing calcitonin positivity. Occasionally; NETs of thyroid may have little or no calcitonin expression. We present a case of serum calcitonin negative and immunohistochemically calcitonin-negative staining tumor with positive reaction to neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranin-A. The patient’s right vocal cord was paralytic and thyroid mass was huge with descending to thorax till hilar region. We discussed diagnostic difficulties and way of treatment about NETs of thyroid with the light of current literature with this case. PMID:26312221

  19. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

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    Wen-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.

  20. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Müllerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E Scott

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79 and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+/- SD age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45 yrs, and mean (+/- SD terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +/- 4056 pmol/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65 was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44 was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61, suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol/l; p = 0.029. Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  1. Morning or evening administration of nasal calcitonin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlemmer, A; Ravn, Pernille; Hassager, C;

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCT) administration (200 IE), given either in the morning (8:00) or evening (21:00), on the known circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. An open, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover......). Serum osteocalcin (sOC) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The first 24 h study was performed without intervention. Prior to this control study the participants were randomized to either morning (8:00) or evening (21:00) sCT (200 IE). sCT administrations were given 4-5 days prior to and during the...... in late afternoon. Both morning and evening administration of sCT significantly decreased the urinary excretion of CrossLaps/Cr approximately 3-6 h after administration with a subsequent rebound effect. sOC did not exhibit a significant circadian variation and was not affected by the calcitonin. The...

  2. Basal serum anti-müllerian hormone and antral follicle count are predictors of ovarian response forAsian women inSingapore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee Mee Ho; Tar Choon Aw; Siew Chen Hum; Shaw Ni Lee; Stephanie Fook-Chong Man Chung; Su Ling Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the basal ovarian reserve markers for prediction of poor and high responses and clinical pregnancy outcome in subfertileAsian women requiring controlled ovarian stimulation(COS) treatment inSingapore.Methods:SubfertileAsian women, aged ≤40 with basal serum follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) level of ≤12IU/L, were enrolled prospectively during routine preliminary endocrine ovarian reserve assessment prior toCOS regime for intracytoplasmic sperm insemination(ICSI) cycles.Basal serum levels of the endocrine ovarian reserve markers(anti-Müllerian hormone(AMH), estradiol,FSH, luteinizing hormone), antral follicle count(AFC) and ovarian response parameters were compared between thePoor(retrieved oocytes ≤4),Normal(retrieved oocytes,5 to19) andHighResponder(retrieved oocytes ≥20) groups of women.Results:Basal serumAMH andAFC were significantly correlated to age (r =-0.213 and -0.243, respectively) and to the number of retrieved oocytes(r=0.570 and0.523, respectively)(P<0.05).Both basal serumAMH andAFC were significant discriminators of poor response(cut-off levels of ≤2.0 ng/mL and ≤12, respectively) and for high response(AMH ≥3.2 ng/mL andAFC of ≥20, respectively) toCOS.BasalAMH was the only significant predictor for clinical pregnancy outcome,ROCAUC =0.71, cut-off level of ≥3.0 ng/mL and odds ratio of 1.42.Conclusions:Both basal serumAMH andAFC were reliable ovarian reserve markers for predicting poor and high ovarian response toCOS inAsian women.BasalAMH was the only significant predictor for clinical pregnancy outcome.

  3. Radioimmunological investigation of calcitonine in patients with reccurent calcium nephrolithiasis before and after calcium loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of the changes in the calcitonine serum levels for differentiation of different types of hypercalciuria was assessed. The investigation was carried out with 15 patients with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria, 4 - with primary hyperparathyroidism, 3 - with renal hypercalciuria, 7 - with absorptive hypercalciuria and 1 -with adenomectomy of the parathyroid glands. The calcitonine serum was determined before and after loading with 1000 mg Ca. A double-antibody radioimmunological method with high specificity, accuracy and sensitivity was used for calcitonine determination. The results of the study revealed that the serum calcitonine cannot serve as differential diagnostic criterion in determination of the type of hypercalciuria, but could be useful in the diagnosis of the medullary cancer of the thyroid gland. 3 figs., 5 refs

  4. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bo Wang; Fei She; Li-Fang Xie; Wen-Hua Yan; Jin-Zhi Ouyang; Bao-An Wang; Hang-Yun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Background:Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism.This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls.Moreover,this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients.Methods:This was a retrospective case-control study involving 75 Chinese male IHH patients (mean age 21.4 ± 3.8 years,range 17-30 years) and 135 healthy controls after matching for gender and age.All subjects underwent physical examination and blood testing for serum testosterone,luteinizing hormone,follicle-stimulating hormone,ACTH,and cortisol and biochemical tests.Results:Higher basal serum ACTH levels (8.25 ± 3.78 pmol/L vs.6.97 ± 2.81 pmol/L) and lower cortisol levels (366.70 ± 142.48 nmol/L vs.452.82 ± 141.53 nmol/L) were observed in male IHH patients than healthy subjects (all P < 0.05).IHH patients also showed higher metabolism parameters and higher prevalence rate of NAFLD (34.9% vs.4.4%) than the controls (all P < 0.05).Basal serum ACTH (9.91 ± 4.98 pmol/L vs.7.60 ± 2.96 pmol/L) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (2123.7 ± 925.8 μg/L vs.1417.1 ± 498.4 μg/L) levels were significantly higher in IHH patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (all P < 0.05).We also found that basal serum ACTH levels were positively correlated with NAFLD (r =0.289,P < 0.05) and triglyceride levels (r =0.268,P < 0.05) in male IHH patients.Furthermore,NAFLD was independently associated with ACTH levels in male IHH patients by multiple linear regression analysis.Conclusions:The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls.NAFLD was

  5. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  6. Late effect of subtotal thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy on calcitonin secretion and bone mineral density in women treated for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subtotal thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine therapy on plasma immunocalcitonin (iCT) levels and bone densities in patients treated for Graves' disease. Forty-eight women whose ages ranged from 29 to 79 years (mean, 55 years) were evaluated. All were at least 10 years beyond treatment. Fourteen patients had undergone subtotal thyroidectomy, 22 had received radioactive iodine therapy, and 12 had received both. Serum calcitonin levels were measured with the patient fasting and at 30 minutes and 2 hours after the ingestion of 15 mg of calcium in orange juice. Single photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density of the middle and distal radius. The mean fasting plasma levels of iCT for patients undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy was 27 +/- 2 mumol/L; women treated with radioactive iodine, 26 +/- 2; women undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine, 24 +/- 2, and for normal control women, 48.5 +/- 4.7. The mean stimulated iCT level of each of the patient groups was significantly lower than that of the normal controls (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences among the groups. Although there was an increased loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients, with age and race as covariates, the bone densities of the distal radius in women undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy and/or receiving radioactive iodine were not significantly lower than those of normal control subjects (p greater than 0.05). These findings are consistent with other observations that patients treated by thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine for Graves' disease have lower basal levels of calcitonin and decreased calcitonin response to a provocative stimulus. Whether this loss of calcitonin reserve is a significant factor in development of postmenopausal osteoporosis remains unanswered

  7. Late effect of subtotal thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy on calcitonin secretion and bone mineral density in women treated for Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowery, W.D.; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Awbrey, B.J.; Rosenstein, B.D.; Talmage, R.V.

    1986-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subtotal thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine therapy on plasma immunocalcitonin (iCT) levels and bone densities in patients treated for Graves' disease. Forty-eight women whose ages ranged from 29 to 79 years (mean, 55 years) were evaluated. All were at least 10 years beyond treatment. Fourteen patients had undergone subtotal thyroidectomy, 22 had received radioactive iodine therapy, and 12 had received both. Serum calcitonin levels were measured with the patient fasting and at 30 minutes and 2 hours after the ingestion of 15 mg of calcium in orange juice. Single photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density of the middle and distal radius. The mean fasting plasma levels of iCT for patients undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy was 27 +/- 2 mumol/L; women treated with radioactive iodine, 26 +/- 2; women undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine, 24 +/- 2, and for normal control women, 48.5 +/- 4.7. The mean stimulated iCT level of each of the patient groups was significantly lower than that of the normal controls (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences among the groups. Although there was an increased loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients, with age and race as covariates, the bone densities of the distal radius in women undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy and/or receiving radioactive iodine were not significantly lower than those of normal control subjects (p greater than 0.05). These findings are consistent with other observations that patients treated by thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine for Graves' disease have lower basal levels of calcitonin and decreased calcitonin response to a provocative stimulus. Whether this loss of calcitonin reserve is a significant factor in development of postmenopausal osteoporosis remains unanswered.

  8. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed by calcitonin washout from a thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Umut; Gursoy, Alptekin; Ozdemir, Handan; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-07-01

    Serum calcitonin is a tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin washout evaluation is a new method used for suspicious thyroid nodules and lymph nodes. Limited clinical data are present about the efficacy of this method. A 61-year-old female patient with known Hashimoto's thyroditis and an 8-mm hypoechoic nodule was presented with one previously benign fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). On referral to our department, she had a moderately high-serum calcitonin level, and we repeated the FNAC that was reported as nondiagnostic. We performed FNAC for the third time together with calcitonin washout evaluation from the thyroid nodule. The FNAC was again nondiagnostic, but the calcitonin washout level from the thyroid nodule was 152.569 pg/mL. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin washout evaluation may be a useful method in the differential diagnosis of patients with thyroid nodules having moderately high-serum calcitonin levels.

  9. Should variation of serum lipid levels be considered a risk factor for the development of basal cell carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Zamanian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the serum lipid levels in patients with BCC has no significant difference in comparison with the control group and, therefore, relevance between BCC and serum lipid level is not proven. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary for evaluating this subject.

  10. Calcitonin treatment in osteoectasia with hyperphosphatasia (juvenile Paget's disease): radiographic changes after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, B. [Div. of Genetics and Teratology, Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey); Serencebey, Istanbul (Turkey); Mercimek, S.; Uenguer, S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey); Deniz, M. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Haseki Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1999-11-01

    Osteoectasia with hyperphosphatasia is a rare skeletal disorder, characterised by demineralisation and expansion of tubular bones and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. We present a girl diagnosed as having osteoectasia with hyperphosphatasia who had swelling of phalanges of both hands and motor retardation. She was treated with synthetic human calcitonin. Clinical and radiological findings showed remarkable improvement after 2 years' treatment. (orig.)

  11. Correlation between basal serum IGF-1 levels and functional autonomy in elderly women. (Correlación entre los niveles sericos de IGF-1 basal y autonomía funcional en las ancianas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of correlation between basal serum IGF-1 levels and functional autonomy in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL. The sample comprised 11 elderly individuals, disregarding their ADLs (age = 68.18 ± 5.19 years; body mass index (BMI = 28.89 ± 3.44 kg/m2 and not enrolled in physical exercise programs for at least 3 months. The subjects were submitted to a battery of 5 functional autonomy tests from the GDLAM protocol and blood collection to assess serum IGF-1 levels. Using Pearson’s correlation, we found a significant mean correlation coefficient (r between the 10 m walking test (10mW and IGF-1 (r = -0.690; p = 0.009 and mean correlation, but not significant between the putting on and removing a t-shirt test (PRTS and IGF-1 (r = -0.528 and between the general autonomy index (AI and IGF-1 (r = -0.417. The correlation was low in the remaining tests, but inversed. This suggests that the decline in IGF-1 with age may decrease ADL performance in the elderly. Key words: Serum IGF-1; ADL; elderly. Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue comprobar el nivel de la correlación entre los niveles de serum basal de IGF-1 y la autonomía funcional para la realización de las actividades de la vida diaria en personas mayores (edad = 68,18 ± 5,19 años; índice de la masa corporal, IMC = 28,89 ± 3,44 kg/m2, no participantes de los programas de ejercicios físico desde hace un mínimo de 3 meses. Los sujetos fueron sometidos a una batería de 5 tareas de autonomía funcional del protocolo GDLAM y un análisis de sangre para evaluar los niveles de serum de IGF-1. A través de la correlación de Pearson se comprobó la existencia de un coeficiente de la correlación (r medio y significativo entre el examen de la marcha 10m (C10m y el IGF-1 (r = -0,690; p=0,009 y la correlación media, pero no significativa ,entre el test de vestirse y quitarse una camiseta (VTC y el IGF-1 (r= -0

  12. Skeletal blood flow in Paget's disease of bone and its response to calcitonin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, R; Reeve, J; Spellacy, E; Tellez-Yudilevich, M

    1978-01-01

    1. Blood flow to the skeleton was measured by the 18F clearance method of Wooton, Reeve & Veall (1976) in 24 patients with untreated Paget's disease. In every patient but one, resting skeletal blood flow was increased. There was a significant positive correlation between skeletal blood flow and serum alkaline phosphatase and between skeletal blood flow and urinary total hydroxyproline excretion. 2. Fourteen patients were re-studied after they had received short-term (7 days or less) or long-term (7 weeks or more) calcitonin. Skeletal blood flow, alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxy-proline excretion fell towards normal in every case. There was some evidence from the short-term studies that calcitonin produced a more rapid fall in skeletal blood flow than in alkaline phosphatase. 3. Glomerular filtration rate appeared to increase transiently in response to calcitonin.

  13. Calcitonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few minutes to measure the effect of the stimulation. People with early C-cell hyperplasia and/or medullary thyroid cancer ... with thyroid nodules, but not all clinicians agree. Stimulation tests may be ... 2, starting at an early age, in order to detect medullary thyroid cancer ...

  14. A core MYC gene expression signature is prominent in basal-like breast cancer but only partially overlaps the core serum response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chandriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The MYC oncogene contributes to induction and growth of many cancers but the full spectrum of the MYC transcriptional response remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarrays, we conducted a detailed kinetic study of genes that respond to MYCN or MYCNDeltaMBII induction in primary human fibroblasts. In parallel, we determined the response to steady state overexpression of MYCN and MYCNDeltaMBII in the same cell type. An overlapping set of 398 genes from the two protocols was designated a 'Core MYC Signature' and used for further analysis. Comparison of the Core MYC Signature to a published study of the genes induced by serum stimulation revealed that only 7.4% of the Core MYC Signature genes are in the Core Serum Response and display similar expression changes to both MYC and serum. Furthermore, more than 50% of the Core MYC Signature genes were not influenced by serum stimulation. In contrast, comparison to a panel of breast cancers revealed a strong concordance in gene expression between the Core MYC Signature and the basal-like breast tumor subtype, which is a subtype with poor prognosis. This concordance was supported by the higher average level of MYC expression in the same tumor samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Core MYC Signature has clinical relevance as this profile can be used to deduce an underlying genetic program that is likely to contribute to a clinical phenotype. Therefore, the presence of the Core MYC Signature may predict clinical responsiveness to therapeutics that are designed to disrupt MYC-mediated phenotypes.

  15. A Core MYC Gene Expression Signature Is Prominent in Basal-Like Breast Cancer but Only Partially Overlaps the Core Serum Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandriani, Sanjay; Frengen, Eirik; Cowling, Victoria H.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Perou, Charles M.; Whitfield, Michael L.; Cole, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The MYC oncogene contributes to induction and growth of many cancers but the full spectrum of the MYC transcriptional response remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microarrays, we conducted a detailed kinetic study of genes that respond to MYCN or MYCNΔMBII induction in primary human fibroblasts. In parallel, we determined the response to steady state overexpression of MYCN and MYCNΔMBII in the same cell type. An overlapping set of 398 genes from the two protocols was designated a ‘Core MYC Signature’ and used for further analysis. Comparison of the Core MYC Signature to a published study of the genes induced by serum stimulation revealed that only 7.4% of the Core MYC Signature genes are in the Core Serum Response and display similar expression changes to both MYC and serum. Furthermore, more than 50% of the Core MYC Signature genes were not influenced by serum stimulation. In contrast, comparison to a panel of breast cancers revealed a strong concordance in gene expression between the Core MYC Signature and the basal-like breast tumor subtype, which is a subtype with poor prognosis. This concordance was supported by the higher average level of MYC expression in the same tumor samples. Conclusions/Significance The Core MYC Signature has clinical relevance as this profile can be used to deduce an underlying genetic program that is likely to contribute to a clinical phenotype. Therefore, the presence of the Core MYC Signature may predict clinical responsiveness to therapeutics that are designed to disrupt MYC-mediated phenotypes. PMID:19690609

  16. Salmon calcitonin in prevention of osteoporosis in maintenance dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-xiang; LI Han

    2008-01-01

    Background Renal osteodystrophy is one of the commonest complications of chronic renal failure. It may have a severe impact on the quality of life of patients on maintenance dialysis therapy. Besides post-menopausal women and elderly people, the dialysis patients are another high risk group. But at present, there is no research on how to prevent osteoporosis in maintenance dialysis patients. This study was conducted to observe the bone density of maintenance dialysis patients and to evaluate the clinical outcomes and safety of different administration dosage of salmon calcitonin to prevent osteoporosis in maintenance dialysis patients.Methods One hundred and forty-eight patients on maintenance dialysis were involved in the 12-month, randomized, controlled trial. Fifty patients (experiment Ⅰ group) received subcutaneous injection of salmon calcitonin (50 U) three times a week for 12 months. Fifty patients (experiment Ⅱ group) received subcutaneous injection of salmon calcitonin (100 U) three times a week for 12 months. At the same time, both of them received oral calcium carbonate 1500 mg tid and rocaltrol 0.25 μg qn for 12 months. The control group only received oral calcium carbonate 1500 mg tid and rocaltrol 0.25 μg qn for 12 months. The levels of bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck, serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), osteocatcin (OC), calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed at baseline and then again after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment.Results The values of BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck before the treatment were not significantly different from those 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatment in trial groups I and II (all P >0.05) and there were no significant differences in the BMD values at different time points between trial groups I and I1. In the control group, the BMD values at the lumbar spine and femoral neck 3, 6, and 12 months after the beginning of trial were significantly lower than

  17. [Summary of work session 4: Effects of calcitonin and somatostatin on the stomach and pancreas--a possible therapeutic principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebell, H; Hotz, J

    1976-03-01

    Although calcitonin and somatostatin are polypeptid hormones of entirely different structure, in pharmacological doses they possess a similar effect to secretions of stomach and pancreas. Given intravenously, they generally inhibit the basal secretion of organs, stimulated by pentagastrin or pancreozymin, as well as the contraction of the gallbladder. Orally, calcitonin also suppresses by direct contact the secretion of the stomach. While calcitonin in higher doses shows only very slight and tolerable side effects (nausea, headache), somatostatin acts suppressively on many other hormone-regulated systems. Apart from this, disturbances of blood coagulation in monkeys and man were observed, findings which necessitate very careful application. Therapeutical trials appear reasonable with calcitonin in treating acute pancreatitis, in prophylaxis and treatment of stress ulcers with the danger of bleeding, in intensive care medicine, in preoperative procedure of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome as well as in duodenal ulcers (oral calcitonin). Double blind studies are carried out at present to answer most of these questions (acute pancreatitis, stress ulcers, duodenal ulcers), results of which should definitely be awaited.

  18. Clinical evaluation of radioassays for calcitonin, CEA-S, AFP and ferritin as tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical usefulness of the radioassays for serum calcitonin, isometric species of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA-S), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ferritin as the specific tumor markers was evaluated. The calcitonin assay was found to be extremely useful in detecting the cases of familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and in monitoring the patients after surgery. The CEA-S assay was proved more specific in titers and positivity for malignancies, especially GI tract carcinomas than CEA assay. The diagnosis of hepatoma could be performed precisely with a combination of 67Ga scintigraphy and assays of CEA and AFP. The serum ferritin levels in malignancies overlapped widely with those of non-malignancies. However, the estimation of ferritin-iron ratio was thought to be a useful means for screening patients with suspicious lesions. (author)

  19. Cerebroventricular calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits rat duodenal bicarbonate secretion by release of norepinephrine and vasopressin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, H. J.; Brown, M R

    1990-01-01

    Proximal duodenal bicarbonate secretion is an important factor in humans and animals protecting the mucosa against acid-peptic damage. This study examined the mechanisms responsible for the central nervous system regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in unrestrained rats. Cerebroventricular administration of rat CGRP significantly inhibited basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion as well as the stimulatory effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide,...

  20. 腹膜透析并发感染性腹膜炎患者血清降钙素原检测的临床意义%Peritoneal Dialysis Concurrent Infectious Peritonitis in Patients with Serum Calcitonin Original Clinical Significance of Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋新宇

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨分析腹膜透析并发感染性腹膜炎患者血清降钙素原检测的临床意义。方法选取我院2013年1月至2015年7月期间腹膜透析中心24例接受腹膜透析的患者作为研究分析对象,同时,所选24例患者均接受电化学发光免疫分析法进行检测,依据检测结果将其分为非腹膜炎组(12例)、腹膜炎组(12例),并选取同时期到我院体检健康者12例作为对照组,三组研究对象均接受血清降钙素原检验,比较三组研究对象检测结果。结果非腹膜炎组和腹膜炎组比较血清 PCT 指数,腹膜炎组明显高于非腹膜炎组,组间数据有统计学意义(P0.05);非腹膜炎组和腹膜炎组比较,血清 CRP 指数明显升高(P0.05)。结论腹膜透析并发感染性腹膜炎患者的血清降钙素原检测指数有明显升高趋势,临床中,对腹膜透析并发感染性腹膜炎疾病的判定有一定作用,同时也可用来评价临床治疗状况。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of serum levels of calcitonin in patients with peritoneal dialysis complicated with infection. Methods 2013 January to July 2015 during peritoneal dialysis center 24 cases accepted peritoneal dialysis patients as the analysis object, at the same time, the selected 24 patients underwent electrochemical luminescence immunoassay was used to detect the. Based on the test results will be classified as non peritonitis group (12 cases), the peritonitis group (12 cases), and select the same period in our hospital for a medical examination of the health and 12 cases as control group, three groups of subjects were treated with serum procalcitonin test, were compared among the three groups of research object detection results. Results The peritonitis group and peritonitis group serum PCT index, peritonitis group was significantly higher than that in non peritonitis group was statistically significant between two groups of data

  1. GLP-1 and Calcitonin Concentration in Humans: Lack of Evidence of Calcitonin Release from Sequential Screening in over 5000 Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Nondiabetic Obese Subjects Treated with the Human GLP-1 Analog, Liraglutide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Moses, Alan C; Zdravkovic, Milan;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Serum calcitonin (CT) is a well-accepted marker of C-cell proliferation, particularly in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Chronic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist administration in rodents has been associated with increased serum CT levels and C-cell tumor formation. There...... are no longitudinal studies measuring CT in humans without medullary thyroid carcinoma or a family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma and no published studies on the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on human serum CT concentrations. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine serum CT response...

  2. Optimizing the radioimmunologic determination methods for cortisol and calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to build up a specific 125-iodine cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) pure cortisol-3(0-carbodxymethyl) oxim was synthesized for teh production of antigens and tracers. The cortisol was coupled with tyrosin methylester and then labelled with 125-iodine. For the antigen production the cortisol derivate was coupled with the same method to thyreoglobulin. The major part of the antisera, which were obtained like this, presented high titres. Apart from a high specificity for cortisol a high affinity was found in the acid pH-area and quantified with a particularly developed computer program. An extractive step in the cortisol RIA could be prevented by efforts. The assay was carried out with an optimized double antibody principle: The reaction time between the first and the second antiserum was considerably accelerated by the administration of polyaethylenglycol. The assay can be carried out automatically by applying a modular analysis system, which operates fast and provides a large capacity. The required quality and accuracy controls were done. The comparison of this assay with other cortisol-RIA showed good correlation. The RIA for human clacitonin was improved. For separating bound and freely mobile hormones the optimized double-antibody technique was applied. The antiserum was examined with respect to its affinity to calcitonin. For the 'zero serum' production the Florisil extraction method was used. The criteria of the quality and accuracy controls were complied. Significantly increased calcitonin concentrations were found in a patient group with medullar thyroid carcinoma and in two patients with an additional phaechromocytoma. (orig./MG)

  3. Whisky: a new provacative test for calcitonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymling, J F; Ljungberg, O; Hillyard, C J; Greenberg, P B; Evans, I M; MacIntyre, I

    1976-07-01

    Oral whisky is a potent stimulus of calcitonin secretion. Peak increments of immunoreactive calcitonin are observed within 15 min after the ingestion of 50 ml of whisky; the magnitude of the response is similar to that observed during a four-hour calcium infusion. This procedure has several advantages over standard methods of stimulating calcitonin release in patients at risk of developing medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and this is shown by a study in a large family with familial chromaffinomatosis.

  4. Inhibitory effect of calcitonin on pure human pancreatic secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka,Juntaro

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of calcitonin on human pancreatic secretion was evaluated to examine whether the different results reported earlier between humans, cats and dogs can be ascribed to the different sensitivity of these species to calcitonin, as suggested by some investigators. Pancreatic juice was obtained by endoscopic cannulation of the pancreatic duct from 11 patients with relapsing pancreatitis during intravenous infusion of secretin (1 U/kg/h plus caerulein (0.04 microgram/kg/h. After steady secretion was attained 20 min after the beginning of collection, five 2-min fractions were obtained before, and ten 2-min fractions were obtained after intravenous infusion of calcitonin (1 IU/kg/h. The pre- and post-calcitonin fractions from each patient were compared by Student's t-test. Calcitonin inhibited the secretory volume (26.8 to 65.6% and bicarbonate secretion (21.4 to 62.0% in 8 patients, and amylase (48.4 to 89.5% and lipase secretion (47.4 to 90.5% in all patients. The present studies reconfirmed that prominent inhibition of enzyme secretion occurs in humans. A new finding was that significant inhibition of the secretory volume and bicarbonate secretion occurs in humans. The inhibitory effects of calcitonin in humans did not appear to differ from those in cats and dogs, when evaluated similarly with the use of pure pancreatic juice.

  5. Binding of a candidate splice regulator to a calcitonin-specific splice enhancer regulates calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Timothy P; Tran, Quincy; Roesser, James R

    2003-01-27

    The calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pre-mRNA is alternatively processed in a tissue-specific manner leading to the production of calcitonin mRNA in thyroid C cells and CGRP mRNA in neurons. A candidate calcitonin/CGRP splice regulator (CSR) isolated from rat brain was shown to inhibit calcitonin-specific splicing in vitro. CSR specifically binds to two regions in the calcitonin-specific exon 4 RNA previously demonstrated to function as a bipartate exonic splice enhancer (ESE). The two regions, A and B element, are necessary for inclusion of exon 4 into calcitonin mRNA. A novel RNA footprinting method based on the UV cross-linking assay was used to define the site of interaction between CSR and B element RNA. Base changes at the CSR binding site prevented CSR binding to B element RNA and CSR was unable to inhibit in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs containing the mutated CSR binding site. When expressed in cells that normally produce predominantly CGRP mRNA, a calcitonin/CGRP gene containing the mutated CSR binding site expressed predominantly calcitonin mRNA. These observations demonstrate that CSR binding to the calcitonin-specific ESE regulates calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA splicing.

  6. A specific Tween-80-Rhodamine S-MWNTs phosphorescent reagent for the detection of trace calcitonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jiaming, E-mail: zzsyliujiaming@163.com [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal College, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Huang Xiaomei; Zhang Lihong; Zheng Zhiyong [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal College, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Department of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhangzhou Institute of Technology, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Lin Xuan; Zhang Xiaoyang; Jiao Li; Cui Malin [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal College, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Jiang Shulian [Fujian Provincial Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Lin Shaoqin [Department of Biochemistry, Fujian Education College, Fuzhou 350001 (China)

    2012-09-26

    Graphical abstract: A new Tween-80-Rhodamine S-water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Tween-80-Rhod.S-MWNTs-EDC-NHS, TRMEN) phosphorescent labelling reagent was developed. High sensitive solid substrate room temperature phosphorescence immunoassay (SSRTPIA) for the determination of calcitonin (CT) in human serum and the prediction of human diseases based on the TRMEN could be used to label anti-calcitonin antibody (Ab{sub CT}) to form the TRMEN-Ab{sub CT} labelling product, which could take high specific immunoreaction with CT causing that the {Delta}I{sub p} of the system was linear to the content of CT. Moreover, the reaction mechanisms of both labelling Ab{sub CT} by TRMEN and SSRTPIA for the determination of trace CT were discussed. This research not only provides a new hormones analysis method, but also expands the application field of MWNTs and promotes the development of SSRTP and IA. --Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Tween-80-Rhodamine S-multi-walled carbon nanotubes labelling reagent was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorescence immunoassay was established for the determination of calcitonin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method has been applied to determine CT and the prediction of diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of MWNTs was characterized with SEM and IR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanisms for both determining trace CT and labelling Ab{sub CT} were discussed. - Abstract: The present study proposed a simple sensitive and specific immunoassay for the quantification of calcitonin (CT) in human serum with water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The -COOH group of MWNTs could react with the -NH- group of rhodamine S (Rhod.S) molecules to form Rhod.S-MWNTs, which could emit room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on acetate cellulose membrane (ACM) and react with Tween-80 to form micellar compound. Tween-80-Rhod.S-MWNTs (TRM), as a phosphorescent labelling reagent, could

  7. Salmon calcitonin: conformational changes and stabilizer effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Yang Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic activity of peptides or protein drugs is highly dependent on their conformational structure. The protein structure is flexible and responds to external conditions, which may compromise the protein's native conformation and influence its physical and chemical stability. The physical and chemical stability of peptides or protein drugs are important characteristics of biopharmaceutical products. Calcitonin (CT is a polypeptide hormone that participates in diverse physiological functions in humans; therefore, it is a potentially useful protein for investigations of different aspects of pharmacology and drug delivery systems. Of the different types of CT available for clinical use, salmon CT (sCT is one of the most potent. In this review article, the commercially available sCT was selected as a suitable peptide candidate for the discussion of its stability and conformational changes in the aqueous and solid states using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis under different external conditions, including pH, temperature, drying method, and added excipients. Particularly, excipients that have been optimized as stabilizers of sCT in aqueous solution and as lyophilized and spray-dried drug formulations are also discussed.

  8. Assessment of the relationship of basal serum anti-mullerian hormone levels with oocyte quality and pregnancy outcomes in patients undergoing ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin Adanaş Aydın

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH is constantly secreted during menstrual cycles and may offer several advantages over traditional biomarkers of ovarian reserve. Objective: To assess the relationship of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH values, which are used to evaluate ovary reserves, with oocyte and embryo quality and with ART outcomes in patients undergoing intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed using 50 women undergoing ICSI in IVF center of Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey. All patients received the long protocol. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and AMH levels were measured and antral follicle counts were obtained on the 3rd day of menstruation. A cut-off value based on the number of oocytes was determined for AMH, and women were evaluated after being divided into two groups as bad responders and good responders, according to their AMH levels. Results: Twelve (27.3% women were in bad responders group and 32 (72.7% women were in good responders group. AMH measurements were statistically significantly different between the two groups (p<0.01. Based on this significance, the researchers used ROC analysis to estimate a cut-off point for AMH. The researchers detected the good responders with an AMH level 1.90 or above, with 87.50% sensitivity, 66.67% specificity, 87.50% positive prediction, and 66.67% negative prediction (AUC=0.777, p<0.01. Conclusion: Basal AMH levels can be used as an indicator to determine the ovarian response in women undergoing ICSI. AMH can be used to predict the number of mature oocytes that can be collected during treatment and the number of oocytes that can be fertilized. However, AMH is not a valuable tool to evaluate oocyte quality, the development of high-quality embryos, or pregnancy conception.

  9. Investigation of bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism before and after treatment using calcitonin, 47Ca and balance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen normocalcaemic patients with severe hyperthyroidism were examined before therapy was initiated; 9 were re-examined about 1 year later. Studies with 47Ca under balance conditions and with calcitonin demonstrated a high rate of bone resorption in untreated patients. As a result of the increased bone turnover, the reaction to 6 MRC units of porcine calcitonin iv was more marked in the untreated than in the treated patients, or the control group. In contrast to the normal diurnal pattern for PO4, it was found that during fasting the plasma PO4 level increases in the morning in patients with hyperthyroidism. This increase which was not suppressed by the administered dose of calcitonin developed in spite of an elevated urinary PO4 excretion. After treatment, the serum Ca concentration as well as the urinary and faecal Ca excretion was decreased. The Ca balance improved; the rapidly-exchangeable Ca pool returned to normal. The slowly-exchangeable and the total Ca pools, however, remained enlarged. The rate of bone resorption normalized. The accretion rate on the other hand remained elevated. This is attributed to continued enhancement of bone formation to compensate for the previous loss of bony tissue. (author)

  10. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption. PMID:2576918

  11. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption.

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin release in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    2002-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) are potent vasorelaxant peptides. This study examined exercise-induced changes in CGRP and AM levels in 12 healthy sea level natives at sea level (SL) and subsequently after 24 h (HA1) and 5 days (HA5) in high altitude hypoxia (4559 m......). Plasma values of CGRP, AM, calcitonin, noradrenaline, adrenaline, lactate and heart rate were measured at rest and during maximal exercise (W(max)). On each study day, the dopamine D(2)-receptor antagonist, domperidone (30 mg; n=6), or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before exercise. W(max) at SL, HA1...

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  14. The Treatment of Sudeck Syndrorn or Algodystrophie by Calcitonin

    OpenAIRE

    Breintenfelder, J.; Yucel, M

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of the Sudeck Syndrome, basing upon different points of view is to the essence of this sickness, is ambiguous and even contradictory. Assuming to experiences obtained in the treatment of aigodistrophies, we shall try to set up a generally valid scheme of treatment, according to case descriptions. The method involved empioys calcitonin.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1140 - Calcitonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcitonin test system. 862.1140 Section 862.1140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. Osteoblast hydraulic conductivity is regulated by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that osteoblasts play a major role in regulating bone (re)modeling by regulating interstitial fluid (ISF) flow through individual bone compartments. We hypothesize that osteoblasts of the blood-bone membrane lining the bone surfaces are capable of regulating transosseous fluid flow. This regulatory function of the osteoblasts was tested in vitro by culturing a layer of rat calvarial osteoblasts on porous membranes. Such a layer of osteoblasts subjected to 7.3 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure posed a significant resistance to fluid flow across the cell layer similar in magnitude to the resistance posed by endothelial monolayers in vitro. The hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric fluid flux per unit pressure drop, of the osteoblast layer was altered in response to certain hormones. Hydraulic conductivity decreased approximately 40% in response to 33 nM parathyroid hormone, while it exhibited biphasic behavior in response to calcitonin: increased 40% in response to 100 nM calcitonin and decreased 40% in response to 1000 nM calcitonin. Further, activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin dramatically increased the hydraulic conductivity, while elevation of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, by the calcium ionophore A23187 initially decreased the hydraulic conductivity at 5 minutes before increasing conductivity by 30 minutes. These results suggest that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and [Ca2+]i may mediate changes in the osteoblast hydraulic conductivity. The increase in hydraulic conductivity in response to 100 nM calcitonin and the decrease in response to PTH suggest that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects on bone formation of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, respectively, may be due in part to alterations in bone fluid flow.

  17. THE EFFECT OF CORTICAL SPREADING DEPRESSION ON CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE AND SUBSTANCE P LEVELS IN SERUM OF RATS%皮层扩布性抑制对血浆降钙素基因相关肽与P物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱恩超; 于生元; 李凤鹏; 刘若卓; 石宏; 景向红

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立偏头痛大鼠皮层扩布性抑制(cortical spreading depression,CSD)模型,研究CSD对大鼠血浆降钙素基因肽(calcitonin gene-related peptide,CGRP)和P物质(substance P,SP)的影响.方法:大鼠随机分为CSD组(n=10)、对照组(n=10),分别用氯化钾溶液及生理盐水浸润滤纸片刺激枕叶皮层,在额叶皮层记录CSD波,利用放射免疫技术测定大鼠血浆中的CGRP、SP水平,进行成组t检验比较.结果:CSD组大鼠记录到CSD波,对照组大鼠未记录到CSD波;CSD组大鼠血浆CGRP、SP水平高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:利用氯化钾溶液浸润滤纸片刺激大鼠枕叶皮层成功建立了CSD模型,CSD使血浆CGRP、SP水平增加,说明CSD可能通过一定的机制激活了三叉神经血管反射,进而导致偏头痛的发生.

  18. Basal serum cortisol level and its circadian variability in PCOS patients%多囊卵巢综合征基础血清皮质醇水平及其昼夜规律变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古芳; 徐艳文; 苗本郁; 朱莉; 王彬; 周灿权

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the basal cortisol level and its circadian rhythm in a cohort of Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods A cohort of 63 PCOS women (21 obese and 42 non-obese) and 38 non-obese healthy controls were included in this study. Serum cortisol levels at 8AM and 4PM as well as the rate of loss of cortisol circadian rhythm were compared among the obese PCOS group, non-obese PCOS group and healthy controls. Possible factors associated with the basal cortisol level were analyzed. Results Basal cortisol level in the obese PCOS group, non-obese PCOS group and healthy controls were (325.7 ± 125. 7) nmol/L, (407. 6 ± 165. 6) nmol/L and (397.4 ±129.9) nmol/L, respectively. Obese PCOS group had a lower basal cortisol level than the healthy controls ( P < 0. 05). The ratio of 4PM: 8AM cortisol was higher in the obese(0. 78 ±0. 54) and non-obese PCOS group (0. 61 ±0. 34)than the healthy controls(0. 46 ±0. 20) (P<0. 05). Circadian rhythm loss occurred more frequently in obese PCOS patients (47.6%) than the healthy controls ( 10. 5% ) ( P < 0. 05 ) . Basal cortisol levels were inversely associated with BMI ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Obese PCOS patients have an activated HPA axis,with decreased basal cortisol levels and higher rates of circadian rhythm loss. BMI might play an important role in cortisol metabolism as well as the HPA activation.%目的 探讨多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者基础血清皮质醇水平及其昼夜规律的变化.方法 对2008年7月至2010年5月中山大学附属第一医院生殖医学中心63例PCOS患者(21例肥胖和42例非肥胖)及38名月经正常的健康妇女进行空腹8时(基础)及16时血清皮质醇浓度测定,并比较其昼夜规律消失的比例,同时分析影响基础皮质醇水平的可能相关因素.结果 肥胖PCOS组、非肥胖PCOS组及健康对照组的基础皮质醇水平分别为( 325.7±125.7)nmoL/L,(407.6±165.6) nmol/L和(397.4±129.9) nmol/L.其中肥胖PCOS组

  19. Thyroid calcitonin cells in response to glucagon-induced hypocalcaemia in the Indian jackal, Canis aureus (Linnaeus--lex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarup, K; Tewari, N P

    1980-01-01

    Jackal (Canis aureus) puppies (10) were subjected to hypocalcaemia by a single intravenous injection of crystalline porcine glucagon (Eli Lilly and Co.) in a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood samples from each specimen were collected 30 minutes before injection. Then again after an interval of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 minutes blood samples were taken. For histological study animals were killed after 30, 90, 120, 240 and 300 minutes of the injection. The mean serum calcium level records a fall upto 90 minutes but it tends to return to normal and at 300 minutes it returns to the preinjection level. The mean serum inorganic phosphate level records a fall upto 180 minutes and therafter the value increases approaching the preinjection levles after 300 minutes. Specific stains were used for staining the calcitonin cells. Animals killed 30 minutes after the injection exhibit beginning of degranulation of secretory granules in their C cells, while those killed after 300 minutes show marked degranulation. A progressive degranulation of calcitonin cells at the various stages of experimentation displays correspondingly poorer response to the staining reaction. There is no change in the histological picture of the parathyroid. PMID:7424080

  20. Preliminary study on androgen dependence of calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat penis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-Jun Shen; Shan-Wen Chen; Ying-Li Lu; Liao-Yuan Li; Xie-Lai Zhou; Ming-Guang Zhang; Zhao-Dian Chen

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the androgen dependence of the neurotransmitter, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat penis.Methods: Forty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Group A (intact controls), Group B (castrated)group were anaesthetized. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by means of radioimmunoassay. Penile samples were harvested for the investigation of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers with immunohistochemistry. The computer-assisted imaging analysis system was applied to calculate the area proportion of the CGRP-positive nerve fibers (CGRP-PNF) in each group.Results: 1) Both 4 and 10 weeks later, testosterone and DHT levels in Group B decreased significantly compared with those in Group A, (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively); DHT level in Group C was also significantly decreased in comparison with that in Group A for both 4- and 10- week animals (P < 0.05); 2) There was no significant differences in area proportion of CGRP-PNF among Groups A, B and C 4 weeks after treatments (P > 0.05); However, 10weeks later, the proportion of CGRP-PNF in Groups B and C was significantly less than that in Group A (P < 0.01);3) The proportion of CGRP-PNF of 4-week animals in Groups B and C was significantly higher than that of 10-week animals (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of neurotransmitter, CGRP may depend on androgens, including testosterone and DHT in rat penis.

  1. Conformational flexibility in calcitonin: The dynamic properties of human and salmon calcitonin in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the dynamic properties of human (h) and salmon (s) calcitonin (CT) in solution. For both hormones, distance geometry in torsion-angle space has been used to generate three-dimensional structures consistent with NMR data obtained in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles. For sCT and hCT we used, respectively, 356 and 275 interproton distances together with hydrogen-bonds as restraints. To better characterize their flexibility and dynamic properties two fully unrestrained 1100-ps molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in methanol were performed on the lowest-energy structures of both hormones. Statistical analyses of average geometric parameters and of their fluctuations performed in the last 1000 ps of the MD run show typical helical values for residues 9-19 of sCT during the whole trajectory. For hCT a shorter helix was observed involving residues 13-21, with a constant helical region in the range 13-19. Angular order parameters S(φ) and S(ψ) indicate that hCT exhibits a higher flexibility, distributed along the whole chain, including the helix, while the only flexible amino acid residues in sCT connect three well-defined domains. Finally, our study shows that simulated annealing in torsion-angle space can efficiently be extended to NMR-based three-dimensional structure calculations of helical polypeptides. Furthermore, provided that a sufficient number of NMR restraints describes the system, the method allows the detection of equilibria in solution. This identification occurs through the generation of 'spurious' high-energy structures, which, for right-handed α-helices, are likely to be represented by left-handed α-helices

  2. Imprinted ZnO nanostructure-based electrochemical sensing of calcitonin: A clinical marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Molecular imprinting-based sensor for medullary thyroid carcinoma marker was developed. • ZnO nanostructure was used as a platform for synthesis of imprinted polymer. • Imprinted polymer was prepared by ARGET–ATRP method. • A novel and biocompatible tyrosine amino acid derivative was used as monomer. • Linear working range is found from 9.99 ng L−1 to 7.919 mg L−1 with LOD 3.09 ng L−1. - Abstract: The present work describes an exciting method for the selective and sensitive determination of calcitonin in human blood serum samples. Adopting the surface molecular imprinting technique, a calcitonin-imprinted polymer was prepared on the surface of the zinc oxide nanostructure. Firstly, a biocompatible tyrosine derivative as a monomer was grafted onto the surface of zinc oxide nanostructure followed by their polymerization on vinyl functionalized electrode surface by activator regenerated by electron transfer–atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET–ATRP) technique. Such sensor can predict the small change in the concentration of calcitonin in the human body and it may also consider to be as cost-effective, renewable, disposable, and reliable for clinical studies having no such cross-reactivity and matrix effect from real samples. The morphologies and properties of the proposed sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, difference pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The linear working range was found to be 9.99 ng L−1 to 7.919 mg L−1 and the detection limit as low as 3.09 ± 0.01 ng L−1 (standard deviation for three replicate measurements) (S/N = 3)

  3. Role for voltage gated calcium channels in calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, D V; Ploug, K B; Olesen, J;

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and genetic studies have suggested a role for voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the pathogenesis of migraine. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal neurons has also been implicated in migraine. The VGCCs are located presynaptically on neurons and are...... potassium releases CGRP, and the release is regulated by Ca2+ ions and voltage-gated calcium channels....... potassium induced CGRP release. In the absence of calcium ions (Ca2+) and in the presence of a cocktail of blockers, the stimulated CGRP release from dura mater was reduced almost to the same level as basal CGRP release. In the TG ω-conotoxin GVIA inhibited the potassium induced CGRP release significantly...

  4. Role for voltage gated calcium channels in calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, D V; Ploug, K B; Olesen, J;

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and genetic studies have suggested a role for voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the pathogenesis of migraine. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal neurons has also been implicated in migraine. The VGCCs are located presynaptically on neurons and are...... potassium releases CGRP, and the release is regulated by Ca2+ ions and voltage-gated calcium channels....... potassium induced CGRP release. In the absence of calcium ions (Ca2+) and in the presence of a cocktail of blockers, the stimulated CGRP release from dura mater was reduced almost to the same level as basal CGRP release. In the TG ¿-conotoxin GVIA inhibited the potassium induced CGRP release significantly...

  5. Paradoxical acute hypercalcemic effect of salmon calcitonin in patients having Paget's disease of bone after treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, P D; Chapuy, M C; Meunier, P J

    1984-05-01

    The hypocalcemia following administration of calcitonin may be an index to disease activity in Paget's disease of bone. Therefore, we assessed the effect of a single injection of 100 MRC units of salmon calcitonin (SCT) on plasma calcium in 28 patients with active Paget's disease before and after 6 months of treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) at a dose of 400 mg/day (3 patients), 800 mg/day (8 patients), 1.600 mg/day (9 patients) or 2.600 mg/day (8 patients). The mean SCT-induced hypocalcemia was reduced by Cl2MDP and there was a significant positive correlation between the decrease of serum calcium induced by SCT and bone resorption evaluated by the number of osteoclasts on bone biopsy taken in pagetic iliac crest. After Cl2MCP treatment, 5 patients manifested a paradoxical hypercalcemic response to SCT injection ranging from +0.3 mg/dl to +0.5 mg/dl, which was sustained over the 9 hours following injection. As these patients had a dramatic inhibition of bone resorption induced by Cl2 MDP, it is suggested that the hypercalcemic response to SCT might reflect persistence or exaggeration of the early hypercalcemic effect of CT which reportedly precedes the hypocalcemic response to SCT. PMID:6234216

  6. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  7. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of calcitonin on neuropathic pain interacting with its peripheral receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Akitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is clinically well known for its ability to relieve neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome. Mechanisms for its analgesic effect, however, remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism of anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Results Subcutaneous injection of elcatonin, a synthetic derivative of eel calcitonin, relieved hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the CCI provoked the upregulation of tetrodotoxin (TTX-sensitive Nav.1.3 mRNA and downregulation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA on the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which would consequently increase the excitability of peripheral nerves. These changes were reversed by elcatonin. In addition, the gene expression of the calcitonin receptor and binding site of 125I-calcitonin was increased at the constricted peripheral nerve tissue but not at the DRG. The anti-hyperalgesic effect and normalization of sodium channel mRNA by elcatonin was parallel to the change of the calcitonin receptor expression. Elcatonin, however, did not affect the sensitivity of nociception or gene expression of sodium channel, while it suppressed calcitonin receptor mRNA under normal conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that the anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin on CCI rats could be attributable to the normalization of the sodium channel expression, which might be exerted by an unknown signal produced at the peripheral nerve tissue but not by DRG neurons through the activation of the calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin signals were silent in the normal condition and nerve injury may be one of triggers for conversion of a silent to an active signal.

  8. Analysis of the Role of Serum Calcitonin in the Differential Diagnosis of Intracranial Infection in Children%血清降钙素原检测在小儿颅内感染鉴别诊断中的作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段光敏

    2015-01-01

    目的探究血清降钙素原检测在小儿颅内感染诊断鉴别中的价值,以便为临床提供指导。方法选取细菌性脑膜炎患儿20例作为A组,病毒性脑膜炎患儿20例作为B组,选取体检正常的20例儿童作为正常对照组,检测三组血清钙素原水平。结果 A组血清中降钙素原水平明显高于B组(0.05)。结论血清降钙素原检测在小儿颅内感染诊断鉴别中具有较好的应用价值,确诊率较高。%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin in the dif erential diagnosis in children with intracranial infection, in order to provide clinical guidance. Methods 20 cases of bacterial meningitis in children as in group A, 20 cases of viral meningitis in children as group B, select the examination of 20 cases of children as normal control group, the detection of three original serum calcium levels. Results A group of serum procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in group B ( 0.05). Conclusion Serum procalcitonin detection has good application value in dif erential diagnosis in children with intracranial infection, a higher rate of diagnosis.

  9. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  10. Calcitonin-Induced Effects on Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Morabito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic fluid (huAFMSCs can differentiate into multiple lineages and are not tumorigenic after transplantation, making them good candidates for therapeutic purposes. The aim was to determine the effects of calcitonin on these huAFMSCs during osteogenic differentiation, in terms of the physiological role of calcitonin in bone homeostasis. Methods: For huAFMSCs cultured under different conditions, we assayed: expression of the calcitonin receptor, using immunolabelling techniques; proliferation and osteogenesis, using colorimetric and enzymatic assays; intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP levels, using videomicroscopy and spectrophotometry. Results: The calcitonin receptor was expressed in proliferating and osteo-differentiated huAFMSCs. Calcitonin triggered intracellular Ca2+ increases and cAMP production. Its presence in cell medium also induced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on proliferation and increased osteogenic differentiation of huAFMSCs, as also indicated by enhancement of specific markers and alkaline phosphatase activity. Conclusions: These data show that huAFMSCs represent a potential osteogenic model to study in-vitro cell responses to calcitonin (and other members of the calcitonin family. This leads the way to the opening of new lines of research that will add new insight both in cell therapies and in the pharmacological use of these molecules.

  11. Comparison of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Level between Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is revealed with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the children with dilated cardiomyopathy and control group regarding the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and its relationship with echocardiography findings Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 37 children with dilated cardiomyopathy and free of any clinical symptoms and 37 healthy age- and sex-matched children referring to Ali-e-Asghar and Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. After taking history, echocardiography was performed for both groups. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and appropriate statistical tests. Results: The two groups were significantly different regarding most of the echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05. Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean CGRP levels (P = 0.001. Among echocardiographic parameters, CGRP was directly related to Interventricular Septal dimension in Systole (IVSS (P = 0.022, R = 0.375. However, no significant relationship was observed between CGRP level and Ross classification. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed an increase in CGRP serum levels in the case group. Besides, a direct correlation was observed between CGRP level and IVSS.

  12. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arabzadeh, Somayeh; Hossein, Ghamartaj; Rashidi, Batool Hossein; Hosseini, Marziyeh Agha; Zeraati, Hojjat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) wa...

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    levels of CGRP in MA patients are comparable to MO, but CGRP levels varied among studies. A number of animal studies, including knock-ins of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) genes, have examined the relationship between CGRP and cortical spreading depression. In patients, CGRP does not trigger migraine......BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathophysiology. Most studies have focused on CGRP in relation to migraine without aura (MO). About one-third of migraine patients have attacks with aura (MA), and this is a systematic review of the current literature...... in FHM, but is a robust trigger of migraine-like headache both in MA and MO patients. The treatment effect of CGRP antagonists are well proven in the treatment of migraine, but no studies have studied the effect specifically in MA patients. CONCLUSION: This systematic review indicates that the role...

  14. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Jacobsen, V B; Haderslev, P A;

    2008-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves are closely associated with cranial blood vessels. CGRP is the most potent vasodilator known in isolated cerebral blood vessels. CGRP can induce migraine attacks, and two selective CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in the treatment...... of migraine attacks. It is therefore important to investigate its mechanism of action in patients with migraine. We here investigate the effects of intravenous human alpha-CGRP (halphaCGRP) on intracranial hemodynamics. In a double-blind, cross-over study, the effect of intravenous infusion of halphaCGRP (2...... mug/min) or placebo for 20 min was studied in 12 patients with migraine without aura outside attacks. Xenon-133 inhalation SPECT-determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and transcranial Doppler (TCD)-determined blood velocity (V (mean)) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), as well as the heart...

  15. [Effect of calcitonin, somatostatin and cimetidine on stress ulcer in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakesz, R; Hofbauer, F; Lehr, L; Schiessel, R

    1978-05-01

    The prophylactic effect of calcitonin, somatostatin and cimetidine on stress ulcer formation in rats was investigated in two stress models: restraint + ketamin (4 h) and hypovolemia (4 h). The basis of the comparative study was a 70% inhibition of acid secretion for 4 h in pyloric ligated animals. This was achieved with 1000 microgram/kg somatostatin s.c., 10 microgram/kg calcitonin s.c., and 2 X 100 mumol/kg cimetidine s.c. In restraint stress and ketamin with calcitonin and cimetidine a significantly lower frequency of gastric lesions was found than with somatostatin. The most potent substance in hypovolemia was calcitonin, with a significant difference in the frequency of mucosal lesions to the groups with cimetidine and somatostatin.

  16. Activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases by recombinant calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, N; Disa, J; Spielman, W S; Brooks, D P; Nambi, P; Aiyar, N

    2000-02-18

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide and a potent vasodilator. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide has been shown to have a number of effects in a variety of systems, the mechanisms of action and the intracellular signaling pathways, especially the regulation of mitogen-activated protien kinase (MAPK) pathway, is not known. In the present study we investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regulation of MAPKs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with a recombinant porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Calcitonin gene-related peptide caused a significant dose-dependent increase in cAMP response and the effect was inhibited by calcitonin gene-related peptide(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist. Calcitonin gene-related peptide also caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities, with apparently no significant change in cjun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase also stimulated ERK and P38 activities in these cells suggesting the invovement of cAMP in this process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-stimulated ERK and P38 MAPK activities were inhibited significantly by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, calcitonin gene-related peptide-(8-37) suggesting the involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Preincubation of the cells with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H89 [¿N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, hydrochloride¿] inhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated activation of ERK and p38 kinases. On the other hand, preincubation of the cells with wortmannin ¿[1S-(1alpha,6balpha,9abeta,11alpha, 11bbeta)]-11-(acetyloxy)-1,6b,7,8,9a,10,11, 11b-octahydro-1-(methoxymethyl)-9a,11b-dimethyl-3H-furo[4,3, 2-de]indeno[4,5-h]-2

  17. Transient receptor potential channel A1 involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide release in neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobumasa Ushio; Yi Dai; Shenglan Wang; Tetsuo Fukuoka; Koichi Noguchi

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel A1 is one of the important transducers of noxious stimuli in the primary afferents, which may contribute to generation of neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia. The present study was designed to investigate if activation of transient receptor potential channel A1 may induce calcitonin gene-related peptide release from the primary afferent neurons. We found that application of al yl isothiocyanate, a transient receptor potential channel A1 activator, caused calcitonin gene-related peptide release from the cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Knock-down of transient receptor potential channel A1 with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide prevented calcitonin gene-related peptide release by al yl isothiocyanate application in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Thus, we concluded that transient receptor potential channel A1 activation caused calcitonin gene-related peptide release in sensory neurons.

  18. Contributions of calcitonin gene-related peptide in ischemia, inflammation and nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Brodda Jansen, Gunilla

    1996-01-01

    The sensory neuropeptide Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a very potent vaso- dilator with a wide distribution in peripheral sensory nerves, often co-stored with sub- stance P. In the present study, the effects of CGRP in different models of ischemia, inflammation and nociception were examined. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, but not substance P (SP), was found to inhibit edema-promoting actions of inflammatory mediators (histamine, leukotrine B4, 5-hydroxytryp...

  19. 血降钙素原在儿童化脓性脑膜炎与病毒性脑膜炎中的鉴别诊断价值%Differential diagnosis value of serum calcitonin level in children with purulent meningitis and viral meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任磊; 周启立; 刘霞; 祁宏亮; 刘丽娜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) level in the differential diagnosis of purulent meningitis and viral meningitis in children.Methods Clinical data of 47 children with acute meningitis,admitted to our hospital from January 2013 to January 2015,were analyzed.Among them,21 were purulent meningitis and 26 were viral meningitis.All children accepted tests as cerebrospinal fluid,serum PCT,C-reactive protein (CRP),and erythrocyte sedimentation (ES) inspection;and comparison of results between the two groups was performed.Results The PCT,CRP and ES levels in the purulent meningitis group were (51.96±30.72) μg/L,(182.33±54.49) mag/L,(50.41± 892) mm/h;and those in the viral meningitis group were (0.81 ±0.96) μg/L,(8.87±10.63) mg/L and (16.72±13.20) mm/h;significant differences were noted between the two groups (P<0.05).There were 3 children with viral meningitis having PCT level higher than 0.5 μg/L,while all patients with purulent meningitis having PCT level higher than 0.5 μg/L,enjoying sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 88.46%.There were 8 children with viral meningitis having ES level higher than 20 mm/h,while 19 patients with purulent meningitis having ES level higher than 20 mm/h,enjoying sensitivity and specificity of 90.48% and 69.23%.Area under receiver operating characteristic curve of PCT was 0.982 (95%CI=0.951-1.011),CRP was 0.981 (95%CI=0.952-1.010),without difference.Conclusion PCT has an important diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of purulent meningitis and viral meningitis in children,which is better than ESR diagnosis.%目的 探讨血降钙素原(PCT)在鉴别诊断儿童化脓性脑膜炎(细菌性脑膜炎)与病毒性脑膜炎中的价值. 方法 收集承德医学院附属医院小儿内科自2013年1月至2015年1月收治的47例急性脑膜炎患儿的临床资料,其中化脓性脑膜炎21例、病毒性脑膜炎26例.所有患儿入院后均接受脑脊液

  20. Changes of serum PTH and CT levels in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the serum level changes of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Calcitonin (CT) in hyperthyroid-and hypothyroid-patients. Methods: Serum parathyroid hormone and Calcitonin levels were determined With RIA in 62 cases of hyperthyroidism, 32 cases of hypothyroidism and 35 normal Controls. Results: The serum PTH levels in patients with hyperthyroidism were lower than those in controls (P < 0.05); the PTH levels in patients with hypothyroidism were high than normal (P < 0.01). The serum CT levels were decreased both in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum PTH and CT levels in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism was of important clinical Significance

  1. Evaluation of bone targeting salmon calcitonin analogues in rats developing osteoporosis and adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Krishna H; Asghar, Waheed; Newa, Madhuri; Jamali, Fakhreddin; Doschak, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic analogues of the peptide hormone calcitonin have been used in medicine as biologic drug therapies for decades, to treat pathological conditions of excessive bone turnover, such as osteoporosis, where more bones are removed than replaced during bone remodeling. Osteoporosis and other chronic skeletal diseases, including inflammatory arthritis, exact a substantial and growing toll on aging populations worldwide however they respond poor to synthetic biologic drug therapy, due in part to the rapid half-life of elimination, which for calcitonin is 43 minutes. To address those shortcomings, we have developed and synthesized bone-targeting variants of calcitonin as a targeted drug delivery strategy, by conjugation to bisphosphonate drug bone-seeking functional groups in highly specific reaction conditions. To evaluate their in vivo efficacy, bisphosphonate-mediated bone targeting with PEGylated (polyethylene glycol conjugated) and non-PEGylated salmon calcitonin analogues were synthesized and dose escalation was performed in female rats developing Osteoporosis. The bone-targeting calcitonin analogues were also tested in a separate cohort of male rats developing adjuvant-induced arthritis. Ovariectomized female rats developing Osteoporosis were administered daily sub-cutaneous injection of analogues equivalent to 5, 10 and 20 IU/kg of calcitonin for 3 months. Adjuvant arthritis was developed in male rats by administering Mycobacterium butyricum through tail base injection. Daily sub-cutaneous injection of analogues equivalent to 20 IU/kg of calcitonin was administered and the rats were measured for visible signs of inflammation to a 21 day endpoint. In both studies, the effect of drug intervention upon bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by measuring the trabecular bone volume percentage and BMD at the proximal tibial metaphysis using in vivo micro-computed tomography. With dose escalation studies, only bone targeting analogue dosed groups

  2. Calcitonin Receptor AluI (rs1801197) and Taq1 Calcitonin Genes Polymorphism in 45-and Over 45-year-old Women and their Association with Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Morteza; Pourahmad-Jaktaji, Razieh; Farzaneh, Zarghampoor

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Calcitonin receptor gene has also a polymorphism which is associated with bone mass density. This study evaluates the association between calcitonin receptor AluI (rs1801197) and Taq1 calcitonin genes polymorphism with bone density rate. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study in 2013 in southwestern Iran, 200 blood samples, per the Cochran sample size formula, were taken from women aged 45 and older. DNA was extracted from the samples using the phenol– chloroform method and the genomic fragments in question were proliferated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results: The genotypic distribution of polymorphism AluI for TT, TC, and CC genotypes in control group was 31.4%, 38.6%, and 30% and in patients 25.4%, 55.4%, and 19.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference in polymorphism AluI between patients and control group and no significant association was found between this gene and bone density rate (P > 0.05). All patients and the individuals in the control group exhibited tt genotype for TaqI calcitonin gene and no significant association was found between these participants and osteoporosis. Conclusion: There was no association between two polymorphisms and osteoporosis, and between polymorphism of these two genes and osteoporosis development rate in the participants. PMID:27708484

  3. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 have high therapeutic potential for improving diabetic mandibular growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona A Abbassy; Ippei Watari; Ahmed S Bakry; Takashi Ono; Ali H Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the intermittent combination of an antiresorptive agent (calcitonin) and an anabolic agent (vitamin D3) on treating the detrimental effects of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on mandibular bone formation and growth. Forty 3-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control group (normal rats), the control C1D group (normal rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3), the diabetic C1D group (diabetic rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3) and the diabetic group (uncontrolled diabetic rats). An experimental DM condition was induced in the male Wistar rats in the diabetic and diabetic C1D groups using a single dose of 60 mg?kg–1 body weight of streptozotocin. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 were simultaneously injected in the rats of the control C1D and diabetic C1D groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks, and the right mandibles were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis. Diabetic rats showed a significant deterioration in bone quality and bone formation (diabetic group). By contrast, with the injection of calcitonin and vitamin D3, both bone parameters and bone formation significantly improved (diabetic C1D group) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that these two hormones might potentially improve various bone properties.

  4. CALCITONIN-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN SERUM AND TISSUES OF THE BONNETHEAD SHARK, SPHYRNA TIBURO. (R826128)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Oral salmon calcitonin attenuates hyperglycaemia and preserves pancreatic beta-cell area and function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Andreassen, K V; Neutzsky-Wulff, A V;

    2012-01-01

    Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT), a dual-action amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, improved glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese rats. Here, we have evaluated the anti-diabetic efficacy of oral sCT using parameters of glycaemic control and beta-cell morphology in male Zucker diabetic fatty...... (ZDF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes....

  6. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Tension-Type Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years there has been increasing interest in the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in primary headaches. Tension-type headache is one of the most common and important types of primary headaches, and ongoing nociception from myofascial tissues may play an important role in the pathophysiology of this disorder. CGRP sensory fibers are preferentially located in the walls of arteries, and nerve fibers containing CGRP accompany small blood vessels in human cranial muscles. It is well established that nociception may lead to release of CGRP from sensory nerve endings and from central terminals of sensory afferents into the spinal cord. It has also been shown that density of CGRP fibers around arteries is increased in persistently inflamed muscle. These findings indicate that ongoing activity in sensory neurons in the cranial muscles may be reflected in changes of plasma levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic tension-type headache. To explore the possible role of CGRP in tension-type headache, plasma levels of CGRP were measured in patients with chronic tension-type headache. This study showed that plasma levels of CGRP are normal in patients and unrelated to headache state. However, the findings of normal plasma levels of CGRP do not exclude the possibility that abnormalities of this neuropeptide at the neuronal or peripheral (pericranial muscles levels play a role in the pathophysiology of tension-type headache. Investigation of CGRP in other compartments with new sensitive methods of analysis is necessary to clarify its role in tension-type headache.

  7. A phase 3 trial of the efficacy and safety of oral recombinant calcitonin: the Oral Calcitonin in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (ORACAL) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Neil; Bolognese, Michael; Sidorowicz-Bialynicka, Anna; Vally, Tasneem; Trout, Richard; Miller, Colin; Buben, Christine E; Gilligan, James P; Krause, David S

    2012-08-01

    The Oral Calcitonin in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (ORACAL) study was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, phase 3 study to assess the efficacy and safety of oral recombinant calcitonin for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A total of 565 women age 46 to 86 (mean 66.5) years were randomized (4:3:2) to receive oral recombinant salmon calcitonin (rsCT) tablets (0.2  mg/d) plus placebo nasal spray, synthetic salmon calcitonin (ssCT) nasal spray (200 IU/d) plus placebo tablets, or placebo (placebo tablets plus placebo nasal spray), respectively for 48 weeks. All women received calcium (≥1000  mg/d) and vitamin D (800 IU/d). Women randomized to oral rsCT had a mean ± SD percent increase from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) (1.5% ± 3.2%) that was greater than those randomized to ssCT nasal spray (0.78% ± 2.9%) or placebo (0.5% ± 3.2%). Lumbar spine BMD change in those receiving nasal calcitonin did not differ from placebo. Oral rsCT treatment also resulted in greater improvements in trochanteric and total proximal femur BMD than ssCT nasal spray. Reductions in bone resorption markers with oral rsCT were greater than those observed in ssCT nasal spray or placebo recipients. Approximately 80% of subjects in each treatment group experienced an adverse event, the majority of which were mild or moderate in intensity. Gastrointestinal system adverse events were reported by nearly one-half of women in all treatment groups and were the principal reason for premature withdrawals. Less than 10% of women experienced a serious adverse event and no deaths occurred. Overall, oral rsCT was superior to nasal ssCT and placebo for increasing BMD and reducing bone turnover. Oral rsCT was safe and as well tolerated as ssCT nasal spray or placebo. Oral calcitonin may provide an additional treatment alternative for women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. An immunohistochemical study of the antinociceptive effect of calcitonin in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Miho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcitonin is used as a treatment to reduce the blood calcium concentration in hypercalcemia and to improve bone mass in osteoporosis. An analgesic effect of calcitonin has been observed and reported in clinical situations. Ovariectomaized (OVX rats exhibit the same hormonal changes as observed in humans with osteoporosis and are an animal model of postmenopousal osteoporosis. The aim of this study to investigate antinociceptive effect of calcitonin in OVX rats using the immunohistochemical study. Methods We assessed the antinociceptive effects of calcitonin in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model, which exhibit osteoporosis and hyperalgesia, using the immunohistochemical method. Fifteen rats were ovariectomized bilaterally, and ten rats were received the same surgery expected for ovariectomy as a sham model. We used five groups: the OVX-CT (n = 5, the sham-CT (n = 5, and the OVX-CT-pcpa (n = 5 groups recieved calcitonin (CT: 4 U/kg/day, while OVX-vehi (n = 5 and the sham-vehi (n = 5 groups received vehicle subcutaneously 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The OVX-CT-pcpa-group was given traperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (pcpa; an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis (100 mg/kg/day in the last 3 days of calcitonon injection. Two hours after 5% formalin (0.05 ml subcutaneously into the hind paw, the L5 spinal cord were removed and the number of Fos-immunoreactive (ir neurons were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-U test. Results The numbers of Fos-ir neurons in the OVX-CT and sham-CT groups were significantly less than in the OVX-vehi and sham-vehi groups, respectively (p = 0.0090, p = 0.0090. The number of Fos-ir neurons in the OVX-CT-pcpa-group was significantly more than that of the OVX-CT-group (p = 0.0283, which means pcpa inhibits calcitonin induced reduction of c-Fos production. Conclusion The results in this study demonstrated that 1 the increase of c-Fos might be related to hyperalgesia in OVX-rats. 2 Calcitonin has

  9. Low-Level Laser Therapy and Calcitonin in Bone Repair: Densitometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Angela Loschiavo Arisawa; Janete Dias Almeida; Raduan Hage; Claúdia Alessandra Cardoso; Tatiana Pinto Ribeiro; Simone Bustamante Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the association of low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 830 nm) and calcitonin in bone repair considering that bone healing remains a challenge to health professionals. Calcitonin has antiosteoclastic action and LLLT is a treatment that uses low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes to alter cellular function. Both are used to improve bone healing. Densitometry is a clinical noninvasive valuable tool used to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD). Sixty male rats w...

  10. Differential localization and characterization of functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in human subcutaneous arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Ahnstedt, H; Larsen, R;

    2014-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are widely distributed within the circulation and the mechanism behind its vasodilation not only differs from one animal species to another but is also dependent on the type and size of vessel. The present study examines the nature of CGRP......-induced vasodilation, characteristics of the CGRP receptor antagonist telcagepant and localization of the key components calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) of the CGRP receptor in human subcutaneous arteries....

  11. C-cell-derived calcitonin-free neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid: the diagnostic importance of CGRP immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Tadao; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Eloy, Catarina; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    In the thyroid, primary neuroendocrine tumors encompass medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and, rarely, other tumors such as paragangliomas. MTCs are derived from C-cells and express calcitonin and neuroendocrine markers. Besides classic MTC, some reports have documented thyroid neuroendocrine tumors, which show no calcitonin expression and raise difficult diagnostic problems. A 76-year-old man presented with a mass in the left thyroid with neither serological calcitonin elevation nor familial history. A thorough clinico-laboratorial study did not disclose any other mass elsewhere. A left hemithyroidectomy was performed, and the histological examination revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma resembling a paraganglioma-like MTC displaying unequivocal signs of vascular invasion. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed reactivity for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), paired box gene 8 (PAX8), cytokeratins (AE1/AE3 and CK8/18), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and negativity for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, TTF-2, thyroperoxidase, and thyroglobulin. In situ hybridization showed that the tumor cells lacked expression for calcitonin and thyroglobulin mRNA. Genetic analysis did not disclose any RET mutation. A diagnosis of C-cell-derived primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid without calcitonin expression was made, and the patient remains free of metastasis or recurrence 18 months after surgery. PMID:24599901

  12. Novel migraine therapy with calcitonin gene-regulated peptide receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Primary headaches, for example, migraine and cluster headaches represent the most prevalent neurological disorders, affecting up to 15-20% of the adult population. There is a clear association between head pain and the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In this review the role...... and that they are not vasoconstrictive, providing a new dimension in therapy....

  13. Human medullary thyroid carcinoma: cell cultures and xenotransplants in nude mice. Immunocytochemistry and calcitonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, G; Lothaire, P; Vico, P; Dumont, P; Libert, A; Degeyter, M; Larsimont, D; Saigo, P E; Body, J J; Atassi, G

    1989-12-01

    Occult primary and recurrent medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) detected only by elevated calcitonin levels in the peripheral blood, generally after pentagastrin-test stimulation, are difficult to localize. Some new imaging procedures with radionuclide tracers or radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen seem to bring some potentially therapeutic benefits. We report our results with cell cultures and xenotransplants of human MTC with the intention of establishing reproducible models in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures secrete calcitonin at up to 1200 pg/ml for periods ranging from 3 to 13 weeks. Immunocytochemistry detects cytoplasmic granules positive for calcitonin in polygonal epithelioid cells with dendritic processes. Xenotransplants in nude mice fare better in the subcutaneous axilla than in the subrenal capsule assay. In the former location the tumor-take is good and calcitonin is detected in the blood of the tumor-bearing animals, at levels ranging from 286 to more than 20,000 pg/ml. These models would be potentially usable as targets for radionuclide tracers and/or radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies. PMID:2689238

  14. Enhanced vasodilator responses to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in subcutaneous arteries in human hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, H; Edvinsson, L

    2002-01-01

    Isolated segments (1-2 mm) of small subcutaneous arteries (diameter 0.1-0.9 mm) and veins (0.1-1.0 mm) from patients with hypertension (essential n = 13, renovascular n = 6) and controls (n = 17) were examined. The relaxant responses to the sensory transmitters calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP...

  15. VIP and Calcitonin-Producing Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Watery Diarrhea: Clinicopathological Features and the Effect of Somatostatin Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Kon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET secretes various peptide hormones; however, calcitonin hypersecretion is rare. Its clinicopathological significance and treatment is still controversial. Case report A 43 year-old Japanese man presented severe watery diarrhea and a large mass in the pancreatic tail. Blood concentration of VIP was elevated to 649 pg/mL (reference range: 0- 100 pg/mL, and calcitonin to 66,700 pg/mL (reference range: 15-86 pg/mL. There was no tumor in other endocrine organs. The resected tumor was composed of 80% calcitonin-positive cells and 10% VIP-positive cells. After the operation, the levels of VIP and calcitonin were decreased to 44 and 553 pg/mL, respectively, and diarrhea was improved. The mRNA of somatostatin receptor (SSTR subtypes 2, 3 and 5 in the tumor tissue were increased 22.8, 25.1, and 37.0-fold of those of normal pancreas, respectively. At 19 months after the operation, blood calcitonin was again raised to 3,980 pg/mL, and metastatic tumors were found in the liver. With the treatment of long-acting somatostatin analogue, calcitonin was reduced to 803 pg/mL. The patient does not present endocrine symptom, and the size of the metastatic tumors appears stable. Conclusion From the world literature to date, co-secretion of VIP and calcitonin was documented in only 10 cases of pNET including the current case. Although VIP is a primary cause of diarrhea in these cases, high level of calcitonin may also influence on the clinical symptoms. Somatostatin analogue suppresses the levels of VIP and calcitonin, and the control proliferation is also expected when tumor cells express SSTRs.

  16. Impact of congenital calcitonin deficiency due to dysgenetic hypothyroidism on bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daripa M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic calcitonin deficiency on bone mass development. The results of 11 patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD were compared to those of 17 normal individuals (C and of 9 patients with other forms of hypothyroidism (OH: 4 with hypothyroidism due to inborn errors of thyroid hormone synthesis and 5 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The subjects received an intravenous calcium stimulus and blood was collected for the determination of ionized calcium (Ca2+, calcitonin, and intact parathyroid hormone. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After calcium administration the levels of Ca2+ in the two groups of hypothyroidism were significantly higher than in the normal control group (10 min after starting calcium infusion: C = 1.29 ± 0.08 vs TD = 1.34 ± 0.03 vs OH = 1.34 ± 0.02 mmol/l; P < 0.05, and only the TD group showed no calcitonin response (5 min after starting calcium infusion: C = 27.9 ± 5.8 vs TD = 6.6 ± 0.3 vs OH = 43.0 ± 13.4 ng/l. BMD values did not differ significantly between groups (L2-L4: C = 1.116 ± 0.02 vs TD = 1.109 ± 0.03 vs OH = 1.050 ± 0.04 g/cm². These results indicate that early deficiency of calcitonin secretion has no detrimental effect on bone mass development. Furthermore, the increased calcitonin secretion observed in patients with inborn errors of thyroid hormone biosynthesis does not confer any advantage in terms of BMD.

  17. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (Cgrp, Adrenomedullin (Am, Amylin, And Calcitonin (Ct Receptors And Overlapping Biological Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CGRP, AM, amylin, and CT have in common N-terminal 6-7 amino acid ring structures linked by disulfide bridges and amidated C-termini required for biological activity. For the related bioactive peptides, receptor-binding sites linked to cAMP stimulation and to a lesser extent to the phospholipase C signaling pathway have been identified in tissue specific manner. The highest density of CGRP receptors has been recognized in the cerebellum and the spinal cord. There photoaffinity-labeled N-glycosylated 60,000 and 54,000 Mr proteins are converted to 46,000 and 41,000 Mr components following endoglycosidase F/N-glycosidase F treatment. The same proteins were specifically labeled with [125I]-hCGRP-I(1-37 and -(8-37. Some cross-reaction between the CGRP receptor and AM was evident whereas amylin and CT were only recognized at over 10-7 M. A different AM receptor localized predominantly in the lung recognized CGRP at low, and amylin and calcitonin at equally high concentrations. CT receptor binding sites have been identified in osteoclasts and in the periventricular region of the brain. They cross-reacted with amylin at low concentrations and with CGRP and AM at over 10-7 M. Amylin receptor binding sites cross-reacting with salmon CT and CGRP but not with hCT and adrenomedullin to any great extent were originally described by Sexton in the nucleus accumbens and may represent a second CGRP receptor. The structure of a CT receptor was elucidated by the group of Goldring in 1991 through molecular cloning, and of a 60% homologous human CT receptor-like receptor (CRLR shortly thereafter here. The latter was an orphan receptor until the discovery of the receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMP by Foord which upon coexpression yield a CGRP receptor with RAMP1 and an AM receptor with RAMP2. Coexpression of the hCT receptor isotype 2 revealed a CGRP/amylin receptor with RAMP1 and an amylin receptor isotype with RAMP3. The CRLR/RAMP1 receptor antagonized by

  18. Calcitonin gene-related peptide does not cause the familial hemiplegic migraine phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.M.; Thomsen, L.L.; Olesen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    .58). Headache severity and intensity were not different between the groups. Conclusions: Familial hemiplegic migraine ( FHM) patients do not show hypersensitivity of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-cyclic adenosine 3 ', 5 '-monophosphate pathway, as characteristically seen in migraine patients......Objective: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a migraine trigger that plays a crucial role in migraine pathophysiology, and CGRP antagonism is efficient in the treatment of migraine attacks. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a dominantly inherited subtype of migraine...... with aura associated with several gene mutations. FHM shares many phenotypical similarities with common types of migraine, indicating common neurobiological pathways. We tested the hypothesis that the FHM genotype confers a CGRP hypersensitive phenotype. Methods: We included 9 FHM patients with known...

  19. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期患者降钙素原及超敏C反应蛋白的检测意义%Significance of the detection of calcitonin and high sensitive C reactive protein in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁君; 蔡艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the significance of the detection of calcitonin and high sensitive C reactive protein in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Methods:80 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were selected.39 cases were acute exacerbation group.41 cases were stable phase group.At the same time,40 healthy persons were selected as the normal group.Serum calcitonin and high sensitive C reactive protein of all persons were detected.Results:In the acute exacerbation group,serum calcitonin and high sensitive C reactive protein were significantly higher than the stable phase group and normal group.In the stable phase group,the level of high sensitive C reactive protein was higher than the normal group(P<0.05).In death cases,serum calcitonin and high sensitive C reactive protein were significantly higher than survival cases(P<0.05).Conclusion:Combined detection of serum calcitonin and high sensitive C reactive protein was helpful to understand the severity and prognosis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.It was helpful for clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的:探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期患者降钙素原及超敏C反应蛋白的检测意义。方法:收治慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者80例,其中39例为急性加重组,其余41例为稳定期组,同时选择健康者40例为正常组,测定所有入组者的血清降钙素原及超敏C反应蛋白水平。结果:急性加重组血清降钙素原和超敏C反应蛋白水平均高于稳定组和正常组,稳定组超敏C反应蛋白水平高于正常组(P<0.05)。死亡病例的血清降钙素原和超敏C反应蛋白水平均高于生存病例(P<0.05)。结论:血清降钙素原及超敏C反应联合检测有助于了解慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者病情严重程度及预后,有助于临床诊治。

  20. Critical role of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in cortical spreading depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzi, A; A. De Iure; di Filippo, M.; Costa, C.; Caproni, S.; Pisani, A.; Bonsi, P.; B. Picconi; Cupini, L. M.; Materazzi, S.; Geppetti, P.; Sarchielli, P; Calabresi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a key pathogenetic step in migraine with aura. Dysfunctions of voltage-dependent and receptor-operated channels have been implicated in the generation of CSD and in the pathophysiology of migraine. Although a known correlation exists between migraine and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), the possibility that CGRP is involved in CSD has not been examined in detail. We analyzed the pharmacological mechanisms underlying CSD and investig...

  1. Effects of calcitonin and calcium medication in treatment of edentulous osteoporotic mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Poštić Srđan D.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. In addition to damage of the bones that support the remaining teeth, degradation of osteoporotic oral bones also lead to a consequent reduction of supporting tissues and the loss of dentures retention. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes following injection of a calcitonin and calcium solution into the buccal aspects of edentulous mandibles. Methods. The experimental group of 67 edentulous patients diagnosed with osteoporosis, and t...

  2. Calcitonin gene-related peptide does not cause migraine attacks in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Thomsen, Lise L; Olesen, Jes;

    2011-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathogenesis. Intravenous CGRP triggers migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine with aura and without aura. In contrast, patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) with known mutations did not report more migraine......-like attacks compared to controls. Whether CGRP triggers migraine-like attacks in FHM patients without known mutations is unknown....

  3. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships and Docking Studies of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Kyani, Anahita

    2012-01-01

    calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression....... The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model...

  4. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  5. Effects of Nasal Calcitonin vs. Oral Gabapentin on Pain and Symptoms of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Clinical Trial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Kaveh; Asadian, Leila; Isazade, Ahdie

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a chronic and prevalent disease that occurs in 10.8% of the general population, mostly in old age. We designed the first clinical trial study to compare the effects of administering the nasal salmon calcitonin spray and gabapentin in patients with LSS. In this clinical trial, 90 patients with symptoms of neurogenic claudication and magnetic resonance imaging-proven LSS were randomly assigned to nasal salmon calcitonin, gabapentin, or placebo treatments for eight weeks (30 participants in each group). This was followed by a washout period of four weeks. After three months of study and after four weeks off the prescription, mean values of Oswestry Disability Index in the calcitonin, gabapentin, and control groups were 23 ± 12.05, 32 ± 16.08, and 38 ± 22.09, respectively (P ≤ 0.05, calcitonin group vs. gabapentin group, and P ≤ 0. 001, calcitonin group vs. control group with respect to pretreatment scores). Thus, three months after the treatment, although most of the patients in the control group had a satisfactory period of improvement, the improvement in the calcitonin group was more than the other two groups with a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 when compared to gabapentin group and P ≤ 0.01 when compared to placebo group). We revealed that the 200 International Unit (IU) and nasal calcitonin spray daily are more effective compared to 300 mg gabapentin three times per day and the placebo effect for eight weeks of treatment of symptoms of patients with LSS.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  7. Value of anti- Müllerian hormone serum concentrations of basal and day 6 after stimulation as predictors of ovarian response%基础及促性腺激素刺激第6天血清抗苗勒管激素水平对卵巢反应性的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓菁; 林文琴; 余蓉

    2012-01-01

    (group B, w=50) , and over response (group C, n = 30) based on the number of oocytes retrieved and serum levels of E2 on hCG administration day. The serum levels of FSH, estradiol (E2) at baseline, anti-Miillerian hormone (AMH) at baseline and on day 6 after stimulation (D6AMH) , E2 on day 6 after stimulation (D6E2)and on hCG administration day, and the number of antral follicle count (AFC) were assessed. Ovarian response was evaluated by the number of oocytes retrieved. Results: The levels of AMH at baseline and day 6, the number of oocytes retrieved and the levels of E2 on hCG day had statistically significant differences among the three groups ( group C>group B> group A, P<0. 05). The serum levels of AMH at baseline and on day 6 after stimulation were significantly different in all three groups(P<0. 05). Serum levels of AMH 6 days after stimulation were significantly lower than those at baseline (P<0. 05). The number of oocytes retrieved was strongly correlated with the level of D6AMH, D6E2, the level of AMH at baseline and AFC. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that D6AMH was the most important factor in predicting the number of retrieved oocytes. ROC analyses showed that D6AMH had the largest area under curve (AUC) 0. 872 to predict the poor response, when 1. 159 ng/ml was selected as the AMH cut-off value with 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity. To predict the high response, D6AMH had the largest area under curve (AUC) 0. 895, when 3. 22 ng/ml was selected as the AMH cut-off value with 77% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Conclusions: The AMH levels at basal and on day 6 after stimulation were both useful factors in predicting ovarian response and number of retrieved oocytes. The serum levels of AMH on 6 days after stimulation was highly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved; therefore it could be a better predictor of ovarian response in IVF-ET.

  8. A novel oral dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (KBP-042) exerts antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Kim V; Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T;

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated a novel oral dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-042, in head-to-head comparison with salmon calcitonin (sCT) with regard to in vitro receptor pharmacology, ex vivo pancreatic islet studies, and in vivo proof of concept studies in diet-induced o......The present study investigated a novel oral dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-042, in head-to-head comparison with salmon calcitonin (sCT) with regard to in vitro receptor pharmacology, ex vivo pancreatic islet studies, and in vivo proof of concept studies in diet......-induced obese (DIO) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In vitro, KBP-042 demonstrated superior binding affinity and activation of amylin and calcitonin receptors, and ex vivo, KBP-042 exerted inhibitory action on stimulated insulin and glucagon release from isolated islets. In vivo, KBP-042 induced a...... superior and pronounced reduction in food intake in conjunction with a sustained pair-fed corrected weight loss in DIO rats. Concomitantly, KBP-042 improved glucose homeostasis and reduced hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia in conjunction with enhanced insulin sensitivity. In ZDF rats, KBP-042 induced a...

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  10. 降钙素原在全身炎症反应综合征中的临床价值%Calcitonin original clinical value in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the serum calcitonin original value in the diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.Methods Select 120 cases of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome as the research object, the bacteria infection in 77 cases (group A), the bacterial infection 43 cases (group B), test and compare the two groups of patients the WBC (white blood cell count), hs - CRP (hypersensitive c-reactive protein), PCT (calcitonin former) level.Results A group of patients with PCT were significantly higher than that of group B, statistically significant difference (P 0.05);A组患者的PCT水平显著高于B组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。患者危重评分与PCT水平呈负相关(r=-0.798,P<0.05)。结论:在全身炎症反应综合征的病原学诊断中,PCT的诊断价值优于中心粒细胞占比、WBC、hs-CRP,是敏感性较高的一种血清学标志,具有重要的临床应用价值。

  11. Cellular uptake but low permeation of human calcitonin-derived cell penetrating peptides and Tat(47-57) through well-differentiated epithelial models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tréhin, Rachel; Krauss, Ulrike; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether cell penetrating peptides (CPP) derived from human calcitonin (hCT) possess, in addition to cellular uptake, the capacity to deliver their cargo through epithelial barriers.......To investigate whether cell penetrating peptides (CPP) derived from human calcitonin (hCT) possess, in addition to cellular uptake, the capacity to deliver their cargo through epithelial barriers....

  12. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglia in sciatic nerve injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changma Fu; Zongsheng Yin; Defu Yu; Zuhua Yang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, have been shown to be involved in pain transmission and repair of sciatic nerve injury. A model of sciatic nerve defect was prepared by dissecting the sciatic nerve at the middle, left femur in female Sprague Dawley rats. The two ends of the nerve were encased in a silica gel tube. L5 dorsal root ganglia were harvested 7, 14 and 28 days post sciatic nerve injury for immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that substance P and cal-citonin gene-related peptide expression increased significantly in dorsal root ganglion of rats with sci-atic nerve injury. This increase peaked at 7 days, declined at 14 days, and reduced to normal levels by 28 days post injury. The findings indicate that the neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, mainly increased in the early stages after sciatic nerve injury.

  13. Refractory hypercalcemia and ectopic calcitonin secretion in a malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: hypocalcemic effects on cinacalcet

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo; Rubio Almanza, Matilde; LOLY, Jean-Philippe; Polus, Marc; Beckers, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia is a sign of poor prognosis, as it is particularly resistant to the usual hypocalcemic treatments. Observation: In 2009, a well differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (Ki-67= 2%) is diagnosed in a 52-year-old diabetic man. The tumor is revealed with a splenic and hepatic carcinomatosis. Plasmatic calcium was: 3.54 mmol/L (2.15 - 2.6). Biology showed hypophosphatemia, PTH < 4 ng/ml, high 1-25 OH VitD, calcitonin: 1016 ng/ml (< 12 ng/ml). H...

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide triggers migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Olesen, Jes;

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathogenesis. Intravenous CGRP infusion triggers delayed migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine without aura (MO). In contrast to patients with MO, in prior studies patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) did...... not report more migraine-like attacks compared to controls. Whether CGRP triggers migraine in patients with typical (non-hemiplegic) migraine with aura is (MA) unknown. In the present study we examined the migraine inducing effect of CGRP infusion in patients suffering from MA and healthy controls....

  15. 125I-labeling and purification of peptide hormones and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iodination and separation of various diagnostically and/or experimentally important peptides including (Tyr1)-somatostatin-14, rat Tyr-α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (23-37), motilin and vasoactive intestinal peptide, furthermore bovine serum albumin are described. All species were iodinated by the iodogen method. The 125I-labeled peptide products were separated by reversed-phase HPLC, the specific activities of mono-iodinated forms are near identical with the theoretical value. The labeled bovine serum albumin was separated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. (author)

  16. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors are important to maintain cerebrovascular reactivity in chronic hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghui Wang

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow autoregulation (CA shifts to higher blood pressures in chronic hypertensive patients, which increases their risk for brain damage. Although cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells express the potent vasodilatatory peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and adrenomedullin (AM and their receptors (calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calclr, receptor-modifying proteins (RAMP 1 and 2, their contribution to CA during chronic hypertension is poorly understood. Here we report that chronic (10 weeks hypertensive (one-kidney-one-clip-method mice overexpressing the Calclr in smooth muscle cells (CLR-tg, which increases the natural sensitivity of the brain vasculature to CGRP and AM show significantly better blood pressure drop-induced cerebrovascular reactivity than wt controls. Compared to sham mice, this was paralleled by increased cerebral CGRP-binding sites (receptor autoradiography, significantly in CLR-tg but not wt mice. AM-binding sites remained unchanged. Whereas hypertension did not alter RAMP-1 expression (droplet digital (dd PCR in either mouse line, RAMP-2 expression dropped significantly in both mouse lines by about 65%. Moreover, in wt only Calclr expression was reduced by about 70% parallel to an increase of smooth muscle actin (Acta2 expression. Thus, chronic hypertension induces a stoichiometric shift between CGRP and AM receptors in favor of the CGRP receptor. However, the parallel reduction of Calclr expression observed in wt mice but not CLR-tg mice appears to be a key mechanism in chronic hypertension impairing cerebrovascular reactivity.

  17. Karsinoma Sel Basal Pada Wajah

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti

    2008-01-01

    Karsinoma sel basal merupakan tumor ganas pada lapisan epidermis kulit yang paling umum dijumpai. Lokasi tumor iui paling banyak pada wajah dibandingkan anggota tubuh lainnya. Etiologi tumor iui diduga berhubungan dengan cahaya matahari yang mengandung sinar ultraviolet yang karsinogenik. Klasifikasi tumor ini dibagi berdasarkan gambaran kliuis dan histopatologisnya. Diagnosa tumor ini dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan k1inis dan histologis, pemeriksaan radiologis jarang digunakan. Diag...

  18. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  19. A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  20. Dilatory responses to acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in the congestive heart failure rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, A; Valdemarsson, S; Nilsson, T;

    1999-01-01

    It was examined to what extent congestive heart failure (CHF) in rats, induced by ligation of the left coronary artery, affects the vascular responses to the vasodilatory substances acetylcholine (ACh), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P (SP). After induction of CHF status...

  1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor components in the human sphenopalatine ganglion -- interaction with the sensory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, Anett; Tajti, Janos; Tuka, Bernadett;

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have suggested a link between the sensory trigeminal system and the parasympathetic ganglia. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a sensory neuropeptide which plays an important role in vasodilatation and pain transmission in craniocervical structures. The present study was ...

  2. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  3. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Dutcher, Susan K.; O’Toole, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes...

  4. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  5. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  6. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  7. Serum Calcitonin gene-related Petide concentrations in the horse and their relationship to the Systemic Inflammatory Response

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Emma

    2006-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in both human and equine intensive care patients. This systemic inflammatory response may be due to insult from bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic invasion or from trauma or hypoxemia. Local and systemic release of a wide variety of endogenous pro-inflammatory mediators results in activation of the innate immune system in order to resolve the insult. In sepsis this initial appropriate host response becomes amplified and de...

  8. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  9. Effect of estradiol-17β on calcitonin receptor bindings in the hen neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H; Takahashi, T; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, K; Kawashima, M

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate whether estradiol-17β (E₂) would affect calcitonin (CT) receptor binding in the hen neurohypophysis. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) and the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of the CT receptor in the plasma membrane fraction of the hen neurohypophysis were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific binding of (125)I-labeled chicken CT. A single i.m. injection of E₂ into nonlaying hens caused a decrease in K(d) and B(max) values of the CT receptor. The K(d) and B(max) values of the CT receptor were smaller in laying hens than in nonlaying hens. The present study suggests that E₂ may increase the action of CT on the neurohypophysis in hens. PMID:21177459

  10. Calcitonin receptor binding properties in bone and kidney of the chicken during the oviposition cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, T; Kawashima, M; Takahashi, T; Tatematsu, N; Tanaka, K

    1998-09-01

    The binding property of calcitonin (CT) in the membrane fraction of calvaria and kidney of egg-laying and nonlaying hens was analyzed using a [125I] CT binding assay system. Binding properties of CT receptors in both tissues satisfy the authentic criteria of a receptor-ligand interaction in terms of specificity, reversibility, and saturation. Scatchard plots revealed a single class of binding sites. Values of the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and binding capacity (Bmax) in laying hens showed a decrease during the period between 3 h before and 2 h after oviposition. No change was observed in nonlaying hens. In vivo administration of 17beta-estradiol or progesterone caused the decrease in Kd and Bmax values. The results suggest that the binding affinity and capacity of the CT receptor in the calvaria and the kidney of the hen may be modulated by the ovarian steroid hormone. PMID:9738513

  11. Synovial macrophage-derived IL-1β regulates the calcitonin receptor in osteoarthritic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, S; Uchida, K; Miyagi, M; Inoue, G; Aikawa, J; Fujimaki, H; Minatani, A; Sato, M; Iwabuchi, K; Takaso, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contributes to joint pain. However, regulation of the CGRP/CGRP receptor signalling in osteoarthritis (OA) is not fully understood. To investigate the regulation of CGRP/CGRP receptor signalling by macrophages in the synovial tissue (ST) of OA joints, we characterized the gene expression profiles of CGRP and CGRP receptors in the ST of OA mice (STR/Ort). In addition, we examined whether macrophage depletion by the systemic injection of clodronate-laden liposomes affected the expression of CGRP and CGRP receptors in ST. CD11c(+) macrophages in the ST of STR/Ort and C57BL/6J mice were analysed by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, CGRP, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) in F4/80(+) and F4/80(-) cells. The effects of IL-1β on the expression of CGRP and CLR by cultured synovial cells were also examined. The percentage of CD11c(+) macrophages in the ST of STR/Ort was higher than that in C57/BL6J mice. Notably, the F4/80(+) cell fraction expressed IL-1β highly, whereas the F4/80(-) cell fraction expressed CGRP, CLR, and RAMP1 highly. In addition, expression of the IL-1β and CLR genes was increased in ST, but was decreased upon macrophage depletion, and the IL-1β treatment of cultured synovial cells up-regulated CLR. Taken together, the present findings suggest that synovial macrophages are the major producers of IL-1β and regulators of CLR in OA mice. Therefore, macrophages and IL-1β may be suitable therapeutic targets for treating OA pain. PMID:26400621

  12. Identification of calcitonin expression in the chicken ovary: influence of follicular maturation and ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Maddineni, Sreenivasa B; Hendricks, Gilbert L; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2007-10-01

    Calcitonin (CALCA), a hormone primarily known for its role in calcium homeostasis, has recently been linked to reproduction, specifically as a marker for embryo implantation in the uterus. Although CALCA expression has been documented in several tissues, there has been no report of production of CALCA in the ovary of any vertebrate species. We hypothesized that the Calca gene is expressed in the chicken ovary, and its expression will be altered by follicular maturation or gonadal steroid administration. Using RT-PCR, we detected Calca mRNA and the calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA in the granulosa and theca layers of preovulatory and prehierarchial follicles. Both CALCA and Calca mRNA were localized in granulosa and thecal cells by confocal microscopy. Using quantitative PCR analysis, F1 follicle granulosa layer was found to contain significantly greater Calca mRNA and Calcr mRNA levels compared with those of any other preovulatory or prehierarchial follicle. The granulosa layer contained relatively greater Calca and Calcr mRNA levels compared with the thecal layer in both prehierarchial and preovulatory follicles. Progesterone (P(4)) treatment of sexually immature chickens resulted in a significantly greater abundance of ovarian Calca mRNA, whereas estradiol (E(2)) or P(4) + E(2) treatment significantly reduced ovarian Calca mRNA quantity. Treatment of prehierarchial follicular granulosa cells in vitro with CALCA significantly decreased FSH-stimulated cellular viability. Collectively, our results indicate that follicular maturation and gonadal steroids influence Calca and Calcr gene expression in the chicken ovary. We conclude that ovarian CALCA is possibly involved in regulating follicular maturation in the chicken ovary. PMID:17582014

  13. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... antiserum that caused serum sickness again in the future, your ... blood vessels Swelling of the face, arms, and legs ( angioedema )

  14. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  15. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  16. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  17. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  18. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive m...

  19. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  20. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  1. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PATTERN OF METHYLATION OF CALCITONIN GENE AND ACTIVITY OF METHYLTRANSFERASE in 8 Tumor Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Zhi-yong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Baylin SB, Fearon ER, Vogeletein B, et al. Hyper- methylation of 5' the region of the calcitonin gene is a property of human lymphoid and acute myeloid malignancies [J]. Blood 1987; 70:412.[2]Nelkin BD, Przepiorka D, Burke PJ, et al. Abnormal methylation of the calcitonin gene marks progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia [J]. Blood 1991; 77: 2431.[3]Ritter M, Kant EDe, Huhn D, et al. Detection of DNA methylation in the calcitonin gene in human leukemias using differential polymerase chain reaction [J]. Leukemia 1995; 9:915.[4]Wu SL, Xie GL, Bai RK, et al. Semi-quantitative study of calcitonin gene methylation in myelodysplastic syndrome [J]. Chin Med J 1998; 111:690.[5]Admas RL, Rinaldi A, Seivwright CA. Microassay for DNA methyltranferase [J]. J Biochem Biophys Methods 1991; 22:19.[6]Bai ZY, Xu GB, Wu SL. Detection of DNA- methyl- tranferase activity of leukemia cells with radiology microassay [J]. J Beijing Med Univ 2000; 32:76.[7]Issa J, Veritino PM, Wu J, et al. Increased cytosine DNA- Methyltranferase activity during colon cancer pro- gression [J]. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85:1235.[8]Vertino PM, Yen RW, Gao J, et al. De novo methylation of CpG islands sequences in human fibroblasts overexpression DNA (cytosine-5-) methyltranferase [J]. Mol cell Bio 1996; 16:4555.[9]Robertson KD, Uzvolgyi E, Liang G, et al. The human DNA methyltranferase (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b: coordinate mRNA expression in normal tissue and overexpression in tumors [J]. Nucleic Acids Res 1999; 27:2291.[10]Okano M, Bell DW, Haber DA, et al. DNA methyl- tranferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are essential for de novo methylation and mammalian development [J]. Cell 1999; 99:247.

  3. Regional haemodynamic effects of prolonged infusions of human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide in conscious, Long Evans rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, S. M.; Compton, A. M.; P A Kemp; Bennett, T; Foulkes, R; Hughes, B.

    1991-01-01

    1. Haemodynamic measurements were made in conscious, Long Evans rats chronically instrumented for the assessment of changes in regional blood flows (renal, mesenteric and hindquarters, or internal and common carotid) and systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate, before, during and after 3 day infusions of vehicle or human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (1.5 or 15 nmol kg-1 h-1). 2. In animals with renal, mesenteric and hindquarters flow probes (n = 8), during the first da...

  4. Expression of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Efferent Vestibular System and Vestibular Nucleus in Rats with Motion Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xiaocheng; Shi Zhaohui; Xue Junhui; Zhang Lei; Feng Lining; Zhang Zuoming

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Motion sickness presents a challenge due to its high incidence and unknown pathogenesis although it is a known fact that a functioning vestibular system is essential for the perception of motion sickness. Recent studies show that the efferent vestibular neurons contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). It is a possibility that the CGRP immunoreactivity (CGRPi) fibers of the efferent vestibular system modulate primary afferent input into the central nervous system; thus, maki...

  5. Calcitonina monomérica plasmática e hipercalcemia em pacientes portadores de neoplasia pulmonar Monomeric plasmatic calcitonin and hypercalcemia in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coifman

    1997-06-01

    lung cancer, and its correlation with hypercalcemia, a very common complication in these tumors. METHOD. Blood were sampled from 56 patients with malignant lung disease for the CT and ionized calcium determinations. Calcitonin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay for the monomeric form of the molecule, in a previous silica extracted serum probe. RESULTS. We did not find elevated levels of monomeric CT in lung cancer. Only 3 patients had mild elevated levels, while in the others CT was normal or undetectable. Hypercalcemia was found in 21.4% of these patients, but only one with supranormal CT levels. CONCLUSION. Monomeric CT serum levels are normal in lung cancer, what makes the latter use an unreliable tumor marker.

  6. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  7. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  8. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  9. Antagonist of the amylin receptor blocks beta-amyloid toxicity in rat cholinergic basal forebrain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhamandas, Jack H; MacTavish, David

    2004-06-16

    Salvage of cholinergic neurons in the brain through a blockade of the neurotoxic effects of amyloidbeta protein (Abeta) is one of the major, but still elusive, therapeutic goals of current research in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, no receptor has been unequivocally identified for Abeta. Human amylin, which acts via a receptor composed of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and a receptor-associated membrane protein, possesses amyloidogenic properties and has a profile of neurotoxicity that is strikingly similar to Abeta. In this study, using primary cultures of rat cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, we show that acetyl-[Asn30, Tyr32] sCT(8-37) (AC187), an amylin receptor antagonist, blocks Abeta-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of cultures with AC187 before exposure to Abeta results in significantly improved neuronal survival as judged by MTT and live-dead cell assays. Quantitative measures of Abeta-evoked apoptotic cell death, using Hoechst and phosphotidylserine staining, confirm neuroprotective effects of AC187. We also demonstrate that AC187 attenuates the activation of initiator and effector caspases that mediate Abeta-induced apoptotic cell death. These data are the first to show that expression of Abeta toxicity may occur through the amylin receptor and suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:15201330

  10. Avaliação dos níveis basais de FSH em pacientes inférteis com endometriose profunda de ovário tratadas cirurgicamente Evaluation of basal FSH serum levels in infertile patients with deep ovarian endometriosis who underwent surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Frankfurt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a reserva ovariana de pacientes inférteis portadoras de endometriose profunda de ovário, submetidas à cirurgia excisional dos endometriomas, atendidas entre os meses de Fevereiro e Novembro de 2008. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo que incluiu 30 pacientes portadoras de endometriose graus III e IV com comprometimento profundo de ovário submetidas à cirurgia excisional dos endometriomas e 30 pacientes portadoras de endometriose graus I e II que foram alocadas como Grupo Controle. A reserva ovariana foi avaliada indiretamente a partir do valor do hormônio folículo estimulante (FSH basal (U/L, entre o terceiro e quinto dias do ciclo, após um período de 12 meses da cirurgia. O índice de massa corpórea (IMC foi calculado conforme a fórmula de Quetelet [peso (kg/estatura (cm²]. Para a comparação das variáveis "idade", "IMC" e "valores de FSH basal" entre os grupos, foi utilizado o teste não paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os grupos em relação à idade e ao IMC. Em relação ao FSH basal, observou-se que, no grupo das pacientes com endometriose profunda, o valor médio foi de 7,0 U/L, enquanto que, no Grupo Controle, foi de 5,6 U/L (p=0,3, o que demonstra que a diferença no valor médio de FSH encontrado nos dois grupos não foi significativa. CONCLUSÕES: a cirurgia não influenciou de forma deletéria a reserva ovariana das pacientes com endometriose profunda de ovário.PURPOSE: to evaluate the ovarian reserve of infertile patients with severe ovarian endrometriosis, submitted to excisional surgery of endometriomas and attended from February to November, 2008. METHODS: prospective study, including 30 patients with endometriosis grades III and IV, with severe ovarian impairment, submitted to excisional surgery of the endometriomas, and 30 patients with endometriosis grades I and II, allocated as a Control Group. The ovarian reserve was indirectly assessed

  11. EXPRESSION OF CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE IN FACIAL NERVE OF HEMIFACIAL SPASM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the immunoreactivity of Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the facial nerve when Hemifacial Spasm is occurring. Methods The electrophysiological technique was used to explore abnormal muscle response (AMR) which was characteristic of Hemifacial Spasm.The animal models of Hemifacial Spasm in New Zealand white rabbits were established by compressing the main trunk of artificial demyelinated facial nerve with the temporal superficial artery. At 6 weeks after surgery, the facial nerves were taken from the experimental group and control one, the immunohistochemistry for CGRP using polyclonal antibody with ABC kit was performed in the facial nerves; at the same time, the observation for the facial nerves of light and transmission electron microscope was performed. Results The facial nerve demyelinated and the axons retrogressively changed, CGRP immunoreactive positive fibers were significantly detected in experimental groups; whereas this phenomenon was not found in control group. Conclusion CGRP can nutrien the injured facial nerve and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Hemifacial Spasm.

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  13. Expression of thyroglobulin and calcitonin in spontaneous thyroid gland tumors in the Han Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Andrew M; Jones, Stewart A; Endersby-Wood, Helen J; McCormack, Nicola A M; Turton, John A

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous follicular and C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland in the Han Wistar rat were examined using two morphologic procedures. Firstly, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize thyroglobulin (TG) and calcitonin (CT) mRNAs. Secondly, the proteins for these markers were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim was to study the morphology of the tumors and to examine the usefulness of TG and CT markers in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Follicular tumors with cystic, papillary and follicular patterns showed relatively consistent expression of TG mRNA by ISH, thereby confirming the diagnostic value of this technique. However, no staining for TG markers was observed in solid lesions. In general, C-cell tumors comprised well-differentiated cells that continued to express CT mRNA and peptides even after embolic spread and metastasis. Therefore, the performance of either ISH or IHC for CT markers can be used for diagnostic confirmation. Additional features noted in C-cell tumors included the appearance of tumor emboli or metastases in association with small primary lesions (less than 5 average follicular diameters in size) and the presence of eosinophilic (amyloid-like) material showing immunopositivity for CT peptides. Finally, evidence is provided for the sequestration of TG protein by proliferating C-cells.

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide in the joint: contributions to pain and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David A; Mapp, Paul I; Kelly, Sara

    2015-11-01

    Arthritis is the commonest cause of disabling chronic pain, and both osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain major burdens on both individuals and society. Peripheral release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contributes to the vasodilation of acute neurogenic inflammation. Contributions of CGRP to the pain and inflammation of chronic arthritis, however, are only recently being elucidated. Animal models of arthritis are revealing the molecular and pathophysiological events that accompany and lead to progression of both arthritis and pain. Peripheral actions of CGRP in the joint might contribute to both inflammation and joint afferent sensitization. CGRP and its specific receptors are expressed in joint afferents and up-regulated following arthritis induction. Peripheral CGRP release results in activation of synovial vascular cells, through which acute vasodilatation is followed by endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis, key features of chronic inflammation. Local administration of CGRP to the knee also increases mechanosensitivity of joint afferents, mimicking peripheral sensitization seen in arthritic joints. Increased mechanosensitivity in OA knees and pain behaviour can be reduced by peripherally acting CGRP receptor antagonists. Effects of CGRP pathway blockade on arthritic joint afferents, but not in normal joints, suggest contributions to sensitization rather than normal joint nociception. CGRP therefore might make key contributions to the transition from normal to persistent synovitis, and the progression from nociception to sensitization. Targeting CGRP or its receptors within joint tissues to prevent these undesirable transitions during early arthritis, or suppress them in established disease, might prevent persistent inflammation and relieve arthritis pain.

  15. Calcitonin receptor binding in the hen anterior pituitary during an oviposition cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, Kaori; Kawashima, Mitsuo

    2011-10-01

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d) ) and the maximum binding capacity (B(max) ) of calcitonin (CT) receptor in the plasma membrane of the anterior pituitary in hens were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific binding of (125) I-labeled chicken CT. Values of K(d) and B(max) of CT receptor were smaller in laying hens than in non-laying hens. A decrease in the K(d) and B(max) value of CT receptor was observed in the anterior pituitary after the injection of estradiol-17β and progesterone into nonlaying hens, but not changed after the injection of 5α-dihydrotestosterone. During an oviposition cycle, the K(d) and the B(max) value decreased 3 h before oviposition. In non-laying hens, neither the K(d) nor the B(max) value changed during a full day period. The present study suggests that the CT action on the anterior pituitary may increase 3 h before oviposition by the effect of estradiol-17β and progesterone in laying hens. PMID:21951904

  16. Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates type IV hypersensitivity through dendritic cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Mikami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, mutual regulation of the nervous system and immune system is well studied. One of neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, is a potent regulator in immune responses; in particular, it has anti-inflammatory effects in innate immunity. For instance, a deficiency of the CGRP receptor component RAMP 1 (receptor activity-modifying protein 1 results in higher cytokine production in response to LPS (lipopolysaccharide. On the other hand, how CGRP affects DCs in adaptive immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show that CGRP suppressed Th1 cell differentiation via inhibition of IL-12 production in DCs using an in vitro co-culture system and an in vivo ovalbumin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH model. CGRP also down-regulated the expressions of chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligands CCL2 and CCL12 in DCs. Intriguingly, the frequency of migrating CCR2(+ DCs in draining lymph nodes of RAMP1-deficient mice was higher after DTH immunization. Moreover, these CCR2(+ DCs highly expressed IL-12 and CD80, resulting in more effective induction of Th1 differentiation compared with CCR2(- DCs. These results indicate that CGRP regulates Th1 type reactions by regulating expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in DCs.

  17. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  18. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  19. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  20. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  1. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  2. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  3. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  4. Effect of basal serum luteinizing hormone and luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio on outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome%基础状态血清高黄体生成素水平及黄体生成素/卵泡刺激素比值对多囊卵巢综合征患者体外受精妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿旭景; 欧湘红; 廖旖欣; 谭雯雅; 王松; 全松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio on the clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of 134 TWF cycles in patients with PCOS.The cycles were classified into 2 groups according to serum levels of LH and also into 2 groups according to LH/FSH ratio,namely group A1 (LH≤10 IU/L),group A2 (LH>10 IU/L),group B1 (LH/FSH ratio<2),and group B2 (LH/FSH ratio≥2).The clinical characteristics,embryological data and pregnancy outcomes were compared between the groups.Results Patients in group A2 showed significantly higher FSH,T level and LH/FSH ratio with a greater number of oocytes retrieved than those in group A1,but the time for down-regulation,duration of stimulation,AFC,LH and LH/FSH on the first day of stimulation,embryological data and pregnancy outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups.Compared with group B1,group B2 showed higher basal LH,G level on the day of HCG,more oocytes retrieved and lower dose of gonadotropins used,but the time for down-regulation,duration of stimulation,LH and LH/FSH on the first day of stimulation and pregnancy outcomes were comparable between the two groups.Conclusion A high basal LH level or a high LH/FSH ratio does not produce obvious deleterious effect on the clinical outcomes of IVF-ET in women with PCOS who take oral contraceptives for pretreatment before long GnRH-agonist protocol.%目的 探讨基础状态高血清黄体生成素(LH)、不同黄体生成素/卵泡刺激素比值(LH/FSH)对多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)结局的影响.方法 回顾性分析我中心接受IVF治疗的134个PCOS助孕周期,按照基础状态LH≤10 U/L分为A1(LH≤10 U/L)、A2(LH>10 U/L)组,按照LH/FSH<2分为B1(LH/FSH<2)、B2(LH/FSH≥2)组.分别比较A

  5. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D;

    2013-01-01

    ) . Mice with knockdown of filaggrin, or lack of functional histidase, show decreased epidermal trans-UCA levels and increased UVB-induced skin damage (5) . FLG mutation carriers also have 10% increased serum vitamin D levels suggesting increased penetration of UVB (6) . We evaluated the prevalence of FLG......Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...... of BCC (2) . Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are observed in approximately 10% of Northern Europeans and are strongly associated with AD (3) . FLG mutations lead to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein and metabolite levels, including the chromophore trans-urocanic acid (UCA) (4...

  6. Pharmacologic Characterization of AMG 334, a Potent and Selective Human Monoclonal Antibody against the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Licheng; Lehto, Sonya G; Zhu, Dawn X D; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Jianhua; Smith, Brian P; Immke, David C; Wild, Kenneth D; Xu, Cen

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents that block the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling pathway are a highly anticipated and promising new drug class for migraine therapy, especially after reports that small-molecule CGRP-receptor antagonists are efficacious for both acute migraine treatment and migraine prevention. Using XenoMouse technology, we successfully generated AMG 334, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor. Here we show that AMG 334 competes with [(125)I]-CGRP binding to the human CGRP receptor, with a Ki of 0.02 nM. AMG 334 fully inhibited CGRP-stimulated cAMP production with an IC50 of 2.3 nM in cell-based functional assays (human CGRP receptor) and was 5000-fold more selective for the CGRP receptor than other human calcitonin family receptors, including adrenomedullin, calcitonin, and amylin receptors. The potency of AMG 334 at the cynomolgus monkey (cyno) CGRP receptor was similar to that at the human receptor, with an IC50 of 5.7 nM, but its potency at dog, rabbit, and rat receptors was significantly reduced (>5000-fold). Therefore, in vivo target coverage of AMG 334 was assessed in cynos using the capsaicin-induced increase in dermal blood flow model. AMG 334 dose-dependently prevented capsaicin-induced increases in dermal blood flow on days 2 and 4 postdosing. These results indicate AMG 334 is a potent, selective, full antagonist of the CGRP receptor and show in vivo dose-dependent target coverage in cynos. AMG 334 is currently in clinical development for the prevention of migraine. PMID:26559125

  7. Identification and biological activity of ovine and caprine calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptides 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher J; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Yandle, Timothy G; Minamino, Naoto

    2008-08-01

    We have recently reported the isolation of three new members of the calcitonin (CT) gene-related peptide family of peptides, the CT receptor (CT-R)-stimulating peptides (CRSPs). We now report the sequencing and characterization of ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2. Mature ovine and caprine CRSP-1 are identical and have strong structural homology to CRSP-1s identified to date from other species. As with other CRSP-1s, ovine/caprine CRSP-1 binds to and activates the CT-R but not the CT-like receptor (CL-R) in combination with the receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 does not activate any of these receptor-RAMP complexes. Intravenous infusions of ovine CRSP-1 to normal conscious sheep induced dose-dependent reduction in plasma total Ca levels (P=0.02) and corrected Ca levels (P=0.017) associated with increases in plasma cAMP (P=0.002). CRSP-1 reduced both plasma amino-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide levels (P=0.006) and plasma renin activity (P=0.028). There were no significant effects observed on hemodynamic or renal indices measured. In conclusion, we have sequenced ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2 precursors. This newly identified CRSP-1 has been shown to share the structural and biological features of CRSP-1s known to date. In vivo studies confirm that ovine CRSP-1 reduces plasma Ca levels in sheep, presumably via a cAMP-mediated mechanism. By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 did not stimulate any combination of CT-R, CL-R, and RAMPs. Accession numbers of cDNA determined in this study are caprine CRSP-1, AB364646; caprine CRSP-2, AB364647; and ovine CRSP-1, AB364648.

  8. Characterisation of salmon calcitonin in spray-dried powder for inhalation. Effect of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Velaga, S; Yamamoto, H; Takeuchi, H; Kawashima, Y; Hovgaard, L; van de Weert, M; Frokjaer, S

    2007-03-01

    Salmon calcitonin (sCT) powders suitable for inhalation, containing chitosan and mannitol as absorption enhancer and protection agent, respectively, were prepared using a spray-drying process. The effect of chitosan on physicochemical stability of sCT in the dry powder was investigated by different analytical techniques. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that sCT was chemically stable upon spray-drying. With the proportion of chitosan in spray-drying formulation being increased, dissolution of sCT from the dry powders was decreased both in phosphate buffer and acetate buffer. The thioflavine T fluorescence assay showed that no fibrils were present in the spray-dried powder. However, sCT partly fibrillated in the phosphate buffer, but not in acetate buffer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that the secondary structure of sCT was slightly changed in the dry powder, yet no aggregate signal was observed. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that the structure of sCT in an aqueous formulation was slightly altered by addition of chitosan. Nevertheless, recovery of sCT was not influenced by chitosan in the aqueous formulation as indicated by HPLC analysis. This study suggested that sCT, in absence of any additives, was stable during the spray-drying process under certain conditions. Addition of chitosan affects recovery of sCT from spray-dried powders, which may be due to formation of a partially irreversible complex between the protein and chitosan during the spray-drying process.

  9. Salmon calcitonin combined with ossification in three alcohol treatment of renal osteopathy%鲑鱼降钙素结合骨化三醇治疗肾性骨病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 张江淮; 吴永贵; 胡淑荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of salmon calcitonin combined ossification in three alcohol for treatment of renal osteodystrophy (renal osteopathy) effect. Methods:66 cases of patients with renal osteodystrophy were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, were treated with the basis of disease treatment, the treatment group added with salmon calcitonin (3 times 20 u, subcutaneous injection, once a week (with conventional hemodialysis), at the same time plus oral ossification in three alcohol treatment (0.25-1.0ug/D);control group with salmon calcitonin, parathyroid hormone in blood were detected before treatment and 3, 6, and 12 months (PTH), serum calcium, serum phosphorus level and lumbar pain, and the record level (visual analogue scale, VAS) and adverse reaction. Results:in the control group before treatment, serum calcium, serum phosphorus and PTH were 2.10 ± 0.28, 2.82 ± 0.34, 868.50 ± 125.57, after treatment were 2.34 ± 0.23, 2.23 ± 0.23 and 723.39 ± 117.73;the treatment group before treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium, serum phosphorus level of 2.15 ± 0.40, 2.78 ± 0.45 、891.45 ± 124.73, after treatment were 2.78 ± 0.46, 2.12 ± 0.21, 610.57 ± 124.12, before and after the treatment, the difference was statistical y significant (P<0.05), the treatment group improved more obviously (P<0.05). Conclusion:the application of salmon calcitonin and combined with ossification in three alcohol can effectively reduce MHD in patients with bone loss in patients with renal osteodystrophy, decrease the level of PTH, improve the clinical symptomsand no obvious adverse reaction. It is worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察鲑鱼降钙素联合骨化三醇治疗肾性骨病(renal osteopathy)的疗效。方法:对66例肾性骨病患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,均予以治疗基础疾病,治疗组加用鲑鱼降钙素(20 u,皮下注射,每周3次(常规血液透析时使用),同时

  10. Differential distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor components in the human trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, S; Salvatore, C A; Calamari, A;

    2010-01-01

    system and hence the potential antagonist sites of action remain unknown. Therefore we designed a study to evaluate the localization of CGRP and its receptor components calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 1 in the human trigeminal ganglion using...... immunohistochemistry and compare with that of rat. Antibodies against purified CLR and RAMP1 proteins were produced and characterized for this study. Trigeminal ganglia were obtained at autopsy from adult subjects and sections from rat trigeminal ganglia were used to compare the immunostaining pattern. The number...

  11. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels during glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced headache in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, C; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Jansen-Olesen, I;

    2010-01-01

    calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin plasma levels were measured before and after placebo/sumatriptan injection and during GTN-induced headache. Following a double-blind randomized cross-over design, 10 healthy volunteers...... intravenous infusion of GTN 0.12 µg kg(-1) min(-1), median peak headache intensity was 4 (range 2-6) (P 0.05). There were no changes in VIP-, NPY- or somatostatin-LI. In conclusion, the NO donor GTN appears not to induce headache via...

  12. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram;

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels......, of whom six underwent continuous dialysis procedures and six did not. The model incorporates a delay term [tau], to be estimated, which expresses the number of days between the beginning of sepsis and ICU admission, allowing, in this way, a general representation of the time course of renal function...

  13. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  14. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  15. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author)

  16. Kan isoleret måling af kalcitonin erstatte pentagastrintest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert, Juliana; Jönsson, Asa Lina; Christiansen, Peer;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Serum calcitonin is used as a tumour marker in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Traditionally, stimulation of calcitonin secretion with pentagastrin has been used. This may, however, cause significant discomfort for the patient. We studied whether measurements of basal...... than the cut-off level in normal subjects after pentagastrin stimulation, but lower before (discrepancy). However, this would have no clinical consequences in any of the cases because serum calcitonin remained measurable, i.e. remnant thyroid tissue had to be present. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, good...

  17. Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in cerebral vasospasm, and as a therapeutic approach to subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios eKokkoris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is one of the most potent microvascular vasodilators identified to date. Vascular relaxation and vasodilation is mediated via activation of the CGRP receptor. This atypical receptor is made up of a G-protein-coupled receptor called calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a single transmembrane protein called receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP, and an additional protein that is required for Gas coupling, known as receptor component protein (RCP. Several mechanisms involved in CGRP mediated relaxation have been identified. These include nitric oxide (NO-dependent endothelium-dependent mechanisms or cAMP-mediated endothelium-independent pathways; the latter being more common. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH is associated with cerebral vasoconstriction that occurs several days after the haemorrhage and is often fatal. The vasospasm occurs in 30–40% of patients and is the major cause of death from this condition. The vasoconstriction is associated with a decrease in CGRP levels in nerves and an increase in CGRP levels in draining blood, suggesting that CGRP is released from nerves to oppose the vasoconstriction. This evidence has led to the concept that exogenous CGRP may be beneficial in a condition that has proven hard to treat. The present article reviews: a the pathophysiology of delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit after SAH b the basics of the CGRP receptor structure, signal transduction and vasodilatation mechanisms and c the studies that have been conducted so far using CGRP in both animals and humans with SAH.

  18. Expression and localization of prohormone convertase PC1 in the calcitonin-producing cells of the bullfrog ultimobranchial gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-11-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  19. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  20. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  2. Serum testosterone, DHEA-S and androstenedione levels in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Hatwal A; Singh S; Agarwal J; Singh G.; Bajpai H; Gupta S

    1990-01-01

    Basal serum levels of total testosterone, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA, - S) and androstenedione (A4) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 100 patients of acne vulgaris, and in 100 age and sex matched acne free healthy subjects. In males with acne the mean serum testosterone levels were marginally and the DHEAS and A4A levels were significantly higher as compared to controls (p). Females with acne had significantly higher levels of testosterone (p< 0.001), DHEA-S (p< 0.001) and...

  3. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migraine...

  4. De novo sequencing of two novel peptides homologous to calcitonin-like peptides, from skin secretion of the Chinese Frog, Odorrana schmackeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa P.C. Evaristo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An MS/MS based analytical strategy was followed to solve the complete sequence of two new peptides from frog (Odorrana schmackeri skin secretion. This involved reduction and alkylation with two different alkylating agents followed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. De novo sequencing was achieved by complementary CID and ETD fragmentations of full-length peptides and of selected tryptic fragments. Heavy and light isotope dimethyl labeling assisted with annotation of sequence ion series. The identified primary structures are GCD[I/L]STCATHN[I/L]VNE[I/L]NKFDKSKPSSGGVGPESP-NH2 and SCNLSTCATHNLVNELNKFDKSKPSSGGVGPESF-NH2, i.e. two carboxyamidated 34 residue peptides with an aminoterminal intramolecular ring structure formed by a disulfide bridge between Cys2 and Cys7. Edman degradation analysis of the second peptide positively confirmed the exact sequence, resolving I/L discriminations. Both peptide sequences are novel and share homology with calcitonin, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and adrenomedullin from other vertebrates. Detailed sequence analysis as well as the 34 residue length of both O. schmackeri peptides, suggest they do not fully qualify as either calcitonins (32 residues or CGRPs (37 amino acids and may justify their classification in a novel peptide family within the calcitonin gene related peptide superfamily. Smooth muscle contractility assays with synthetic replicas of the S–S linked peptides on rat tail artery, uterus, bladder and ileum did not reveal myotropic activity.

  5. Contribution of kv7.4/kv7.5 heteromers to intrinsic and calcitonin gene-related Peptide-induced cerebral reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Jepps, Thomas A; Carr, Georgina;

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameter is regulated by inherent myogenic activity and the effect of potent vasodilators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Previous studies showed that MCAs express KCNQ1, 4, and 5 potassium channel genes, and the expression products (Kv7 channels) part...

  6. THE CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF A POSITIVE CALCITONIN TEST FOR C-CELL HYPERPLASIA IN GENETICALLY UNAFFECTED MEMBERS OF AN MEN2A KINDRED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDSVATER, RM; ROMBOUTS, AGM; TEMEERMAN, GJ; SCHILLHORNVANVEEN, JMJ; BERENDS, MJH; GEERDINK, RA; STRUYVENBERG, A; BUYS, CHCM; LIPS, CJM

    1993-01-01

    C-cell hyperplasia precedes the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A). Identification of abnormal calcitonin levels after a provocative stimulus is a technique that has been widely used to diagnose this preneoplastic condition in an early stage du

  7. Exercise alleviates hypoalgesia and increases the level of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Severo do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on nociceptive sensitivity and immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic and trained diabetic. Treadmill training was performed for 8 weeks. The blood glucose concentrations and body weight were evaluated 48 h after diabetes induction and every 30 days thereafter. The nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using the tail-flick apparatus. The animals were then transcardially perfused, and the spinal cords were post-fixed, cryoprotected and sectioned in a cryostat. Immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide analysis was performed on the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. RESULTS: The nociceptive sensitivity analysis revealed that, compared with the control and trained diabetic animals, the latency to tail deflection on the apparatus was longer for the diabetic animals. Optical densitometry demonstrated decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in diabetic animals, which was reversed by treadmill training. CONCLUSION: We concluded that treadmill training can alleviate nociceptive hypoalgesia and reverse decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic animals without pharmacological treatment.

  8. Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Nakamura, Kae; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2006-02-01

    Expectation of reward motivates our behaviors and influences our decisions. Indeed, neuronal activity in many brain areas is modulated by expected reward. However, it is still unclear where and how the reward-dependent modulation of neuronal activity occurs and how the reward-modulated signal is transformed into motor outputs. Recent studies suggest an important role of the basal ganglia. Sensorimotor/cognitive activities of neurons in the basal ganglia are strongly modulated by expected reward. Through their abundant outputs to the brain stem motor areas and the thalamocortical circuits, the basal ganglia appear capable of producing body movements based on expected reward. A good behavioral measure to test this hypothesis is saccadic eye movement because its brain stem mechanism has been extensively studied. Studies from our laboratory suggest that the basal ganglia play a key role in guiding the gaze to the location where reward is available. Neurons in the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata are extremely sensitive to the positional difference in expected reward, which leads to a bias in excitability between the superior colliculi such that the saccade to the to-be-rewarded position occurs more quickly. It is suggested that the reward modulation occurs in the caudate where cortical inputs carrying spatial signals and dopaminergic inputs carrying reward-related signals are integrated. These data support a specific form of reinforcement learning theories, but also suggest further refinement of the theory.

  9. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  10. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master social…

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  12. Controlling N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 with calcitonin gene related peptide after cerebral ischemic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jixiang Cui; Peng Qu; Chunping Qiao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor(NMDAR)is a key link of exitotoxictiy at the phase of cerebral ischemic injury.Because NMDAR is a main way to mediate internal flow of Ca2+ among glutamic acid receptors,over-excitation can cause neuronal apoptosis.Calcitonin gene related peptide has a strongly biological activity.On one hand,it can play the protective effect through inhibiting the expression of NMDAR1 mRNA;on the other hand,it can play the protective effect through down-regulating the expression of NMDAR1 mRNA by exogenous calcitonin gene related peptide.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of NMDAR1 and the regulatory effect of calcitonin gene related peptide on the expression of NMDAR1 mRNA and protein in the cerebral cortex of rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R).DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: China Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 216 healthy male Wistar rats,general grade,weighing 250-280 g,were selected in this study.Twelve rats were randomly selected to regard as control group;meanwhile,other 204 rats were used to establish middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MACO)models.The main reagents were detailed as follows:calcitonin gene related peptide (Sigma Company);calcitonin gene related peptide kit (Boster Company);antibodyⅠ,Ⅱand antibody β-actin Ⅰ,Ⅱ of NMDAR1 mRNA and chemiluminescence reagent (Santa Cruz Company,USA)METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Neurobiology of China Medical University from August 2005 to June 2006. ①Right MCAO models of rats were established to cause focal ischemia and scored based on Zea Longa five-grade scale. If the scores were 1,2 and 3 after wakefulness,the MACO models were established successfully and involved in the experiment. A total of 120 rats with successful modeling were randomly divided into I/R group and administration group with 60 in each group.All rats in the both groups were observed at five time points

  13. Negative pressure for diabetic foot:Evaluation based on calcitonin gene-related peptide in the limb skin of dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ling; Jun Yi; Ling Wang; Mofan Ning

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very good therapeutic effect has been obtained for limb negative pressure in treating limb ischemic diseases.But its mechanism in treating diabetic foot needs further investigation.OBJECTIVE:To observe the changes of calcitonin gene related peptide(CGRP)in sensory nerve fiber of skin of dogs with diabetic foot before and after limb negative pressure treatment,and make a comparison with normal dogs,then analyze the mechanism of limb negative pressure in treating diabetic foot.DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING:Third Department of General Surgery,Xijing Hospital,Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS:Fifteen healthy hybrid dogs,of either gender,weighing 12-18 kg,were provided by Animal Room,Xijing Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.After being numbered,the involved dogs were randomly assigned into 3 groups:treatment group,model group and normal control group,5 dogs each.Limb negative pressure therapeutic machine(self-made);Anti-CGRP serum (primary antibody,Watpa Company,England);rabbit anti-BigG(second antibody),ABC compound solution,DAB reagent,glucose oxidase reagent,Tdxon-X100 solution(Sigma company,USA),ammonium nickelous sulfate reagent(Xi'an Chemical Reagent Factory),neutral gum-solution(import,Shanghai Reagent Co.,Ltd.);Leitz1400 sliding freezing microtome(Leitz Company,Germany);Leica 1800 cryostat microtome(Leica Company,Germany);Quantimet570 image analyzer(Leica Company,Germany).METHODS:This experiment was carried out in the Animal Room,Xijing Hospital,Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from October 2005 to June 2006.①After the dogs in the treatment and model groups were anesthetized,their pancreatic tissues were removed completely and animal models of type I diabetes mellitus were developed.All the femoral artery branches including deep femoral artery were ligated and cut off.A helical wire was inserted into the distal femoral artery cavity for narrowing

  14. Cerebellar distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor components calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Salvatore, Christopher A;

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental results have revealed a fundamental role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in primary headaches. CGRP is widely expressed in neurons both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral sensory nerves. In the CNS there is a wide distribution of CGRP...... modifying protein type 1 (RAMP1) have been developed. In the present study we therefore examined immunohistochemically the distribution of CGRP and its receptor components in the cerebellum. CGRP immunoreactivity was only found intracellularly in the cerebellar Purkinje cell bodies, whereas CLR and RAMP1...... were detected on the surface of the Purkinje cell bodies and in their processes. The elaborate dendritic tree of Purkinje cell fibers was distinctly visualized with the RAMP1 antibody. In addition, profoundly stained fibers spanning from the molecular layer into the medulla was observed with the RAMP1...

  15. Acute effects of nasal salmon calcitonin on calcium and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, G; Skousgaard, S G; Daugaard, H;

    1993-01-01

    .7 (3.2) nmol/mmol after nasal SCT (P = 0.04). Nasal SCT did not change the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen. The results indicate that nasal SCT given as a single dose provokes a modest decrease in bone resorption lasting...

  16. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Sami N. Nasrallah; L. Raymond Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism...

  17. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  18. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine: regional cerebral blood flow and blood flow velocity in migraine patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L.H.; Jacobsen, V.B.; Haderslev, P.A.;

    2008-01-01

    g/min) or placebo for 20 min was studied in 12 patients with migraine without aura outside attacks. Xenon-133 inhalation SPECT-determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and transcranial Doppler (TCD)-determined blood velocity (V-mean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), as well as the heart......Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves are closely associated with cranial blood vessels. CGRP is the most potent vasodilator known in isolated cerebral blood vessels. CGRP can induce migraine attacks, and two selective CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in the treatment...... of migraine attacks. It is therefore important to investigate its mechanism of action in patients with migraine. We here investigate the effects of intravenous human alpha-CGRP (h alpha CGRP) on intracranial hemodynamics. In a double-blind, cross-over study, the effect of intravenous infusion of haCGRP (2 mu...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PATTERN OF METHYLATION OF CALCITONIN GENE AND ACTIVITY OF METHYLTRANSFERASE in 8 Tumor Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between the pattern of methylation of calcitonin (CT) gene and the activity of DNA methyltranferase (MTase). Methods: The methylation rate of the 5' region of the CT gene (CTMR) and the activity of MTase in 6 solid tumor cell lines and 2 leukemia cell lines were determined. CTMR was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with inter and external references in combination with restriction endonuclease and laser scan technique. MTase activity was examined by isotope labeled microassay. Results: Both CTMR and MTase activity in all tumor cell lines were significantly higher than that of control cells. The increased MTase activity was relative to elevated CTMR. Conclusion: There is prevalence of hypermethylation of CT gene and elevated activity of MTase in malignant cells. The increased MTase activity is one of the possible reasons for CT gene hypermethylation in tumor cells.

  20. Oral salmon calcitonin enhances insulin action and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T; Andreassen, Kim V;

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that oral delivery of salmon calcitonin (sCT) improved energy and glucose homeostasis and attenuated diabetic progression in animal models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes, although the glucoregulatory mode of action was not fully elucidated. In the present...... study we hypothesized that oral sCT as pharmacological intervention 1) exerted anti-hyperglycemic efficacy, and 2) enhanced insulin action in DIO-streptozotocin (DIO-STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetic hyperglycemia was induced in male selectively bred DIO rats by a single low dose (30mg/kg) injection of STZ...... was enhanced in conjunction with protection of pancreatic insulin content. The results of the present study indicate that oral sCT exerts a novel insulin-sensitizing effect to improve glucose metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes....

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of the calcitonin gene-related peptide binding site in the primate trigeminovascular system using functional antagonist antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Silke; Liu, Hantao; Warfvinge, Karin; Shi, Licheng; Dovlatyan, Mary; Xu, Cen; Edvinsson, Lars

    2016-07-22

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator and a neuromodulator implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. It binds to the extracellular domains of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 that together form the CGRP receptor. Antagonist antibodies against CGRP and its binding site at the receptor are clinically effective in preventing migraine attacks. The blood-brain barrier penetration of these antagonist antibodies is limited, suggesting that a potential peripheral site of action is sufficient to prevent migraine attacks. To further understand the sites of CGRP-mediated signaling in migraine, we used immunohistochemical staining with recently developed antagonist antibodies specifically recognizing a fusion protein of the extracellular domains of RAMP1 and CLR that comprise the CGRP binding pocket at the CGRP receptor in monkey and man. We confirmed binding of the antagonist antibodies to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of dural meningeal arteries and neurons in the trigeminal ganglion, both of which are likely sites of action for therapeutic antibodies in migraine patients. We further used one of these antibodies for detailed mapping on cynomolgus monkey tissue and found antagonist antibody binding sites at multiple levels in the trigeminovascular system: in the dura mater VSMCs, in neurons and satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion, and in neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. These data reinforce and clarify our understanding of CGRP receptor localization in a pattern consistent with a role for CGRP receptors in trigeminal sensitization and migraine pathology. PMID:27155150

  2. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Lamos EM; Younk LM; Davis SN

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with in...

  3. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  4. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  5. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  6. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  7. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-05-01

    The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708

  8. Defined Conditions for the Isolation and Expansion of Basal Prostate Progenitor Cells of Mouse and Human Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Höfner; Christian Eisen; Corinna Klein; Teresa Rigo-Watermeier; Stephan M. Goeppinger; Anna Jauch; Brigitte Schoell; Vanessa Vogel; Elisa Noll; Wilko Weichert; Irène Baccelli; Anja Schillert; Steve Wagner; Sascha Pahernik; Martin R. Sprick

    2015-01-01

    Summary Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs) have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin−SCA-1+CD49f+TROP2high phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin−CD49f+TROP2high PESCs. The gene-expression profiles ...

  9. Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity of Anti-tuberculosis Drugs and Their Serum Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Ina; Park, Jong-Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Song, Junghan; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between serum anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug levels and the drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-TB DIH is associated with basal serum drug levels. Serum peak levels of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB) were analyzed in blood samples 2 hr after the administration of anti-TB medication. Anti-TB DIH and mild liver function test abnormality were diagnosed on the basis of...

  10. Flupirtine inhibits calcitonin-gene related peptide release from rat brainstem in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Giuseppe; Greco, Maria Cristina; Capuano, Alessandro; Guerriero, Giuseppe; Currò, Diego; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2012-01-11

    We have previously shown that the nonopioid analgesic flupirtine possesses analgesic activity in the orofacial formalin test in vivo in the rat. However, this paradigm does not allow to distinguish between central and peripheral site of action of the drug. In this study we used a recently characterized in vitro model, consisting in acute rat brainstem explants, to investigate whether flupirtine analgesia may be, at least in part, attributed to interference with neurotransmission between the first and the second order neurons of the trigeminal system, occurring within the brainstem. We used acute rat brainstem explants; CGRP released into the incubation medium was taken as a marker of CGRP release from central terminals of trigeminal ganglion afferent neurons within the brainstem. CGRP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay under basal conditions or in the presence of flupirtine, alone or with putative antagonist XE-991. We found that flupirtine inhibits in a concentration-dependent manner both basal and capsaicin-stimulated CGRP release from rat brainstem. This effect is mimicked by the flupirtine analogue retigabine, and is counteracted by the Kv7 blocker XE-991. These findings provide in vitro evidence that the analgesic activity of flupirtine may be related to interference with pain neurotransmission at the brainstem level. Pharmacological data suggests that such effect is related to opening of Kv7 channels on first-order neuronal nerve ending, and the subsequent inhibition of neurotransmitter release, since the effect is mimicked by the Kv7 opener retigabine and is counteracted by the Kv7 blocker XE-991. PMID:22155095

  11. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  12. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine.

  13. Availability of the basal planes of graphene oxide determines whether it is antibacterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Liwei; Piao, Ji-Gang; Auletta, Jeffrey; Hu, Kan; Zhu, Yanwu; Meyer, Tara; Liu, Haitao; Yang, Lihua

    2014-08-13

    There are significant controversies on the antibacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO): GO was reported to be bactericidal in saline, whereas its activity in nutrient broth was controversial. To unveil the mechanisms underlying these contradictions, we performed antibacterial assays under comparable conditions. In saline, bare GO sheets were intrinsically bactericidal, yielding a bacterial survival percentage of planes. Using bovine serum albumin and tryptophan as well-defined model adsorbates, we found that noncovalent adsorption on GO basal planes may account for the deactivation of GO's bactericidal activity. Moreover, this deactivation mechanism was shown to be extrapolatable to GO's cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Taken together, our observations suggest that bare GO intrinsically kills both bacteria and mammalian cells and noncovalent adsorption on its basal planes may be a global deactivation mechanism for GO's cytotoxicity.

  14. Serum calciotropic hormone levels,and dental fluorlsis in Children exposed to different concentrations of fluoride and iodine in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA Yue; ZHANG Ya-wei; ZHU Jiang-yuan; YANG Yue-jin; YU Bo; HUANG Hui; WANG Gang; REN Li-jun; CHENG Xue-min; CUI Liu-xin

    2010-01-01

    Background High fluoride exposure can result in dental fluorosis.Fluoride and iodine are coexistent in the drinking water of areas in China and may affect the prevalence of dental fluorosis and osteogenesis.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum calciotropic hormone level.and dentaI fluorisis in children exposed to different concentrations of fluoride and iodine in drinking water.Methods A pilot study was conducted in three villages located in the Kaifeng and Tongxu counties of Henan Province,China in 2006.Children aged 8 to 12 years.born and raised in the three villages were recruited.The fluoride levels in the samples of urine from these children were detected by fluoride ion selective electrode.Calcitonin and osteocalcin levels in the serum,and serum calcium were measured by radioimmunassay and flame atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively.Results Fluoride levels in urine were significantly lower in children from control area(CA)as compared with those from the high fluoride & iodine areas(HFIA)and the high fluoride area(HFA)(P<0.05 respectively),and no statistically significant difference was found between the children from HFIA and HFA.Additionally,calcitonin levels in the serum were significantly lower in children from CA and HFA as compared with that from HFIA(P<0.05 respectively),and osteocalcin levels in the serum was lower in children from CA than those from HFIA (P<0.05).No statistically significant difference in serum osteocalcin concentrations was found between children from HFA and HFIA.Conclusion This study provides an evidence that iodine exposure may modify the serum calciotropic hormone levels related to fluorine exposure.

  15. Organ culture of the trigeminal ganglion induces enhanced expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide via activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajti, János; Kuris, Anikó; Vécsei, László;

    2011-01-01

    , phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2), total ERK1/2 (tERK1/2), phosphorylated p38 (pp38), phosphorylated C-Jun-N-terminal protein kinase (pJNK), pro-calcitonin (pro-CT), CGRP receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), glutamine synthetase (GS) and pro-CT were used. To explore molecular mechanisms involved......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical and experimental studies have revealed a central role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in primary headaches. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in neuronal and glial cell expression of CGRP- immunoreactivity (-ir) in rat...

  16. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  17. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  18. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  19. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  20. Effect of Tongxinluo Capsule (通心络胶囊) on Plasma Endothelin,Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide and Nitrogen Oxide of Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 顾锡镇; 邓颖; 张南军; 谈友芬; 蔡新; 王丽珠

    2004-01-01

    @@ Research of TCM shows that the chief pathological basis of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) is "blood stasis obstructing collateral". Here the authors used Tongxinluo capsule (通心络胶囊, TXLC) for replenishing qi, removing stasis and dredging collateral to treat qi deficiency-blood stasis type of ACI, and observed the change of plasma endothelin (ET), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitrogen oxide (NO), aiming at exploringthe effect of TXLC on vascular endothelial function and neurotransmitter.

  1. Marked depletion of dorsal spinal cord substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide with intact skin flare responses in multiple system atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, P; Bannister, R; McGregor, G P; Ghatei, M A; Mulderry, P K; Bloom, S R

    1988-01-01

    In view of the presence of neuropeptides in spinal cord autonomic pathways, their regional concentration was studied in post mortem thoracic cord from four cases of multiple system atrophy with progressive autonomic failure (MSA). A marked depletion was observed of substance P, its related peptide substance K, and of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), particularly in dorsal regions where peptide-containing sensory fibres terminate. As substance P and CGRP in primary sensory fibres are co...

  2. Molecular cloning of otoconin-22 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac: effect of calcitonin on otoconin-22 messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-08-01

    Anuran amphibians have a special organ called the endolymphatic sac (ELS), containing many calcium carbonate crystals, which is believed to have a calcium storage function. The major protein of aragonitic otoconia, otoconin-22, which is considered to be involved in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, has been purified from the saccule of the Xenopus inner ear. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding otoconin-22 from the cDNA library constructed for the paravertebral lime sac (PVLS) of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and sequenced it. The bullfrog otoconin-22 encoded a protein consisting of 147 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The protein had cysteine residues identical in a number and position to those conserved among the secretory phospholipase A(2) family. The mRNA of bullfrog otoconin-22 was expressed in the ELS, including the PVLS and inner ear. This study also revealed the presence of calcitonin receptor-like protein in the ELS, with the putative seven-transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptors. The ultimobranchialectomy induced a prominent decrease in the otoconin-22 mRNA levels of the bullfrog PVLS. Supplementation of the ultimobranchialectomized bullfrogs with synthetic salmon calcitonin elicited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the sac. These findings suggest that calcitonin secreted from the ultimobranchial gland, regulates expression of bullfrog otoconin-22 mRNA via calcitonin receptor-like protein on the ELS, thereby stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS. PMID:12865304

  3. Biological and physical properties of a model calcitonin containing a glutamate residue interrupting the hydrophobic face of the idealized amphiphilic alpha-helical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F R; Lynch, B; Kaiser, E T

    1987-01-01

    2A new calcitonin analogue, model calcitonin III (MCt-III), has been synthesized, and its biological and physical characteristics have been studied. This analogue has an idealized alpha-helix from residue 8-22 with glutamate at position 15 interrupting an otherwise continuous surface of aliphatic side chains (those of leucine residues) on the hydrophobic face of the helix. MCt-III differs from a previous model, MCt-II, only by the substitution Leu15----Glu and is here compared with salmon calcitonin I (sCt-I) and MCt-II to elucidate further the role of the putative amphiphilic alpha-helix in determining biological and physical properties of the hormone. MCt-III shows physical properties intermediate between those of sCt-I and MCt-II, demonstrating the influence of appropriately positioned single residues on properties of amphiphilic structures. In our two biological assays, a brain-binding assay and an in vivo hypocalcemic assay, MCt-III reproduces the sigmoidal dose-response curves of sCt-I; this contrasts with the behavior of MCt-II, which demonstrated unusual dose-response curves in these two assays. MCt-III is almost three times more potent than sCt-I in our hypocalcemic assay; this activity groups MCt-III among the most potent known analogues of sCt-I. PMID:2825187

  4. 离子导入对降钙素经皮促渗作用的研究%Research on the Role of Iontophoresis in Calcitonin Percutaneous Penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双侠; 魏雅冬; 戴明

    2011-01-01

    To improve biological macromolecules transdennal therapeutic drug concentration, peptide drug salmon calcitonin is taken as a model of biological drugs, the impact of iontophoresis and chemical penetration enhancers on percutaneous penetration of salmon calcitonin is studied. Dualchamber diffusion cells methods are adopted to investigate transdermal penetration effect of iontophoresis, Azone chemical penetration enhancers and iontophoresis - Azone and use of salmon calcitonin.%为了提高大分子生物药经皮给药的治疗浓度,以多肽类生物药鲑降钙素为模型药物,研究离子导入法和化学促渗剂对鲑降钙素经皮渗透的影响:利用水平双室扩散池的方法,考察了离子导入法、化学促渗剂氮酮以及离子导入-氯酮并用对鲑降钙素经皮渗透的促渗作用.

  5. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  6. Defined conditions for the isolation and expansion of basal prostate progenitor cells of mouse and human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Thomas; Eisen, Christian; Klein, Corinna; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Goeppinger, Stephan M; Jauch, Anna; Schoell, Brigitte; Vogel, Vanessa; Noll, Elisa; Weichert, Wilko; Baccelli, Irène; Schillert, Anja; Wagner, Steve; Pahernik, Sascha; Sprick, Martin R; Trumpp, Andreas

    2015-03-10

    Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs) have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin(-)SCA-1(+)CD49f(+)TROP2(high) phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin(-)CD49f(+)TROP2(high) PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin. PMID:25702639

  7. 降钙素基因相关肽受体组分蛋白%Researches of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor component protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐江琼; 秦旭平

    2011-01-01

    降钙素基因相关肽受体组分蛋白(calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein,CGRP-RCP)是降钙素基因相关肽受体的一个具有146/148个氨基酸的胞内膜周边蛋白,特异地与降钙素受体样受体(calcitonin receptor-like receptor,CRLR)相互作用并促进CGRP和肾上腺髓质素的信号跨膜转导,现认为CGRP-RCP也是G蛋白偶联受体中一个动态的调节器.CGRP-RCP的mRNA在人和鼠的几乎所有组织均可检测到,在小鼠睾丸中分布尤其明显.在哺乳动物中,CGRP-RCP与C17(酵母菌中聚合酶Ⅲ的必需亚基)是直系同源蛋白,人体的CGRP-RCP能取代酵母中的C17,发挥与Cl7相同的生物学作用.%Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor component protein (CGRP-RCP), an additional accessory protein of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and an intracellular peripheral membrane protein, is composed of 146-148 residues, which interacts specifically with the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and facilitates signal transduction by CGRP and adrenomedullin.Furthermore, CGRP-RCP is a dynamic regulator of G protein-coupled signal transduction, and implies an additional level of receptor regulation unique to the CGRP system. The CGRP-RCP mRNA is expressed in all tissues of the human and mice, especially more in the testis of mice. Moreover, CGRP-RCP is the mammalian orthologue of C 17 (an essential subunit of yeast RNA polymerase) and human RCP could functionally replace its orthologue in yeast.

  8. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  9. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  10. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  11. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  12. The Slowly Aggregating Salmon Calcitonin: A Useful Tool for the Study of the Amyloid Oligomers Structure and Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Diociaiuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid proteins of different aminoacidic composition share the tendency to misfold and aggregate in a similar way, following common aggregation steps. The process includes the formation of dimers, trimers, and low molecular weight prefibrillar oligomers, characterized by the typical morphology of globules less than 10 nm diameter. The globules spontaneously form linear or annular structures and, eventually, mature fibers. The rate of this process depends on characteristics intrinsic to the different proteins and to environmental conditions (i.e., pH, ionic strength, solvent composition, temperature. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, it is now generally agreed that the pathogenic aggregates are not the mature fibrils, but the intermediate, soluble oligomers. However, the molecular mechanism by which these oligomers trigger neuronal damage is still unclear. Inparticular, it is not clear if there is a peculiar structure at the basis of the neurotoxic effect and how this structure interacts with neurons. This review will focus on the results we obtained using salmon Calcitonin, an amyloid protein characterized by a very slow aggregation rate, which allowed us to closely monitor the aggregation process. We used it as a tool to investigate the characteristics of amyloid oligomers formation and their interactions with neuronal cells. Our results indicate that small globules of about 6 nm could be the responsible for the neurotoxic effects. Moreover, our data suggest that the rich content in lipid rafts of neuronal cell plasma membrane may render neurons particularly vulnerable to the amyloid protein toxic effect.

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive sensory neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervating the larynx of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We have examined whether calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervate the larynx. Many CGRP-ir neurons were located mostly in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex that was fused the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion and the jugular ganglion in the cranial cavity. When Fluorogold was applied to the cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), many Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex and the nodose ganglion. Double-labeling for CGRP and Fluorogold showed that about 80% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of application to the SLN, and about 50% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of the RLN. Only a few double-labeled neurons were found in the nodose ganglion. The number of the Fluorogold-labeled neurons and double-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex in the case of the SLN was larger than that in the case of the RLN. These results indicate that sensory information from the larynx might be conveyed by many CGRP-ir neurons located in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex by way of the SLN and the RLN. PMID:24269509

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulation of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor in differentiated rat myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Elyse; Cha, Jieun; Bain, James R; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is the most potent trophic factor for motoneuron survival and neuromuscular junction formation. GDNF is upregulated in injured or denervated skeletal muscle and returns to normal levels following reinnervation. However, the mechanism by which GDNF is regulated in denervated muscle is not well understood. The nerve-derived neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is upregulated following neuromuscular injury and is subsequently released from motoneurons at the neuromuscular junction. CGRP also promotes nerve regeneration, but the mechanism is not well understood. The current study investigates whether this increase in CGRP regulates GDNF, thus playing a key role in promoting regeneration of injured nerves. This study demonstrates that CGRP increases GDNF secretion without affecting its transcription or translation. Rat L6 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and subsequently treated with CGRP. GDNF mRNA expression levels were quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and secreted GDNF was quantified in the conditioned medium by ELISA. CGRP treatment increased secreted GDNF protein without altering GDNF mRNA levels. The translational inhibitor cycloheximide did not affect CGRP-induced GDNF secreted protein levels, whereas the secretional inhibitor brefeldin A blocked the CGRP-induced increase in GDNF. This study highlights the importance of injury-induced upregulation of CGRP by exposing its ability to increase GDNF levels and demonstrates a secretional mechanism for regulation of this key regeneration-promoting neurotrophic factor.

  15. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels during glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced headache in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruuse, C; Iversen, H K; Jansen-Olesen, I; Edvinsson, L; Olesen, J

    2010-04-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in migraine has been studied in the experimental glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-infusion headache model. We hypothesized that GTN-induced headache may activate the trigeminovascular system and be associated with increased levels of sensory neuropeptides, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin plasma levels were measured before and after placebo/sumatriptan injection and during GTN-induced headache. Following a double-blind randomized cross-over design, 10 healthy volunteers received subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg or placebo. This was succeeded by 20 min of GTN (0.12 µg kg(-1) min(-1)) infusion. At baseline no subject reported headache (using verbal rating scale from 0 to 10) and the jugular CGRP-like immunoreactivity (-LI) level was 18.6 ± 2.5 pmol/l. After a 20-min intravenous infusion of GTN 0.12 µg kg(-1) min(-1), median peak headache intensity was 4 (range 2-6) (P 0.05). There were no changes in VIP-, NPY- or somatostatin-LI. In conclusion, the NO donor GTN appears not to induce headache via immediate CGRP release.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites in human and guinea pig lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-Human calcitonin gene-related peptide (hCGRP) binding sites were localized in human and guinea pig lungs by an autoradiographic method. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments from slide-mounted sections of guinea pig lung displayed specific 125I-hCGRP binding sites with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.72 +/- 0.05 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3) and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 133.4 +/- 5.6 fmol/mg protein. In both human and guinea pig lung, autoradiography revealed that CGRP binding sites were widely distributed, with particularly dense labeling over bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels of all sizes and alveolar walls. Airway smooth muscle and epithelium of large airways was sparsely labeled but no labeling was found over submucosal glands. This localization corresponds well to the reported pattern of CGRP-like immunoreactive innervation. The findings of localization of CGRP binding sites on bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels indicate that CGRP may be important in the regulation of airway and pulmonary blood flow

  17. The Use of the Calcitonin Minimal Recognition Module for the Design of DOPA-Containing Fibrillar Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Fichman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid deposits are insoluble fibrous protein aggregates, identified in numerous diseases, which self-assemble through molecular recognition. This process is facilitated by short amino acid sequences, identified as minimal modules. Peptides corresponding to these motifs can be used for the formation of amyloid-like fibrillar assemblies in vitro. Such assemblies hold broad appeal in nanobiotechnology due to their ordered structure and to their ability to be functionalized. The catechol functional group, present in the non-coded L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA amino acid, can take part in diverse chemical interactions. Moreover, DOPA-incorporated polymers have demonstrated adhesive properties and redox activity. In this work, amyloid-like fibrillar assemblies were formed through the self-assembly of a pentapeptide containing DOPA residues, Asp-DOPA-Asn-Lys-DOPA. The design of this peptide was based on the minimal amyloidogenic recognition motif of the human calcitonin hormone, Asp-Phe-Asn-Lys-Phe, the first amyloidogenic pentapeptide identified. By substituting phenylalanine with DOPA, we obtained DOPA-functionalized amyloid-like assemblies in water. Electron microscopy revealed elongated, linear fibril-like nanometric assemblies. Secondary structure analysis indicated the presence of amyloid-characteristic β-sheet structures as well as random coil structures. Deposition of silver on the DOPA-incorporated assemblies suggested redox activity and demonstrated the applicative potential of this novel nanobiomaterial.

  18. Synthetic human calcitonin: Analysis of antibodies obtained from various animal species and determination of immunoreactive hormone in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies to synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) were developed in rabbits, goats and mice. The free peptide (32 amino-acid residues, Mwt. 3418) was administered together with adjuvant, and the effect of various immunization procedures, as well as of different dose-levels, was evaluated comparatively. Synthetic hCT was found to be a good immunogen for the three animal species examined. The relative importance of various structural parts of the hCT molecule with regard to immunological specificity was determined by reference to the inhibition of the specific binding of 125I-hCT to antibodies by peptide fragments of hCT. All the antisera studied were directed to structural and/or conformational properties of the 11-28 or 11-32 amino acid sequence of hCT. Six different antisera from rabbits and goats were selected for radioimmunological assay of hCT on the basis of their inhibitory dose50-values and immunological specificity. To improve the sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay (RIA), we studied the preparation of radioiodinated hCT and assessed various parameters determining the sensitivity of the assay. Despite all the efforts, CT in human plasma from healthy subjects could not be determined with certainty. The difficulties encountered in the regard to immunological speciticity. Antibodies exhibiting different immunological properties were then selected for the determination of CT in human sera. (author)

  19. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and leptin on the day of hCG administration predict successful fertilization in in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Hestiantoro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF program depends on multiple factors. This study aimed to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, and leptin on the day of trigger ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG might be used as predictor for successful oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization (IVF program.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Yasmin Fertility Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Forty participating patients underwent IVF program, excluding smokers, patients with diabetic, morbid obesity, and severe oligospermia or azoospermia. Age, BMI, basal FSH, estradiol, leptin on the day of hCG administration, oocyte count on oocyte retrieval, the number of mature oocyte, and fertility rate were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine which eligible factors play role in predicting the successful of fertilization.Results: Significant correlation was found between basal FSH level and serum leptin/oocyte ratio on the day of hCG administration with successful fertilization. We found probability formula as follows: 1/(1+exp –(6.2 - 0.4(leptin serum/oocyte ratio - 0.8(basal FSH, with 77.8% sensitivity, 77.8% specificity, and AUC levels of 85.6% indicating strong predictability. Probability of successful fertilization related to basal FSH level of 5.90 mIU/mL and leptin serum/oocyte ratio of 3.98.Conclusion: The formula consisting of basal FSH and leptin serum/oocyte ratio on the day of trigger ovulation was capable in predicting the probability of successful fertilization in IVF procedure.

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  1. Sequence learning in a model of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Søiland, Stian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational model of the basal ganglia that is able to learn sequences and perform action selection. The basal ganglia is a set of structures in the human brain involved in everything from action selection to reinforcement learning, inspiring research in psychology, neuroscience and computer science. Two temporal difference models of the basal ganglia based on previous work have been reimplemented. Several experiments and analyses help understand and describe the or...

  2. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, JD; Warren, TL; Brainard, MS

    2012-01-01

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential ' actor-models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to s...

  3. PIGMENTED BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A RARE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VARIANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar; Sumanlatha

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumour of skin , commonly referred to as „rodent ulcer‟. It is common in the head and neck region. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits inc reased pigmentation. It is a rare variant that can clinically mimic malignant melanoma. It is more common in males than females. Herein , we are...

  4. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  5. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  6. Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Forehead: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjčec, Zoran; Lisica-Šikić, Nataša; Kovačić, Marijan

    2012-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carc...

  7. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Sami N; Reynolds, L Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5. PMID:22879797

  8. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  9. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  10. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  11. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on plasma endothelin and calcitonin gene related peptide in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage patients%高压氧对高血压脑出血患者血浆ET、CGRP的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 吕云利; 姚向荣; 廖军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高压氧对高血压脑出血患者血浆内皮素(ET)、降钙素基因相关肽(CGRP)的影响.方法 选择70例高血压脑出血患者,随机分为高压氧治疗组和常规治疗组,每组35例;2组均予常规治疗,高压氧治疗组在常规治疗的基础上于入院后第5天生命体征稳定后进行高压氧治疗,每天1次,共治疗14d.采用放射免疫法在治疗不同时间点(24h、5d、14d、21d)分别测血浆ET、CGRP值.另选择35例健康体检者作为正常对照组.结果 入院时24h高压氧治疗组及常规治疗组ET值高于正常对照组,CGRP值低于正常对照组.入院后(14d、21d)高压氧治疗组ET值低于常规治疗组,CGRP值高于常规治疗组.结论 高压氧治疗可以降低血浆ET水平,提高CGRP含量,从而改善高血压脑出血患者预后,并对继发性脑损伤有一定的治疗作用.%Objective It is to investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on plasma endothelin( ET ) and calcitonin gene-related peptide( CGRP ). Methods 70 hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage patients were randomly divided into hyperbaric oxygenation therapeutic group and conventional therapy group ( 35 cases in each group ). Beside the conventional therap,patients in hyperbaric oxygenation therapeutic group also received hyperbaric oxygenation in the fifth day after being in hospital if the body signs were stable,once a day and for 14 days. The developments of ET and CGRP levels in serum from both groups were monitored ( 24 h, 5 d, 14 d, 21 d ) with radioimmunoassay ,35 healthy people ( control group ) were enrolled in this stud-y. Results The level of ET was higher and the level of CGRP was lower in treatment group and conventional therapy group than that in normal control group in 24 h after being in hospital. The level of ET was lower and the level of CGRP was higher in hyperbaric oxygenation therapy group after therapy at 14 d and 21 d than that in conventional therapy( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Hyperbaric

  12. 鲑鱼降钙素致不良反应的文献分析%A Literature Analysis of Adverse Drug Reactions Induced by Salmon Calcitonin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏娜; 吴逢波; 徐珽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics and the general pattern of the adverse drug reaction (ADR) induced by salmon calcitonin. Methods ADR induced by salmon calcitonin reported in domestic medical journals during January 1994 to March 2012 were retrieved from CNKI and WanFang databases. Classification and statistical analysis were carried out according to patients' age, gender, route of administration, dosage, time of the occurrence of ADR, clinical symptoms, allergic history, treatment and recovery. Results Fifteen ADR cases involved the integumentary system , cardiovascular system, digestive system, nervous system and allergic reaction, with advanced age group and women showing the highest incidence. Conclusion Salmon calcitonin should be used with caution in the clinic for it may induce ADR.%目的 总结鲑鱼降钙素致不良反应的一般规律和特点.方法 检索中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库(WanFang)1994年1月-2012年3月鲑鱼降钙素所致不良反应的个案报道,按患者年龄、性别、给药途径、用药剂量、不良反应发生时间、临床表现症状、有无过敏史、治疗与转归等进行分类统计分析.结果 15例不良反应包括皮肤系统、心血管系统、消化系统、神经系统和超敏反应,高年龄段和女性发生率较高.结论 临床上应重视鲑鱼降钙素可致不良反应,坚持合理用药.

  13. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors can antagonize neurogenic and calcitonin gene-related peptide induced dilation of dural meningeal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, S; Williamson, D J; Kaube, H; Goadsby, P J

    2002-01-01

    The detailed pathophysiology of migraine is beginning to be understood and is likely to involve activation of trigeminovascular afferents. Clinically effective anti-migraine compounds are believed to have actions that include peripheral inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurones, or preventing dural vessel dilation, or both. CGRP antagonists can block both neurogenic and CGRP-induced dural vessel dilation. Nitric oxide (NO) can induce headache in migraine patients and often triggers a delayed migraine. The initial headache is thought to be caused via a direct action of the NO–cGMP pathway that causes vasodilation by vascular smooth muscle relaxation, while the delayed headache is likely to be a result of triggering trigeminovascular activation. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are effective in the treatment of acute migraine. The present studies used intravital microscopy to examine the effects of specific NOS inhibitors on neurogenic dural vasodilation (NDV) and CGRP-induced dilation. The non-specific and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitors were able to partially inhibit NDV, while the non-specific and endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitors were able to partially inhibit the CGRP induced dilation. There was no effect of the inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor. The data suggest that the delayed headache response triggered by NO donors in humans may be due, in part, to increased nNOS activity in the trigeminal system that causes CGRP release and dural vessel dilation. Further, eNOS activity in the endothelium causes NO production and smooth muscle relaxation by direct activation of the NO–cGMP pathway, and may be involved in the initial headache response. PMID:12183331

  14. Coated minispheres of salmon calcitonin target rat intestinal regions to achieve systemic bioavailability: Comparison between intestinal instillation and oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Aversa, Vincenzo; Rosa, Mónica; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Coulter, Ivan; Brayden, David J

    2016-09-28

    Achieving oral peptide delivery is an elusive challenge. Emulsion-based minispheres of salmon calcitonin (sCT) were synthesized using single multiple pill (SmPill®) technology incorporating the permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10), or coco-glucoside (CG), or the pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres were coated with an outer layer of Eudragit® L30 D-55 (designed for jejunal release) or Surelease®/Pectin (designed for colonic release). The process was mild and in vitro biological activity of sCT was retained upon release from minispheres stored up to 4months. In vitro release profiles suggested that sCT was released from minispheres by diffusion through coatings due to swelling of gelatin and the polymeric matrix upon contact with PBS at pH6.8. X-ray analysis confirmed that coated minispheres dissolved at the intended intestinal region of rats following oral gavage. Uncoated minispheres at a dose of ~2000I.U.sCT/kg were administered to rats by intra-jejunal (i.j.) or intra-colonic (i.c.) instillation and caused hypocalcaemia. Notable sCT absolute bioavailability (F) values were: 5.5% from minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j), 17.3% with CG (i.c.) and 18.2% with C10 (i.c.). Coated minispheres administered by oral gavage at threefold higher doses also induced hypocalcaemia. A highly competitive F value of 2.7% was obtained for orally-administered sCT-minispheres containing CG (45μmol/kg) and coated with Eudragit®. In conclusion, the SmPill® technology is a potential dosage form for several peptides when formulated with PEs and coated for regional delivery. PK data from instillations over-estimates oral bioavailability and poorly predicts rank ordering of formulations. PMID:27480451

  15. Osteogenic potential of human calcitonin gene-related peptide alpha gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi-sheng; WANG Ya-han; ZHAO Guo-qiang; LI Yue-bai

    2011-01-01

    Background Most of the basic and clinical studies of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) are restricted to bone tissues only,whereas various systems are involved in the onset and development of ONFH,including nervous system.Peptidergic nerve participates in the neuronal regulation of bone metabolism and anabolism,and plays key roles in the growth,repair and reconstruction of bone.Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP),which is secreted by peptidergic nerve,is the main mediator of bone metabolism.It dramatically promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).Additionally,it enhances the osteoblast mass and the rate of osteoblast formation,and reduces the bone resorption by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.Hence,we aimed to construct recombinant retrovirus vector pLNCX2-hCGRPα and to investigate the proliferation and osteogenic potential of hCGRPα-producing BMSCs (BMSCs/pLNCX2-hCGRPα) after virus infection.Methods The constructed recombinant retrovirus vector pLNCX2-hCGRPα was transfected into PT67 packaging cells by lipofectamine 2000.Virus was collected for BMSCs infection.The mRNA and protein expression of hCGRPα was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting,respectively.The cell proliferation was determined by methyl thiazoleterazolium (MTT) assay.The osteogenic potential of BMSCs was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity.Results Both mRNA and protein expression of hCGRPα was detected in BMSCs/pLNCX2-hCGRPα cells.These cells exhibited significantly elevated proliferation and ALP value as compared with control BMSCs (P <0.05).Conclusion BMSCs/pLNCX2-hCGRPα cells could stably express hCGRPα and showed promoted proliferation ability and osteogenic potential as compared with control BMSCs.

  16. Expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide in efferent vestibular system and vestibular nucleus in rats with motion sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaocheng

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Motion sickness presents a challenge due to its high incidence and unknown pathogenesis although it is a known fact that a functioning vestibular system is essential for the perception of motion sickness. Recent studies show that the efferent vestibular neurons contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. It is a possibility that the CGRP immunoreactivity (CGRPi fibers of the efferent vestibular system modulate primary afferent input into the central nervous system; thus, making it likely that CGRP plays a key role in motion sickness. To elucidate the relationship between motion sickness and CGRP, the effects of CGRP on the vestibular efferent nucleus and the vestibular nucleus were investigated in rats with motion sickness. METHODS: An animal model of motion sickness was created by subjecting rats to rotary stimulation for 30 minutes via a trapezoidal stimulation pattern. The number of CGRPi neurons in the vestibular efferent nucleus at the level of the facial nerve genu and the expression level of CGRPi in the vestibular nucleus of rats were measured. Using the ABC method of immunohistochemistry technique, measurements were taken before and after rotary stimulation. The effects of anisodamine on the expression of CGRP in the vestibular efferent nucleus and the vestibular nucleus of rats with motion sickness were also investigated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Both the number of CGRPi neurons in the vestibular efferent nucleus and expression level in the vestibular nucleus increased significantly in rats with motion sickness compared to that of controls. The increase of CGRP expression in rats subjected to rotary stimulation 3 times was greater than those having only one-time stimulation. Administration of anisodamine decreased the expression of CGRP within the vestibular efferent nucleus and the vestibular nucleus in rats subjected to rotary stimulation. In conclusion, CGRP possibly plays a role in motion sickness and its mechanism

  17. Basal cell hyperplasia and basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a comprehensive review and discussion of a case with c-erbB-2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Montironi, R; Mazzucchelli, R; Stramazzotti, D; Scarpelli, M; López Beltran, A; Bostwick, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Prostatic basal cell proliferations range from ordinary basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) to florid basal cell hyperplasia to basal cell carcinoma. The distinction between these forms of BCH, including the variant with prominent nucleoli (formerly called atypical BCH), and basal cell carcinoma depends on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria and, in particular, on the degree of cell proliferation. In florid BCH, the proliferation index is intermediate between ordinary BCH and basal cell c...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wang QK, Liu JY. Identification of a novel genetic locus on chromosome 8p21.1-q11.23 for idiopathic ... DH. Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ... DH. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr ...

  19. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  20. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  1. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  2. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  3. Exogenous Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) in Pathogenesis of Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Gastric Lesions: Interaction with Protective Nitric Oxide (NO) and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Magierowski; Katarzyna Jasnos; Zbigniew Sliwowski; Marcin Surmiak; Gracjana Krzysiek-Maczka; Agata Ptak-Belowska; Slawomir Kwiecien; Tomasz Brzozowski

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor and pro-inflammatory factor. We investigated the role of ADMA in rat gastric mucosa compromised through 30 min of gastric ischemia (I) and 3 h of reperfusion (R). These I/R animals were pretreated with ADMA with or without the combination of l-arginine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or a small dose of capsaicin, all of which are known to afford protection against gastric lesions, or with a farn...

  4. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren; Schifter, S;

    2001-01-01

    catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; padrenaline levels (r=-0.......001) and central circulation time (r=-0.49; padrenaline (-16%; p... to COMP(art) disappeared. The relation of COMP(art) to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems (noradrenaline...

  5. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  6. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Pushpinder S Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; Abhinav, C.; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  7. Mouse Model for Spontaneous Basal-Like Breast Cancer%自发Basal-like乳腺癌小鼠模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹芳; 孙保存; 赵秀兰; 崔艳芬; 徐少艳; 董学易; 车娜

    2011-01-01

    过程中起重要作用.%Objective: Basal-like breast cancer is very Invasive and highly metastatlc with poor prognosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying its tumorigenesis and tumor progression remain unclear, and ideal animal models are lacking. The present study aims to identify the features of spontaneous breast cancer in TA2 mice, to determine whether the mouse model is useful and relevant for human basal-like breast cancer, and to investigate the relationship among pregnancy, mouse mammary tumor virus ( MMTV), and TA2 breast cancer. Methods: Spontaneous breast cancers were collected from 84 female TA2 mice. The metastasis, morphology, and inimun-ophenotype of the TA2 mice bearing breast cancer tumors were determined using hematoxylin, eosin staining, and immunnohistocherms-try, respectively. The similarities between the basal-like breast cancers of the animals and that of the human patients were compared Electrochcmilumincsccnce immunoassay was used to detect the serum levels of estradiol ( E2 ) and progesterone in the TA2 mice (n = 10 ), the mice at dl 5 during the gestation period (n = 6 ), and the normal mice ( n = 6). The MMTV in the TA2 breast cancer cells were checked under electron microscopy ( EM ). The MMTV LTR expression in the mammary glands of the normal and the pregnant mice and the TA2 mice were determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: The spontaneous breast cancer tissues in the TA2 mice were similar to human basal-like breast cancer in terms of biology, morphology, and phenotype. The mean age of the TA2 mice at tumorigenesis was ( 329.81 ± 95.32 ) d, and the mean frequency of delivery was (2.70 ± 1.8 ), with rapid tumor growth within the gestation period. Metastasis in the visceral organs frequently occurred in TA2 tumors. However, nodal metastasis was not found in the current research. Pulmonary metastasis was seen in 80% ( 64/80 ) of the tumors. The TA2 cancers were homologous in histomorphology. The cancer nest consisted of roundlel cells with

  8. Serum pneumoproteins in firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans; Krop, Esmeralda; Burger, Nena; Kerstjens, Huib; Heederik, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Serum Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) were measured in a cross-sectional study in 402 firefighters. For the population as a whole, no associations were detected between serum pneumoproteins and smoke exposure. SP-A levels were increased in symptomatic subjects ex

  9. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic fac...

  10. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  11. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles basal cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles basal laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  12. Preparation and in vivo absorption evaluation of spray dried powders containing salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuebpol, Chutima; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs) with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. Methods The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. Results sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. Conclusion The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were prepared to have appropriate aerodynamic properties for pulmonary delivery. The developed system was able to deliver sCT via a pulmonary route into the systemic circulation. PMID:24039397

  13. Localisation and neural control of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S;

    2001-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry, CGRP-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI) nerve fibres were found in the lamina propria along small vessels and in the lamina muscularis mucosae in the porcine ileum. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were found in the submucous and myenteric plexus. Upon HPLC-analysis of ileal...... neuroblockers. In addition, the effect of infusion of capsaicin was studied. The basal output of CGRP-LI was 2.9+/-0.7 pmol/5 min (mean+/-S.D.). Electrical nerve stimulation (8 Hz) significantly increased the release of CGRP-LI to 167+/-16% (mean+/-S.E.M.) of the basal output (n=13). This response was...... abolished by infusion of hexamethonium (3x10(-5) M). Infusion of capsaicin (10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in the release of CGRP-LI to 485+/-82% of basal output (n=5). Our results suggest a dual origin of CGRP innervation of the porcine ileum (intrinsic and extrinsic). The intrinsic CGRP neurons...

  14. Observation on the changes of serum polypeptide hormone andmonoamine neurotransmitter in patients with gastric ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-wei Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of serum polypeptide hormone and monoamine neurotransmitter in patients with Gastric ulcer. Methods: 186 patients with Gastric ulcer in our hospital during the period from January 2013 to September 2014 were collected in this study, who confirmed by gastroscope that 92 patients were in active period, 45 cases were in healing period and 49 cases of scar period, and 50 cases of healthy volunteers were included as normal the control group. Then the serum levels of gastrointestinal hormone such as gastrin (GAS), adrenomedullin (AM), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and the Gastric mucosa levels of neurotransmitter such as 5- serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), norepinephrine (NE) were detected by ELISA. Results: The serum levels of GAS, AM, MTL of patients with gastric ulcer were significantly higher than the control group of the healthy, and SS and CGRP were significantly lower than the control group of the healthy, there was significant difference of serum levels of peptide hormone in different stages of disease in patients with gastric ulcer, P<0.05. The gastric mucosa levels of 5-HT, SP and NE of patients with gastric ulcer were significantly lower than the control group of the healthy, while the VIP was higher than the control group of the healthy, there was significant difference of Gastric mucosa levels of neurotransmitter in different stages of disease in patients with Gastric ulcer, P<0.05. Conclusion: There were obviously changes of serum peptide hormone and monoamine neurotransmitter in patients with gastric ulcer, which has a close correlation with the progress of the disease.

  15. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  16. [Extensive basal cell cancer of the scalp - case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olędzki, Szymon; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Department Of Surgery And Emergency Nursing Pomeranian Medical University In Szczecin Poland, Ryszard

    2016-08-01

    Basal-cell canceris a slow growing, rarely metastasizes, locally malignant skin cancer. Patients with this neoplasm usually have excellent prognosis. Potentially, in some cases, a good prognosis cause a delay in therapy. Delay or withdrawal from treatment might lead to higher local extension of tumour with the destruction of the surrounding tissue. In this article we are presenting two patients with extensive basal cell cancer. The first patient underwent plastic surgery for extensive basal-cell carcinoma located in the parietal and temporal area. The second patient was observed due to recurrence of extensive basal cell carcinoma in the parietal region. Local advancement of the primary tumor could be a reason for the lack of radicality of surgery. Such advancement is rarely seen nowadays. The cases demonstrate the need for awareness about the possible severe course of the disease. PMID:27591446

  17. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  18. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  19. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis.

  20. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  1. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, T.; I. Fernandes; Costa, V.; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  2. Childhood trauma and basal cortisol in people with personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Grossman, Robert; New, Antonia S.; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Siever, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of various forms of childhood abuse on basal cortisol levels in a sample of adults with Axis II personality disorders. Participants included 63 adults (n=19 women) who provided basal plasma cortisol samples and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Linear regression analyses that included all five subscales (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) demonstrated that Physical abuse was related to lowe...

  3. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Durand, Bénédicte; Timothy L. Megraw

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various...

  4. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  5. Age-Related Distribution of Basal Anti-Mullerian Hormone Levels in a Population of Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to constitute age-specific reference serum values for anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH in women, and to analyze the distribution of basal serum AMH levels in Turkish women of reproductive age attending an infertility clinic to provide a framework for expected values according to age. Material and Method: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on cycle day 2-3 serum AMH measurements of 409 women attending a single infertility unit in Turkey through a 12-month-period was performed. Results: Concentrations of serum AMH were shown to decrease with advancing age of the female partner. The mean age of the women was 34.04±5.39 years and the mean AMH level of the women was 1.77±1.82. The AMH levels were grouped according to age as follows: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34,35-39, and >40 years. The median AMH values were 2.16 ng/ml, 2.15 ng/ml, 1.71 ng/ml, 0.80 ng/ml, and 0.47 ng/ml, respectively according to the age groups. Discussion: The present data provide a framework for age-specific serum AMH levels in a Turkish population of infertile women.

  6. [Basal cell carcinoma. Molecular genetics and unusual clinical features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, J

    2007-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common human cancer. Its incidence is steadily increasing. The development of basal cell carcinoma is linked to genetic factors, including the individual skin phototype, as well as the cumulative exposure to UVB. The vast majority of basal cell carcinomas are sporadic tumors, while familial cases associated with certain hereditary syndromes are less common. At the molecular level, basal cell carcinomas are characterized by aberrant activation of sonic hedgehog signaling, usually due to mutations either in the ptch or smoh genes. In addition, about half of the cases carry mutations in the tp53 tumor suppressor gene, which are often UVB-associated C-->T transition mutations. Clinically, basal cell carcinomas may show a high degree of phenotypical variability. In particular, tumors occurring in atypical locations, showing an unusual clinical appearance, or imitating other skin diseases may cause diagnostic problems. This review article summarizes the current state of the art concerning the etiology, predisposition and molecular genetics of basal cell carcinoma. In addition, examples of unusual clinical manifestations are illustrated. PMID:17440702

  7. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing WANG; Xin-Li XU; Ze-Yang DING; Rong-Rong MAO; Qi-Xin ZHOU; Long-Bao LV; Li-Ping WANG; Shuang WANG; Chen ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine.Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding,low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy.Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases.However,basal physiological indexes of tree shrew,especially those related to human disease,have not been systematically reported.Accordingly,we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors:(1) body weight,(2) core body temperature and rhythm,(3) diet metabolism,(4) locomotor rhythm,(5) electroencephalogram,(6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm.We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques.Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃,which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews,with two activity peaks,domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats,tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews,which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews.These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  8. A case of vitamin B12 deficiency with involuntary movements and bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Taisuke; Gotoh, Seiji; Takaki, Hayato; Kiyuna, Fumi; Yoshimura, Sohei; Fujii, Kenichiro

    2016-07-28

    An 86-year-old woman with a one-year history of dementia was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hallucinations, and disturbance of consciousness. She gradually presented with chorea-like involuntary movements of the extremities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetrical hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia. The serum vitamin B12 level was below the lower detection limit of 50 pg/ml. The homocysteine level was markedly elevated at 115.8 nmol/ml. Anti-intrinsic factor and anti-parietal cell antibody tests were positive. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed atrophic gastritis. The patient was diagnosed with encephalopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by pernicious anemia. Involuntary movements and MRI abnormalities improved with parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are rare manifestations of adult vitamin B12 deficiency. The present case is considered valuable in identifying the pathophysiology of involuntary movement due to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27356735

  9. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas.Purpose: To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome.Methods: Pubmed w...

  10. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than-normal level may indicate: Insulinoma Lung cancer Medullary cancer of thyroid (most common) VIPoma Higher-than-normal levels can also occur in people with kidney disease, smokers, higher body weight, and when taking certain ...

  11. Resolving basal ganglia calcification in hereditary hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia due to a novel TRMP6 gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi M Habeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH is a rare condi-tion caused by mutations in the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 6 (TRMP6 gene. Patients usually present during early infancy with symptomatic hypocalcemia; however, intracranial calcification has not been previously reported in HSH. We report on a three-month-old Saudi girl who presented with hypocalcemic convulsions and was initially treated as nutritional rickets. However, further biochemical analysis of blood and urine were suggestive of HSH. This diagnosis was confirmed by mutation analysis, which identified a novel homozygous frame shift mutation (ins 2999T of the TRMP6 gene. A computed tomography brain scan, done around the time of diagnosis, identified bilateral basal ganglia calcification (BGC. Her serum calcium and the BGC improved with magnesium replacement. BGC can be added as a new feature of HSH and the case highlights the importance of measuring serum Mg in patients with hypocalcemic convulsions, particularly in children of consanguineous parents.

  12. Ferritin in cattle serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for human serum ferritin was used to determine the ferritin concentration in serum or plasma of 41 calves from 0 to 106 days of age, 192 cows and 35 bulls from 2 to 11 years of age. The geometric average concentration of ferritin was 2.1, 12.6 and 4.5 ng/ml for the calves, cows and bulls, respectively. The cows were statistically different from the calves and bulls; there were no differences between the calves and bulls. Within the cows one herd was found to have lower serum ferritin levels than all the other herds (P < 0.05) but no differences in packed cell volumes were present. The data suggest that a radioimmunoassay procedure with a ferritin antibody specific for bovine ferritin could be useful in the study of iron metabolism in cattle. (author)

  13. Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W J

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to formulate a working hypothesis of basal-ganglia functions, arguments are considered suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in a process of response selection i.e. in the facilitation of "wanted" and in the suppression of "unwanted" behaviour. The meso-accumbal dopamine-system is considered to mediate natural and drug-induced reward and sensitization. The meso-striatal dopamine-system seems to fulfill similar functions: It may mediate reinforcement which strengthens a given behaviour when elicited subsequently, but which is not experienced as reward or hedonia. Glutamate as the transmitter of the corticofugal projections to the basal ganglia nuclei and of the subthalamic neurons is critically involved in basal ganglia functions and dysfunctions; for example Parkinson's disease can be considered to be a secondary hyperglutamatergic disease. Additionally, glutamate is an essential factor in the plasticity response of the basal-ganglia. However, opposite to previous suggestions, the NMDA-receptor blocker MK-801 does not prevent psychostimulant- nor morphine-induced day to day increase (sensitization) of locomotion. Also the day to day increase of haloperidol-induced catalepsy was not prevented by MK-801. PMID:9871434

  14. Effect of Chinese Herbal Fumigation Combined with Tuina on Vertigo and Concentrations of Endothelin and Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide in Patients with Vertebral Artery Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cheng-fei; Liu Xiao-an; Ding Yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Chinese herbal fumigation combined with three-step tuina manipulation on concentration of endothelin (ET) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vertigo in patients with vertebral artery cervical spondylosis (VACS). Methods:A total of 120 eligible cases were randomly allocated into an observation group and a control group, 60 in each group. Cases in the observation group were treated with Chinese herbal fumigation combined with three-step tuina manipulation, whereas cases in the control group were treated with oral Flunarizine Hydrochloride Capsules. Results: After treatment, vertigo in both groups was alleviated; there were intra-group significant differences in ET decrease and CGRP increase (P Conclusion: Chinese herbal fumigation combined with three-step tuina manipulation can regulate the levels of ET and CGRP and improve vertigo in patients with VACS. Its therapeutic efficacy is superior to oral Flunarizine Hydrochloride Capsules.

  15. The Dual Amylin- and Calcitonin-Receptor Agonist KBP-042 Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Induces Weight Loss in Rats with Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Gydesen, Sofie; Andreassen, Kim Vietz;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, KBP-042, a dual amylin- and calcitonin-receptor agonist, was investigated as a treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in five different doses (0.625 μg/kg-10 μg/kg) compared with saline-treated and pair-fed controls. Methods: Rats with obesity received daily s...... combines two highly relevant features, namely weight loss and insulin sensitivity, and is thus an excellent candidate for chronic treatment of obesity and insulin resistance........c. administrations for 56 days, and glucose tolerance was assessed after one acute injection, 3 weeks of treatment, and again after 7 weeks of treatment. To assess the effect on insulin sensitivity, rats received 5 μg/kg KBP-042 for 21 days before hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Results: KBP-042 induced a...

  16. Nitric oxide synthase, calcitonin gene-related peptide and NK-1 receptor mechanisms are involved in GTN-induced neuronal activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Bhatt, Deepak Kumar; Ploug, Kenneth Beri;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Infusion of glyceryltrinitrate (GTN), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, in awake, freely moving rats closely mimics a universally accepted human model of migraine and responds to sumatriptan treatment. Here we analyse the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcitonin gene......-related peptide (CGRP) systems on the GTN-induced neuronal activation in this model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The femoral vein was catheterised in rats and GTN was infused (4 µg/kg/min, for 20 minutes, intravenously). Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse Fos, nNOS and CGRP and Western blot for measuring n......NOS protein expression. The effect of olcegepant, L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonist L-733060 were analysed on Fos activation. RESULTS: GTN-treated rats showed a significant increase of nNOS and CGRP in dura mater and CGRP in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC...

  17. Diverse Physiological Roles of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Migraine Pathology: Modulation of Neuronal-Glial-Immune Cells to Promote Peripheral and Central Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Paul L

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine by promoting the development of a sensitized state of primary and secondary nociceptive neurons. The ability of CGRP to initiate and maintain peripheral and central sensitization is mediated by modulation of neuronal, glial, and immune cells in the trigeminal nociceptive signaling pathway. There is accumulating evidence to support a key role of CGRP in promoting cross excitation within the trigeminal ganglion that may help to explain the high co-morbidity of migraine with rhinosinusitis and temporomandibular joint disorder. In addition, there is emerging evidence that CGRP facilitates and sustains a hyperresponsive neuronal state in migraineurs mediated by reported risk factors such as stress and anxiety. In this review, the significant role of CGRP as a modulator of the trigeminal system will be discussed to provide a better understanding of the underlying pathology associated with the migraine phenotype. PMID:27334137

  18. Long-lasting physiological antagonism of calcitonin gene-related peptide towards endothelin-1 in rat mesenteric arteries and human coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labruijere, Sieneke; Compeer, Matthijs G; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J;

    2013-01-01

    calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), most likely because CGRP causes ET-1/ETAR dissociation. Here we investigated this phenomenon in human coronary microarteries (HCMA). We simultaneously verified the effects of CGRP in RMA and HCMA towards other vasoconstrictors, i.e., the α1-adrenoceptor agonist...... on top of ET-1-initiated contraction in RMA, CGRP effectively counteracted vasoconstriction, i.e., it caused full relaxation. Inhibitory effects of CGRP were also observed when briefly exposing RMA and HCMA to CGRP 1h before the addition of ET-1. Similar inhibitory effects of transient CGRP pre......-incubation were seen towards phenylephrine, U46619 or KCl in RMA and HCMA. In conclusion, our data imply that CGRP, like ET-1, causes long-lasting effects that remain apparent up to 1h after its removal from the organ bath. Thus, in addition to the reported dissociation of ET-1/ETAR complexes, CGRP causes long...

  19. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor components in human and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus and spinal cord at C1-level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    was expressed in fibers of laminae I and II. The CGRP staining was similar in rat, except for CGRP positive neurons that were found close to the central canal. In C1, the receptor components were detected in laminae I and II, however these fibers were distinct from fibers expressing CGRP as verified by confocal...... to regions in the brainstem with Aδ- and C-fibers; this constitutes an essential part of the pain pathways activated in migraine attacks. Therefore it is of importance to identify the regions within the brainstem that processes nociceptive information from the trigeminovascular system, such as the spinal...... trigeminal nucleus (STN) and the C1-level of the spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the distribution and relation between CGRP and its receptor components - calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) - in human and rat STN and at the C1-level...

  20. The calcitonin receptor gene is a candidate for regulation of susceptibility to herpes simplex type 1 neuronal infection leading to encephalitis in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Abdelmagid

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE is a fatal infection of the central nervous system (CNS predominantly caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1. Factors regulating the susceptibility to HSE are still largely unknown. To identify host gene(s regulating HSE susceptibility we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in an intercross between the susceptible DA and the resistant PVG rat. We found one major quantitative trait locus (QTL, Hse1, on rat chromosome 4 (confidence interval 24.3-31 Mb; LOD score 29.5 governing disease susceptibility. Fine mapping of Hse1 using recombinants, haplotype mapping and sequencing, as well as expression analysis of all genes in the interval identified the calcitonin receptor gene (Calcr as the main candidate, which also is supported by functional studies. Thus, using unbiased genetic approach variability in Calcr was identified as potentially critical for infection and viral spread to the CNS and subsequent HSE development.

  1. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  2. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  3. Polymorphism in SFTPD gene affects assembly and constitutional serum levels of surfactant protein D in a Lebanese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakih, Dalia; Chamat, Soulaima; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna;

    2014-01-01

    the distribution profile of serum constitutional SP-D in the Lebanese population and to investigate the genetic influence of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs721917 within SP-D gene (SFTPD) on its multimerization and its serum basal level. The C/T alleles at this SNP level lead respectively either...... to a threonine or methionine at position 11 of the SP-D protein. SP-D was measured by ELISA in serum taken from 97 healthy subjects. The p.Met11Thr SNP was genotyped. Different forms of SP-D were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Basal serum SP-D levels varied extensively, over a range of 108.3 ng...

  4. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  5. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  6. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  7. The gastric secretion and serum gastrin level in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Wei Yao; Lin Song Wang; Zhi Fang Zhang; Hui Yin Tu; Jian Zhong Liu; Ming Yan; Ren Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To report a new method designed to collect gastric juice from chicken, and determine the basal levelof gastric acid and serum gastrin, and the effect of pentagastrin on gastric acid output.METHODS White Leghorn chickens, weighing 1.3 kg- 1.7 kg, deprived of food 24 h prior to experiment,were anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (60μg/kg, im). A reverse double lumen perfusion cannulawas introduced into the distal portion of the proventriculus through the crop incision. The perfusate drainedout from the cannular outlet was collected to determine the gastric acid. Gastric acid volume was determinedby titration with 0.01N NaOH. Serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using gastrin assaykit.RESULTS Acid output in the basal state was 0.041±0.006 mmol/L/10min, or 0.246±0.031mmol/L/h. The serum gastrin concentration was 78.27±19.19 pg/mL (n = 22). Three groups wereinjected pentagastrin at three dose level, 20μg/kg, 60μg/kg, 120μg/kg, respectively. The maximumoutput in three groups was 275%, 181% and 167% of their control acid output. Isoproterenol at a dose of0.3 mg/kg produced obvious inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion. The effect ofisoproterenol on gastric secretion was completely abolished by propranolol, a β-receptor antagonist, but wasnot done by practolol, another 31-receptor antagonist.CONCLUSION The basal gastric acid output of chicken was high. Pentagastrin remarkably stimulatedgastric acid secretion, which could be inhibited by isoproterenol.

  8. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  9. Defined Conditions for the Isolation and Expansion of Basal Prostate Progenitor Cells of Mouse and Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Höfner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin−SCA-1+CD49f+TROP2high phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin−CD49f+TROP2high PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin.

  10. Defined Conditions for the Isolation and Expansion of Basal Prostate Progenitor Cells of Mouse and Human Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Thomas; Eisen, Christian; Klein, Corinna; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Goeppinger, Stephan M.; Jauch, Anna; Schoell, Brigitte; Vogel, Vanessa; Noll, Elisa; Weichert, Wilko; Baccelli, Irène; Schillert, Anja; Wagner, Steve; Pahernik, Sascha; Sprick, Martin R.; Trumpp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs) have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin−SCA-1+CD49f+TROP2high phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin−CD49f+TROP2high PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin. PMID:25702639

  11. Relationship of glomerular filtration rate based on serum iodixanol clearance to IRIS staging in cats with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    IWAMA, Ryosuke; SATO, Tsubasa; Katayama, Masaaki; Shimamura, Shunsuke; SATOH, Hiroshi; ICHIJO, Toshihiro; FURUHAMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from an equation based on the serum iodixanol clearance technique and International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. The equation included the injection dose, sampling time, serum concentration and estimated volume of distribution (Vd) of the isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol as a test tracer. The percent changes in the median basal GFR values calculated ...

  12. Radioimmunoassay measurements of serum thyrotropin in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum TSH was measured by means of double antibody radioimmunoassay using a commercial Kit Daiichi, in 21 normal subjects, 200 patients with thyroid disease and 130 patients with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases. Serum TSH concentrations in normal subjects were <2 to 8 μU/ml which rose to 8-40 μU/ml after administration of 500 μg TRH intravenously. Serum TSH was undetectable and did not respond to TRH in all untreated patients and in some euthyroid patients with Graves' disease after treatment. Undetectable TSH and no response to TRH were also observed in most patients with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule and those with subacute thyroiditis in the acute phase. In some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and all patients with adult myxedema and cretinism, serum TSH levels were increased and showed hyperresponse to TRH. The ratio of bioassay and radioimmunoassay potency estimates for TSH in sera obtained before TRH was not statistically different from that obtained after TRH administration to patients with primary hypothyroidism. Elevated serum TSH was promptly decreased by the administration of thyroid hormone to the patients. More than 50% of patients with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and craniopharyngioma showed normal basal TSH and no or low response of TSH to TRH. Administration of TRH failed to stimulate a rise in serum TSH in 2 sisters with isolated TSH deficiency with cretinism. Basal TSH was undetectable and showed delayed response to TRH in patients with anorexia nervosa. (auth.)

  13. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  14. Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical Variant, Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    K., Deepadarshan; M., Mallikarjun; N. Abdu, Noshin

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of skin, comprising 80% of non-melanoma cancers. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits increased pigmentation. It is a very rare variant, although its frequency can reach upto 6% of total basal cell carcinomas in Hispanics. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  15. PERIANTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASAL MONOCOT TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA (JUNCAGINACEAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.;

    2006-01-01

    Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflores- cence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie...

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  17. Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared

  18. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  19. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stacey, S.N.; Sulem, P.; Masson, G.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Sigurdsson, A.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Scherer, D.; Hemminki, K.; Rudnai, P.; Gurzau, E.; Koppova, K.; Botella-Estrada, R.; Soriano, V.; Juberias, P.; Saez, B.; Gilaberte, Y.; Fuentelsaz, V.; Corredera, C.; Grasa, M.; Hoiom, V.; Lindblom, A.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Rossum, M.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Vries, E. de; Santinami, M.; Mauro, M.G. Di; Maurichi, A.; Wendt, J.; Hochleitner, P.; Pehamberger, H.; Gudmundsson, J.; Magnusdottir, D.N.; Gretarsdottir, S.; Holm, H.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Frigge, M.L.; Blondal, T.; Saemundsdottir, J.; Bjarnason, H.; Kristjansson, K.; Bjornsdottir, G.; Okamoto, I.; Rivoltini, L.; Rodolfo, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Hansson, J.; Nagore, E.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Kumar, R.; Karagas, M.R.; Nelson, H.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Rafnar, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Olafsson, J.H.; Kong, A.; Stefansson, K.

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A vari

  20. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  1. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan;

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models sti...

  2. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  3. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing of...

  4. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations are associated with increased risk for melanoma and unfavourable prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bade

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D status (serum 25(OHD concentration is associated with increased incidence and unfavourable outcome of various types of cancer. However, there are limited data on influence of serum 25(OHD on risk and prognosis of malignant melanoma.Basal serum 25(OHD concentrations were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of melanoma patients (n = 324 and healthy controls (n = 141. We tested the hypothesis that serum 25(OHD concentrations are predictive of melanoma risk, thickness of primary melanomas, and overall survival (OS.Median serum 25(OHD concentrations were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in melanoma patients (median = 13.6 ng/ml as compared to controls (median = 15.6 ng/ml. Primary tumors of patients with low serum 25(OHD concentrations (20 ng/ml; median: 1.00 mm. Patients with 25(OHD serum concentrations in the lowest quartile had inferior overall survival (median: 80 months comparing with the highest quartile (median: 195 months; p = 0.049.Our data support the concept that serum 25(OHD concentrations are associated with risk and prognosis of melanoma. Whether normalizing serum 25(OHD concentrations in these patients improves outcomes will require testing in future clinical trials.

  5. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  6. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  7. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified human spleen ferritin was labelled with 125I. On Sepharose 6-B gel filtration four species of labelled products were separated: a component with a higher molecular weight than ferritin; a component which is eluted in the same volume as unlabelled ferritin; and two labelled compounds with molecular weights lower than ferritin. When these labelled materials were used in a double antibody radioimmunoassay, the higher molecular weight fraction showed variable and high non-specific binding and was poorly displaced by unlabelled ferritin; the fraction behaving like true ferritin gave good standard curves and showed non-specific binding of less than 1%. The remaining two components showed poor binding to rabbit antiferritin. Using labelled material from the second fraction, a double antibody radioimmunoassay capable of measuring 2μg ferritin protein/litre of serum was developed. Inter-and intra-assay variation was between 3% and 8% over a concentration range of 0 to 250 μg ferritin protein/litre. Good agreement between serum ferritin levels assayed by the present method and by an immunoradiometric method was obtained. Labelled ferritin was stable for at least six weeks. The simplicity of the methodology makes it possible to assay serum ferritin in large batches. (author)

  9. Radioimmunoassay for serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development and evaluation of a serum ferritin radioimmunoassay, in which 125I-labeled ferritin and rabbit anti-ferritin antibody are used. Goat anti-rabbit gamma-globulin antibody, together with polyethylene glycol, is used as the separating reagent. The assay has a working range up to 500 μg of ferritin per litre, and a sample requirement of 75 μl of serum for assay at two dilutions. The assay requires 24 h. It has a sensitivity of 1.5 μg of ferritin per litre and a long-term precision (CV) of 13%. Reference intervals for a population of men were 18 to 330 μg/litre, with no marked age dependence, while those for a population of women older than 50 years were 18 to 200 μg/litre. Many apparently healthy women in the 20 to 50 year age group have much lower concentrations. Serum ferritin concentrations of <18 μg/litre are indicative of iron deficiency, defined as the absence of stainable iron in an aspirate of bone marrow

  10. Prospective investigation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in ovulatory intrauterine insemination patients: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N la Cour; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary prospective study investigated serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) through correlations to other basal parameters (123 patients) and according to ovarian response to 75 IU recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH)/day (62 patients) in ovulatory patients' first rFSH treatment...

  11. Rabeprazole's influence on duodenal ulcer patients' serum levels of gastrointestinal peptide hormone and neurotransmitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chun Zhong; Hong-Yan Duan; Wang-Qiong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of rabeprazole of duodenal ulcer, and its influence on the serum levels of gastrointestinal peptide hormone and neurotransmitter.Methods:180 patients with duodenal ulcer were randomly divided into control group and observation group, each group had 90 cases, patients in control group were given routine treatment, and those in observation group were treated with rabeprazole 20 mg/time, 2 times/d, treatment for 4 weeks based on routine treatment. Then gastroscopy and 14C- urea breath test were took before and after treatment for comparison of efficacy between the two groups, and the serum levels of gastrointestinal hormone such as gastrin (Gas), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and neurotransmitter such as 5- serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), nitric oxide (NO), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of two groups before and after treatment were detected and compared.Results:3, 5 weeks after treatment, the stomach integral of observation group was lower than that of the control group, stomach pain relief time was shorter than control group, Hp eradication rate was higher than control group, and the curative effect of observation group was significantly better than the control group. 3, 5 weeks after treatment, the serum levels of Gas, AM, MTL and 5-HT, SP, NO, VIP level of observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group, while the SS and CGRP were higher than the control group.Conclusion:Rabeprazole can effectively regulate the expression of gastrointestinal peptide hormone and neurotransmitter of patients with duodenal ulcer, shorten the recovery time and improve the curative effect.

  12. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-Ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  13. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  14. 肝硬化患者血清钙磷及钙调节激素的检测及意义%Significance of detecting serum calcium, serum phosphorus and calcium-regulating hormones in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨检测肝硬化患者血清钙磷及钙调节激素包括甲状旁腺激素(PTH)、降钙素(CT)及25-羟维生素D3[25-(OH)D3]的临床意义。方法釆集83例肝硬化患者及66例正常人的血清,血清钙测定用偶氮砷Ⅲ比色法,血清磷测定用磷钼酸盐法;甲状旁腺激素、降钙素及2-羟维生素D3的测定采用电化学发光法。结果 Child- pugh C级肝功能患者与对照组、A级及B级比较血清钙降低(<0.05),血磷的变化在4组患者之间差异无统计学意义。C级肝功能患者与对照组、A级及B级比较CT(<0.05)及25-(OH)D3(<0.01)降低,PTH升高(<0.01)。结论肝硬化患者存在血清钙及其调节激素的代谢紊乱,并随病情发展而加重。监测肝硬化血清钙及相关激素水平的变化可能有助于判断肝功能损害程度。%Objective To evaluate clinical significance of detecting serum calcium, serum phosphorus and calcium-regulating hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D3] in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Methods We collected serum samples of 83 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 66 normal people. Serum calcium was detected by Arsenazo Ⅲ colorimetric method and serum phosphorus by molybdophosphate photometric method; Electrochemiluminescence method was used to detect parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Results In Child-pugh class C patients, serum calcium levels was significantly lower than in control group and in class A and B patients ( <0.05). Serum phosphorus level was no significantly different in the four groups. Child-pugh class C patients had significantly lower 25-(OH) D3 (P< 0.01) and CT ( <0.05) level, but higher PTH ( <0.01) level compared with control group and with class A and B. Conclusions In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, there were disturbances of serum calcium and calcium-regulating hormone, which deteriorate with

  15. Calcitonin gene-related peptide in anterior and posterior horns of spinal cord after brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longju Chen; Peijun Wang; Feng Li; Wutian Wu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression are closely associated with peripheral nerve injury, whereas it should be further investigated whether the damage of central nerve can lead to the changes of CGRP expression, and whether it is associated with the neural regeneration and repair.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changing law of CGRP expression in the anterior and posterior horns of spinal cord following brachial plexus injury.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTINGS: Department of Anatomy, Yunyang Medical College; Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five adult male SD rats of clean degree, weighing 180 - 220 g, provided by the experimental animal center of the Basic Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University, were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and experimental group (n =60), and the latter was subdivided into three damage groups: avulsion of anterior root group (n =20), disjunction of posterior root group (n =20) and transection of spinal cord group (n =20). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogen, rabbit anti-CGRP polyclonal antibody were the products of Sigma Company; Leica image analytical apparatus was produced by QUIN Company (Germany); Histotome by Sigma Company.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University from September 2004 to March 2005. Three kinds of models of brachial plexus injury were established: In the avulsion of anterior root group, right C7 anterior root was avulsed, and the distal nerve residual root was transected. In the disjunction of posterior root group, right C7 anterior root was avulsed and right C5 - T1 posterior horns were cut to block the sensory afferent pathway. In the transection of spinal cord group, right C7 anterior root was avulsed and C5-6 segments of right spinal cord were semi-transected to block the cortical descending pathway. In the control group, C5 - T1

  16. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  17. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence.

  18. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... HS patients, a population-based HS group of 430 population HS patients, and 20 780 controls. Age- and sex-adjusted analyses showed a 10.12% (P ....0001) was significantly higher in HS patients compared with controls. Additionally, age and sex-adjusted analyses showed a higher predicted estimate of BMR for the HS groups compared with controls (154.56 kcal/day (95% CI 54.96-254.16) (P = 0.0031) for the hospital-based HS group, and 82.63 kcal/day (95%CI 59...

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  20. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  1. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  2. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  3. Is Broca's area part of a basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T

    2006-05-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized "channels" via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia project to Broca's area. This circuitry is further posited to encompass at least two channels. One channel can be characterized as subserving procedural memory, while the other underlies the retrieval of knowledge from declarative memory. These hypotheses are supported by both anatomical and functional evidence. Implications and issues for further investigation are discussed. PMID:16881254

  4. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  5. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  6. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  7. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2013-05-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent findings from neuroanatomical, behavioral, and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that cerebellar output reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Taken together, these findings elucidate the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakayama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a malignant neoplasm derived from nonkeratinizing cells that originate from the basal layer of the epidermis and is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation as an important risk factor. BCC occurs most frequently at sun-exposed sites, with the head and neck being common areas. Tumors can be classified as nodular, superficial, morpheaform, infiltrating, metatypic, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. Several treatment options such as surgical excision and nonsurgical procedures are available. The choice of treatment should be determined based on the histological subtype of a lesion, cost, its size and location, patient age, medical condition of the patient, treatment availability, and the patient's wishes. The aim of any therapy selected for BCC treatment involving the head and neck is to ensure complete removal, the preservation of function, and a good cosmetic outcome.

  9. LATE PRESENTATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a case of basal cell carcinoma with late presentation. METHODS: A 55year - old woman with gradual progressive, nodular, small brown lesion at the left lower eye lid for past 3 years was examined with, computed tomography (CT and then Excisional biopsy was done. RESULTS: The presenting symptom s of the patient were gradual progressive, nodular, sma ll brown lesion at the left lower eye lid . Excisional bi opsy with frozen section of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic evaluation of the eyelid lesion disclosed Trichoblastic (basal cell carcinoma of lower eye lid with large nodular and cribiform (a denoid patterns without any lymph - vascula r and perineural invasion. Post - operative period was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We are hereby reporting this case of eyelid BCC, with no history of skin cancer, or radiation treatment but exposure to sunlight. With earl y adequate treatment the prognosis is good KEYWORDS: B asal cell carcinoma, Excisional biopsy, Trichoblastic carcinoma .

  10. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  11. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, Po-Lin; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2006-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastro-intestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overvi...

  12. ATG7 contributes to plant basal immunity towards fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heike D. Lenz; Vierstra, Richard D.; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Gust, Andrea A.

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy has an important function in cellular homeostasis. In recent years autophagy has been implicated in plant basal immunity and assigned negative (“anti-death”) and positive (“pro-death”) regulatory functions in controlling cell death programs that establish sufficient immunity to microbial infection. We recently showed that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the autophagy-associated (ATG) genes ATG5, ATG10 and ATG18a are compromised in their resistance towards infection with necrotrophic fun...

  13. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE NOSE—Treatment with Chemosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirne, Gilbert A.; Beirne, Clinton G.

    1956-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas of the nose probably originate from embryologic cell rests left between cartilages and bones in the fusion and migration of the nasal precursors. Some carcinomas have been found to invade to the mucosal surface between subcutaneous structures or around the alar margins. Recurrences are particularly likely to develop deep extensions due to overlying scar tissue. In many cases, chemosurgical removal has disclosed unsuspected deep and lateral extensions. It is the treatment method of choice for many such lesions. PMID:13276824

  14. Subsystems of the basal ganglia and motor infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali Sarvestani, Iman

    2013-01-01

    The motor nervous system is one of the main systems of the body and is our principle means ofbehavior. Some of the most debilitating and wide spread disorders are motor systempathologies. In particular the basal ganglia are complex networks of the brain that control someaspects of movement in all vertebrates. Although these networks have been extensively studied,lack of proper methods to study them on a system level has hindered the process ofunderstanding what they do and how they do it. In ...

  15. Translating structure to clinical properties of an ideal basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, A G; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Sahay, R K

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for ideal basal insulin which can overcome the unmet need of a truly once daily insulin, with a flat peakless profile. Useful for all types of patients Insulin degludec is next generation insulin with a unique mode of protraction of forming soluble multi-hexamers and slow continuous absorption giving it a flat profile compared to the existing basal insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes, at steady-state, the mean terminal half-life of insulin degludec was 25 hours, i.e., approximately twice as long as for insulin glargine (half-life of 12.1 hours). In once-daily dosing regimen it reaches steady state after approximately 3 days. The duration of action of insulin degludec was estimated to be beyond 42 hours in euglycaemic clamp studies and this gives the unique opportunity of flexible time dosing which is not an available option with the existing basal insulin. The glucose-lowering effect is evenly distributed across a 24-hour dosing interval with insulin degludec having 4 times lower variability than insulin glargine. This is an important attribute given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin and the goal of achieving night time and inter-prandial glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia, a goal that is challenging given the variability of absorption and lower PK half-lives of current basal insulin products. The combination of the ultra-long, flat and stable profile with an improved hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability could present an improved risk-benefit trade-off with the lower risk of hypoglycaemia, allowing for targeting improved levels of glycaemic control.

  16. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  18. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14CO2. Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  19. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  20. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  1. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  2. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  3. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  4. Meige's syndrome associated with basal ganglia and thalamic functional disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) or both were performed and the responses of surface electromyography (EMG) were examined in seven cases of Meige's syndrome. MRI or SPECT or both demonstrated lesions of the basal ganglia, the thalamus, or both in five of the cases. Surface EMG revealed abnormal burst discharges in the orbicularis oculi and a failure of reciprocal muscular activity between the frontalis and orbicularis oculi in all the cases. These findings suggest that voluntary motor control and reciprocal activity in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are impaired in Meige's syndrome. In addition, good responses were seen to clonazepam, tiapride and trihexyphenidyl in these cases. Therefore, we conclude that dopaminergic, cholinergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic imbalances in the disorders of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Meige's syndrome cause control in the excitatory and inhibitory pathways to be lost, resulting in the failure of integration in reciprocal muscular activity and voluntary motor control. This failure subsequently causes the symptoms of Meige's syndrome. (author)

  5. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  6. Ancestral vascular lumen formation via basal cell surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Kucera

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus, the basement membranes of endoderm and mesoderm line the lumen of the major vessels, namely aorta and heart. During amphioxus development a laminin-containing extracellular matrix (ECM was found to fill the space between the basal cell surfaces of endoderm and mesoderm along their anterior-posterior (A-P axes. Blood cells appear in this ECM-filled tubular space, coincident with the development of a vascular lumen. To get insight into the underlying cellular mechanism, we induced vessels in vitro with a cell polarity similar to the vessels of amphioxus. We show that basal cell surfaces can form a vascular lumen filled with ECM, and that phagocytotic blood cells can clear this luminal ECM to generate a patent vascular lumen. Therefore, our experiments suggest a mechanism of blood vessel formation via basal cell surfaces in amphioxus and possibly in other invertebrates that do not have any endothelial cells. In addition, a comparison between amphioxus and mouse shows that endothelial cells physically separate the basement membranes from the vascular lumen, suggesting that endothelial cells create cardiovascular tubes with a cell polarity of epithelial tubes in vertebrates and mammals.

  7. Recombinant human calcitonin in myoblasts promotes the proliferation and differentitation of rat osteoblasts%重组成肌细胞合成人降钙素促进大鼠成骨细菌细胞增殖和分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王烨明; 曾炳芳; 李晓林

    2007-01-01

    背景:大剂量多次喷鼻或者肌注降钙素能有效地预防绝经后妇女脊柱骨的丟失.但是降钙素需要长时期反复用药、价格昂贵、且有弱的抗原性,限制了长期使用.基因治疗可以为骨质疏松症提供更加有效、经济的治疗方案,同时减少药物的副作用.目的:观察人降钙素基因在成肌细胞中的表达,分析重组人降钙素对体外大鼠成骨细胞的影响.设计:以基因为实验对象,对比观察实验.单位:复旦大学放射医学研究所.材料:实验于2005-12/2006-06在复旦大学放射医学研究所完成.选用健康SD胎鼠10只,由复旦大学放射医学研究所提供.人降钙素单克隆抗体购于美国santa Cruz生物技术公司.L6成肌细胞由中国科学院上海生命科学研究院生物化学与细胞生物学研究所提供.方法:在L6成肌细胞培养基中分别加入pcDNA3.0-hCT脂质体转染混合物(转染组)和空载体pcDNA3.0脂质体混合物(对照组)进行培养.采用ELISA法、Westem Blot和免疫组织化学鉴定目的基因的蛋白表达.在成骨细胞培养基中分别加入1×10-14,1×10-13,1×10-12mol/L重组人降钙素和MEM.主要观察指标:利用MTT和检测碱性磷酸酶活性的方法观察大鼠成骨细胞增殖和分化的变化.结果:EUSA法可在细胞培养液中检测到降钙素蛋白;Western blot及免疫组化均证实人降钙素在转染后的成肌细胞中获得稳定表达.当重组人降钙素的浓度为1×10-14,1×10-13 mol/L时成骨细胞活性和成骨细胞碱性磷酸酶活性较对照组增高,但差异无显著性意义(P>0.05);浓度升高为1×10-12 mol/L时,明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:借助基因转染的方法,成肌细胞可以稳定合成、分泌人降钙素.重组人降钙素有促进骨形成的作用.%BACKGROUND:Repeated injections or nasal spray of large doses of calcitonin can effectively prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcitonin should be taken for a long time

  8. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability <0,01). Four euthyroid patients under estrogen treatment, 9 hypothyroid patients under l-thyroxine treatment, one hyperthyroid patient under antithyroid drugs and one hyperthyroid patient under estrogen treatment, were studied. Total T4 and T3 values were in agreement with the variations of the serum protein transport capacity, and for that reason did not show the real thyroid function state. Clinical decision making analysis (with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves) indicate that FT4 is the best choice for hyperthyroidism diagnosis and T4 for hypothyroidism. Cost/benefit analysis indicates also that FT4 has the best ratio. (author)

  9. Biochemical markers identify influences on bone and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis - the effect of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA involves changes in both bone and cartilage. These processes might be associated under some circumstances. This study investigated correlations between bone and cartilage degradation in patients with OA as a function of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation. Methods This study was a 2-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study including 37 postmenopausal women and 36 men, aged 57-75 years, with painful knee OA, and a KL-score of I - III. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment arms: 0.6 mg or 0.8 mg oral sCT, or placebo given twice-daily for 14 days. Correlations between gender, KL score, or BMI and the bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX-I, or the cartilage degradation marker, urine C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II were investigated. Results At baseline, biomarkers indicated women with OA experienced higher bone and cartilage degradation than men. CTX-I levels were significantly higher, and CTX-II levels only marginally higher, in women than in men (p = 0.04 and p = 0.06, respectively. Increasing KL score was not correlated with bone resorption, but was significantly associated with the cartilage degradation CTX-II marker in both men and women (p = 0.007. BMI was significantly and negatively correlated to the bone resorption marker CTX-I, r = -0.40 (p = 0.002, but showed only a borderline positive correlation to CTX-II, r = 0.25 (p = 0.12. Before morning treatments on days 1 and 14, no correlation was seen between CTX-I and CTX-II in either the sCT or placebo group. However, oral sCT and food intake induced a clear correlation between these bone and cartilage degradation markers. Four hours after the first sCT dose on treatment days 1 and 14, a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p p = 0.02, but not on day 14. Conclusion Bone resorption was higher in

  10. Loss of α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (αCGRP) reduces the efficacy of the Vestibulo-ocular Reflex (VOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Anne E; Holt, Joseph C; Jordan, Paivi M; Wong, Yi Shan; Caldwell, Jillian S; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2014-07-30

    The neuroactive peptide calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) is known to act at efferent synapses and their targets in hair cell organs, including the cochlea and lateral line. CGRP is also expressed in vestibular efferent neurons as well as a number of central vestibular neurons. Although CGRP-null (-/-) mice demonstrate a significant reduction in cochlear nerve sound-evoked activity compared with wild-type mice, it is unknown whether and how the loss of CGRP influence vestibular system function. Vestibular function was assessed by quantifying the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in alert mice. The loss of CGRP in (-/-) mice was associated with a reduction of the VOR gain of ≈50% without a concomitant change in phase. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that, although CGRP staining was absent in the vestibular end-organs of null (-/-) mice, cholinergic staining appeared normal, suggesting that the overall gross development of vestibular efferent innervation was unaltered. We further confirmed that the observed deficit in vestibular function of null (-/-) mice was not the result of nontargeted effects at the level of the extraocular motor neurons and/or their innervation of extraocular muscles. Analysis of the relationship between vestibular quick phase amplitude and peak velocity revealed that extraocular motor function was unchanged, and immunohistochemistry revealed no abnormalities in motor endplates. Together, our findings show that the neurotransmitter CGRP plays a key role in ensuring VOR efficacy.

  11. Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits interleukin-1β-induced interleukin-8 secretion in human type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jing LI; Teng-ke WANG; Xian WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Our previous data have shown that type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial (AEII) cells express neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and that pro-inflammatory factor interleukinl-β(IL-1β) induces CGRP secretion in the A549 human AEII cell line. In the present study, we investigated the effect of endogenous and exogenous CGRP on IL-1β-induced chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. Methods: We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR to detect IL-8 protein and mRNA levels, respectively. siRNA and the stably transfected cell line were used to knock down and overexpress the CGRP gene, respectively, and chemiluminescence assay was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Results: CGRP-1 receptor antagonist hCGRP8-37 (0.1-1 nmol·L-1) greatly amplified IL-1β-induced IL-8 production. The inhibition of CGRP expression by siRNA significantly increased IL-8 secretion upon IL-1β stimulation. However, cell clones stably transfected with CGRP showed significantly inhibited mRNA and protein levels of IL-8 induced by IL-1β. Conclusion: These data imply that AEII cell-derived CGRP suppress EL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion in an autocrine/paracrine mode. Further investigation showed that CGRP attenuated IL-1β-aroused ROS formation, which is an early indication of pro-inflammatory factor signaling.

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a key factor in the homing of transplanted human MSCs to sites of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Jinhua; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Tao; Xu, Jianwei; Fan, Zhihai; Shen, Yixin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used to treat many diseases, including spinal cord injury (SCI). Treatment relies mostly on the precise navigation of cells to the injury site for rebuilding the damaged spinal cord. However, the key factors guiding MSCs to the epicenter of SCI remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neural peptide synthesized in spinal cord, can dramatically aid the homing of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) in spinal cord-transected SCI rats. First, HUMSCs exhibited chemotactic responses in vitro to CGRP. By time-lapse video analysis, increased chemotactic index (CMI), forward migration index (FMI) and speed contributed to this observed migration. Then, through enzyme immunoassay, higher CGRP concentrations at the lesion site were observed after injury. The release of CGRP directed HUMSCs to the injury site, which was suppressed by CGRP 8-37, a CGRP antagonist. We also verified that the PI3K/Akt and p38MAPK signaling pathways played a critical role in the CGRP-induced chemotactic migration of HUMSCs. Collectively, our data reveal that CGRP is a key chemokine that helps HUMSCs migrate to the lesion site and thereby can be used as a model molecule to study MSCs homing after SCI. PMID:27296555

  13. C-cell hyperplasia accompanying thyroid diseases other than medullary carcinoma: an immunocytochemical study by means of antibodies to calcitonin and somatostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopsi, L; Di Palma, S; Ferrari, C; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Rilke, F

    1991-05-01

    Eighteen normal thyroid glands and unaffected thyroid tissue adjacent to 37 follicular cell-derived benign and malignant tumors and to ten thyroid metastases were studied immunocytochemically with calcitonin (CT) and prosomatostatin/somatostatin (SMS) antibodies. CT- and SMS-immunoreactive cells were found in 100% of cases, though with ample variations in number. Most but not all SMS-immunoreactive cells also contained CT. Diffuse and/or nodular C-cell hyperplasia was seen in 30% of pathological thyroid glands; in concomitance with follicular adenomas, the mean C-cell number more than doubled that found in normal glands. Furthermore the proportion of SMS-immunoreactive C-cells increased from about 1% of CT-immunoreactive cells in normal adult thyroid glands to 2.5% in follicular adenomas, 3% in follicular carcinomas, 4.6% in papillary carcinomas, and 5.7% in metastases. The findings suggest that C-cell hyperplasia may be causally related to pathologic disorders affecting follicular cells. Furthermore, the demonstration that the intrathyroidal SMS cell mass is readily affected by alterations of the follicular structure of the gland suggests a possible regulatory role of SMS in the thyroidal microenvironment.

  14. The effect of excipients on the stability and aerosol performance of salmon calcitonin dry powder inhalers prepared via the spray freeze drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursina, Narges; Vatanara, Alireza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Gilani, Kambiz; Najafabadi, Abdolhossein Rouholamini

    2016-06-01

    Spray freeze drying was developed to produce dry powders suitable for applications such as inhalation delivery. In the current study, the spray freeze drying technique was employed to produce inhalable salmon calcitonin microparticles. Effects of the carrier type, concentration of hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin and the presence of Tween 80 on the chemical and structural stability, as well as on the aerosol performance of the particles were investigated. The results indicated that hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin had the most important effect on the chemical stability of the powder and strongly increased its stability by increasing its concentration in the formulation. Chemically stable formulations (over 90 % recovery) were selected for further examinations. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that the formulations were structurally stable. Aerosol performance showed that the Tween-free powders produced higher fine particle fraction values than the formulations containing Tween (53.7 vs. 41.92 % for trehalose content and 52.85 vs. 43.06 % for maltose content). PMID:27279064

  15. The effect of excipients on the stability and aerosol performance of salmon calcitonin dry powder inhalers prepared via the spray freeze drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursina Narges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray freeze drying was developed to produce dry powders suitable for applications such as inhalation delivery. In the current study, the spray freeze drying technique was employed to produce inhalable salmon calcitonin microparticles. Effects of the carrier type, concentration of hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin and the presence of Tween 80 on the chemical and structural stability, as well as on the aerosol performance of the particles were investigated. The results indicated that hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin had the most important effect on the chemical stability of the powder and strongly increased its stability by increasing its concentration in the formulation. Chemically stable formulations (over 90 % recovery were selected for further examinations. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that the formulations were structurally stable. Aerosol performance showed that the Tween-free powders produced higher fine particle fraction values than the formulations containing Tween (53.7 vs. 41.92 % for trehalose content and 52.85 vs. 43.06 % for maltose content.

  16. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, S; Schifter, S;

    2001-01-01

    catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; p< 0.05) and inversely related to plasma adrenaline levels (r=-0.......53; p<0.02) but positively related to circulating levels of CGRP (r=0.58; p<0.01). No significant relation was found for plasma noradrenaline, renin activity, or endothelin-1. COMP(art) was positively related to plasma volume (r=0.50; p<0.02) and inversely to systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.69; p<0.......001) and central circulation time (r=-0.49; p<0.02). During oxygen inhalation, COMP(art) decreased (-13%; p<0.005) and systemic vascular resistance increased (+10%; p<0.001) towards normal values without significant changes in mean arterial pressure. Plasma adrenaline (-16%; p<0.01) decreased and the...

  17. Derivation of a novel undifferentiated human foetal phenotype in serum-free cultures with BMP-2

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmalek-Sani, Sayed-Hadi; Stokes, Paula J; Tare, Rahul S; Ralph, Esther J; Inglis, Stefanie; Hanley, Neil A.; Franchesca D. Houghton; Oreffo, Richard OC

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal stem and progenitor populations provide a platform for cell-based tissue regeneration strategies. Optimized conditions for ex vivo expansion will be critical and use of serum-free culture may allow enhanced modelling of differentiation potential. Maintenance of human foetal femur-derived cells in a chemically defined medium (CDM) with activin A and fibroblast growth factor-2 generated a unique undifferentiated cell population in comparison to basal cultures, with significantly reduce...

  18. Basal cell carcinoma develops in contact with the epidermal basal cell layer - a three-dimensional morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Ionica; Ciurea, Marius Eugen; Mîndrilă, Ion; Avrămoiu, Ioan; Pirici, Alexandru; Nicola, Monica Georgiana; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the skin, and it develops most frequently on the areas of the body that make its treatment and care extremely difficult, especially in cases of neglecting or aggressive growth and invasion. Both typical mild cases as well as locally aggressive tumor types do not tend to metastasize, and it has been postulated that they should share some common biological and morphological features that might explain this behavior. In this study, we have utilized a high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction technique on pathological samples from 15 cases of common aggressive (fibrosing and adenoid types) and mild (superficial type) basal cell carcinomas, and showed that all these types shared contact points and bridges with the underlying basal cell layer of the epidermis or with the outmost layer of the hair follicle. The connections found had in fact the highest number for fibrosing type (100%), compared to the superficial (85.71%) and adenoid (55%) types. The morphology of the connection bridges was also different, adjacent moderate to abundant inflammatory infiltrate seeming to lead to a loss of basaloid features in these areas. For the adenoid type, tumor islands seemed to be connected also to each other more strongly, forming a common "tumor lace", and while it has been showed that superficial and fibrosing types have higher recurrence risks, all together these data might iterate a connection between the number of bridging points and the biological and clinical manifestation of this skin tumor. PMID:27151694

  19. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  20. Functional Neuroanatomy and Behavioural Correlates of the Basal Ganglia: Evidence from Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basal ganglia are interconnected with cortical areas involved in behavioural, cognitive and emotional processes, in addition to movement regulation. Little is known about which of these functions are associated with individual basal ganglia substructures.

  1. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne – case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment‐resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.

  2. Filariasis and serum specific gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    "nFilariasis is a problematic tropical vector borne infection. Here, the author proposes an idea on a physical change, serum specific gravity, in serum of filariasis cases and further extrapolates for its clinical usefulness.  According to this study, the finalized estimated serum specificity in filariasis is more than that of normal condition. The change of the specific gravity due to additional content or mass can be demonstrated and might be useful for diagnosis and following...

  3. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  4. Uji Diagnostik Dermatoskopi Pada Pasien Karsinoma Sel Basal di RSUP. H. Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Rinanda, Fenni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basal-cell carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm appeared from a non-keratinizing cell which comes from epidermic basal layer. Hispatological test to diagnose basal-cell carcinoma may give rise to uncomfortability and fear. Dermatoscopy test, on the other hand, constitutes a non-invasive, easy, and prompt test which may minimize risks that potentially occurs when conducting a biopsy. Objective: To find out dermatoscopy diagnostic test values in diagnosing basal-cell carcinoma. ...

  5. Honeybee Venom Immunotherapy: A Comparative Study Using Purified and Nonpurified Aqueous Extracts in Patients with Normal Basal Serum Tryptase Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beatrice Bilò

    2012-01-01

    Eighty patients with a history of a systemic reaction were enrolled for immunotherapy using a 5-day rush protocol. Patients treated with the purified extract and those treated with the non purified aqueous extract who developed a systemic reaction underwent maintenance therapy with the purified aluminium hydroxide adsorbed preparations. Patients treated with the nonpurified aqueous extract who did not experience a systemic reaction during the rush phase underwent the maintenance phase with that extract. Systemic reactions during the build-up phase occurred significantly more often in patients treated with nonpurified aqueous extract than in those treated with the corresponding purified aqueous preparations. During the one-year maintenance phase, no systemic reactions occurred in either of the groups. Neither age nor baseline mast cell tryptase concentration presented a significant correlation with the occurrence of a systemic reaction during the treatment, while the type of extract did. In conclusion, nonpurified aqueous extracts induced more frequent systemic reactions than the purified aqueous preparations, during the same rush protocol. The efficacy seemed to be comparable.

  6. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are compared of the determination of ferritin in the serum using the British made Ferritin RIA kit (Amersham) and the Hungarian 125I-Ferritin IRMA kit (Budapest). Ferritin was determined in the sera of healthy donors with a normal ferritin level and in sera of patients containing high concentrations of ferritin (leukemia, some hemolytic anemias, polytransfusion patients). The obtained results have shown that both kits were sufficiently sensitive for the determination of low ferritin concentrations. The British kit has a wider range than the Hungarian (0 - 1000 ng/ml of ferritin as against 0 - 100 ng/ml), which makes it unnecessary to dilute the examined sera several times as is the case with the Hungarian kit. The possible number of determinations of the British kit is higher than that of the Hungarian kit. (author)

  8. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [18F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([18F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [18F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [18F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [18F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [18F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [18F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [18F]dopa uptake overlap. D1 and D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [18F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D2 receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D2 receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. These PET findings are useful in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs

  9. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  10. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.

  11. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  12. Immune challenge affects basal metabolic activity in wintering great tits.

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, I.; Kerimov, A. B.; Ivankina, E. V.; Ilyina, T. A.; Hõrak, P.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of exploiting an organism's immune function are expected to form the basis of many life-history trade-offs. However, there has been debate about whether such costs can be paid in energetic and nutritional terms. We addressed this question in a study of wintering, free-living, male great tits by injecting them with a novel, non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells) and measuring the changes in their basal metabolic rates and various condition indices subsequent to immune challen...

  13. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBGD. This disease is poorly known and probably underdiagnosed. Its diagnosis can be safely made based on clinical grounds.

  14. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  15. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  16. Understanding Parkinsonian handwriting through a computational model of basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Garipelli; Joseph, Denny; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2008-10-01

    Handwriting in Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically characterized by micrographia, jagged line contour, and unusual fluctuations in pen tip velocity. Although PD handwriting features have been used for diagnostics, they are not based on a signaling model of basal ganglia (BG). In this letter, we present a computational model of handwriting generation that highlights the role of BG. When PD conditions like reduced dopamine and altered dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus externa subsystems are simulated, the handwriting produced by the model manifested characteristic PD handwriting distortions like micrographia and velocity fluctuations. Our approach to PD modeling is in tune with the perspective that PD is a dynamic disease. PMID:18386983

  17. Precore/basal core promoter mutants and hepatitis B viral DNA levels as predictors for liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myron J Tong; Lawrence M Blatt; Jia-Horng Kao; Jason Tzuying Cheng; William G Corey

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a retrospective study in 400 chronic hepatitis B patients in order to identify hepatitis B viral factors associated with complications of liver disease or development of hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: The mean follow-up time was 83.6 ± 39.6mo. Alpha-fetoprotein test and abdominal ultrasound were used for cancer surveillance. Hepatitis B basal core promoter mutants, precore mutants, genotypes,hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) level and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to assess odds ratios for viral factors related to liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma development.RESULTS: During follow-up, 38 patients had liver deaths not related to hepatocellular carcinoma. On multivariate analysis, older age [odds ratio: 95.74 (12.13-891.31);P < 0.0001], male sex [odds ratio: 7.61 (2.20-47.95);P = 0.006], and higher log10 HBV DNA [odds ratio:4.69 (1.16-20.43); P < 0.0001] were independently predictive for these liver related deaths. Also, 31 patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that older age [odds ratio: 26.51 (2.36-381.47);P = 0.007], presence of precore mutants [odds ratio:4.23 (1.53-19.58); P = 0.02] and presence of basal core promoter mutants [odds ratio: 2.93 (1.24-7.57); P =0.02] were independent predictors for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma.CONCLUSION: Our results show that high levels of baseline serum HBV DNA are associated with nonhepatocellular carcinoma-related deaths of liver failure,while genetic mutations in the basal core promoter and precore regions are predictive for development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  19. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReitsma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primatesshow increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burstrate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brainactivity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behaviorof downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns ofbasal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics,we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC relay neurons receivingcorrelated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus(GPi, a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observethat the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increaseswith the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as thoseseen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlationsthan do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also showthat the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlationtransfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatoryfiring patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlationsare best transferred through the system. To explain this lastresult, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficientfor oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysisindicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer isrobust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arisesdue to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when thelong timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall,these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affectthe transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  20. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  1. Novelty encoding by the output neurons of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mati Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia have focused on the resemblance of the dopamine signal to the temporal difference error. However the role of the network as a whole is still elusive, in particular whether the output of the basal ganglia encodes only the behavior (actions or it is part of the valuation process. We trained a monkey extensively on a probabilistic conditional task with seven fractal cues predicting rewarding or aversive outcomes (familiar cues. Then in each recording session we added a cue that the monkey had never seen before (new cue and recorded from single units in the Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNpr while the monkey was engaged in a task with new cues intermingled within the familiar ones. The monkey learned the association between the new cue and outcome and modified its licking and blinking behavior which became similar to responses to the familiar cues with the same outcome. However, the responses of many SNpr neurons to the new cue exceeded their response to familiar cues even after behavioral learning was completed. This dissociation between behavior and neural activity suggests that the BG output code goes beyond instruction or gating of behavior to encoding of novel cues. Thus, BG output can enable learning at the levels of its target neural networks.

  2. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  3. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  5. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  6. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  7. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

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    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  8. Diffusion of calcitonin through the wall of the root canal Avaliação da difusão da calcitonina através da dentina radicular

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    Selma Cristina Cury Camargo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro diffusion of synthetic salmon calcitonin (CT, used as an intracanal medication, to the external root surface, with or without the presence of intact root cementum. Fifty-four human central incisors were used in the experiment, and were divided into two groups of 21 (test groups and two groups of 6 teeth (control groups. After root canal preparation, 10 ml of calcitonin was inserted within the root canal chamber. The root was sealed and made externally impermeable. Specimens were then placed in tubes with saline solution buffered with phosphates and stored at 37°C. The diffusion of calcitonin was measured after 1, 4 and 7 days. To count calcitonin present at the external media (PBS, ELISA test (an antigen-antibody reaction was used. Results showed that there was calcitonin diffusion through dentin in all of the test samples. The absence of cementum increased the diffusion of calcitonin (p=0.05. The highest counts of CT were obtained on day 7 for groups with or without cementum - showing a direct relation between time and diffusion of the medication.O presente estudo determinou in vitro a difusão da calcitonina sintética de salmão, como medicação intracanal, até a superfície externa radicular, com e sem a presença de cemento radicular. Foram utilizados cinqüenta e quatro incisivos centrais humanos, divididos em dois grupos com 21 dentes cada e dois grupos com 6 dentes cada (controle negativo. Após o preparo endodôntico, os dentes receberam 10 ml de calcitonina como medicação intracanal. Feitos o selamento e a impermeabilização externa da raiz, os espécimes foram acondicionados em tubos com solução salina tamponada com fosfatos e incubados em estufa a 37°C. Foram colhidas amostras da solução salina nos períodos de 1, 4 e 7 dias. Para a análise das soluções teste, utilizou-se teste ELISA. Os resultados mostram que existe a difusão da medicação testada até a superf

  9. Developement of serum-free media in CHO-DG44 cells using a central composite statistical design

    OpenAIRE

    Parampalli, Ananth; Eskridge, Kent; Smith, Leonard; Meagher, Michael M.; Mowry, Mark C.; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2007-01-01

    A serum free medium was developed for the production of recombinant antibody against Botulinum A (BoNTA) using dihydrofolate reductase deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO-DG44) in suspension culture. An initial control basal medium was prepared, which was similar in composition to HAM’s F12: IMDM (1:1) supplemented with insulin, transeferrin, selenium and a lipid mixture. The vitamin concentration of the basal medium was twice that of HAM’s F12: IMDM (1:1). CHO-DG44 cells expressing S2...

  10. 降钙素及二膦酸盐治疗血液透析患者肾性骨病的长期疗效%Long-term efficacy of calcitonin and bisphosphonates on renal osteopathy in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石书梅; 赵学智; 陆烈; 卜磊; 陈意志

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of ealcitonin and bisphosphonates on renal osteopathy of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD)patients. Methods Forty-three MHD patients were raindomly divided into two groups: A group and B group. All the patients were routinely received oral calcium carbonate 1.0 g tid and calcitriol 0.25 μg qd. Calcitonin (20U) hypodermic injection was given three times a week additionally during hemodialysis in A group. Patients in B group received bisphosphonates 70 mg once a week based on the therapy of A group. Serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (AKP), bone mass density (BMD) of lumbar spine and femoral neck, and the degree of bone ache (visual analogue scale, VAS) were assessed before the therapy and 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. The adverse reactions were recorded during treatment. Results The levels of AKP and iPTH in both two groups decreased significantly after treatment. The above values of pre-treatment and 12 months after treatment were as follows: AKP(U/L)of A group 244.05±41.99 and 148.35±27.71,of B group 245.60±40.86 and 143.40±28.03;PTH(ng/L) of A group 697.5±119.7 and 267.4±45.9,of B group 708.2±120.3 and 277.6±41.9 (all P0.05). BMD was not improved at 3, 6 mouths and became better at 12 mouths after treatment. As compared to pre-treatment, BMD of lumbar spine(g/cm2) in A group was 1.062±0.223 vs 1.202±0.251 ,in B group 1.033±0.152 vs 1.189±0.225; BMD of femoral neck (g/cm2)in A group was 0.993±0.108 vs 1.067±0.095,in B group 0.947±0.083 vs 1.018 ±0.217 (all P<0.05). The scores of VAS also decreased significantly at 3, 6, 12 months after treatment(P<0.05). No severe adverse reaction was found during the treatment. Conclusions Utilization of calcitonin and combination with bisphosphonates during bemodialysis can effectively preserve the BMD and prevent bone loss in MHD patients and is well tolerated. No significant difference of therapeutic effect is

  11. Alpha-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Can Reverse The Catabolic Influence Of UHMWPE Particles On RANKL Expression In Primary Human Osteoblasts

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    Max D. Kauther, Jie Xu, Christian Wedemeyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: A linkage between the neurotransmitter alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (alpha-CGRP and particle-induced osteolysis has been shown previously. The suggested osteoprotective influence of alpha-CGRP on the catabolic effects of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles is analyzed in this study in primary human osteoblasts. Methods: Primary human osteoblasts were stimulated by UHMWPE particles (cell/particle ratios 1:100 and 1:500 and different doses of alpha-CGRP (10-7 M, 10-9 M, 10-11 M. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG mRNA expression and protein levels were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Particle stimulation leads to a significant dose-dependent increase of RANKL mRNA in both cell-particle ratios and a significant down-regulation of OPG mRNA in cell-particle concentrations of 1:500. A significant depression of alkaline phosphatase was found due to particle stimulation. Alpha-CGRP in all tested concentrations showed a significant depressive effect on the expression of RANKL mRNA in primary human osteoblasts under particle stimulation. Comparable reactions of RANKL protein levels due to particles and alpha-CGRP were found by Western blot analysis. In cell-particle ratios of 1:100 after 24 hours the osteoprotective influence of alpha-CGRP reversed the catabolic effects of particles on the RANKL expression. Interpretation: The in-vivo use of alpha-CGRP, which leads to down-regulated RANKL in-vitro, might inhibit the catabolic effect of particles in conditions of particle induced osteolysis.

  12. Exogenous Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA in Pathogenesis of Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Gastric Lesions: Interaction with Protective Nitric Oxide (NO and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP

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    Marcin Magierowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is an endogenous nitric oxide (NO synthesis inhibitor and pro-inflammatory factor. We investigated the role of ADMA in rat gastric mucosa compromised through 30 min of gastric ischemia (I and 3 h of reperfusion (R. These I/R animals were pretreated with ADMA with or without the combination of l-arginine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP or a small dose of capsaicin, all of which are known to afford protection against gastric lesions, or with a farnesoid X receptor (FXR agonist, GW 4064, to increase the metabolism of ADMA. In the second series, ADMA was administered to capsaicin-denervated rats. The area of gastric damage was measured with planimetry, gastric blood flow (GBF was determined by H2-gas clearance, and plasma ADMA and CGRP levels were determined using ELISA and RIA. ADMA significantly increased I/R-induced gastric injury while significantly decreasing GBF, the luminal NO content, and the plasma level of CGRP. This effect of ADMA was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with CGRP, l-arginine, capsaicin, or a PGE2 analogue. In GW4064 pretreated animals, the I/R injury was significantly reduced and this effect was abolished by co-treatment with ADMA. I/R damage potentiated by ADMA was exacerbated in capsaicin-denervated animals with a further reduction of CGRP. Plasma levels of IL-10 were significantly decreased while malonylodialdehyde (MDA and plasma TNF-α contents were significantly increased by ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA aggravates I/R-induced gastric lesions due to a decrease of GBF, which is mediated by a fall in NO and CGRP release, and the enhancement of lipid peroxidation and its pro-inflammatory properties.

  13. Exogenous asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric lesions: interaction with protective nitric oxide (NO) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Surmiak, Marcin; Krzysiek-Maczka, Gracjana; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor and pro-inflammatory factor. We investigated the role of ADMA in rat gastric mucosa compromised through 30 min of gastric ischemia (I) and 3 h of reperfusion (R). These I/R animals were pretreated with ADMA with or without the combination of L-arginine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or a small dose of capsaicin, all of which are known to afford protection against gastric lesions, or with a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, GW 4064, to increase the metabolism of ADMA. In the second series, ADMA was administered to capsaicin-denervated rats. The area of gastric damage was measured with planimetry, gastric blood flow (GBF) was determined by H2-gas clearance, and plasma ADMA and CGRP levels were determined using ELISA and RIA. ADMA significantly increased I/R-induced gastric injury while significantly decreasing GBF, the luminal NO content, and the plasma level of CGRP. This effect of ADMA was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with CGRP, L-arginine, capsaicin, or a PGE2 analogue. In GW4064 pretreated animals, the I/R injury was significantly reduced and this effect was abolished by co-treatment with ADMA. I/R damage potentiated by ADMA was exacerbated in capsaicin-denervated animals with a further reduction of CGRP. Plasma levels of IL-10 were significantly decreased while malonylodialdehyde (MDA) and plasma TNF-α contents were significantly increased by ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA aggravates I/R-induced gastric lesions due to a decrease of GBF, which is mediated by a fall in NO and CGRP release, and the enhancement of lipid peroxidation and its pro-inflammatory properties. PMID:24658439

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the expression of osteoblastic genes and activates the WNT signal transduction pathway in bone marrow stromal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, RI; YUAN, ZHI; LIU, JIERONG; LIU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase activity in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it has remained elusive whether this effect is mediated by CGRP receptors directly or whether other signaling pathways are involved. The present study assessed the possible involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the activation of CGRP signaling during the differentiation of BMSCs. First, the differentiation of BMSCs was induced in vitro and the expression of CGRP receptors was examined by western blot analysis. The effects of exogenous CGRP and LiCl, a stimulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed; furthermore, the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. The results revealed that CGRP receptors were expressed throughout the differentiation of BMSCs, at days 7 and 14. Incubation with CGRP and LiCl led to the upregulation of the expression of osteoblastic genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including the mRNA of c-myc, cyclin D1, Lef1, Tcf7 and β-catenin as well as β-catenin protein. However, the upregulation of these genes and β-catenin protein was inhibited by CGRP receptor antagonist or secreted frizzled-related protein, an antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results of the present study therefore suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in CGRP- and LiCl-promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:27082317

  15. Impact of Food Components on in vitro Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Secretion—A Potential Mechanism for Dietary Influence on Migraine

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    Margaret Slavin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is a pivotal messenger in the inflammatory process in migraine. Limited evidence indicates that diet impacts circulating levels of CGRP, suggesting that certain elements in the diet may influence migraine outcomes. Interruption of calcium signaling, a mechanism which can trigger CGRP release, has been suggested as one potential route by which exogenous food substances may impact CGRP secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foods and a dietary supplement on two migraine-related mechanisms in vitro: CGRP secretion from neuroendocrine CA77 cells, and calcium uptake by differentiated PC12 cells. Ginger and grape pomace extracts were selected for their anecdotal connections to reducing or promoting migraine. S-petasin was selected as a suspected active constituent of butterbur extract, the migraine prophylactic dietary supplement. Results showed a statistically significant decrease in stimulated CGRP secretion from CA77 cells following treatment with ginger (0.2 mg dry ginger equivalent/mL and two doses of grape pomace (0.25 and 1.0 mg dry pomace equivalent/mL extracts. Relative to vehicle control, CGRP secretion decreased by 22%, 43%, and 87%, respectively. S-petasin at 1.0 μM also decreased CGRP secretion by 24%. Meanwhile, S-petasin and ginger extract showed inhibition of calcium influx, whereas grape pomace had no effect on calcium. These results suggest that grape pomace and ginger extracts, and S-petasin may have anti-inflammatory propensity by preventing CGRP release in migraine, although potentially by different mechanisms, which future studies may elucidate further.

  16. Function of the cytoplasmic tail of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to form an adrenomedullin (AM)-specific receptor. Here we investigated the function of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of human (h)CRLR by co-transfecting its C-terminal mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hRAMP2. Deleting the C-tail from CRLR disrupted AM-evoked cAMP production or receptor internalization, but did not affect [125I]AM binding. We found that CRLR residues 428-439 are required for AM-evoked cAMP production, though deleting this region had little effect on receptor internalization. Moreover, pretreatment with pertussis toxin (100 ng/mL) led to significant increases in AM-induced cAMP production via wild-type CRLR/RAMP2 complexes. This effect was canceled by deleting CRLR residues 454-457, suggesting Gi couples to this region. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CRLR truncation mutants lacking residues in the Ser/Thr-rich region extending from Ser449 to Ser467 were unable to undergo AM-induced receptor internalization and, in contrast to the effect on wild-type CRLR, overexpression of GPCR kinases-2, -3 and -4 failed to promote internalization of CRLR mutants lacking residues 449-467. Thus, the hCRLR C-tail is crucial for AM-evoked cAMP production and internalization of the CRLR/RAMP2, while the receptor internalization is dependent on the aforementioned GPCR kinases, but not Gs coupling.

  17. The development of a human calcitonin radioimunoassay, with 'in house' reagent production, for application to the early diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagent production for human Calcitonin (hCT) Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out in our laboratory starting from a kind donation of human synthetic preparation from CIBA (Basel, Switzerland). This product was used for anti-hCT antibody production in rabbits and guinea-pigs and for radioiodination, according to two different methods: classical and stoichiometric Chloramine T techniques. The use of Sephadex G-50 in tracer purification allowed the obtainement of 125I-hCT free of high molecular weight contaminats. A repurification on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis provided 125I-hCT of higher specific activity that presented specific binginds, to good quality antisera, of the same order of imported tracers (∼ 45%). Different antisera were obtained in rabbits and quinea-pigs, but only one (GP2-IPEN) could be used in such a dilution (1:4000) to provide highly sensitive curves (minimal detectable concentration < 70 pg/ml) presenting, however, very low specific bindings (7-10%). For this reason, in order to be able to set up a regular quality control of our hCT-RIA technique, an antiserum kindly donated by the Karolinska Institute (Stockholm, Sweden) was used. This way, through the use of an higher antibody dilution (1:8000), higher specific bindings (20-30%), higher sensitivies (< 30 pg/ml) and satisfactory precision were obtained. We consider this study a first approach to a complete national production of hCT-RIA reagents, that, at present moment, depends practically only from the obtainement of a high avidity anti-hCT antiserum. More has to be done on accuracy and correct clinical application of this assay to the screening of the familial form of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. We also emphasize the fact, due to our limited financial possibilities, all the work was carried out with great economy, taking advantage of previously set up techniques and of the experience already acquired in this field of work. (author)

  18. Somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive intramural nerve structures of the human large intestine affected by carcinoma.

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    Jerzy Kaleczyc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arrangement and chemical coding of enteric nerve structures in the human large intestine affected by cancer. Tissue samples comprising all layers of the intestinal wall were collected during surgery form both morphologically unchanged and pathologically altered segments of the intestine (n=15, and fixed by immersion in buffered paraformaldehyde solution. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5 and their chemical coding using antibodies against somatostatin (SOM, substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. The microscopic observations revealed distinct morphological differences in the enteric nerve system structure between the region adjacent to the cancer invaded area and the intact part of the intestine. In general, infiltration of the cancer tissue resulted in the gradual (depending on the grade of invasion first decomposition and reduction to final partial or complete destruction and absence of the neuronal elements. A comparative analysis of immunohistochemically labeled sections (from the unchanged and pathologically altered areas revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of CGRP-positive neurons and nerve fibres in both submucous and myenteric plexuses in the transitional zone between morphologically unchanged and cancer-invaded areas. In this zone, a decrease was also observed in the density of SP-positive nerve fibres in all intramural plexuses. Conversely, the investigations demonstrated statistically insignificant differences in number of SP- and SOM-positive neurons and a similar density of SOM-positive nerve fibres in the plexuses of the intact and pathologically changed areas. The differentiation between the potential adaptive changes in ENS or destruction of its elements by cancer invasion should be

  19. Function of the cytoplasmic tail of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@fc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Hikosaka, Tomomi [Division of Circulation and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to form an adrenomedullin (AM)-specific receptor. Here we investigated the function of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of human (h)CRLR by co-transfecting its C-terminal mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hRAMP2. Deleting the C-tail from CRLR disrupted AM-evoked cAMP production or receptor internalization, but did not affect [{sup 125}I]AM binding. We found that CRLR residues 428-439 are required for AM-evoked cAMP production, though deleting this region had little effect on receptor internalization. Moreover, pretreatment with pertussis toxin (100 ng/mL) led to significant increases in AM-induced cAMP production via wild-type CRLR/RAMP2 complexes. This effect was canceled by deleting CRLR residues 454-457, suggesting Gi couples to this region. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CRLR truncation mutants lacking residues in the Ser/Thr-rich region extending from Ser{sup 449} to Ser{sup 467} were unable to undergo AM-induced receptor internalization and, in contrast to the effect on wild-type CRLR, overexpression of GPCR kinases-2, -3 and -4 failed to promote internalization of CRLR mutants lacking residues 449-467. Thus, the hCRLR C-tail is crucial for AM-evoked cAMP production and internalization of the CRLR/RAMP2, while the receptor internalization is dependent on the aforementioned GPCR kinases, but not Gs coupling.

  20. Anti-inflammatory role of methotrexate in adjuvant arthritis: effect on substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide in thymus and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of methotrexate (MTX) in rats with adjuvant arthritis through its influence on the expression of proinflammatory neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in immune organs, thymus and spleen. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in rats by inoculation with heat-killed mycobacteria. One group of arthritic rats (n=6) was treated with MTX (0.2 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) on every 4th day for a period of 18 weeks, while another group of arthritic rats (n=6) was treated with physiological saline served as control. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and thymus and spleen were dissected and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. The neuronal density of SP and CGRP immunoreactivity in thymus and spleen was assessed by semi-quantitative analysis. There was a marked reduction in hind paw swelling and inflammation in the MTX-treated rats after 18 weeks of treatment. Restoration of joint spaces (tibiotalar and subtalar) was seen after 9 weeks of MTX treatment. CGRP-positive nerve fibres were significantly reduced (p=0.0001) in thymus of rats treated with MTX compared to control rats. SP-positive nerve fibers were also found to be decreased in thymus of rats treated with MTX compared to controls, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. The neuronal density of SP and CGRP-immunoreactivity in spleen was not significantly different in MTX-treated and placebo-treated rats. In arthritic rats, MTX significantly reduced CGRP expression in thymus. Suppression of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as CGRP and probably SP could be another mechanism by which MTX produces its antiinflammatory effect in adjuvant arthritis. (author)

  1. Phenotypic alterations of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing neurons innervating the rat temporomandibular joint during carrageenan-induced arthritis

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    J.P. Damico

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify immunoreactive neuropeptide Y (NPY and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia, specifically neurons that innervate the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ. A possible variation between the percentages of these neurons in acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis was examined. Retrograde neuronal tracing was combined with indirect immunofluorescence to identify NPY-immunoreactive (NPY-IR and CGRP- immunoreactive (CGRP-IR neurons that send nerve fibers to the normal and arthritic temporomandibular joint. In normal joints, NPY-IR neurons constitute 78±3%, 77±6% and 10±4% of double-labeled nucleated neuronal profile originated from the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia, respectively. These percentages in the autonomic ganglia were significantly decreased in acute (58±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 58±8% to stellate ganglion and chronic (60±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 59±15% to stellate ganglion phases of arthritis, while in the otic ganglion these percentages were significantly increased to 19±5% and 13±3%, respectively. In the trigeminal ganglion, CGRP-IR neurons innervating the joint significantly increased from 31±3% in normal animals to 54±2% and 49±3% in the acute and chronic phases of arthritis, respectively. It can be concluded that NPY neurons that send nerve fibers to the rat temporomandibular joint are located mainly in the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia. Acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis lead to an increase in the percentage of NPY-IR parasympathetic and CGRP-IR sensory neurons and decrease in the percentage of NPY-IR sympathetic neurons related to TMJ innervation.

  2. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induces proliferation and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rat osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Na; ZHANG Dian-ying; WANG Tian-bing; ZHANG Pei-xun; JIANG Bao-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neuropeptide, affects osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that stimulates the migration of monocytes and plays important roles in regulating bone remolding during fracture repair, In this study, we investigated the effects of CGRP on proliferation and MCP-1 expression in cultured rat osteoblasts.Methods Primary rat osteoblasts were isolated from fetal rats calvariae. Cells were exposed to gradient concentrations (10-9 to 10-7 mol/L) of CGRP. Protein and mRNA levels of MCP-1 were quantified by Western blotting and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein level of MCP-1 was investigated and compared in cell culture media by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression was detected by Western blotting. Cell proliferative activity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and BrdU assay. The effects of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-inhibitor U0126 on CGRP-induced MCP-1 expression in primary rat osteoblasts were examined.Results CGRP effectively enhanced primary rat osteoblast proliferation and led to significant increases in the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein in time- and dose-dependent manners. CGRP activated the ERK pathway.Pretreatment of cultured rat osteoblasts with MEK inhibitor U0126 resulted in dose-dependent inhibitions of CGRP-induced MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels. Thus, CGRP promoted cell proliferation and stimulated MCP-1 expression in cultured rat osteoblasts.Conclusion These studies document novel links between CGRP and MCP-1 and illuminate the effects of CGRP in regulating bone remodeling.

  3. Effects of tegaserod on Fos,substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression induced by colon inflammation in lumbarsacral spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ning Sun; Jin-Yan Luo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of tegaserod, a partial 5-HT4 agonist, in reducing visceral sensitivity by observing Fos, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in the lumbarsacral spinal cord inducedby colonic inflammation in rats.METHODS: Twenty-four male rats with colonic inflammation induced by intraluminal instillation of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) were divided into 3 groups. Treatment group Treatment group 2: intra-gastric administration of tegaserod,saline, 2.0 mL/d. After 7 d of intra-gastric administration,lumbarsacral spinal cord was removed and processed for Fos, SP and CGRP immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: In rats of the control group, the majority of Fos labeled neurons was localized in deeper laminae of the lumbarsacral spinal cord (L5-S1). SP and CGRP were primarily expressed in the superficial laminae of the spinal cord after TNBS injection. Intra-gastric administration of tegaserod neurons (22.0±7.7) and SP density (12.5±1.4) in the dorsal horn in the lumbarsacral spinal cord compared to those of the control group (62.2±18.9, 35.9±8.9, P<0.05). However,CGRP content in dorsal horn did not significantly reduce in rats of treatment group 1 (1.2±1.1) compared to that of the control group (2.8±2.4, P>0.05). Neither Fos expression nor SP or CGRP density in the dorsal horn significantly declined in rats of treatment group 2 compared to those of the control group (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Tegaserod can significantly reduce Fos labeled neurons in the lumbarsacral spinal cord induced by colonic inflammation. Tegaserod may reduce visceral sensitivity by inhibiting SP expression in the dorsal horn of spinal cord.

  4. Cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid cancer: does thyroglobulin and calcitonin measurement in fine needle aspirates improve the diagnostic value of cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini Enke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg protein in the washout of the needle used for fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C has been shown to increase the sensitivity of FNAB-C in identifying cervical lymph node (CLN metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer (TC. In this study, we evaluated whether routine measurement of Tg protein (FNAB-Tgp, Tg mRNA (FNAB-Tgm and calcitonin (CT mRNA (FNAB-CTm in the FNAB washout of CLN increases the accuracy of FNAB-C in the diagnosis of suspicious metastatic CLN. Methods In this prospective study 35 CLN from 28 patients were examined. Histology showed metastatic papillary TC (PTC in 26 CLN, metastatic medullary TC (MTC in 3 CLN, metastatic anaplastic TC (ATC in 3 CLN and 3 metastatic CLN from extra-thyroidal cancers. Results The overall accuracy of FNAB-C was 84.4%, reaching 95.7% when the analysis was restricted to PTC. Both FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm compared favorably with FNAB-C and shown diagnostic performances not statistically different from that of FNAB-C. However, FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm/FNAB-CTm were found useful in cases in which cytology results were inadequate or provided diagnosis inconsistent with patient's clinical parameters. Conclusions We demonstrated that FNAB-C, Tg/CT mRNA and Tg protein determination in the fine-needle washout showed similar accuracy in the diagnosis of metastatic CLN from TC. The results of this study suggest that samples for Tg protein and Tg/CT mRNA measurements from CLN suspicious for metastatic TC should be collected, but their measurements should be restricted to cases in which FNAB-C provides uninformative or inconsistent diagnosis with respect to patient's clinical parameters.

  5. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

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    Naira Josele Neves de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group, and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001. However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001 and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  6. Comparison of the vasoconstrictor effects of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist telcagepant (MK-0974) and zolmitriptan in human isolated coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynch, Joseph J; Regan, Christopher P; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    to relax to human alphaCGRP, with the CGRP-mediated vasorelaxation completely blocked with 30 microM telcagepant. In coronary vessels at basal tone, zolmitriptan caused a concentration-dependent contraction (pEC50 = 6.9 +/- 0.1; slope 0.94), with the greatest contraction obtained between 1 and 10 micro...

  7. Spatial Variation of Basal Conditions on Kamb Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Welch, B. C.; Osterhouse, D.; Pettersson, R.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Radar profiles of bed echo intensity provide a way to survey conditions at the ice-bed interface and test for the presence or absence of water. However, extracting information about bed properties from bed echo intensities requires an estimate of the dielectric attenuation loss through the ice. A recent survey [MacGregor et al., 2007] found that the few reported values of depth-averaged attenuation rates in West Antarctica vary by a factor of 3, presumably due to spatial variations in the chemistry and temperature profiles of the ice. Thus, a single value for depth-averaged ice-sheet attenuation cannot be assumed, even over a relatively small region. We measured attenuation rates at several locations on and near Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) by examining basal echo intensity values as a function of ice thickness from constant-offset radar data acquired in 2004-2006. Our values obtained for Siple Dome of 29 dB/km agree with previous measurements [Gades et al., 2000] and the recent calculations and model results of MacGregor et al. [2007]. On KIS, we measured attenuation values of 20 dB/km over the "sticky spot", where ice has become stagnant. This value is consistent with an attenuation model over the sticky spot calculated using borehole temperature data [Engelhardt, 2005] and chemistry data from the Siple Dome ice core. Our radar profiles in the main trunk region of KIS yield a slightly lower value of 15 dB/km, presumably because colder ice is still being advected from inland West Antarctica. Using these values of attenuation, we calculated the basal radar reflectivity at the ice-bed interface in the regions of all our surveys. We found that most regions of the bed in the trunk of KIS have high basal reflectivities and that these values are similar to those obtained in locations where water was found in the Caltech boreholes [Engelhardt, 2005]. Areas of lower bed reflectivity are limited to the sticky spot, where a borehole found a dry bed, and along the margins of KIS

  8. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  9. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  10. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  11. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  12. Management of periorbital basal cell carcinoma with orbital invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Michelle T; Wu, Albert; Figueira, Edwin; Huilgol, Shyamala; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common eyelid malignancy; however, orbital invasion by periocular BCC is rare, and management remains challenging. Established risk factors for orbital invasion by BCC include male gender, advanced age, medial canthal location, previous recurrences, large tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype and perineural invasion. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach with orbital exenteration remaining the treatment of choice. Globe-sparing treatment may be appropriate in selected patients and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often used as adjuvant therapies for advanced or inoperable cases, although the evidence remains limited. We aim to summarize the presentation and treatment of BCC with orbital invasion to better guide the management of this complex condition. PMID:26437207

  13. Basal Secretion of Lysozyme from Human Airways in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Roger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the basal release of lysozyme from isolated human lung tissues. Measurements of lysozyme in the fluids derived from lung preparations were performed using a rate-of-lysis assay subsequent to acidification of the biological samples. Lysozyme released from bronchial preparations into fluids was greater than that observed for parenchymal tissues. The lysozyme quantities detected in bronchial fluids were not modified by removal of the surface epithelium. Furthermore, the quantities of lysozyme in bronchial fluids was correlated with the size of the bronchial preparations. These results suggest that the lysozyme was principally secreted by the human bronchi (submucosal layer rather than by parenchyma tissues and that a greater release was observed in the proximal airways.

  14. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Simon N.; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Daniel F Gudbjartsson; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC)1, we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 × 10−9). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 × 10−9), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 × 10−10...

  15. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence

  16. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-μm thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  18. Effect of genistein on basal jejunal chloride secretion in R117H CF mice is sex and route specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayyan E

    2015-01-01

    -mediated difference among the groups. Serum levels of genistein were significantly elevated, compared to respective controls, by either 600Gd (equally elevated in males and females or 600Gi (elevated more in females versus males. These data suggest a sex-dependent increase in basal Isc of R117H mice and that the increase is also specific for route of administration.Keywords: genistein, intestine, secretion, CFTR, R117H

  19. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

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    CARMEN BERGHES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  20. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  1. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  2. A Novel Basal Body Protein That Is a Polo-like Kinase Substrate Is Required for Basal Body Segregation and Flagellum Adhesion in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-10-01

    The Polo-like kinase (PLK) in Trypanosoma brucei plays multiple roles in basal body segregation, flagellum attachment, and cytokinesis. However, the mechanistic role of TbPLK remains elusive, mainly because most of its substrates are not known. Here, we report a new substrate of TbPLK, SPBB1, and its essential roles in T. brucei. SPBB1 was identified through yeast two-hybrid screening with the kinase-dead TbPLK as the bait. It interacts with TbPLK in vitro and in vivo, and is phosphorylated by TbPLK in vitro. SPBB1 localizes to both the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle, and co-localizes with TbPLK at the basal body during early cell cycle stages. RNAi against SPBB1 in procyclic trypanosomes inhibited basal body segregation, disrupted the new flagellum attachment zone filament, detached the new flagellum, and caused defective cytokinesis. Moreover, RNAi of SPBB1 confined TbPLK at the basal body and the bilobe structure, resulting in constitutive phosphorylation of TbCentrin2 at the bilobe. Altogether, these results identified a basal body protein as a TbPLK substrate and its essential role in promoting basal body segregation and flagellum attachment zone filament assembly for flagellum adhesion and cytokinesis initiation.

  3. Serum Survivin Increases in Prolactinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dellal, Fatma Dilek; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Gorar, Suheyla; Ademoglu, Esranur; Candan, Zehra; Bekdemir, Handan; Hacioglu, Yalcin; Kaya, Fatih Oner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolactinoma is the most common adult pituitary adenoma. Survivin is a member of the family of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Its expression is observed in many tumors. Survivin expression has shown in prolactinoma tissue before but no study exists showing serum survivin level. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum survivin levels in patients with prolactinoma and demonstrate its value in diagnosis of the disease. Methods The group of patients consisted of 25 wom...

  4. Serum Ferritin in Thalassemia Intermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ravi; Trehan, Amita; Das, Reena; R K Marwaha

    2013-01-01

    Serum ferritin is a useful monitoring tool for iron overload in thalassemia major. In resource poor settings access to modalities for assessment of iron overload are limited. This study was undertaken to assess the efficiency and usefulness of serum ferritin level in thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients. This was a cross sectional observational study. Seventy seven TI patients attending the pediatric hematology clinic were included. Fasting blood sample was taken from each patient in iron fre...

  5. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    T K Mishra; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; P.K. Srivastava

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...

  6. Supraphysiological cyclic dosing of sustained release T3 in order to reset low basal body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Gonzalez, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    The use of sustained release tri-iodothyronine (SR-T3) in clinical practice, has gained popularity in the complementary and alternative medical community in the treatment of chronic fatigue with a protocol (WT3) pioneered by Dr. Denis Wilson. The WT3 protocol involves the use of SR-T3 taken orally by the patient every 12 hours according to a cyclic dose schedule determined by patient response. The patient is then weaned once a body temperature of 98.6 degrees F has been maintained for 3 consecutive weeks. The symptoms associated with this protocol have been given the name Wilson's Temperature Syndrome (WTS). There have been clinical studies using T3 in patients who are euthyroid based on normal TSH values. However, this treatment has created a controversy in the conventional medical community, especially with the American Thyroid Association, because it is not based on a measured deficiency of thyroid hormone. However, just as estrogen and progesterone are prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles in patients who have normal serum hormone levels, the WT3 therapy can be used to regulate metabolism despite normal serum thyroid hormone levels. SR-T3 prescription is based exclusively on low body temperature and presentation of symptoms. Decreased T3 function exerts widespread effects throughout the body. It can decrease serotonin and growth hormone levels and increase the number of adrenal hormone receptor sites. These effects may explain some of the symptoms observed in WTS. The dysregulation of neuroendocrine function may begin to explain such symptoms as alpha intrusion into slow wave sleep, decrease in blood flow to the brain, alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Despite all thermoregulatory control mechanisms of the body and the complex metabolic processes involved, WT3 therapy seems a valuable tool to re-establish normal body functions. We report the results of 11 patients who underwent the

  7. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree......Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated...... of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required...

  8. Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaál T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.

  9. Studies of contemporary glacier basal ice cryostructures to identify buried basal ice in the permafrost: an example from the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, E.; Fortier, D.; Kanevskiy, M.; Dillon, M.; Shur, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In the permafrost, massive ice bodies occur as buried glacier ice, aufeis ice, recrystalized snow, massive segregated ice, injection ice, ice wedges or ice formed in underground cavities ("pool ice", "thermokarst-cave ice"). The origin of massive ice bodies in the permafrost bears considerable implications for the reconstructions of paleoenvironments and paleoclimates. Our work aims to help the permafrost scientists working on massive icy sediments to distinguish buried basal glacier ice from other types of buried ice. To do so, the properties and structure of contemporary basal ice must be well known. Field investigations at the Matanuska Glacier (Chugach range, South-central Alaska), consisted in descriptions and sampling of natural basal ice exposures. We have used the basal ice facies classification of Lawson (1979) which is simple, easy to use in the field and provides a good framework for the description of basal ice exposures. Cores were extracted and brought back to the laboratory for water and grain-size analyses. The sediments forming the cryostructure were mostly polymodal, poorly sorted gravelly silt to gravelly fine sand, with mud contents generally over 50%. These data will be used to calibrate three-dimensional (3D) models produced from micro-tomographic scans of basal ice which will produce quantitative estimates of volumetric ice and sediments contents of basal ice cryostructures. Ultimately, visual qualitative and quantitative characterization of the basal ice components of 3D models together with field observations and laboratory analysis will allow for a new micro-facies and cryostructures classification of the basal ice. Our work will also have applications in glaciology, glacial geology, geomorphology, Quaternary and paleo-climatological studies based on inferences made from the structure of basal glacier ice. This paper presents the internal composition of the basal ice facies in terms of cryostructures assemblages (Fortier et al.: 2007) and

  10. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA

  11. Neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, vasculopathic changes, intracerebral granulomas and basal ganglia infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurek Seyfi C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Central nervous system involvement is a rare but serious manifestation of brucellosis. We present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, intracerebral vasculopathy granulomas, seizures, and paralysis of sixth and seventh cranial nerves. Case presentation A 17-year-old Caucasian man presented with nausea and vomiting, headache, double vision and he gave a history of weakness in the left arm, speech disturbance and imbalance. Physical examination revealed fever, doubtful neck stiffness and left abducens nerve paralysis. An analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis (lymphocytes, 90%, high protein and low glucose levels. He developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, facial paralysis and left hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracerebral vasculitis, basal ganglia infarction and granulomas, mimicking the central nervous system involvement of tuberculosis. On the 31st day of his admission, neurobrucellosis was diagnosed with immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G positivity by standard tube agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples (the tests had been negative until that day. He was treated successfully with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, doxycyline and rifampicin for six months. Conclusions Our patient illustrates the importance of suspecting brucellosis as a cause of meningoencephalitis, even if cultures and serological tests are negative at the beginning of the disease. As a result, in patients who have a history of residence or travel to endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neurologic symptoms. If initial tests fail, repetition of these tests at appropriate intervals along with complementary investigations are indicated.

  12. Chorea due to basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ilik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Syndromes associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients are uncommon. Uremic encephalopathy is typical of patients showing cortical involvement, with symptoms including confusion, seizures, tremors, or myoclonus. Whenever basal ganglia are anatomically involved, movement disorders arise, including chorea. In this article we present a case with basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient causes chorea because of rare presentation. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 353-356

  13. Association between mammographic density and basal-like and luminal A breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer overall, but few studies have examined the association between mammographic density and specific subtypes of breast cancer, especially aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Because basal-like breast cancers are less frequently screen-detected, it is important to understand how mammographic density relates to risk of basal-like breast cancer. Methods We estimated associations between mammographic density and breast can...

  14. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Jeremy G. Thompson; Mason, Helen D; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. MET...

  15. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the lungs: Case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Benson Nongrum; Debomaliya Bhuyan; Vanlalhuma Royte; Hughbert Dkhar

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer and it rarely metastasizes. The prevalence of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) varies between 0.0028% and 0.55% of all cases. Over 250 MBCC have been reported in the literature. We present a case with large recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the face with radiological and histopathological findings indicating the presence of metastasis to the lungs.

  16. Photoletter to the editor: Basal cell carcinoma on the vermilion lip

    OpenAIRE

    Batalla, Ana; Encinas-Muñiz, Ana Isabel; Gutiérrez-González, Enrique; de la Mano, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The vermilion and vermilion border are rare locations for basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 72-year-old woman, who presented with an asymptomatic erosive lesion on the vermilion area of the upper lip. Histopathology examination was consistent with basal cell carcinoma. We suggest that basal cell carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of erosive/ulcerative lesions arising on the vermilion area of the lip.

  17. Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptan, Moayad Al; Kattampallil, Joseph; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell...

  18. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.

  19. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed: A report of rare two cases and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Tarun Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. The general incidence of TBGH is reported between 2.4% and 3% of closed head injury. However, the incidence is higher in postmortem studies (9.8%). Bilateral traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is extremely rare. Descriptions are limited to case reports.

  20. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  1. In vitro and in vivo preclinical evaluation of a minisphere emulsion-based formulation (SmPill®) of salmon calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Rosa, Mónica; Coulter, Ivan S; Brayden, David J

    2015-11-15

    Salmon calcitonin (sCT, MW 3432Da) is a benchmark molecule for an oral peptide delivery system because it is degraded and has low intestinal epithelial permeability. Four dry emulsion minisphere prototypes (SmPill®) containing sCT were co-formulated with permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10) or coco-glucoside (CG), or with a pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres protected sCT from thermal degradation and the released sCT retained high bioactivity, as determined by cyclic AMP generation in T47D cells. Pre-minisphere emulsions of PEs combined with sCT increased absolute bioavailability (F) compared to native sCT following rat intra-jejunal (i.j.) and intra-colonic (i.c.) loop instillations, an effect that was more pronounced in colon. Minispheres corresponding to ~2000I.U. (~390μg) sCT/kg were instilled by i.j. or i.c. instillations and hypocalcaemia resulted from all prototypes. The absolute F (i.j.) of sCT was 11.0, 4.8, and 1.4% for minispheres containing NaTDC (10μmol/kg), CG (12μmol/kg) or CA (32μmol/kg) respectively. For i.c. instillations, the largest absolute F (22% in each case) was achieved for minispheres containing either C10 (284μmol/kg) or CG (12μmol/kg), whilst the absolute F was 8.2% for minispheres loaded with CA (32μmol/kg). In terms of relative F, the best data were obtained for minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j.), a 4-fold increase over sCT solution, and also for either C10 or CG (i.c.), where there was a 3-fold increase over sCT solution. Histology of instilled intestinal loops indicated that neither the minispheres nor components thereof caused major perturbation. In conclusion, selected SmPill® minisphere formulations may have the potential to be used as oral peptide delivery systems when delivered to jejunum or colon. PMID:26349051

  2. Effect of calcitonin gene related peptide regulated nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction on c-kit+ cardiac stem cells in hypoxia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-ping LONG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP on the apoptosis of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells in hypoxia. Methods Ischemia and hypoxia models of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells were reproduced in vitro. The models were divided into hypoxia+CGRP group, hypoxia+CGRP8-37 (antagonist of CGRP group, hypoxia control group, normal oxygen group, and hypoxia+BAY11-7082 [antagonist of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB] group. NF-κB translocation after hypoxia was detected by immunofluorescence, and NF-κB channel proteins were determined with Western blotting. The NF-κB translocation and the expression of NF-κB channel proteins after CGRP intervention were detected, and the cell apoptosis rate after intervention was determined with flow cytometry in each group. Results Under hypoxia the NF-κB signal pathway was activated, and nuclear translocation occurred in NF-κBP65 (red fluorescence. Compared with hypoxia control group, the expressions of NF-κB related proteins such as P-I-κB, NF-κBP65 and NF-κBP50 decreased obviously (P<0.05. Compared with the hypoxia+CGRP group, the expressions of NF-κB related proteins increased significantly (P<0.05 as mentioned above in hypoxia+CGRP8-37 group. Both the early and late apoptotic rates declined in hypoxia+CGRP group compared with that of hypoxia control group (P<0.05, however, the early apoptotic rate increased markedly in hypoxia+CGRP8-37 group as compared with that of hypoxia+CGRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion Under hypoxia, CGRP may regulate the NF-κB signal pathway, and at the same time suppress the apoptosis of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.10.03

  3. Elcatonin prevents bone loss caused by skeletal unloading by inhibiting preosteoclast fusion through the unloading-induced high expression of calcitonin receptors in bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Manabu; Menuki, Kunitaka; Murai, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Takada, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether elcatonin (EL) has a preventive action on bone dynamics in skeletal unloading. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with either ground control (GC) or tail suspension (TS) were administered EL 20U/kg or a vehicle (veh) three times per week and assigned to one of the following four groups: GCEL, GCveh, TSEL, and TSveh. Blood samples and bilateral femurs and tibias of the mice were obtained for analysis. After 7days of unloading, the trabecular bone mineral density in the distal femur obtained via peripheral quantitative computed tomography and the trabecular bone volume were significantly higher in the TSEL group than in the TSveh group. The bone resorption histomorphometric parameters, such as the osteoclast surface and osteoclast number, were significantly suppressed in the TSEL mice, whereas the number of preosteoclasts was significantly increased. The plasma level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) was significantly lower in the TSEL group than in all other groups. In the bone marrow cell culture, the number of TRACP-positive (TRACP(+)) multinucleated cells was significantly lower in the TSEL mice than in the TSveh mice, whereas the number of TRACP(+) mononucleated cells was higher in the TSEL mice. On day 4, the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V0 domain (ATP6V0D2) mRNA in the bone marrow cells in the TSEL mice was suppressed, and the expression of calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA on day 1 and Calcr antigen on day 4 were significantly higher in the TSveh mice than in the GCveh mice. EL prevented the unloading-induced bone loss associated with the high expression of Calcr in the bone marrow cells of mouse hindlimbs after tail suspension, and it suppressed osteoclast development from preosteoclasts to mature osteoclasts through bone-resorbing activity. This study of EL-treated unloaded mice provides the

  4. Effects of Qindan Capsule(芩丹胶囊) on Blood Pressure,Endothelin, Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide and Angiotensin-Ⅱ in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the hypotensive effects of Qindan Capsule (芩丹胶囊, QC) on spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and its effect on the contents of endothelin (ET), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and angiotensin-Ⅱ (Ang-Ⅱ ) in plasma and vascular tissues, and to investigate the possible mechanism of QC in lowering blood pressure. Methods: Forty SHRs were divided into 5 groups: the high dosage QC group [QCHD, 750 mg/(kg·d)], the low dosage QC group [QCLD, 150 mg/(kg·d)], the Niuhuang Jiangya Pill group [牛黄降压丸, NJP, 200 mg/(kg·d)], the Captopril group [ 15 mg/(kg·d)]and the model group, 8 in each group. Meanwhile, a normal control group consisting of 8 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was set up also. All the rats were administered with medicine through gastrogavage. Systolic blood pressure (SBP),level of ET, CGRP and Ang-Ⅱ in plasma and Ang-Ⅱ in tissues of mesenteric artery were detected in all the rats after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: The level of SBP after treatment in the QCHD group was lower than that in the model group ( P<0.01 ), but with no significant difference as compared with that in the Captopril group and the NJP group (P>0.05). After treatment, the plasma level of ET was lower and CGRP higher than those in the model group (both P<0.05), and also higher than those in the NJP and Captopril group (both P<0.05). As for the content of Ang- Ⅱ, in mesenteric arterial tissues, it was lower in the QCHD group than that in the model group ( P<0.05), but in plasma, it showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: QC has a satisfactory hypotensive action on SHR rats, and its mechanism may be associated with the regulation on plasma vasoactive peptide and regional renin-angiotensin system.

  5. Intermolecular interactions between salmon calcitonin, hyaluronate, and chitosan and their impact on the process of formation and properties of peptide-loaded nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umerska, Anita; Corrigan, Owen I; Tajber, Lidia

    2014-12-30

    The principal aim of this work was to study the formulation of a ternary complex comprising salmon calcitonin (sCT), hyaluronate (HA), and chitosan (CS) in a nanoparticle (NP) format. As interactions between the constituents are possible, their presence and component mass mixing ratio (MMR) and charge mixing ratio (CMR) were investigated to tune the properties of NPs. Intermolecular interactions between sCT and HA as well as sCT and CS were studied by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic viscosity. The impact of MMR, CMR, and HA molecular weight on the sCT loading capacity in NPs and in vitro release properties was determined. sCT complexes to HA via electrostatic interactions and a support for hydrophobic interactions between sCT and HA as well as sCT and CS was found by FTIR. The sCT/HA complex is soluble but, depending on the mass mixing ratio between sCT and HA, NPs and microparticles were also formed indicative of associative phase separation between HA and sCT. The negatively charged HA/CS/sCT NPs were characterized by very high values (above 90%) of peptide association for the systems tested. Also, high sCT loading up to 50% were achieved. The peptide loading capacity and in vitro release properties were dependent on the NP composition. The zeta potential of the NPs without sCT was negative and ranging from -136 to -36 mV, but increased to -84 to -19 mV when the peptide was loaded. The particle size was found to be smaller and ranging 150-230 nm for sCT/NPs in comparison to NPs without sCT (170-260 nm). Short-term storage studies in liquid dispersions showed that the colloidal stability of NPs was acceptable and no release of sCT was observed for up to 3 days. In conclusion, a range of NP systems comprising sCT, HA, and CS was successfully developed and characterized. Such NPs may be considered as a suitable nanoparticulate format for the delivery of sCT. PMID:25447822

  6. Is Hazardous Waste Injection into Basal Aquifers a Good Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Person, M. A.; Rupp, J.; Celia, M. A.; Gable, C. W.; Bowen, B. B.; Mozley, P. S.; Evans, J. P.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The recent induced M3.8 - M5.5 seismic events across the midcontinent, USA have raised concern regarding regulations for hazardous waste injection. It is also important to note that in the midcontinent region, the Illinois Basin is the main target for storing CO2 up to 1 million metric tons over a 3-year period in the CCS project of DOE. Here we present a hydrogeologic-geomechanical sensitivity study using a hybrid analytic-numerical cross-sectional model to assess a wide variety of possible failure scenarios within crystalline rocks. The hydrostratigraphic framework model we used in this study is based on the geology of the Illinois Basin. The model includes 2.8 km thick Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers and confining units underlain by 4 km of bedrock. We represented injection at 1000 gallons per minute (3785 liters per minute) into a basal sandstone aquifer (Mt. Simon Sandstone) as well as the overlying carbonate and siliciclastic reservoirs (middle aquifer: Knox Dolomite, St. Peter Sandstone, upper Ordovician Carbonates). In some scenarios, we included high/low permeability vertical and sub-horizontal thrust faults. Deviatoric pore pressures from the model were used to estimate failure along critically stressed faults within the bedrock. For a basement permeability between 10-15 m2 to 10-16 m2, injection into the basal aquifer (Mt. Simon sandstone) resulted in a failure envelop within the crystalline basement to depths of about 1.4 - 4 km and extending laterally up to 6 km. Including a transmissive vertical normal fault increased the depth of the failure envelope to 4 km below the base of the sedimentary pile. If a 108 order of magnitude permeability contrast exists between the thrust fault (10-10 m2) and basement rocks (10-18 m2), then pore pressures can propagate along a sub-horizontal fault about 12 km from the injection well. For middle aquifer injection, the presence of a bottom seal (Eau Claire Formation) has a prophylactic effect, preventing downward

  7. Liver is the major source of elevated serum lipocalin-2 levels after bacterial infection or partial hepatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Feng, Dechun; Wu, Hailong;

    2015-01-01

    knockout (Lcn2(Hep-/-)) mice were generated and subjected to bacterial infection (with Klesbsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli) or partial hepatectomy (PHx). Studies of Lcn2(Hep-/-) mice revealed that hepatocytes contributed to 25% of the low basal serum level of LCN2 protein (∼ 62 ng/mL) but were...... responsible for more than 90% of the highly elevated serum LCN2 protein level (∼ 6,000 ng/mL) postinfection and more than 60% post-PHx (∼ 700 ng/mL). Interestingly, both Lcn2(Hep-/-) and global Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2(-/-)) mice demonstrated comparable increases in susceptibility to infection with K. pneumoniae...

  8. Effects of Glutamate and Aspartate on Serum Antioxidative Enzyme, Sex Hormones, and Genital Inflammation in Boars Challenged with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjia Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON and H2O2-challenged control (BD groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU or 2% aspartate (ASP. The BD, GLU, and ASP groups were injected with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on day 15. The CON group was injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution on the same day. Results. Dietary aspartate decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level in serum (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Additionally, aspartate maintained serum luteinizing hormone (LH at a relatively stable level. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate increased transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in the epididymis and testis (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Conclusion. Both glutamate and aspartate promoted genital mRNA expressions of anti-inflammatory factors after oxidative stress. Aspartate more effectively decreased serum MDA and prevented fluctuations in serum sex hormones after H2O2 challenge than did glutamate.

  9. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien Helie; Srinivasa Chakravarthy; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  10. 细菌感染及感染程度与血清降钙素原(Procalcitonin PCT)的相关性分析%Bacterial infections and infection degree and serum Procalcitonin of calcitonin original (PCT) correlation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思宇

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨血清降钙素原(Procalcitonin PCT)与细菌感染的相关性.方法:采用罗氏Cobas E411电化学发光仪测定患者血清PCT含量,比较在不同致病菌感染中PCT含量的差异,以及脓毒症组与非脓毒症组间的差异.结果:以PCT≥0.5ng/ml为阳性阈值,PCT阳性率为88.24%(15/17);而不同致病菌所致感染组间PCT含量无显著性差异(P>0.05);以PCT≥2.0ng/ml为脓毒症的阳性阈值,脓毒症患者与非脓毒症患者血清PCT含量有显著性差异(P<0.01).PCT对脓毒症的临床诊断灵敏度为81.81%(9/11),特异性为100%(6/6).结论:血清PCT是鉴别细菌性感染引发脓毒血症快捷、敏感、准确的监测手段,优于白细胞计数,但不能够判断为何种细菌感染.

  11. Application Value of Serum Calcitonin Original in Pediatric Infectious Disease Research%血清降钙素原的检测在儿科感染性疾病中的应用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑娜

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究血清降钙素原的检测在儿科感染性疾病中使用价值.方法 选择164例儿科患者,随机分为A、B两组,每组各82例,A组是感染性疾病患者,B组则为同时体检的健康儿童,两组分别展开血清降钙素原检测.结果 检查后A组血清降钙素原阳性率比B组高(P<0.05),且重度感染患者的阳性率比病毒感染患者高(P<0.05),局部感染比病毒感染患者高(P<0.05),有统计学意义.结论 血清降钙素原检测可以对儿科感染性疾病产生重大的积极作用.

  12. 血清降钙素及相关指标对肺癌诊治的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Serum Calcitonin and Correlative Tumor Markers in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱敏; 张鹏

    2007-01-01

    探讨肺癌患者血清降钙素(CT)含量对肺癌诊治的临床意义.用ELISA检测血清CT含量,用电化学发光免疫分析法(ECLIA)检测血清CEA、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)、细胞角蛋白19片断(CYFRA 21-1)含量.肺癌患者血清CT含量明显高于对照组,化疗前后比较差别有统计学意义(P<0.01),血清CT阳性率与病理分型无关(P>0.05),与临床分期有关(P<0.01).CT与CEA在肺癌中的阳性表达有差异(P<0.01),与NSE和CYFRA 21-1无差异(P>0.05).血清CT含量动态监测是辅助诊断肺癌、观察疗效和判断预后的重要指标之一.

  13. Basal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome: case report Encefalocele basal associada a síndrome "morning glory": relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanete Minotto; Nitamar Abdala; Adriana Aparecida Siviero Miachon; Angela Maria Spinola e Castro; Paulo Imamura; Roberto Gomes Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    The basal encephaloceles refer to rare entities and they correspond to herniation of brain tissue through defects of skull along the cribiform plate or the sphenoid bone. A rare morning glory syndrome, with characteristic retinal defect has been reported in association with basal encephaloceles. Hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur. We accounted for a pituitary dwarfism with delayed diagnosed transsphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome, showing the alterations f...

  14. Basal ganglia contributions to motor control: a vigorous tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert S; Desmurget, Michel

    2010-12-01

    The roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control are much debated. Many influential hypotheses have grown from studies in which output signals of the BG were not blocked, but pathologically disturbed. A weakness of that approach is that the resulting behavioral impairments reflect degraded function of the BG per se mixed together with secondary dysfunctions of BG-recipient brain areas. To overcome that limitation, several studies have focused on the main skeletomotor output region of the BG, the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Using single-cell recording and inactivation protocols these studies provide consistent support for two hypotheses: the BG modulates movement performance ('vigor') according to motivational factors (i.e. context-specific cost/reward functions) and the BG contributes to motor learning. Results from these studies also add to the problems that confront theories positing that the BG selects movement, inhibits unwanted motor responses, corrects errors on-line, or stores and produces well-learned motor skills. PMID:20850966

  15. Everolimus for Compassionate Use in Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eibenschutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Everolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and has been shown to have antineoplastic activity in addition to its use as an immunosuppressive agent for the prevention of organ transplant rejection. We report the use of everolimus for the compassionate treatment of four elderly, nontransplant patients presenting with multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC. All patients had a long history of BCC, had refused surgery as a current treatment option, and did not respond to alternative treatments (including topical 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod. Patients were treated with oral everolimus (1.5–3.0 mg daily for 12 months or longer: a complete and sustained response was seen in one case, and partial responses were seen in two other cases. Everolimus was well tolerated in these elderly patients. These promising preliminary data suggest that further dose-finding, controlled clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of everolimus in patients affected by BCC who cannot or will not undergo surgery.

  16. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  17. Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was -0.7 (BG 2). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabe, Emily C; Sanford, Rachel S; Kohn, Andrea B; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties.

  19. Conducting SAGD in shoreface oil sands with associated basal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.A.; Riva, D.T.; Connelly, M.E.; Solanki, S.C.; Edmunds, N.R. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The use of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes has been concentrated around the McMurray Formation in the eastern Athabasca deposit. This paper discussed a SAGD scheme configured to maximize bitumen recovery from shoreface oil sands in the Grand Rapids formation in the Wabasca area. The region features clean sand with a homogenous and continuous reservoir pay. Producer wells were placed within the basal water zone at the base of the porosity region. A scaled 2-D physical model with an active aquifer system was used to examine well configurations in relation to oil-water content and their impacts on resource recovery. Simulations were conducted to compare the well placements. Results of the study showed that fluids flowed towards the producer in a radial pattern. Bitumen was drawn down towards the bottom water leg regardless of whether the chamber pressure was above that of the aquifer. Thirty-eight per cent more bitumen was produced as a result of increased reservoir sweep. It was concluded that placement of the producer well at the base of the porous interval improved the overall economics of the project. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Thresholds in the sliding resistance of simulated basal ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Emerson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We report laboratory determinations of the shear resistance to sliding melting ice with entrained particles over a hard, impermeable surface. With higher particle concentrations and larger particle sizes, Coulomb friction at particle-bed contacts dominates and the shear stress increases linearly with normal load. We term this the sandy regime. When either particle concentration or particle size is reduced below a threshold, the dependence of shear resistance on normal load is no longer statistically significant. We term this regime slippery. We use force and mass balance considerations to examine the flow of melt water beneath the simulated basal ice. At high particle concentrations, the transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle size is comparable to the thickness of the melt film that separates the sliding ice from its bed. For larger particle sizes, a transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle concentration drops sufficiently that the normal load is no longer transferred completely to the particle-bed contacts. We estimate that the melt films separating the particles from the ice are approximately 0.1 µm thick at this transition. Our laboratory results suggest the potential for abrupt transitions in the shear resistance beneath hard-bedded glaciers with changes in either the thickness of melt layers or the particle loading.

  1. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  2. Modeling basal ganglia for understanding Parkinsonian reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoom, K N; Subramanian, D; Chakravarthy, V S; Ravindran, B; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Meenakshisundaram, N

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia (BG) in generating simple reaching movements. The model is cast within the reinforcement learning (RL) framework with correspondence between RL components and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra pars compacta as the temporal difference error, striatum as the substrate for the critic, and the motor cortex as the actor. A key feature of this neurobiological interpretation is our hypothesis that the indirect pathway is the explorer. Chaotic activity, originating from the indirect pathway part of the model, drives the wandering, exploratory movements of the arm. Thus, the direct pathway subserves exploitation, while the indirect pathway subserves exploration. The motor cortex becomes more and more independent of the corrective influence of BG as training progresses. Reaching trajectories show diminishing variability with training. Reaching movements associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are simulated by reducing dopamine and degrading the complexity of indirect pathway dynamics by switching it from chaotic to periodic behavior. Under the simulated PD conditions, the arm exhibits PD motor symptoms like tremor, bradykinesia and undershooting. The model echoes the notion that PD is a dynamical disease. PMID:21105828

  3. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  4. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Soriano, Virtudes; Juberias, Pablo; Saez, Berta; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Grasa, Matilde; Höiom, Veronica; Lindblom, Annika; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; van Rossum, Michelle M; Aben, Katja K H; de Vries, Esther; Santinami, Mario; Di Mauro, Maria G; Maurichi, Andrea; Wendt, Judith; Hochleitner, Pia; Pehamberger, Hubert; Gudmundsson, Julius; Magnusdottir, Droplaug N; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Holm, Hilma; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Frigge, Michael L; Blondal, Thorarinn; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Bjarnason, Hjördis; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Okamoto, Ichiro; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hansson, Johan; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Karagas, Margaret R; Nelson, Heather H; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Olafsson, Jon H; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-08-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 x 10(-9)), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 x 10(-10)). The effect of rs157935[T] is dependent on the parental origin of the risk allele. None of these variants were found to be associated with melanoma or fair-pigmentation traits. A melanoma- and pigmentation-associated variant in the SLC45A2 gene, L374F, is associated with risk of both BCC and squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we report conclusive evidence that rs401681[C] in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus confers susceptibility to BCC but protects against melanoma. PMID:19578363

  5. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  6. Basal ganglia cholinergic and dopaminergic function in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi M; Piggott, Margaret A; Greally, Elizabeth; Lake, Michelle; Lees, Andrew J; Burn, David J

    2007-08-15

    Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. In contrast to Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), replacement therapy with dopaminergic and cholinergic agents in PSP has been disappointing. The neurochemical basis for this is unclear. Our objective was to measure dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors in the basal ganglia of PSP and control brains. We measured, autoradiographically, dopaminergic (dopamine transporter, 125I PE2I and dopamine D2 receptors, 125I epidepride) and cholinergic (nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors, 125I 5IA85380 and muscarinic M1 receptors, 3H pirenzepine) parameters in the striatum and pallidum of pathologically confirmed PSP cases (n=15) and controls (n=32). In PSP, there was a marked loss of dopamine transporter and nicotinic alpha4beta2 binding in the striatum and pallidum, consistent with loss of nigrostriatal neurones. Striatal D2 receptors were increased in the caudate and muscarinic M1 receptors were unchanged compared with controls. These results do not account for the poor response to dopaminergic and cholinergic replacement therapies in PSP, and suggest relative preservation of postsynaptic striatal projection neurones bearing D2/M1 receptors. PMID:17534953

  7. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated human cutaneous basal cell carcinoma ex-vivo samples by combined time resolved two photon intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between malignant skin and corresponding healthy skin tissues. In comparison with normal healthy skin, cancer tissue showed a different morphology and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution slightly shifted towards higher values. Topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid to the lesion four hours before excision resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal arising from malignant tissue, due to the accumulation of protoporphyrines inside tumor cells. Contrast enhancement was prevalent at tumor borders by both two photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence-based images showed a good correlation with conventional histopathological analysis, thereby supporting the diagnostic accuracy of this novel method. Combined morphological and lifetime analysis in the study of ex-vivo skin samples discriminated benign from malignant tissues, thus offering a reliable, non-invasive tool for the in-vivo analysis of inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions.

  8. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Micafungin in Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jun; Maeda, Tetsuo; Matsumura, Itaru; Yasumi, Masato; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Mochizuki, Nobuo; Kishino, Satoshi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the antifungal activity of micafungin in serum by using the disk diffusion method with serum-free and serum-added micafungin standard curves. Serum samples from micafungin-treated patients have been shown to exhibit adequate antifungal activity, which was in proportion to both the applied dose and the actual concentration of micafungin measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity of micafungin in serum was also confirmed with the broth microdil...

  10. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  11. Fissura palatina reparada: fechamento velofaríngeo antes e durante o som basal Cleft palate repair: velopharyngeal closure before and during the basal tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseane Conterno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de fissura palatina apresentam inadequado fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF, com consequente hipernasalidade vocal que pode ser diminuída com o som basal. OBJETIVO: Comparar o FVF durante a realização do som basal com a emissão em registro modal, em pacientes com fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de Casos com quatro homens adultos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. Imagens do FVF por nasofaringoscopia, durante a emissão da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal. Julgamento das imagens realizado por quatro otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: Em três sujeitos, não houve mudança no tipo de FVF entre os registros analisados; as modificações que ocorreram na maioria dos sujeitos referem-se apenas ao grau de movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, pois, em registro basal, o movimento das paredes laterais da faringe se manteve, o movimento da parede posterior da faringe estabilizou, o movimento do véu palatino diminuiu discretamente, e a Prega de Passavant se evidenciou. CONCLUSÕES: O tipo de FVF se manteve em três dos quatro sujeitos analisados, quando comparado o registro modal com o basal, havendo modificações no grau da movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, evidenciando a Prega de Passavant.Patients with palatine fissure have inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC, with consequent vocal hypernasality which can be reduced by a basal tone. AIM: to compare VPC during a basal tone with the emission of a modal recording, in patients with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: case study with four adult men, all with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. VPC images through nasal-pharyngoscopy during the emission o f the [a] vowel in a modal and basal recording. The images were studied by four ENTs. RESULTS: in three subjects there was no change in the type of VPC considering the recordings analyzed; the changes which happened to most of the subjects

  12. A New Look at the Journey from Basal to Whole Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Judith N.

    1995-01-01

    Reexamines the pros and cons of traditional basal reader and literature-based reading programs and those based on the whole language approach. Compares and contrasts classroom teaching methods, goals, and some outcomes. Includes Venn diagram showing overlap and divergence of whole language, literature-based, and traditional basal methods. (ET)

  13. Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Cheng, Yen-Po; Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2015-05-01

    Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery.

  14. PREFRONTAL CORTICAL PROJECTIONS TO THE CHOLINERGIC NEURONS IN THE BASAL FOREBRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GAYKEMA, RPA; VANWEEGHEL, R; HERSH, LB; LUITEN, PGM

    1991-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) projections to the basal forebrain cholinergic cell groups in the medial septum (MS), vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca (VDB and HDB), and the magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN) in the rat were investigated by anterograde transport of Phaseolus vu

  15. An Examination of Ethnic Content in Nine Current Basal Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John W.; Garcia, Jesus

    Noting that major publishers have begun to depict a more balanced portrayal of ethnic story characters and content in their basal reading series, a study was conducted to investigate the extent to which stories depicting the three largest ethnic groups in the United States were contained in nine of the major and current basal reading series…

  16. The application of solvent-additive SAGD processes in reservoirs with associated basal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.; Riva, D.; Edmunds, N.; Solanki, S. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Within the oil sands project developments areas of northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, most thermal projects have associated basal water of varying thickness. More associated basal water will be encountered as these projects continue to develop more resource. Basal water can be either in the form of primarily water sand with low oil saturation, a transition zone of lower oil saturation than the main reservoir, or a mixture of both. This paper outlined the results of a simulation and optimization study on the application of solvent-additive steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process to reservoirs with associated basal water. It is thought that ideal solvent application to SAGD in reservoirs will likely involve time variations in both rate and composition of the solvent, which is also the case for reservoirs with associated basal water, resulting in an optimization problem that has a significant number of dimensions, and is quite nonlinear. In order to address such problems, genetic algorithms can be effective. The paper discussed the optimization of a simple clastic reservoir with associated basal water. Specific topics that were addressed in the paper included SAGD with associated basal water; solvent addition; project optimization; and the reservoir model description including operating constraints and objective function. It was concluded that solvent retention is not excessive with basal water, and migration of solvent outside the steam chamber area is not significant if pressure is controlled. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.;

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  18. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  19. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Curettage Followed by Imiquimod 3.75% Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Zeichner, Joshua A.; Patel, Rita V.; Birge, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Treatment modalities include both surgical, medical, or combination therapy. In the following case, the authors report the successful treatment of a basal cell carcinoma on the nose with curettage followed by topical imiquimod 3.75% cream.

  20. Focal expression of mutant huntingtin in the songbird basal ganglia disrupts cortico-basal ganglia networks and vocal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masashi; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Murugan, Malavika; Mooney, Richard

    2016-03-22

    The basal ganglia (BG) promote complex sequential movements by helping to select elementary motor gestures appropriate to a given behavioral context. Indeed, Huntington's disease (HD), which causes striatal atrophy in the BG, is characterized by hyperkinesia and chorea. How striatal cell loss alters activity in the BG and downstream motor cortical regions to cause these disorganized movements remains unknown. Here, we show that expressing the genetic mutation that causes HD in a song-related region of the songbird BG destabilizes syllable sequences and increases overall vocal activity, but leave the structure of individual syllables intact. These behavioral changes are paralleled by the selective loss of striatal neurons and reduction of inhibitory synapses on pallidal neurons that serve as the BG output. Chronic recordings in singing birds revealed disrupted temporal patterns of activity in pallidal neurons and downstream cortical neurons. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the cortical neurons rescued the disorganized vocal sequences in transfected birds. These findings shed light on a key role of temporal patterns of cortico-BG activity in the regulation of complex motor sequences and show how a genetic mutation alters cortico-BG networks to cause disorganized movements. PMID:26951661