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Sample records for basal metabolic rate

  1. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  2. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... HS patients, a population-based HS group of 430 population HS patients, and 20 780 controls. Age- and sex-adjusted analyses showed a 10.12% (P ....0001) was significantly higher in HS patients compared with controls. Additionally, age and sex-adjusted analyses showed a higher predicted estimate of BMR for the HS groups compared with controls (154.56 kcal/day (95% CI 54.96-254.16) (P = 0.0031) for the hospital-based HS group, and 82.63 kcal/day (95%CI 59...

  3. Environment, migratory tendency, phylogeny and basal metabolic rate in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jetz

    Full Text Available Basal metabolic rate (BMR represents the minimum maintenance energy requirement of an endotherm and has far-reaching consequences for interactions between animals and their environments. Avian BMR exhibits considerable variation that is independent of body mass. Some long-distance migrants have been found to exhibit particularly high BMR, traditionally interpreted as being related to the energetic demands of long-distance migration. Here we use a global dataset to evaluate differences in BMR between migrants and non-migrants, and to examine the effects of environmental variables. The BMR of migrant species is significantly higher than that of non-migrants. Intriguingly, while the elevated BMR of migrants on their breeding grounds may reflect the metabolic machinery required for long-distance movements, an alternative (and statistically stronger explanation is their occupation of predominantly cold high-latitude breeding areas. Among several environmental predictors, average annual temperature has the strongest effect on BMR, with a 50% reduction associated with a 20 degrees C gradient. The negative effects of temperature variables on BMR hold separately for migrants and non-migrants and are not due their different climatic associations. BMR in migrants shows a much lower degree of phylogenetic inertia. Our findings indicate that migratory tendency need not necessarily be invoked to explain the higher BMR of migrants. A weaker phylogenetic signal observed in migrants supports the notion of strong phenotypic flexibility in this group which facilitates migration-related BMR adjustments that occur above and beyond environmental conditions. In contrast to the findings of previous analyses of mammalian BMR, primary productivity, aridity or precipitation variability do not appear to be important environmental correlates of avian BMR. The strong effects of temperature-related variables and varying phylogenetic effects reiterate the importance of

  4. Personality and basal metabolic rate in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Quinn, John L.; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Personality and metabolic rate are predicted to show covariance on methodological and functional grounds, but empirical studies at the individual level are rare, especially in natural populations. Here we assess the relationship between exploration behaviour, an important axis of personality, and ba

  5. Research of Effect of Acne Vulgaris on The Basal Metabolic Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Selcuk Ozdogan

    2011-01-01

     Aim: To determine the relation between basal metobolic rate and acne vulgaris in the teenage population.Material and Methods: We studied basal metabolic rate in 106 boarding school boys, all 14 years old (53 with acne, 53 without acne) .BMR measurement is done from 8 points, 4 extremities and body with bioimpedance device In Body 230. Results; In the group with acne Basal Metabolic Rate was higher than control group . There is a significant difference between two groups (p=0.009). Concl...

  6. Variation in energy intake and basal metabolic rate of a bird migrating in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, Å.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.

    1999-01-01

    1. We studied the changes in body mass, metabolizable energy intake rate (ME) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of a Thrush Nightingale, Luscinia luscinia, following repeated 12-h migratory flights in a wind tunnel. In total the bird flew for 176 h corresponding to 6300 km. This is the first study wher

  7. The Scaling of Maximum and Basal Metabolic Rates of Mammals and Birds

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, L A; Silva, J K L; Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Silva, Jafferson K. L. da

    2004-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as $M^{6/7}$, maximum heart rate as $M^{-1/7}$, and muscular capillary density as $M^{-1/7}$, in agreement with data.

  8. Reduced basal metabolic rate of migratory waders wintering in coastal Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, M.; Bruinzeel, L.W.; Wiersma, P.; Piersma, T.

    1998-01-01

    We measured Basal Metabolic Rate (EMR) of 16 wader species (order Charadriiformes) on their wintering grounds in Africa. The allometric regression equation relating BMR to body mass: BMR (W) = 4.02 x M (kg)(0.724) runs parallel to that of waders in temperate areas, but at a 20% lower elevation. Sinc

  9. Sources and significance of variation in basal, summit and maximal metabolic rates in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. MCKECHNIE, David L. SWANSON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rates at which birds use energy may have profound effects on fitness, thereby influencing physiology, behavior, ecology and evolution. Comparisons of standardized metabolic rates (e.g., lower and upper limits of metabolic power output present a method for elucidating the effects of ecological and evolutionary factors on the interface between physiology and life history in birds. In this paper we review variation in avian metabolic rates [basal metabolic rate (BMR; minimum normothermic metabolic rate, summit metabolic rate (Msum; maximal thermoregulatory metabolic rate, and maximal metabolic rate (MMR; maximal exercise metabolic rate], the factors associated with this variation, the evidence for functional links between these metabolic traits, and the ecological and evolutionary significance of avian metabolic diversity. Both lower and upper limits to metabolic power production are phenotypically flexible traits, and vary in association with numerous ecological and evolutionary factors. For both inter- and intraspecific comparisons, lower and upper limits to metabolic power production are generally upregulated in response to energetically demanding conditions and downregulated when energetic demands are relaxed, or under conditions of energetic scarcity. Positive correlations have been documented between BMR, Msum and MMR in some, but not all studies on birds, providing partial support for the idea of a functional link between lower and upper limits to metabolic power production, but more intraspecific studies are needed to determine the robustness of this conclusion. Correlations between BMR and field metabolic rate (or daily energy expenditure, in birds are variable, suggesting that the linkage between these traits is subject to behavioral adjustment, and studies of the relationship between field and maximal metabolic rates are lacking. Our understanding of avian metabolic diversity would benefit from future studies of: (1 the functional

  10. Basal metabolic rate in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field vole, Microtus agrestis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Bolle, L; Visser, GH; Masman, D; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate in the field vole (Microtus agrestis) was studied in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field Daily energy expenditure was measured by means of doubly labelled water ((D2O)-O-18). In the same individuals, basal metabolic rate was subsequently derive

  11. Evolution of mitochondrial DNA and its relation to basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zhao, Huabin; Lu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Energy metabolism is essential for the survival of animals, which can be characterized by maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Because of the crucial roles of mitochondria in energy metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been subjected to stronger purifying selection in strongly locomotive than weakly locomotive birds and mammals. Although maximum locomotive speed (an indicator of MMR) showed a negative correlation with the evolutionary rate of mtDNA, it is unclear whether BMR has driven the evolution of mtDNA. Here, we take advantage of the large amount of mtDNA and BMR data in 106 mammals to test whether BMR has influenced the mtDNA evolution. Our results showed that, in addition to the locomotive speed, mammals with higher BMR have subjected to stronger purifying selection on mtDNA than did those with lower BMR. The evolution of mammalian mtDNA has been modified by two levels of energy metabolism, including MMR and BMR. Our study provides a more comprehensive view of mtDNA evolution in relation to energy metabolism.

  12. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R;

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selecti...

  13. Adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate and thermogenesis in chronic undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic adaptation during chronic undernutrition represents a complex integration of several processes which affect the total energy expenditure of the individual. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is reduced; reductions in BMR per unit fat free mass (FFM) is difficult to demonstrate. BMR changes in undernutrition reflect the low body weight as well as alterations in the composition of the FFM; more specifically changes in the ratio of viscera to muscle compartments of the FFM. Thermogenic responses to norepinephrine are transiently suppressed but recover rapidly on repeated stimulation. Dietary thermogenesis is enhanced possible the result of increases in tissue synthesis within the body. Changes in BMR and thermogenesis suggestive of an increase in metabolic efficiency is thus difficult to demonstrate in chronic undernutrition. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Basal metabolic rate declines during long-distance migratory flight in great knots

    OpenAIRE

    Battley, PF; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Tang, SX; Hulsman, K; Battley, Phil F; Tang, Sixian

    2001-01-01

    Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) make one of the longest migratory flights in the avian world, flying almost 5500 km from Australia to China during northward migration. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition in birds before and after this flight and found that BMR decreased 42%. The mass-specific BMR based on lean mass decreased 33%. We also starved a group of pre-migratory Great Knots in captivity to determine whether they showed the same reduction in BMR without havi...

  15. The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra HR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or yogic postures, meditation and pranayama or breathing exercises for a minimum period of six months, at a residential yoga education and research center at Bangalore. Methods The measured BMR of individuals practicing yoga through a combination of practices was compared with that of control subjects who did not practice yoga but led similar lifestyles. Results The BMR of the yoga practitioners was significantly lower than that of the non-yoga group, and was lower by about 13 % when adjusted for body weight (P Conclusion This study shows that there is a significantly reduced BMR, probably linked to reduced arousal, with the long term practice of yoga using a combination of stimulatory and inhibitory yogic practices.

  16. Basal metabolic rate in carnivores is associated with diet after controlling for phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Williams, Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    Studies of basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimum metabolic rate of postabsorptive, inactive endotherms while in their rest phase and thermal neutral zone, have contributed significantly to our understanding of animal energetics. Besides body mass, the main determinant of BMR, researchers have invoked diet and phylogenetic history as important factors that influence BMR, although their relative importance has been controversial. For 58 species within the Carnivora, we tested the hypothesis that BMR is correlated with home range size, a proxy for level of activity, and diet, using conventional least squares regression (CLSR) and regression based on phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). Results showed that BMR of Carnivora was positively correlated with home range size after controlling for body mass, regardless of the statistical method employed. We also found that diet and mass-adjusted home range size were correlated. When we simultaneously tested the effect of diet and mass-adjusted home range on mass-adjusted BMR, home range size was insignificant because of its colinearity with diet. Then we eliminated home range size from our model, and diet proved to be significant with both CLSR and PIC. We concluded that species that eat meat have larger home ranges and higher BMR than species that eat vegetable matter. To advance our understanding of the potential mechanisms that might explain our results, we propose the "muscle performance hypothesis," which suggests that selection for different muscle fiber types can account for the differences in BMR observed between meat eaters and vegetarian species within the Carnivora.

  17. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D U Owu; A B Antai; K H Udofia; A O Obembe; K O Obasi; M U Eteng

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly ( < 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  18. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  19. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  20. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the variation (98.8 % in basal rate of metabolism (BMR in 70 species of marsupials is correlated with body mass, although lowland species have higher basal rates than highland species and burrowers have lower basal rates than non-burrowers. These factors collectively account for 99.2 % of the variation in marsupial BMR. Marsupials differ in BMR from eutherians by having no species with a high basal rate by general mammalian standards, even when consuming vertebrates or grass, food habits that are associated with very high basal rates in eutherians. The absence of high basal rates in marsupials reflects the absence of a correlation of rate of reproduction with basal rate, a correlation present in eutherians. These differences have two consequences: (1 marsupials are less tolerant of cold environments than eutherians, and (2 marsupials coexist with eutherians only when both have food habits associated with low basal rates and therefore when eutherians have reduced rates of reproduction. In Australia and South America marsupial carnivores diversified in the absence of eutherian equivalents. The importation to mainland Australia of dingos by humans appears to have been the immediate cause for the extinction of thylacines, Tasmanian devils, and eastern quolls. Carnivorous marsupials in South America were replaced by eutherians with the completion of the Panamanian land bridge. Macropods, which have lower basal rates than eutherian grazers, survive in central Australia probably because of their adjustment to xeric environments, whereas introduced domestic stock require the provision of water by humansGran parte de la variación (98,5 en la tasa metabólica basal de 70 especies de marsupiales se correlaciona con la masa corporal, aunque las especies de tierras bajas tienes tasas basales mayores que las de tierras altas, y las especies subterráneas tienes BMR’s menores que las no subterráneas. Colectivamente, estos factores dan cuenta de un

  1. New predictive equations for estimation of basal metabolic rates of adolescents: tropics versus temperate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M I; Poh, B K; Zawiah, H; Henry, C J K

    2003-01-01

    The energy and nutritional requirements of adolescents are influenced primarily by the growth spurt that occurs at puberty, and also by the need to maintain adequate levels of physical activity. Predictions of BMR have gained attention since the publication of the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) expert consultation report, which adopted the principle of relying on energy expenditure rather than energy intake to derive requirement of individuals. While the report predicts BMR accurately in many individuals from temperate climate, they are said to be less accurate in predicting BMR in populations living in the tropics. The collation of worldwide data on basal metabolism indicated that, relative to adults, there was a paucity of data in other age groups including the adolescents. Although several BMR studies among children had been reported in the 90's, the data in normal weight children are almost exclusively from small control groups in obesity studies. Furthermore, we know little as to whether BMR of children differs in differing climatic conditions. This paper presents predictive equations for estimating BMR from a two-centre study, Bangi (Malaysia) and Oxford (UK) and to compare the results with the currently used predictive equations. PMID:15806886

  2. Can We Rely on Predicted Basal Metabolic Rate in Patients With Intestinal Failure on Home Parenteral Nutrition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Skallerup; Pedersen, Louis Nygaard; Olesen, Søren Schou;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal failure (IF) is a serious and common complication of short bowel syndrome with patients depending on parental nutrition (PN) support. Effective nutrition management requires an accurate estimation of the patient's basal metabolic rate (BMR) to avoid underfeeding...... evaluated the accuracy of predicted BMR in clinically stable patients with IF dependent on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). METHODS: In total, 103 patients with IF were included. We used indirect calorimetry for assessment of BMR and calculated predicted BMR using different equations based on anthropometric...

  3. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  4. Compilation of basal metabolic and blood perfusion rates in various multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    The assignments of basal metabolic rates (BMR), basal cardiac output (BCO), and basal blood perfusion rates (BBPR) were compared in nine multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models. The data are presented at three levels of detail: total body, specific body regions, and regional body tissue layers. Differences in the assignment of these quantities among the compared models increased with the level of detail, in the above order. The ranges of variability in the total body BMR was 6.5 % relative to the lowest value, with a mean of 84.3 ± 2 W, and in the BCO, it was 8 % with a mean of 4.70 ± 0.13 l/min. The least variability among the body regions is seen in the combined torso (shoulders, thorax, and abdomen: ±7.8 % BMR and ±5.9 % BBPR) and in the combined head (head, face, and neck ±9.9 % BMR and ±10.9 % BBPR), determined by the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Much more variability is apparent in the extremities with the most showing in the BMR of the feet (±117 %), followed by the BBPR in the arms (±61.3 %). In the tissue layers, most of the bone layers were assigned zero BMR and BBPR, except in the shoulders and in the extremities that were assigned non-zero values in a number of models. The next lowest values were assigned to the fat layers, with occasional zero values. Skin basal values were invariably non-zero but involved very low values in certain models, e.g., BBPR in the feet and the hands. Muscle layers were invariably assigned high values with the highest found in the thorax, abdomen, and legs. The brain, lung, and viscera layers were assigned the highest of all values of both basal quantities with those of the brain layers showing rather tight ranges of variability in both basal quantities. Average basal values of the "time-seasoned" models presented in this study could be useful as a first step in future modeling efforts subject to appropriate adjustment of values to conform to most recently available and reliable data.

  5. Basal Metabolic Rate of the Black-Faced Sheathbill (Chionis minor): Intraspecific Variation in a Phylogenetically Distinct Island Endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Gregory T W; McKechnie, Andrew E; Chown, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a fundamental characteristic of all organisms. It covaries most significantly with activity, body mass, seasonality, and temperature. Nonetheless, substantial additional variation in metabolic rate, especially either resting rate or basal rate, is associated with a range of factors including phylogenetic position, ecological distinctiveness, range position, and diet. Understanding this variation is a key goal of physiological ecology. The black-faced sheathbill is a phylogenetically distinct, high-latitude, island-endemic bird occurring exclusively on several archipelagos in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we examined the idea that the unique phylogenetic position and ecology of the black-faced sheathbill may lead to a basal metabolic rate (BMR) different from that predicted by its body mass. When compared with BMR data available for all birds and a subset of island species, it was clear that the BMR of the black-faced sheathbill on subantarctic Marion Island, estimated at 15°C using indirect calorimetry (2.370 ± 0.464 W, mean ± SD; n = 22), for a group of birds with a mean mass of 459 ± 64 g, is no different from that expected based on body mass. However, variation in BMR, associated with habitat use and diet, even when correcting for variation in mass, was found. Sheathbills foraging year-round in comparatively resource-rich king penguin colonies have a higher BMR (2.758 ± 0.291 W, n = 12) than sheathbills that split their foraging between rockhopper penguin colonies and the intertidal zone (2.047 ± 0.303 W, n = 10), which are poorer in resources. Because these populations coexist at relatively small spatial extents (the entire island is 290 km(2)), other factors seem unlikely as causes of this variation.

  6. Cell size and basal metabolic rate in hummingbirds Tamaño celular y tasa metabólica basal en picaflores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Opazo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotypic theory suggests that genome size play indirect roles in determining organismal fitness. Among endotherms this theory has been demonstrated by an inverse correlation between basal metabolic rate (BMR and genome size. Nonetheless, accumulation of variables, especially for some key groups of endotherms, involved in C-value enigma (e.g., cell size will fortify this theory. In this sense, hummingbird species are of particular interest because they are an energetic extreme in avian and endotherm evolution. Knowing that cell size is proportional to C-value, in this study we tested for a relationship between mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells and BMR in four species of hummingbirds ranging from 4 to 20 g. In comparison with other birds, our hummingbird data show higher BMR and the smallest mean corpuscular volumes, thereby providing further support for the nucleotypic theoryLa teoría nucleotípica sugiere que el tamaño del genoma juega un rol indirecto en la adecuación biológica, a través de las variables con las que se relaciona. En endotermos esta teoría ha sido demostrada por la relación inversa entre la tasa metabólica basal y el tamaño del genoma. La acumulación de variables, en grupos claves de endotermos, relacionadas con esta problemática (e.g., tamaño celular son ideales para poner a prueba esta teoría. En este sentido, los picaflores son de particular interés ya que son el extremo energético dentro de los endotermos. Sabiendo que el tamaño celular es proporcional al tamaño del genoma, en este trabajo ponemos a prueba la relación del volumen corpuscular medio y la tasa metabólica basal, e indirectamente el tamaño del genoma, en cuatro especies de picaflores con masas corporales que van desde 4 a 20 g. Los datos de metabolismo mostraron estar dentro de los mayores descritos para aves, asimismo, los tamaños de los eritrocitos fueron los más pequeños dentro de los valores reportados en la literatura

  7. Basal metabolic rate, food intake, and body mass in cold- and warm-acclimated Garden Warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Oltrogge, M.; Trost, L.

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of whether physiological flexibility in relation to climate is a general feature of the metabolic properties of birds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-raised Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin), long-distance migrants, which normally do not experience great temperature differenc

  8. Do great tits (Parus major) suppress basal metabolic rate in response to increased perceived predation danger? A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathot, Kimberley J; Abbey-Lee, Robin N; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have shown that individuals with higher metabolic rates (MRs) feed at higher rates and are more willing to forage in the presence of predators. This increases the acquisition of resources, which in turn, may help to sustain a higher MR. Elevated predation danger may be expected to result in reduced MRs, either as a means of allowing for reduced feeding and risk-taking, or as a consequence of adaptively reducing intake rates via reduced feeding and/or risk-taking. We tested this prediction in free-living great tits (Parus major) using a playback experiment to manipulate perceived predation danger. There was evidence that changes in body mass and BMR differed as a function of treatment. In predator treatment plots, great tits tended to reduce their body mass, a commonly observed response in birds to increased predation danger. In contrast, birds from control treatment plots showed no overall changes in body mass. There was also evidence that great tits from control treatment plots increased their basal metabolic rate (BMR) over the course of the experiment, presumably due to decreasing ambient temperatures over the study period. However, there was no evidence for changes in BMR for birds from predator treatment plots. Although the directions of these results are consistent with the predicted directions of effects, the effects sizes and confidence intervals yield inconclusive support for the hypothesis that great tits would adaptively suppress BMR in response to increased perceived predation risk. The effect size observed in the present study was small (~1%) and would not be expected to result in substantive reductions in feeding rate and/or risk-taking. Whether or not ecological conditions that generate greater energetic stress (e.g. lower food availability, lower ambient temperatures) could produce an effect that produces biologically meaningful reductions in feeding activity and/or risk-taking remains an open question.

  9. Variability in basal metabolic rate of a long-distance migrant shorebird (Red Knot, Calidris canutus) reflects shifts in organ sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Bruinzeel, Louis; Drent, R; Kersten, M; VanderMeer, J; Wiersma, P; Meer, Jaap van der

    1996-01-01

    We studied differences in body composition and basal metabolic rate (BMR, measured in postabsorptive birds under thermoneutral conditions at night) in two subspecies of red knots, Calidris canutus: one that spends the nonbreeding season under energetically costly climatic conditions at temperate lat

  10. Energy intake underreporting of adults in a household survey: the impact of using a population specific basal metabolic rate equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify energy intake (EI underreporting and to estimate the impact of using a population specific equation for the basal metabolic rate (BMR in a probability sample of adults from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A sample of 1,726 subjects participated in the study. EI was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall and EI/BMR was computed with BMR estimated using internationally recommended equations as well as specific equations developed for the adult population of Niterói. Mean EI was 1,570.9 and 2,188.8kcal.day-1 for women and men, respectively. EI decreased with increasing age in both men and women. BMR estimated by the Brazilian equation was significantly lower than the values estimated by the international equation for all age, sex and nutritional status groups. In general, EI underreporting was found in at least 50% of the population, higher in women, and increased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI. The results of the present study confirm that EI is underreported, even when BMR is estimated using population-specific equations.

  11. Effect of calorie restriction on spontaneous physical activity and body mass in mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) represents an important component of daily energy expenditures in animals and humans. Intra-specific variation in SPA may be related to the susceptibility to metabolic disease or obesity. In particular, reduced SPA under conditions of limited food availability may conserve energy and prevent loss of body and fat mass ('thrifty genotype hypothesis'). However, both SPA and its changes during food restriction show wide inter-individual variations. We studied the effect of 30% caloric restriction (CR) on SPA in laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) basal metabolic rate. Selection increased SPA in the H-BMR line but did not change it in the L-BMR mice. This effect reflected changes in SPA intensity but not SPA duration. CR increased SPA intensity more strongly in the L-BMR line than in the H-BMR line and significantly modified the temporal variation of SPA. However, the initial between-line differences in SPA were not affected by CR. Loss of body mass during CR did not differ between both lines. Our results show that the H-BMR mice can maintain their genetically determined high SPA under conditions of reduced food intake without sacrificing their body mass. We hypothesize that this pattern may reflect the higher flexibility in the energy budget in the H-BMR line, as we showed previously that mice from this line reduced their BMR during CR. These energy savings may allow for the maintenance of elevated SPA in spite of reduced food intake. We conclude that the effect of CR on SPA is in large part determined by the initial level of BMR, whose variation may account for the lack of universal pattern of behavioural responses to CR. PMID:27090226

  12. Taxa metabólica basal em universitários: comparação entre valores medidos e preditos Basal metabolic rate of university students: comparison between measured and predicted values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Camargo Brunetto

    2010-06-01

    calorimetria indireta.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to compare the basal metabolic rate determined by indirect calorimetry with the basal metabolic rate estimated by prediction equations in university students. METHODS: The sample consisted of 48 Brazilian volunteers (23 women and 25 men, aged 20-25 years. The basal metabolic rate determined by indirect calorimetry was compared with the basal metabolic rate estimated by the World Health Organization and Henry & Rees equations. The data was analyzed by the paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficients, standard deviation of differences and Bland and Altman technique. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between measured and estimated basal metabolic rates by both equations. Correlation coefficients between measured and estimated values were higher in men, however statistically significant in both genders. The magnitude of the standard deviation of differences was similar in both genders. The Bland and Altman technique suggests a similar variability behavior between the measured basal metabolic rate and that estimated by both equations. However, basal metabolic rate predicted by the Henry & Rees equation showed greater concordance than that predicted by the World Health Organization equation, especially in women. CONCLUSION: Due to the use of more conservative statistical indicators, it appears that the basal metabolic rates measured by indirect calorimetry and predicted by both equations do not differ significantly. However, when statistical procedures with an apparently higher sensitivity for detecting differences between measured and predicted rates are used, the potential of the equations to estimate the basal metabolic rate was somewhat compromised. There was a bias of 12.5% to 15.6% in comparison with the basal metabolic rate determined by indirect calorimetry.

  13. Relationship Between Organ Masses and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) in Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; YIN Yajie; NIE Chunyu; QU Lina; ZHNAG Guofa; LIANG Yantao; ZHAO Xiaoju; LIU Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    BMR (basal metabolic rate), body mass and organ masses of tree sparrows (Passer montanus) were measured to analyze the correlation between organ masses and BMR in tree sparrows, and to evaluate the underlying physiological causes of difference in BMR. Adult tree sparrows were live-trapped by mist net in Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang Province (47°29′N, 124°02′E). The closed circuit respirometer was used to measure the metabolic rate (MR), and controlled the ambient temperature by using a water bath (±0.5℃). Body masses were measured to the nearest 0.01 g before and after BMR measurements with a Sartorius balance (model BT25S). The mean value was recorded as body mass. Wet and dry masses of several organs were measured, too. BMR was (4.276± 0.385) mL O2/(g·h) and mean body mass was (18.522±0.110) g. Since not all the variables were normal distributed, a log10- transformation of those variables was employed to linearize them, prior to analyses. Simple regression analyses indicated that most organ masses showed a significant high correlation with body mass. Both the small intestine and rectum masses were notable exception to that trend. The body-mass-adjusted residual analysis showed that only the kidney wet mass, brain mass, stomach mass, small mass and rectum wet mass correlated with BMR. In addition, correlations between several organ masses and BMR were observed. Because of the inter-correlations of organ masses, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to redefine the morphological variability. The first four components whose eigenvalues were greater than 1 could explain 75.2% variance of BMR. The first component, whose proportion reached 30.19%, was affected mainly by stomach mass, small intestine mass and rectum mass. Therefore, the results supported the hypothesis that BMR was controlled by some "expensive metabolic" organs

  14. [Effect of two hypocaloric diets and their combination with physical exercise on basal metabolic rate and body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Noelia; Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    El Síndrome Metabólico (SMet) se diagnostica por el cumplimiento de al menos tres criterios: hipertrigliceridemia, HDL-C disminuido, hipertensión arterial, glucemia alterada en ayunas y obesidad. Dicha obesidad constituiría el punto inicial para el desarrollo del SMet. Según la evidencia científica, las dietas hipocalóricas, incluyendo la mediterránea y la reducida en grasa con alto contenido en carbohidratos, reducen la masa grasa (MG) de estos pacientes y su efecto se potencia al combinarse con ejercicio físico (EF), pero se desconoce aún su influencia sobre la tasa metabólica basal (TMB). Objetivo: Conocer el efecto de dos dietas hipocalóricas: mediterránea y baja en grasas, combinadas o no con EF, sobre la TMB y la composición corporal (CC) de adultos con SMet. Métodos: 36 voluntarios, > 50 años, ambos sexos, con diagnóstico de SMet. Se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno de los cuatro grupos de intervención: Dieta hipocalórica mediterránea (MED), Dieta hipocalórica baja en grasa (CHO) ó ambas asociadas a EF (MEDE y CHOE respectivamente). Se evaluó CC (antropometría) y TMB (calorimetría indirecta) antes y después de la intervención. Resultados: La adición de EF a los dos tratamientos hipocalóricos produjo mayor pérdida de peso y MG que las dietas por sí solas, siendo esta pérdida en CHOE > MEDE (p CHOE (p MED (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: CHOE fue el tratamiento que mayor pérdida de peso y MG produjo, induciendo menor reducción de TMB y manteniendo un mejor perfil de CC que MEDE.

  15. Immune challenge affects basal metabolic activity in wintering great tits.

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, I.; Kerimov, A. B.; Ivankina, E. V.; Ilyina, T. A.; Hõrak, P.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of exploiting an organism's immune function are expected to form the basis of many life-history trade-offs. However, there has been debate about whether such costs can be paid in energetic and nutritional terms. We addressed this question in a study of wintering, free-living, male great tits by injecting them with a novel, non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells) and measuring the changes in their basal metabolic rates and various condition indices subsequent to immune challen...

  16. 北方地区农村健康成人基础代谢率的研究%Study on basal metabolic rate of countryside health adults in north China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚杨硕; 王彦玲; 毛德倩; 黄丽勃; 朴建华; 李晓丽; 何继源; 李玉卓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure the basal metabolic of countryside adults with normal constitutional index in north China. Method 40 males and 40 females qualified subjects were selected according to the testing results of questionnatire, physical examination, blood test, liver function, renal function, and thyroid hormone. Under the standardization experiment condition, using k4b2 cardiopulmonary function measuring equipment to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolism rate ( RMR) . The body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results The BMR values of male and female at the age of 20 to 45 were 4. 49 ±0.37 kj/ (kg · H) and 3.66 ±0. 38 kj/ (kg-h), respectively, and it showed significant positive correlation with body surface area ( BSA) , fat - free weight ( FF) , body weight (W) and height (H) . The RMR values of male and female were 4.95 ±0.47 kJ/ (kg·h) and 4. 91 ±0.49 kJ/ ( kg · H) . Conclusions The basal metabolism of adults at the age of 25 to 40 years could be influenced by the composition of body. This study established the basal metabolism data and it provided reference for pushing out the basal metabolic expressions and formulating the energy recommendation intake standard.%目的 测定具有正常体质指数的北方地区农村健康成人的基础代谢.方法 通过问卷调查、体格检查、血常规、肝功能、肾功能、甲状腺激素的测定结果挑选出合格的受试者男性女性各40名,在标准化实验条件下,采用k4b2心肺功能测定仪测量其基础代谢率和静息代谢率,以四电极生物电阻抗仪测量体成分.结果 20~45岁北方地区农村男性成人的BMR为(4.49±0.37) kJ/kg.h,女性的BMR为(3.66±0.38) kJ/kg·h;20~45岁北方地区农村成人的BMR与体表面积、去脂体重、体重和身高等指标呈显著正相关;20~45岁北方地区农村男性成人的RMR为(4.95 ±0.47) kJ/kg ·h,女性的RMR为(4.91±0.49) kJ/kg·h.结论 20~45岁

  17. As equações de predição da taxa metabólica basal são apropriadas para adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade? ¿Las ecuaciones de prediccion de la tasa metabolica basal son apropiadas para adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad? Are basal metabolic rate prediction equations appropriate for overweight and obese adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Schneider

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As equações de predição conhecidas podem apresentar valores de taxa metabólica basal (TMB diferentes daqueles medidos por calorimetria indireta. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever a TMB, por meio de calorimetria indireta, em meninos com sobrepeso e obesidade, de 12 a 17 anos de idade, residentes em Porto Alegre, Brasil, e comparar o valor medido com os valores de TMB estimados por equações de predição. A TMB foi medida por calorimetria indireta, pela manhã, em 35 voluntários, sob condições padronizadas de jejum, repouso e ambiente. A média (± desvio-padrão da TMB medida foi de 1.900,5 ± 248,8kcal em 24 horas. A estimativa da TMB por equações foi significativamente maior, em três das quatro equações (6,5 a 9,5%, do que a TMB medida (p Las ecuaciones de predicción conocidas pueden presentar valores de tasa metabólica basal (TMB diferentes de aquellos medidos por calorimetria indirecta. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron describir la TMB, por medio de calorimetría indirecta, en chicos con sobrepeso y obesidad, de 12 a 17 años de edad residentes en Porto Alegre, Brasil, y comparar el valor medido con los valores de TMB estimados por ecuaciones de predicción. La TMB fué medida por calorimetria indirecta, por la mañana, en 35 voluntarios, sobre condiciones padronizadas de ayuno, reposo y ambiente. La media (± DP de la TMB medida fué 1.900,5 ± 248,8 kcal en 24 horas. La estimativa de la TMB por ecuaciones fué significativamente mayor, en tres de las cuatro ecuaciones (6,5 a 9,5%, de que la TMB medida (p The known predictive equations can present different values for basal metabolic rate (BMR compared to those measured through indirect calorimetry. The objective of this study was to describe BMR through indirect calorimetry of overweight and obese boys (with ages between 12 and 17 years old living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and to compare the measured value with values estimated by predictive equations. Thirty

  18. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  19. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan;

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models sti...

  20. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  1. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Lamers, Wouter H; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2016-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4 (+) with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na(+)-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression.

  2. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  3. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quoilin, C., E-mail: cquoilin@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Mouithys-Mickalad, A. [Center of Oxygen Research and Development, Department of Chemistry, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Duranteau, J. [Department of Anaesthesia and Surgical ICU, CHU Bicetre, University Paris XI Sud, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Hoebeke, M. [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  4. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. ► Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. ► Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. ► Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. ► This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  5. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused ...

  6. Metabolic rate and thermal conductance of lemmings from high-arctic Canada and Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Agrell, J.; Lindström, A.

    2002-01-01

    The arctic climate places high demands on the energy metabolism of its inhabitants. We measured resting (RMR) and basal metabolic rates (BMR), body temperatures, and dry and wet thermal conductances in summer morphs of the lemmings Dicrostonyx groenlandicus and Lemmus trimucronatus in arctic Canada,

  7. Effect of acute negative and positive energy balance on basal very-low density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute reduction in dietary energy intake reduces very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG concentration. Although chronic dietary energy surplus and obesity are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of acute overfeeding on VLDL-TG metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute negative and positive energy balance on VLDL-TG metabolism in healthy women. DESIGN: Ten healthy women (AGE: 22.0±2.9 years, BMI: 21.2±1.3 kg/m(2 underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i isocaloric feeding (control ii hypocaloric feeding with a dietary energy restriction of 2.89±0.42 MJ and iii hypercaloric feeding with a dietary energy surplus of 2.91±0.32 MJ. The three diets had the same macronutrient composition. RESULTS: Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations decreased by ∼26% after hypocaloric feeding relative to the control trial (P = 0.037, owing to decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (by 21%, P = 0.023 and increased VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate (by ∼12%, P = 0.016. Hypercaloric feeding increased plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.042 but had no effect on VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics compared to the control trial. CONCLUSION: Acute dietary energy deficit (∼3MJ leads to hypotriglyceridemia via a combination of decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion and increased VLDL-TG clearance. On the other hand, acute dietary energy surplus (∼3MJ does not affect basal VLDL-TG metabolism but disrupts glucose homeostasis in healthy women.

  8. Is Cancer Cachexia Attributed to Impairments in Basal or Postprandial Muscle Protein Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M H; Olde Damink, Steven W; Schols, Annemie M W J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia is a significant clinical problem associated with very poor quality of life, reduced treatment tolerance and outcomes, and a high mortality rate. Mechanistically, any sizeable loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a structural imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Recent data indicate that the loss of muscle mass with aging is, at least partly, attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein feeding. Whether such anabolic resistance is also evident in conditions where cachexia is present remains to be addressed. Only few data are available on muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in cachectic cancer patients. When calculating the theoretical changes in basal or postprandial fractional muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates that would be required to lose 5% of body weight within a six-month period, we can define the changes that would need to occur to explain the muscle mass loss observed in cachectic patients. If changes in both post-absorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates contribute to the loss of muscle mass, it would take alterations as small as 1%-2% to induce a more than 5% decline in body weight. Therefore, when trying to define impairments in basal and/or postprandial muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates using contemporary stable isotope methodology in cancer cachexia, we need to select large homogenous groups of cancer patients (>40 patients) to allow us to measure physiological and clinically relevant differences in muscle protein synthesis and/or breakdown rates. Insight into impairments in basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in cancer cachexia is needed to design more targeted nutritional, pharmaceutical and/or physical activity interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass and, as such, to reduce the risk of complications, improve quality of life, and lower mortality rates during the various

  9. Antioxidants, metabolic rate and aging in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic rate-of-living theory of aging was investigated by determining the effect of several life-prolonging antioxidants on the metabolic rate and life span of Drosophila. The respiration rate of groups of continuously agitated flies was determined in a Gilson respirometer. Vitamin E, 2,4-dinitrophenol, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and thiazolidine carboxylic acid were employed as antioxidants. Results show that all of these antioxidants reduced the oxygen consumption rate and increased the mean life span, and a significant negative linear correlation was found between the mean life span and the metabolic rate. It is concluded that these findings indicate that some antioxidants may inhibit respiration rate in addition to their protective effect against free radical-induced cellular damage.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep

  11. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA)); Gillin, J.C. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep.

  12. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Elliott

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia. Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR. RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  13. Modeling changes in glucose and glycerol rates of appearance when true basal rates of appearance cannot be readily determined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Laura; Bergman, Bryan C; Nadeau, Kristen J; Cree-Green, Melanie

    2016-03-01

    Advancing diabetes care requires accurate physiological assessments. Hyperinsulinemic clamps with stable isotope tracers can simultaneously measure insulin's ability to suppress lipolysis and hepatic glucose release. Traditionally, these methods require an assessment of basal glucose and glycerol rate of appearance (Ra). Basal Ra is challenging to measure in insulin-dependent diabetes, where exogenous insulin required to maintain normoglycemia can raise peripheral insulin concentrations sufficiently to suppress basal Ra. Thus we identified two alternative statistical approaches to describe changes in glucose and glycerol Ra that are less reliant on basal assessments. Sixteen youths (4 type 1 diabetic, 4 type 2 diabetic, 4 lean controls, and 4 obese nondiabetic) underwent a four-phase ("basal" and 10, 16, and 80 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with glucose and glycerol tracers. Glucose and glycerol Ra were calculated per phase. A statistical method, the standard two-stage (STS) algorithm, was applied to the individual log insulin vs. Ra curves to calculate a single predicted Ra value. A population-based mixed-effects model (MEM) compared the group average Ra with log insulin curves and described individual deviations from group means and was used to calculate individual predicted Ra. Both models were applied to the participant data, and predicted Ras at the mean insulin concentration per phase (10 for glycerol, 16 for glucose) were calculated, with good agreement between observed and predicted values. In our data set, the MEM was better able to detect group differences. Both STS and MEM can model lipolysis and endogenous glucose release in insulin-dependent states when basal Ra cannot be accurately measured. PMID:26714848

  14. Validity and reproducibility of resting metabolic rate measurements in rural Bangladeshi women: comparison of measurements obtained by Medgem and by Deltatrac device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roordink, D.; Meltzer, M.; Yunus, M.; Salam, M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To assess reproducibility and validity of resting metabolic rate (RMR) of Bangladeshi women as measured with the MedGem device and using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor as a reference; and (2) to evaluate the FAO/WHO/UNU basal metabolic rate (BMR)-prediction equations. Design:In each of tw

  15. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.......058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration...

  16. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states

  17. Study of Effect of Living Environment on Body Weight and Basal Metabolic Rate of Male and Female Tree Sparrows%生存环境对雌雄树麻雀体重和基础代谢率影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志宏; 邵淑丽; 柳劲松

    2009-01-01

    [目的]通过研究不同外界环境条件下雌雄树麻雀体重和基础代谢率的变化,深入了解小型鸟类应对环境的生存和繁殖对策以及繁殖期繁殖预算对生存预算的影响.[方法]首先对捕获的成年树麻雀随机分为4组,即低温组5 ℃(12L∶12D);高温组25 ℃(12L∶12D);长光组25 ℃(16L∶8D);短光组25 ℃(8L∶16D),在人工气候箱中进行驯化饲养28 d;然后测定其体重和基础代谢率,同时通过生理解剖确定雌雄,最后进行统计分析.[结果]体重差异情况,除短光组雌雄麻雀间极显著(P<0.01)外,其他组别均差异不显著.基础代谢率情况,高温组雌雄麻雀间差异显著,低温组则不显著;高温组和低温组雌麻雀间差异极显著,而雄麻雀间有差异,但差异不显著;短光组雌雄麻雀基础代谢率均比长光组有所增加,但雌麻雀不显著,而雄麻雀增加显著(P<0.05).[结论]不同生境条件下,雌雄麻雀通过改变体重和基础代谢率来适应不断变化的生存环境.%[Objective]The aim was to deeply understand the survival and propagation countermeasures for coping with environment by minitype birds and effect of propagation budget in breeding season on living budget through studying the change of body weight and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of male and female tree sparrows in different external environment. [Method]The captured adult tree sparrows were randomly divided into 4 groups first, i.e. low temperature group at 5 ℃ (12L∶12D);high temperature group at 25 ℃ (12L∶12D);long light group at 25 ℃ (16L∶8D) and short light group at 25 ℃ (8L∶16D), the sparrows were domesticated and fed in artificial climate box for 28 d, and then their body weight and BMR were determined, meanwhile, the male and female were confirmed through physiology anatomy, and statistic analysis was conducted finally. [Result]For the body weight difference, except short light group, in which male and female tree sparrows had

  18. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Jimenez

    Full Text Available In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR, proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR], using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  19. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?

    OpenAIRE

    Finarelli, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A recent analysis of brain size evolution reconstructed the plesiomorphic brain–body size allometry for the mammalian order Carnivora, providing an important reference frame for comparative analyses of encephalization (brain volume scaled to body mass). I performed phylogenetically corrected regressions to remove the effects of body mass, calculating correlations between residual values of encephalization with basal metabolic rate (BMR) and six life-history variables (gestation time, neonatal...

  20. Mammalian metabolic rates in the hottest fish on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Brix, Kevin V; De Boeck, Gudrun; Bergman, Harold L; Bianchini, Adalto; Bianchini, Lucas F; Maina, John N; Johannsson, Ora E; Kavembe, Geraldine D; Papah, Michael B; Letura, Kisipan M; Ojoo, Rodi O

    2016-01-01

    The Magadi tilapia, Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish of Lake Magadi, Kenya lives in one of the most challenging aquatic environments on earth, characterized by very high alkalinity, unusual water chemistry, and extreme O2, ROS, and temperature regimes. In contrast to most fishes which live at temperatures substantially lower than the 36-40 °C of mammals and birds, an isolated population (South West Hot Springs, SWHS) of Magadi tilapia thrives in fast-flowing hotsprings with daytime highs of 43 °C and night-time lows of 32 °C. Another population (Fish Springs Lagoon, FSL) lives in a lagoon with fairly stable daily temperatures (33-36 °C). The upper critical temperatures (Ctmax) of both populations are very high; moreover the SWHS tilapia exhibit the highest Ctmax (45.6 °C) ever recorded for a fish. Routine rates of O2 consumption (MO2) measured on site, together with MO2 and swimming performance at 25, 32, and 39 °C in the laboratory, showed that the SWHS tilapia exhibited the greatest metabolic performance ever recorded in a fish. These rates were in the basal range of a small mammal of comparable size, and were all far higher than in the FSL fish. The SWHS tilapia represents a bellwether organism for global warming. PMID:27257105

  1. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Methods and Material: Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  2. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy metabo

  3. Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania

    2013-09-01

    Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition. PMID:23721965

  4. Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania

    2013-09-01

    Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition.

  5. Expensive brains: ‘brainy’ rodents have higher metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl eSobrero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006. Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species body mass is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of body mass for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of body mass and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur.

  6. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased concentrations of choline-containing compounds are frequently observed in breast carcinomas, and may serve as biomarkers for both diagnostic and treatment monitoring purposes. However, underlying mechanisms for the abnormal choline metabolism are poorly understood. The concentrations of choline-derived metabolites were determined in xenografted primary human breast carcinomas, representing basal-like and luminal-like subtypes. Quantification of metabolites in fresh frozen tissue was performed using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS). The expression of genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism was retrieved from whole genome expression microarray analyses. The metabolite profiles from xenografts were compared with profiles from human breast cancer, sampled from patients with estrogen/progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PgR+) or triple negative (ER-/PgR-/HER2-) breast cancer. In basal-like xenografts, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentrations were higher than phosphocholine (PCho) concentrations, whereas this pattern was reversed in luminal-like xenografts. These differences may be explained by lower choline kinase (CHKA, CHKB) expression as well as higher PtdCho degradation mediated by higher expression of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A) and phospholipase B1 (PLB1) in the basal-like model. The glycine concentration was higher in the basal-like model. Although glycine could be derived from energy metabolism pathways, the gene expression data suggested a metabolic shift from PtdCho synthesis to glycine formation in basal-like xenografts. In agreement with results from the xenograft models, tissue samples from triple negative breast carcinomas had higher GPC/PCho ratio than samples from ER+/PgR+ carcinomas, suggesting that the choline metabolism in the experimental models is representative for luminal-like and basal-like human breast cancer. The differences in choline metabolite

  7. Positron emission tomography assessment of effects of benzodiazepines on regional glucose metabolic rate in patients with anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (n = 18) entered a 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled random assignment trial of clorazepate. Positron emission tomography with 18F-deoxyglucose was carried out before and after treatment. Decreases in glucose metabolic rate in visual cortex and relative increases in the basal ganglia and thalamus were found. A correlation between regional changes in metabolic rate and regional benzodiazepine receptor binding density from other human autopsy studies was observed; brain regions highest in receptor density showed the greatest decrease in rate

  8. Positron emission tomography assessment of effects of benzodiazepines on regional glucose metabolic rate in patients with anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Haier, R.; Hazlett, E.; Ball, R.; Katz, M.; Sokolski, K.; Lagunas-Solar, M.; Langer, D.

    1987-06-22

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (n = 18) entered a 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled random assignment trial of clorazepate. Positron emission tomography with YF-deoxyglucose was carried out before and after treatment. Decreases in glucose metabolic rate in visual cortex and relative increases in the basal ganglia and thalamus were found. A correlation between regional changes in metabolic rate and regional benzodiazepine receptor binding density from other human autopsy studies was observed; brain regions highest in receptor density showed the greatest decrease in rate.

  9. Auxin metabolism rates and implications for plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Kramer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auxin metabolism rarely express their results as a metabolic rate, although the data obtained would often permit such a calculation to be made. We analyze data from 31 previously published papers to quantify the rates of auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, conjugate hydrolysis, and catabolism in seed plants. Most metabolic pathways have rates in the range 10 nM/h to 1 μM/h, with the exception of auxin conjugation, which has rates as high as ~100 μM/h. The highest rates of auxin conjugation suggests that auxin metabolic sinks may be very small, perhaps as small as a single cell. By contrast, the relatively low rate of auxin biosynthesis requires plants to conserve and recycle auxin during long-distance transport. The consequences for plant development are discussed.

  10. Análise de taxa metabólica basal e composição corporal de idosos do sexo masculino antes e seis meses após exercícios de resistência Análisis de la tasa metabolica de descanso y la composición corporal en veteranos hombres antes y despues de seis meses de ejercicio de endurance Analysis of resting metabolic rate and body composition in elderly males before and after six months of endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K.M. Antunes

    2005-02-01

    3 veces por semana (60 minutos en días alternados por seis meses con intensidad prescrita referente a la frecuencia cardiaca del umbral ventilatorio I (VT-1. Los voluntarios fueron sometidos a una evaluación de la composición corporal (DEXA; calorimetría indirecta, análisis sanguíneo y test ergoespirométrico. Después del período de estudio, fue observado un decrecimiento significativo en las hormonas tiroideas y cambios en el metabolismo basal en ambos grupos, pero no fueron observadas alteraciones en la composición corporal. En tanto, el grupo experimental presentó un aumento significativo en el consumo de oxigeno pico y en la carga de trabajo referente a la intensidad del VT-1. Los datos sugieren que un programa de ejercicios aeróbicos en la intensidad del VT-1 no es suficiente para provocar alteraciones favorables en el metabolismo basal y en la composición corporal de añosos, así mismo promueva beneficios cardiovasculares.The aim of this study was to compare basal metabolic rate and body composition before and after an endurance-type physical fitness program. The study involved 46 sedentary aging males, aged 60-75 (66.97 ± 4.80 years, who were randomly allocated to two groups: 1 control group, which was asked not to change their daily routine or join a regular physical fitness program; and 2 experimental group, who took part in an aerobic fitness program consisting of working on cycle ergometer three times a week (60 minutes on alternate days for six months, at heart rate corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1 intensity. Subjects were submitted to measurement of body composition (DEXA; indirect calorimetry, blood analysis and ergospirometric testing. After the study period, the authors found a significant decrease in thyroid hormones as well as basal metabolism changes in both groups, but no changes in body composition. The experimental group, however, showed a significant increase in peak oxygen uptake and workload at VT-1 intensity. The

  11. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were dete

  12. In vivo measurements of whole body (WB) and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism under basal and euglycemic insulin clamp (Clamp) by combined PET and stable isotope (SI) tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim/Background: Primed-constant infusion of SI labeled tracers is a classic technique for studying metabolism at the WB level, however, this procedure provides no information about the metabolism of specific tissues. In contrast PET provides primarily tissue specific data. In this study, we combined PET with SI techniques to measure glucose metabolism in WB and lower limb skeletal muscle (LLM) of humans under Basal and Clamp conditions. Methods and Materials: Four healthy volunteers (73.0 ± 6.0 kg, mean ± sem) were studied. After fasting overnight, each subject was injected with 10 mCi of 18FDG and serial 1.0 min. PET images of the mid-thigh region were acquired over 90 min. Arterial blood samples were collected in parallel. Glucose metabolic rate (GM) was calculated with a 3-compartment / 4 rate constant model; LC assumed to be 1.0. A primed constant infusion of [6,6, 2H2]glucose was performed in parallel with the PET measurements. On another day, the PET and SI measurements were repeated under clamp conditions. All results are expressed as mean ± sem. Results: The glucose kinetics in whole body and in low limb skeletal muscles are shown. Under in vivo conditions, Clamp caused: 1) a 10.2 ± 2.3 fold increase in GM by LLM but only a 4.7 ± 0.4 fold increase in GM by MB. 2) Increased contribution of LLM to WB GM, indicating that LLM GM is more sensitive to insulin compared with anterior LLM (extensors). Discussion: The study demonstrated the unique advantages of using PET to study substrate metabolism in specific tissues in human subjects: i) It is less invasive than the conventional A-V difference and muscle biopsy method. ii) It provides a more detailed picture of substrate metabolism in different parts of the muscle in the same limb, as compared to one spot muscle biopsy. Data in demonstrated that GM in posterior LLM is more sensitive to insulin than that in anterior LLM. iii) It can detect substrate metabolism in deep muscles which cannot be reached by biopsy

  13. Metabolic rates of giant pandas inform conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-01-01

    The giant panda is an icon of conservation and survived a large-scale bamboo die off in the 1980s in China. Captive breeding programs have produced a large population in zoos and efforts continue to reintroduce those animals into the wild. However, we lack sufficient knowledge of their physiological ecology to determine requirements for survival now and in the face of climate change. We measured resting and active metabolic rates of giant pandas in order to determine if current bamboo resources were sufficient for adding additional animals to populations in natural reserves. Resting metabolic rates were somewhat below average for a panda sized mammal and active metabolic rates were in the normal range. Pandas do not have exceptionally low metabolic rates. Nevertheless, there is enough bamboo in natural reserves to support both natural populations and large numbers of reintroduced pandas. Bamboo will not be the limiting factor in successful reintroduction. PMID:27264109

  14. Effects of metabolic rate on protein evolution

    OpenAIRE

    James F Gillooly; Michael W. McCoy; Allen, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    Since the modern evolutionary synthesis was first proposed early in the twentieth century, attention has focused on assessing the relative contribution of mutation versus natural selection on protein evolution. Here we test a model that yields general quantitative predictions on rates of protein evolution by combining principles of individual energetics with Kimura's neutral theory. The model successfully predicts much of the heterogeneity in rates of protein evolution for diverse eukaryotes ...

  15. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  16. Assesment of Autonomic Function in Metabolic Syndrome using Combination Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Gülay; Sarıkaya, Savaş; Turgut, Okan Onur; Şahin, Şafak; Çakmak, Nuray Yılmaz; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Tandoğan, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is described as a group of various abnormal metabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, increased plasma glucose levels, prothrombotic condition and proinflammatory state. These parameters are related to decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activity. We aimed to evaluate autonomic function using a combination with  heart rate variability (HRV) and  heart rate turbulence (HRT) in metabolic sy...

  17. Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, are sensitive to nutrient stress, maintain increased basal target of rapamycin (Tor signaling and exhibit characteristics of altered basal energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrate Jessica P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 proteins are the central regulators of apoptosis. The two bcl-2 genes in Drosophila modulate the response to stress-induced cell death, but not developmental cell death. Because null mutants are viable, Drosophila provides an optimum model system to investigate alternate functions of Bcl-2 proteins. In this report, we explore the role of one bcl-2 gene in nutrient stress responses. Results We report that starvation of Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, decreases survival rate by more than twofold relative to wild-type larvae. The buffy null mutant reacted to starvation with the expected responses such as inhibition of target of rapamycin (Tor signaling, autophagy initiation and mobilization of stored lipids. However, the autophagic response to starvation initiated faster in larvae lacking buffy and was inhibited by ectopic buffy. We demonstrate that unusually high basal Tor signaling, indicated by more phosphorylated S6K, was detected in the buffy mutant and that removal of a genomic copy of S6K, but not inactivation of Tor by rapamycin, reverted the precocious autophagy phenotype. Instead, Tor inactivation also required loss of a positive nutrient signal to trigger autophagy and loss of both was sufficient to activate autophagy in the buffy mutant even in the presence of enforced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling. Prior to starvation, the fed buffy mutant stored less lipid and glycogen, had high lactate levels and maintained a reduced pool of cellular ATP. These observations, together with the inability of buffy mutant larvae to adapt to nutrient restriction, indicate altered energy metabolism in the absence of buffy. Conclusions All animals in their natural habitats are faced with periods of reduced nutrient availability. This study demonstrates that buffy is required for adaptation to both starvation and nutrient restriction. Thus, Buffy is a Bcl-2 protein that plays an

  18. Mean-field modeling of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system. I Firing rates in healthy and parkinsonian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Albada, S J; Robinson, P A

    2009-04-21

    Parkinsonism leads to various electrophysiological changes in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system (BGTCS), often including elevated discharge rates of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the output nuclei, and reduced activity of the globus pallidus external (GPe) segment. These rate changes have been explained qualitatively in terms of the direct/indirect pathway model, involving projections of distinct striatal populations to the output nuclei and GPe. Although these populations partly overlap, evidence suggests dopamine depletion differentially affects cortico-striato-pallidal connection strengths to the two pallidal segments. Dopamine loss may also decrease the striatal signal-to-noise ratio, reducing both corticostriatal coupling and striatal firing thresholds. Additionally, nigrostriatal degeneration may cause secondary changes including weakened lateral inhibition in the GPe, and mesocortical dopamine loss may decrease intracortical excitation and especially inhibition. Here a mean-field model of the BGTCS is presented with structure and parameter estimates closely based on physiology and anatomy. Changes in model rates due to the possible effects of dopamine loss listed above are compared with experiment. Our results suggest that a stronger indirect pathway, possibly combined with a weakened direct pathway, is compatible with empirical evidence. However, altered corticostriatal connection strengths are probably not solely responsible for substantially increased STN activity often found. A lower STN firing threshold, weaker intracortical inhibition, and stronger striato-GPe inhibition help explain the relatively large increase in STN rate. Reduced GPe-GPe inhibition and a lower GPe firing threshold can account for the comparatively small decrease in GPe rate frequently observed. Changes in cortex, GPe, and STN help normalize the cortical rate, also in accord with experiments. The model integrates the basal ganglia into a unified framework along with an

  19. Flight modes in migrating European bee-eaters: heart rate may indicate low metabolic rate during soaring and gliding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Sapir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many avian species soar and glide over land. Evidence from large birds (m(b>0.9 kg suggests that soaring-gliding is considerably cheaper in terms of energy than flapping flight, and costs about two to three times the basal metabolic rate (BMR. Yet, soaring-gliding is considered unfavorable for small birds because migration speed in small birds during soaring-gliding is believed to be lower than that of flapping flight. Nevertheless, several small bird species routinely soar and glide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To estimate the energetic cost of soaring-gliding flight in small birds, we measured heart beat frequencies of free-ranging migrating European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster, m(b∼55 g using radio telemetry, and established the relationship between heart beat frequency and metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry in the laboratory. Heart beat frequency during sustained soaring-gliding was 2.2 to 2.5 times lower than during flapping flight, but similar to, and not significantly different from, that measured in resting birds. We estimated that soaring-gliding metabolic rate of European bee-eaters is about twice their basal metabolic rate (BMR, which is similar to the value estimated in the black-browed albatross Thalassarche (previously Diomedea melanophrys, m(b∼4 kg. We found that soaring-gliding migration speed is not significantly different from flapping migration speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found no evidence that soaring-gliding speed is slower than flapping flight in bee-eaters, contradicting earlier estimates that implied a migration speed penalty for using soaring-gliding rather than flapping flight. Moreover, we suggest that small birds soar and glide during migration, breeding, dispersal, and other stages in their annual cycle because it may entail a low energy cost of transport. We propose that the energy cost of soaring-gliding may be proportional to BMR regardless of bird size, as theoretically deduced by

  20. Carbon conversion and metabolic rate in two marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M; van Rijswijk, P; Martens, D; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T A; Middelburg, J J; Wijffels, R H

    2011-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of two marine sponges, Haliclona oculata and Dysidea avara, has been studied using a (13)C isotope pulse-chase approach. The sponges were fed (13)C-labeled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) for 8 h and they took up between 75 and 85%. At different times, sponges were sampled for total (13)C enrichment, and fatty acid (FA) composition and (13)C enrichment. Algal biomarkers present in the sponges were highly labeled after feeding but their labeling levels decreased until none was left 10 days after enrichment. The sponge-specific FAs incorporated (13)C label already during the first day and the amount of (13)C label inside these FAs kept increasing until 3 weeks after labeling. The algal-derived carbon captured by the sponges during the 8-h feeding period was thus partly respired and partly metabolized during the weeks following. Apparently, sponges are able to capture enough food during short periods to sustain longer-term metabolism. The change of carbon metabolic rate of fatty acid synthesis due to mechanical damage of sponge tissue was studied by feeding sponges with (13)C isotope-labeled diatom (Pheaodactylum tricornutum) either after or before damaging and tracing back the (13)C content in the damaged and healthy tissue. The filtration and respiration in both sponges responded quickly to damage. The rate of respiration in H. oculata reduced immediately after damage, but returned to its initial level after 6 h. The (13)C data revealed that H. oculata has a higher metabolic rate in the tips where growth occurs compared to the rest of the tissue and that the metabolic rate is increased after damage of the tissue. For D. avara, no differences were found between damaged and non-damaged tissue. However, the filtration rate decreased directly after damage. PMID:24489407

  1. Metabolic rate, heart rate, and tailbeat frequency during sustained swimming in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharold, J; Lai, N C; Lowell, W R; Graham, J B

    1989-01-01

    Heart rate, metabolic rate, and tailbeat frequency were simultaneously recorded from seven leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) during steady swimming at controlled speeds to evaluate the usefulness of heart rate as a measure of field metabolic rate. Heart rate was monitored by acoustic telemetry using a frequency modulated ECG transmitter. Metabolic rate was measured as oxygen consumption in a swimming tunnel respirometer. For instrumented sharks, mean resting oxygen consumption rate and heart rate were 105.3 +/- 35.6 (SE) mg O2.kg-1.h-1 and 36.6 +/- 1.8 (SE) beats.min-1, respectively. While swimming at the maximum sustained speed (0.84 +/- 0.03 lengths.s-1) for 30-60 min, these rates were 229.3 +/- 13.2 mg O2.kg-1.h-1 and 46.9 +/- 0.9 beats.min-1. Although a significant linear regression was obtained between metabolic rate and heart rate, a low overall correlation coefficient may result from the existence of separate individual regressions and confounding changes in stroke volume and/or arteriovenous oxygen difference. Heart rate was approximately as closely correlated with oxygen consumption rate as swimming speed was. A significant linear relationship was obtained between tailbeat frequency and swimming speed to speeds of 0.75 lengths.s-1. PMID:2776865

  2. Larval developmental rate, metabolic rate and future growth performance in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Jonathan Vaz; Åberg, Madelene; Gjoen, Hans Magnus;

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in salmonids suggest a link between larval developmental rate, metabolic rate, and future growth. However, the connection between growth during exogenous and endogenous feeding is still debated. In the current study, a positive relationship between larval developmental rate, quan...

  3. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  4. Cross-validation of resting metabolic rate prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Knowledge of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) is necessary for determining individual total energy requirements. Measurement of RMR is time consuming and requires specialized equipment. Prediction equations provide an easy method to estimate RMR; however, the accuracy of these equations...

  5. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes: effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P G R; Roby, D D; Suryan, R M; Irons, D B; Kaufman, A M; Turco, K R; Visser, G H

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates (FMR) of these same individuals (n=20) using the doubly labeled water technique. Estimated metabolic rates of kittiwakes attending their brood at the nest or loafing near the colony were similar (ca. 1.3 x basal metabolic rate [BMR]), although loafing during foraging trips was more costly (2.9 x BMR). Metabolic rates during commuting flight (7.3 x BMR) and prey-searching flight (6.2 x BMR) were similar, while metabolic rates during plunge diving were much higher (ca. 47 x BMR). The proportion of the measurement interval spent foraging had a positive effect on FMR (R2=0.68), while the combined proportion of time engaged in nest attendance and loafing near the colony had a negative effect on FMR (R2=0.72). Thus, more than two-thirds of the variation in kittiwake FMR could be explained by the allocation of time among various activities. The high energetic cost of plunge diving relative to straight flight and searching flight suggests that kittiwakes can optimize their foraging strategy under conditions of low food availability by commuting long distances to feed in areas where gross foraging efficiency is high. PMID:12905124

  6. MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKiernan Patrick J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionic acidaemia (PA results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains controversial but may confer some neuro-protection. The present study utilises quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to investigate brain metabolite alterations in propionic acidaemia during metabolic stability and acute encephalopathic episodes. Methods Quantitative MRS was used to evaluate brain metabolites in eight children with neonatal onset propionic acidaemia, with six elective studies acquired during metabolic stability and five studies during acute encephalopathic episodes. MRS studies were acquired concurrently with clinically indicated MR imaging studies at 1.5 Tesla. LCModel software was used to provide metabolite quantification. Comparison was made with a dataset of MRS metabolite concentrations from a cohort of children with normal appearing MR imaging. Results MRI findings confirm the vulnerability of basal ganglia to infarction during acute encephalopathy. We identified statistically significant decreases in basal ganglia glutamate+glutamine and N-Acetylaspartate, and increase in lactate, during encephalopathic episodes. In white matter lactate was significantly elevated but other metabolites not significantly altered. Metabolite data from two children who had received liver transplantation were not significantly different from the comparator group. Conclusions The metabolite alterations seen in propionic acidaemia in the basal ganglia during acute encephalopathy reflect loss of viable neurons, and a switch to anaerobic respiration. The decrease in glutamine + glutamate supports the hypothesis that they are consumed to

  7. Study of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose with positron emission computed tomography in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using positron emission computed tomography with F-18 fluoro-D-deoxyglucose, regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) was measured in 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 3 healthy volunteers. A decreased rCMRglc was observed in the widespread cortex and basal ganglia of the cerebrum, but not observed in white matter, thalamus, and cerebellum. There was no bilateral difference. rCMRglc was the lowest in the parietal lobe, followed by the temporal lobe and the curvature of the frontal lobe. A decrease in rCMRglu was relatively mild in the inner part of the frontal lobe, primary sensory and motor area of the cerebral cortex, and cerebral basilar ganglia. Alzheimer's disease proved to be characterized by severe glucose metabolic disorder in the association area of the bilateral cerebral cortices. The degree of metabolic disorder was correlated with the degree of dementia in the outer part of the left frontal lobe and the curvature of the cerebral cortex. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. The determination of standard metabolic rate in fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot, Denis; Steffensen, John Fleng; Farrell, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    This review and data analysis outline how fish biologists should most reliably estimate the minimal amount of oxygen needed by a fish to support its aerobic metabolic rate (termed standard metabolic rate; SMR). By reviewing key literature, it explains the theory, terminology and challenges...... underlying SMR measurements in fishes, which are almost always made using respirometry (which measures oxygen uptake, ṀO2 ). Then, the practical difficulties of measuring SMR when activity of the fish is not quantitatively evaluated are comprehensively explored using 85 examples of ṀO2 data from different...... fishes and one crustacean, an analysis that goes well beyond any previous attempt. The main objective was to compare eight methods to estimate SMR. The methods were: average of the lowest 10 values (low10) and average of the 10% lowest ṀO2 values, after removing the five lowest ones as outliers (low10...

  9. Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

    2005-11-01

    The mechanisms dictating upper limits to animal body size are not well understood. We have analysed body length data for the largest representatives of 24 taxa of terrestrial poikilotherms from tropical, temperate and polar environments. We find that poikilothermic giants on land become two-three times shorter per each 10 degrees of decrease in ambient temperature. We quantify that this diminution of maximum body size accurately compensates the drop of metabolic rate dictated by lower temperature. This supports the idea that the upper limit to body size within each taxon can be set by a temperature-independent critical minimum value of mass-specific metabolic rate, a fall below which is not compatible with successful biological performance. PMID:16191647

  10. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGonzález

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS, adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, involved in C, N and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  11. Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms

    OpenAIRE

    Makarieva, Anastassia M.; Gorshkov, Victor G.; Li, Bai-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms dictating upper limits to animal body size are not well understood. We have analysed body length data for the largest representatives of 24 taxa of terrestrial poikilotherms from tropical, temperate and polar environments. We find that poikilothermic giants on land become two–three times shorter per each 10 degrees of decrease in ambient temperature. We quantify that this diminution of maximum body size accurately compensates the drop of metabolic rate dictated by lower tempera...

  12. The tacrolimus metabolism rate influences renal function after kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Thölking

    Full Text Available The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI tacrolimus (Tac is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx. However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006 which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015 and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024 in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient's risk management strategies.

  13. The tacrolimus metabolism rate influences renal function after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölking, Gerold; Fortmann, Christian; Koch, Raphael; Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pabst, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Wolters, Heiner; Reuter, Stefan; Suwelack, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio) is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006) which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015) and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024) in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient's risk management strategies. PMID:25340655

  14. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears. PMID:25101837

  15. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Pavlova

    Full Text Available Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus. Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153 in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  16. Effect of growth rate and body mass on resting metabolic rate in galliform chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Drent, RH

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we asked whether within-species variation in chick resting metabolic rate was related to variation in growth and whether this relationship changed during development in three galliform species (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, and Japanese quail, Coturnix co

  17. Heart rate variability in male patients with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Kratnov; A V Yakimova; E E Silkina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To study the heart rate variability via 24-hours ECG monitoring in male patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and no signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD).Materials and Methods. 131 males aged 29 to 60 years with no evidence for IHD were enrolled for this study and underwent 24-hoursECG monitoring procedure.Results. We determined that MS in males is associated with dysautonomia, accompanied by decrease in sympathetic heart stimulation (specifically, in LF and VLF parameters) and left ven...

  18. Increased metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in long-term juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rossing, N; Sander, E

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin were studied with 131I-labelled human albumin in nine patients with long-term diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy was present in all patients and nephropathy in four. Plasma albumin concentration and plasma volume were reduced (P...... smaller than 0.05). The previously reported decrease in the intravascular albumin mass in long-term diabetics was thus confirmed by an average of 59.0 g/m2 surface area, compared with a normal value of 71.7 g/m2-(minus18%) (P smaller than 0.005). The albumin metabolic rate was increased, the fractional...... the concept that albumin is catabolized in connection with its permeation through the microvascular endothelium....

  19. Scaling of number, size, and metabolic rate of cells with body size in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, M; Allen, Andrew P.; Brown, James H.; Gillooly, James F; Herman, Alexander B.; Woodruff, William H.; West, Geoffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    The size and metabolic rate of cells affect processes from the molecular to the organismal level. We present a quantitative, theoretical framework for studying relationships among cell volume, cellular metabolic rate, body size, and whole-organism metabolic rate that helps reveal the feedback between these levels of organization. We use this framework to show that average cell volume and average cellular metabolic rate cannot both remain constant with changes in body size because of the well ...

  20. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. This study determines whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was exa

  1. A short period of fasting before surgery conserves basal metabolism and suppresses catabolism according to indirect calorimetry performed under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinichiro; Fujita, Yoshihito; Hirate, Hiroyuki; Kusama, Nobuyoshi; Azami, Takafumi; Sobue, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    It is recommended that the period of fasting before elective surgery should be shortened to facilitate a rapid recovery by preventing catabolism. We examined the effects of a short period of fasting on metabolism by performing indirect calorimetry (IC) under general anesthesia. A prospective observational study involving 26 consecutive patients who underwent elective surgery and whose metabolism was evaluated using IC during anesthesia was conducted. The patients were divided into two groups, those who fasted for 10 h (group L). Oxygen consumption, the volume of carbon dioxide emissions (VCO2), the respiratory quotient (RQ), resting energy expenditure (REE), and basal energy expenditure (BEE) were compared. The REE, VCO2, and RQ of group L (17.7 ± 2.3 kcal/kg/day, 118.5 ± 20.8 ml/min, and 0.71 ± 0.12, respectively) were significantly lower than those of group S (19.7 ± 2.3 kcal/kg/day, 143.6 ± 30.9 ml/min, and 0.81 ± 0.09, respectively) (P metabolism.

  2. Metabolic rate covaries with fitness and the pace of the life history in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-05-25

    Metabolic rate reflects the 'pace of life' in every organism. Metabolic rate is related to an organism's capacity for essential maintenance, growth and reproduction-all of which interact to affect fitness. Although thousands of measurements of metabolic rate have been made, the microevolutionary forces that shape metabolic rate remain poorly resolved. The relationship between metabolic rate and components of fitness are often inconsistent, possibly because these fitness components incompletely map to actual fitness and often negatively covary with each other. Here we measure metabolic rate across ontogeny and monitor its effects on actual fitness (lifetime reproductive output) for a marine bryozoan in the field. We also measure key components of fitness throughout the entire life history including growth rate, longevity and age at the onset of reproduction. We found that correlational selection favours individuals with higher metabolic rates in one stage and lower metabolic rates in the other-individuals with similar metabolic rates in each developmental stage displayed the lowest fitness. Furthermore, individuals with the lowest metabolic rates lived for longer and reproduced more, but they also grew more slowly and took longer to reproduce initially. That metabolic rate is related to the pace of the life history in nature has long been suggested by macroevolutionary patterns but this study reveals the microevolutionary processes that probably generated these patterns.

  3. Effect of sedentary activities on resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W H; Bandini, L G; Morelli, J A; Peers, K F; Ching, P L

    1994-03-01

    We examined the effect of television viewing on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 9 obese and 18 nonobese girls aged 10.4 +/- 1.1 y. RMR was measured while girls watched television, read, or sat quietly for 15 min. Movement was assessed by using activity monitors and a manual count of movements observed on a videotape. Absolute RMR was greater for the obese girls, but no significant treatment effect existed for absolute RMR within either group. Although measured activity did not differ, observed movements were greater when the girls were sitting quietly. Total observed and measured movements were significantly correlated with the CV of the minute-by-minute RMR. These results suggest that television viewing does not alter RMR. Although children appear to fidget more when sitting quietly than when they read or watch television, fidgeting appears to affect the minute-to-minute variation of RMR rather than the level of resting energy expenditure.

  4. Heart rate variability in male patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Kratnov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the heart rate variability via 24-hours ECG monitoring in male patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and no signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD.Materials and Methods. 131 males aged 29 to 60 years with no evidence for IHD were enrolled for this study and underwent 24-hoursECG monitoring procedure.Results. We determined that MS in males is associated with dysautonomia, accompanied by decrease in sympathetic heart stimulation (specifically, in LF and VLF parameters and left ventricular diastolic abnormalities that correlate with abdominal obesity. Conclusion. MS in males is associated with dysautonomia, accompanied by decrease in sympathetic heart stimulation (specifically, in LF and VLF parameters and left ventricular diastolic abnormalities that correlate with abdominal obesity.

  5. Metabolic and Hormonal Determinants of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Hemodynamics in Severely Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Vitolo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. Methods: We measured GFR (mGFR by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects. Results: Compared with mGFR, the better performing EstForm was CKD-EPI (5.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 bias by Bland-Altman analysis. mGFR was directly related with RPF, total and incremental glucose AUC, and inversely with PTH and h8 cortisol. Patients with mGFR below the median shown significantly higher PTH and lower vitamin D3. Basal or dynamic renal resistive index, FMD, pulse wave velocity were not related with mGFR. In an adjusted regression model, renal diameter and plasma flow remained related with mGFR (R2 = 0.67, accounting for 15% and 21% of mGFR variance, respectively. Conclusions: CKD-EPI formula should be preferred in morbid obesity; glucose increments during oral glucose tolerance test correlate with hyperfiltration; RPF and diameter are independent determinants of mGFR; slightly high PTH values, frequent in obesity, might influence mGFR.

  6. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nordenson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anita Nordenson2, Anne Marie Grönberg1,2, Lena Hulthén1, Sven Larsson2, Frode Slinde11Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: Malnutrition is a serious condition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Successful dietary intervention calls for calculations of resting metabolic rate (RMR. One disease-specific prediction equation for RMR exists based on mainly male patients. To construct a disease-specific equation for RMR based on measurements in underweight or weight-losing women and men with COPD, RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry in 30 women and 11 men with a diagnosis of COPD and body mass index <21 kg/m2. The following variables, possibly influencing RMR were measured: length, weight, middle upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance, lung function, and markers of inflammation. Relations between RMR and measured variables were studied using univariate analysis according to Pearson. Gender and variables that were associated with RMR with a P value <0.15 were included in a forward multiple regression analysis. The best-fit multiple regression equation included only fat-free mass (FFM: RMR (kJ/day = 1856 + 76.0 FFM (kg. To conclude, FFM is the dominating factor influencing RMR. The developed equation can be used for prediction of RMR in underweight COPD patients.Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, basal metabolic rate, malnutrition, body composition

  7. Correlation Between Ecospace and Metabolic Rate of Marine Organisms Through Geologic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, C.; Tenorio, A.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Marine organisms are the most abundant fossils scientists have discovered in the fossil record. Various factors affect the survival rate of individual organisms and entire genera including metabolic rate, genetic diversity, environmental availability, and ecology. We however chose to focus our attention on studying mean metabolic rates in correlation to life modes. A marine organism's life mode is determined by three criteria: tiering, motility, and feeding mechanism. We believe an organism's life mode has an effect on its survivorship, especially since ecospace is the "primary determinant of routine metabolic rate for marine organisms" (Seibel & Drazen 2007). Using the metabolic equation, we were able to plot metabolic rate changes for various life modes over time. Seibel and Drazen (2007) explain that "metabolic variation in the ocean results from interspecific differences in ecological energy demand," thus allowing us to hypothesize that with different combinations of life modes, different marine organisms will have varying metabolic rates. To further compare our data, we created a heatmap to show the change in metabolic rates over the last 540 million years. Based on the collection of data, metabolic rates of marine organisms have shown an increasing trend. When analyzing ecospaces, pelagic (living in the water column), free moving organisms have relatively high metabolic rates in comparison to other modes of tiering. In other life modes, there's a general trend of genera maintaining a stabilized and moderate metabolic rate that is neither extremely high nor low.

  8. Effect of feed and bleed rate on hybridoma cells in an acoustic perfusion bioreactor: Metabolic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalm, M.C.F.; Lamers, P.P.; Cuijten, S.M.R.; Tjeerdsma, A.M.; Grunsven, van W.M.J.; Tramper, J.; Martens, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    For the development of optimal perfusion processes, insight into the effect of feed and bleed rate on cell growth, productivity, and metabolism is essential. In the here presented study the effect of the feed and bleed rate on cell metabolism was investigated using metabolic flux analysis. Under all

  9. Measurement and relevance of maximum metabolic rate in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, T; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    Maximum (aerobic) metabolic rate (MMR) is defined here as the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2max ) that a fish can achieve at a given temperature under any ecologically relevant circumstance. Different techniques exist for eliciting MMR of fishes, of which swim-flume respirometry (critical swimming speed tests and burst-swimming protocols) and exhaustive chases are the most common. Available data suggest that the most suitable method for eliciting MMR varies with species and ecotype, and depends on the propensity of the fish to sustain swimming for extended durations as well as its capacity to simultaneously exercise and digest food. MMR varies substantially (>10 fold) between species with different lifestyles (i.e. interspecific variation), and to a lesser extent (aerobic scope, interest in measuring this trait has spread across disciplines in attempts to predict effects of climate change on fish populations. Here, various techniques used to elicit and measure MMR in different fish species with contrasting lifestyles are outlined and the relevance of MMR to the ecology, fitness and climate change resilience of fishes is discussed.

  10. Extreme strain rate and temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of nano silicon nitride thin layers in a basal plane under tension: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hongjie; Wei, Yin; Wen, Jiangbo; Niu, Min; Jia, Shuhai

    2014-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to clarify the extreme strain rate and temperature dependence of the mechanical behaviors of nano silicon nitride thin layers in a basal plane under tension. It is found that fracture stresses show almost no change with increasing strain rate. However, fracture strains decrease gradually due to the appearance of additional N(2c)-Si bond breaking defects in the deformation process. With increasing loading temperature, there is a noticeable drop in fracture stress and fracture strain. In the low temperature range, roughness phases can be observed owing to a combination of factors such as configuration evolution and energy change.

  11. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can

  12. Measured and predicted resting metabolic rate in Italian males and females, aged 18-59y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo, de A.; Tagliabue, A.; Andreoli, A.; Testolin, G.; Comelli, M.; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the resting metabolic rate in a sample of the Italian population, and to evaluate the validity of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate (RMR) from the literature in normal and obese subjects. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: Department of Human Physiology

  13. Impact of a Metabolic Screening Bundle on Rates of Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Psychiatry Resident Outpatient Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Ilse R.; Viron, Mark; Stoklosa, Joseph; Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Weiss, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it is widely acknowledged that second-generation antipsychotics are associated with cardiometabolic side effects, rates of metabolic screening have remained low. The authors created a quality-improvement (QI) intervention in an academic medical center outpatient psychiatry resident clinic with the aim of improving rates of…

  14. Carbon conversion and metabolic rate in two marine sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Martens, D.; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of two marine sponges, Haliclona oculata and Dysidea avara, has been studied using a 13C isotope pulse-chase approach. The sponges were fed 13C-labeled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) for 8 h and they took up between 75 and 85%. At different times, sponges were sampled for total

  15. Variation of foraging rate and wing loading, but not resting metabolic rate scaling, of insect pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S.; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Morphological, physiological and behavioural variation with body size (i.e. scaling) may affect costs of living in a particular environment for insects and, ultimately, pollination or foraging success. However, few studies have directly assessed the scaling of these traits at the species level. Using two similar-sized pollinator species (the hawkmoth Macroglossum trochilus and the fly Moegistorhynchus longirostrus), we compare intraspecific scaling relationships of resting metabolic rate (RMR), foraging rate (FR) and wing loading (WL) to address this paucity of data. Scaling of RMR was similar for both taxa although the intercepts for the relationships differed. However, these two species showed variation in WL scaling relationships and fundamentally different FR scaling. For M. longirostrus, FR scaling was positive but non-significantly related to body mass while for M. trochilus FR scaling was negative. This suggests that variation in FR and WL, but not RMR scaling, among these flies and hawkmoths may impose significant energetic costs which could affect animal-plant interactions in the wild.

  16. Testing the effect of metabolic rate on DNA variability at the intra-specific level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela McGaughran

    Full Text Available We tested the metabolic rate hypothesis (whereby rates of mtDNA evolution are postulated to be mediated primarily by mutagenic by-products of respiration by examining whether mass-specific metabolic rate was correlated with root-to-tip distance on a set of mtDNA trees for the springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus travei from sub-Antarctic Marion Island.Using Bayesian analyses and a novel application of the comparative phylogenetic method, we did not find significant evidence that contemporary metabolic rates directly correlate with mutation rate (i.e., root-to-tip distance once the underlying phylogeny is taken into account. However, we did find significant evidence that metabolic rate is dependent on the underlying mtDNA tree, or in other words, lineages with related mtDNA also have similar metabolic rates.We anticipate that future analyses which apply this methodology to datasets with longer sequences, more taxa, or greater variability will have more power to detect a significant direct correlation between metabolic rate and mutation rate. We conclude with suggestions for future analyses that would extend the preliminary approach applied here, in particular highlighting ways to tease apart oxidative stress effects from the effects of population size and/or selection coefficients operating on the molecular evolutionary rate.

  17. Testing the effect of metabolic rate on DNA variability at the intra-specific level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughran, Angela; Holland, Barbara R

    2010-01-01

    We tested the metabolic rate hypothesis (whereby rates of mtDNA evolution are postulated to be mediated primarily by mutagenic by-products of respiration) by examining whether mass-specific metabolic rate was correlated with root-to-tip distance on a set of mtDNA trees for the springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus travei from sub-Antarctic Marion Island.Using Bayesian analyses and a novel application of the comparative phylogenetic method, we did not find significant evidence that contemporary metabolic rates directly correlate with mutation rate (i.e., root-to-tip distance) once the underlying phylogeny is taken into account. However, we did find significant evidence that metabolic rate is dependent on the underlying mtDNA tree, or in other words, lineages with related mtDNA also have similar metabolic rates.We anticipate that future analyses which apply this methodology to datasets with longer sequences, more taxa, or greater variability will have more power to detect a significant direct correlation between metabolic rate and mutation rate. We conclude with suggestions for future analyses that would extend the preliminary approach applied here, in particular highlighting ways to tease apart oxidative stress effects from the effects of population size and/or selection coefficients operating on the molecular evolutionary rate. PMID:20300626

  18. Metabolic rate and its relationship with ascites in chicken genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, D D; Scheele, C W; Buyse, J; Kwakernaak, C; Siebrits, F K; van der Klis, J D; Decuypere, E

    2003-05-01

    1. Male chickens of 7 genetic lines, consisting of two pure sire and two pure dam populations, a commercial broiler cross and two slow-growing chicken lines (Label Rouge, LR and Mechelse Koekoek, MK) were reared from 1 to 37 d of age. The chickens received a two-phase dietary regime and were subjected to low ambient temperature. 2. The experimental aim was to investigate relationships between susceptibility to ascites and heat production. 3. Body weight gain (BWG), food intake and food conversion ratio (FCR) were determined. Ascites mortality, arterial pressure index (API=right ventricular/total ventricular weight ratio), haematocrit values, proportional lung weight (lung weight/body weight x 100), plasma thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3) and arterial blood gas pressures (pCO2 and pO2) were determined. The heat production per kg metabolic body weight (H/W0.75) and total heat production (H) were calculated for the period 16 to 33 d using an energy balance study according to the comparative slaughter method. 4. The two breeder sire lines had high BWG and low FCR and high but different incidences of ascites compared with the slow-growing ascites resistant LR and MK lines with notable high FCR. The broiler cross and slower-growing breeder dam lines had a similar and relatively lower incidence of ascites mortality. 5. The fast-growing chickens had low H/W0.75 values compared with slow-growing lines. 6. These fast-growing breeder sires had lower plasma thyroid hormone, reduced proportional lung weights, low arterial pO2 and high arterial pCO2 pressures compared with the slower-growing lines. 7. In conclusion, ascites incidence was associated with lower heat production per metabolic body weight and therefore a lower oxygen requirement per metabolic weight. PMID:12828217

  19. Thermal sensation and comfort with transient metabolic rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Dear, R. d.;

    2002-01-01

    environment was held constant at a temperature corresponding to PMV=0 at sedentary activity. Even low activity changes of short duration (1 min at 20% relative work load) affected thermal perceptions. However, after circa 15 min of constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady......This study investigated the effect on thermal perceptions and preferences of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities (20%, 40%, 60% relative work load) and durations (3-30 min) imposed on subjects that alternated between sedentary activity and exercise on a treadmill. The thermal...

  20. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions

  1. Cross-validation of recent and longstanding resting metabolic rate prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) measurement is time consuming and requires specialized equipment. Prediction equations provide an easy method to estimate RMR; however, their accuracy likely varies across individuals. Understanding the factors that influence predicted RMR accuracy at the individual lev...

  2. Hybrid Dysfunction Expressed as Elevated Metabolic Rate in Male Ficedula Flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, S. Eryn; Sirkiä, Päivi M.; Ålund, Murielle; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Studies of ecological speciation are often biased towards extrinsic sources of selection against hybrids, resulting from intermediate hybrid morphology, but the knowledge of how genetic incompatibilities accumulate over time under natural conditions is limited. Here we focus on a physiological trait, metabolic rate, which is central to life history strategies and thermoregulation but is also likely to be sensitive to mismatched mitonuclear interactions. We measured the resting metabolic rate of male collared, and pied flycatchers as well as of naturally occurring F1 hybrid males, in a recent hybrid zone. We found that hybrid males had a higher rather than intermediate metabolic rate, which is indicative of hybrid physiological dysfunction. Fitness costs associated with elevated metabolic rate are typically environmentally dependent and exaggerated under harsh conditions. By focusing on male hybrid dysfunction in an eco-physiological trait, our results contribute to the general understanding of how combined extrinsic and intrinsic sources of hybrid dysfunction build up under natural conditions. PMID:27583553

  3. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  4. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. PMID:27180107

  5. Cold adaptation increases rates of nutrient flow and metabolic plasticity during cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; McCue, Marshall D; Sunny, Nishanth E; Szejner-Sigal, Andre; Morgan, Theodore J; Allison, David B; Hahn, Daniel A

    2016-09-14

    Metabolic flexibility is an important component of adaptation to stressful environments, including thermal stress and latitudinal adaptation. A long history of population genetic studies suggest that selection on core metabolic enzymes may shape life histories by altering metabolic flux. However, the direct relationship between selection on thermal stress hardiness and metabolic flux has not previously been tested. We investigated flexibility of nutrient catabolism during cold stress in Drosophila melanogaster artificially selected for fast or slow recovery from chill coma (i.e. cold-hardy or -susceptible), specifically testing the hypothesis that stress adaptation increases metabolic turnover. Using (13)C-labelled glucose, we first showed that cold-hardy flies more rapidly incorporate ingested carbon into amino acids and newly synthesized glucose, permitting rapid synthesis of proline, a compound shown elsewhere to improve survival of cold stress. Second, using glucose and leucine tracers we showed that cold-hardy flies had higher oxidation rates than cold-susceptible flies before cold exposure, similar oxidation rates during cold exposure, and returned to higher oxidation rates during recovery. Additionally, cold-hardy flies transferred compounds among body pools more rapidly during cold exposure and recovery. Increased metabolic turnover may allow cold-adapted flies to better prepare for, resist and repair/tolerate cold damage. This work illustrates for the first time differences in nutrient fluxes associated with cold adaptation, suggesting that metabolic costs associated with cold hardiness could invoke resource-based trade-offs that shape life histories. PMID:27605506

  6. Consequences of Fatherhood in the Biparental California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus): Locomotor Performance, Metabolic Rate, and Organ Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Jacob R; Saltzman, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Although effects of motherhood on mothers have been well documented in mammals, the effects of fatherhood on fathers are not well known. We evaluated effects of being a father on key metabolic and performance measures in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. California mice are genetically monogamous in the wild, and fathers show similar parental behavior to mothers, with the exception of lactation. To investigate the impact of fatherhood on fathers, focal males were paired with an intact female (breeding males), a tubally ligated female (nonbreeding males), or another male (virgins). Starting 3-5 d after the birth of each breeding pair's first litter, males were tested for locomotor performance (maximum sprint speed, treadmill endurance), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximum oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]). At the end of the 11-d test period, mice were euthanized, hematocrit was determined, and organs were weighed. Speed, endurance, and [Formula: see text] were significantly repeatable between two replicate measurement days but did not differ among groups, nor did BMR. Breeding males had significantly larger hind limb muscles than did nonbreeding males, whereas virgin males had heavier subcutaneous fat pads than did nonbreeding and breeding males. Several correlations were observed at the level of individual variation (residuals from ANCOVA models), including positive correlations for endurance with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with testes mass, and some of the digestion-related organs with each other. These results indicate that fatherhood may not have pronounced performance, metabolic, or morphological effects on fathers, at least under standard laboratory conditions and across a single breeding cycle. PMID:27082723

  7. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-03-30

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, microg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, microm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, micros(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of approximately 110 kJ and that scale as microg(T):microm(T):micros(T) approximately 10(6):10(3):1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40 degrees C in ice corresponds to approximately 10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate micros(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage.

  8. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  10. High-intensity interval training without weight loss improves exercise but not basal or insulin-induced metabolism in overweight/obese African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Avigdor D; DiMenna, Fred J; Thomas, Naketa; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline; Weil, Richard; Geliebter, Allan; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of a 14-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention with weight stability on metabolic flexibility, insulin sensitivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary, premenopausal, nondiabetic, overweight/obese African American women. Twenty-eight subjects were allocated to one of two groups: HIIT, which performed three sessions per week of four high-intensity cycling intervals, or a control group (CON), which maintained their normal level of physical activity. Diet was controlled for all subjects to ensure weight stability. Pre- and postintervention (pre/post), subjects completed an incremental cycling test to limit of tolerance and, following a 10-day high-fat controlled feeding period, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation. Nine members of HIIT (age, 29 ± 4 yr; body mass, 90.1 ± 13.8 kg) and eleven members of CON (age, 30 ± 7 yr; body mass, 85.5 ± 10.7 kg) completed the study. HIIT experienced an increased limit of tolerance (post, 1,124 ± 202 s; pre, 987 ± 146 s; P < 0.05), gas exchange threshold (post, 1.29 ± 0.34 liters/min; pre, 0.97 ± 0.23 liters/min; P < 0.05), and fat oxidation at the same absolute submaximal work rate compared with CON (P < 0.05 for group-by-time interaction in all cases). However, changes in peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak), insulin sensitivity, free fatty acid suppression during insulin stimulation, and metabolic flexibility were not different in HIIT compared with CON. High-intensity interval training with weight stability increased exercise fat oxidation and tolerance in subjects at risk for diabetic progression, but did not improve insulin sensitivity or fat oxidation in the postabsorptive or insulin-stimulated state. PMID:26112241

  11. Weight Management, Energy Metabolism, and Endocrine Hor¬mones- Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Hosseini, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Energy expenditure is determined by basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and Thermic Effect of Foods (TEF). Some endocrine hormones have role in basal metabolism and hence in human energy expenditure. And some foods pose more thermic effects on the total body energy expenditure and therefore can influence body weight. This review was performed to discuss factors which may affect body metabolism and body weight. Latest medical databases and nutrition and metabolism books were reviewed. We ...

  12. Effects of starvation and molting on the metabolic rate of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is a common hematophagous pest in the urban environment and is capable of surviving extended periods of starvation. However, the relationship between starvation and metabolism in bed bugs is not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we measured the metabolism of all life stages for >900 h after feeding (starvation) using closed-system respirometry. Measurements were made around molting for the immature life stages, which occurs only after a blood meal. In addition, both mated and unmated adults were measured. Starvation and molting had significant effects on the metabolism of the bed bug. Mass-specific metabolic rate (V(O2); mL g(-1) h(-1)) declined in a curvilinear fashion with the period of starvation for adults and with the postmolting period for immature bed bugs (used to standardize all immature life stages). A standard curve was developed to depict the generalized pattern of metabolic decline observed in all life stages that molted. Individual metabolic comparisons among life stages that molted revealed some differences in metabolic rate between unmated males and females. In addition, the mass scaling coefficient was found to decline with starvation time (postmolting time) for all life stages that molted. In most life stages, the ratio of V(CO2) to V(O2) (respiratory exchange ratio) declined over time, indicating a change in metabolic substrate with starvation. Finally, daily percent loss in body mass declined in a pattern similar to that of V(O2). The observed patterns in metabolic decline are evaluated in relation to the life history of bed bugs. In addition, the evolutionary development of these patterns is discussed. The metabolic pattern after feeding was also found to share several similarities with that of other ectothermic species. PMID:25590593

  13. Community size and metabolic rates of psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in Arctic marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB; Harder, J.

    1999-01-01

    of 19 isolated psychrophiles were compared to corresponding rates of 9 marine, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The results indicate that, as a physiological adaptation to the permanently cold Arctic environment, psychrophilic sulfate reducers have considerably higher specific metabolic rates than...

  14. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  15. The effects of hydraulics, geomorphology, and storm events on metabolism rates in an agricultural river

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B. L.; Harvey, J. W.; McPhillips, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Physical factors such as discharge, geomorphology, and sediment transport strongly influence metabolism rates in agricultural rivers with sparse tree canopies where sunlight is not limiting. These physical processes establish a mosaic of sediment habitats of varying particle sizes, permeabilities, and biological communities that control primary production and respiration rates. In this study, we examined the combined factors of hydraulic conditions, sediment texture, and hyporheic exchange on the spatial and temporal variability of metabolism rates in an agricultural river located in central Iowa. Hydraulic conditions were quantified using field velocity measurements and two-dimensional hydraulic modeling. Sediment texture was assessed using a grid-based survey identifying dominant particle size classes, as well as aerial coverage of green algae and fine benthic organic material. Hyporheic exchange potential was quantified using an effective diffusion scaling relationship based on sediment and flow conditions. Patch-scale metabolism rates varied spatially according to patterns in hydraulic and sediment characteristics, but were of the same order of magnitude as reach-scale gross primary productivity and community respiration measurements. Two discharge-related storm perturbation regimes to the reach-scale metabolism rates were identified using diurnal dissolved oxygen data measured at the study reach over three years. Rainfall events of 3 cm disrupted metabolism rates for several days to weeks due to bed mobilization and the restructuring of the sediment habitats. A combination of hydraulic modeling, habitat mapping, and reach-scale metabolism measurements were used to produce a two-dimensional analysis of a turbidity-related disturbance event that occurred in late fall 2007. Results from this study suggest that physical processes establish, destroy, and restructure hydraulic and sediment habitats relating to stream metabolism, and that two-dimensional analysis

  16. Self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome in Japanese people: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahama, Satsue; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Dan, Masashi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Annual health checkup at a health check service centre in Japan. Participants A total of 56 865 participants (41 820 male and 15 045 female) who attended a health checkup in 2011 and reported no history of coronary heart disease or stroke. Main outcome measure Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federat...

  17. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia tha...

  18. Influence of tacrolimus metabolism rate on BKV infection after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölking, Gerold; Schmidt, Christina; Koch, Raphael; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Pabst, Dirk; Wolters, Heiner; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Reuter, Stefan; Suwelack, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression is the major risk factor for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) after renal transplantation (RTx). As the individual tacrolimus (Tac) metabolism rate correlates with Tac side effects, we hypothesized that Tac metabolism might also influence the BKV infection risk. In this case-control study RTx patients with BK viremia within 4 years after RTx (BKV group) were compared with a BKV negative control group. The Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the daily dose (C/D ratio) was applied to assess the Tac metabolism rate. BK viremia was detected in 86 patients after a median time of 6 (0-36) months after RTx. BKV positive patients showed lower Tac C/D ratios at 1, 3 and 6 months after RTx and were classified as fast Tac metabolizers. 8 of 86 patients with BK viremia had histologically proven BKN and a higher median maximum viral load than BKV patients without BKN (441,000 vs. 18,572 copies/mL). We conclude from our data that fast Tac metabolism (C/D ratio <1.05) is associated with BK viremia after RTx. Calculation of the Tac C/D ratio early after RTx, may assist transplant clinicians to identify patients at risk and to choose the optimal immunosuppressive regimen. PMID:27573493

  19. A quantitative theory of solid tumor growth, metabolic rate and vascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B Herman

    Full Text Available The relationships between cellular, structural and dynamical properties of tumors have traditionally been studied separately. Here, we construct a quantitative, predictive theory of solid tumor growth, metabolic rate, vascularization and necrosis that integrates the relationships between these properties. To accomplish this, we develop a comprehensive theory that describes the interface and integration of the tumor vascular network and resource supply with the cardiovascular system of the host. Our theory enables a quantitative understanding of how cells, tissues, and vascular networks act together across multiple scales by building on recent theoretical advances in modeling both healthy vasculature and the detailed processes of angiogenesis and tumor growth. The theory explicitly relates tumor vascularization and growth to metabolic rate, and yields extensive predictions for tumor properties, including growth rates, metabolic rates, degree of necrosis, blood flow rates and vessel sizes. Besides these quantitative predictions, we explain how growth rates depend on capillary density and metabolic rate, and why similar tumors grow slower and occur less frequently in larger animals, shedding light on Peto's paradox. Various implications for potential therapeutic strategies and further research are discussed.

  20. Metabolic rates and thermoregulatory characteristics of Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae Tasas metabólicas y características termorregulatorias de Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DANIEL ANTINUCHI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the energetic status, activity daily metabolic rate, thermoregulatory capacity and the existence of torpor in Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was similar to the expected value from Kleiber´s, and also according to the BMR of phylogenetically related species. No statistical difference in BMR between sexes was detected. For both males and females, activity daily metabolic rate was 235 % of BMR. Body temperature was not statistically different, neither at different ambient temperatures nor between sexes. In the thermoneutral zone, body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.5 °C. Thermal conductance was lower than the expected for mammals whereas thermoregulatory capacity was 136 % of the expected. Akodon azarae did not show evidence of torporEn este trabajo fueron evaluadas, para Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829, la tasa metabólica basal (BMR y de actividad diaria así como la capacidad termorregulatoria y la posible existencia de torpor. La BMR no presentó diferencias estadísticas con la esperada por la ecuación de Kleiber así como con la esperada para especies filogenéticamente relacionadas. Tampoco fueron detectadas diferencias significativas en la BMR entre sexos. La tasa metabólica de actividad diaria para ambos sexos fue el 235 % de la BMR. La temperatura corporal no presentó variaciones entre individuos mantenidos a diferentes temperaturas ambiente ni tampoco entre sexos y en termoneutralidad fue de 36,1 ± 1,5 °C. Por otra parte, la conductancia térmica fue menor a la esperada mientras que la capacidad termorregulatoria fue el 136% de la esperada. Akodon azarae no presenta sopor

  1. RELATION OF BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION TO METABOLIC RATE OF JUVENILE JAPANESE SEA BASS,LATEOLABRAX JAPONICUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The metabolic rate of Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus (C & V), was estimated in laboratory at temperature 25.2±0.5℃. The fresh weight of the fish was 4.64-52.28 g (average of 17.81±0.33 g). The routine metabolism was related to body weight by the exponential equation: Rr=14.966W0.74 (r=0.934). The rate of feeding metabolism increased linearly with food consumption. Feeding metabolic rate was 1.8-2.4 times the routine metabolic rate.

  2. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  3. Glaciation in the Late Noachian Icy Highlands: Ice accumulation, distribution, flow rates, basal melting, and top-down melting rates and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Geological evidence for extensive non-polar ice deposits of Amazonian age indicates that the current cold and dry climate of Mars has persisted for several billion years. The geological record and climate history of the Noachian, the earliest period of Mars history, is less certain, but abundant evidence for fluvial channels (valley networks) and lacustrine environments (open-basin lakes) has been interpreted to represent warm and wet conditions, including rainfall and runoff. Alternatively, recent atmospheric modeling results predict a "cold and icy" Late Noachian Mars in which moderate atmospheric pressure accompanied by a full water cycle produce an atmosphere where temperature declines with elevation following an adiabatic lapse rate, in contrast to the current situation on Mars, where temperature is almost completely determined by latitude. These results are formulated in the Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) model, in which these cold and icy conditions lead to the preferential deposition of snow and ice at high elevations, such as the southern uplands. What is the fate of this snow and ice and the nature of glaciation in such an environment? What are the prospects of melting of these deposits contributing to the observed fluvial and lacustrine deposits? To address these questions, we report on a glacial flow-modeling analysis using a Mars-adapted ice sheet model with LNIH climate conditions. The total surface/near-surface water inventory is poorly known for the Late Noachian, so we explore the LNIH model in a "supply-limited" scenario for a range of available water abundances and a range of Late Noachian geothermal fluxes. Our results predict that the Late Noachian icy highlands (above an equilibrium line altitude of approximately +1 km) were characterized by extensive ice sheets of the order of hundreds of meters thick. Due to extremely cold conditions, the ice-flow velocities in general were very low, less than a few mm/yr, and the regional ice

  4. DIFFERENCES IN POST HATCH METABOLIC RATE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATE IN ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR L): EVIDENCE FOR COMPENSATORY GROWTH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    in six out of 91 families, the three families with earliest and the three families with latest time to hatch. Measurements were done on two occasions, at 570-580 (T1) and 600-610 (T2) day degrees from fertilization. Generally, VO2 increased and yolk was consumed between T1 and T2. Late hatching larvae...... and had higher metabolic rate in T1 suggests that these inherited differences can be even out by accelerated post hatch growth....

  5. Does the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship vary among geometrically similar birds of different mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, Matthew W; Hansen, Kacia S; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-03-01

    Based on aerodynamic considerations, the energy use-flight speed relationship of all airborne animals and aircraft should be U-shaped. However, measures of the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship in birds have been available since Tucker's pioneering experiments with budgerigars nearly forty years ago, but this classic work remains the only study to have found a clearly U-shaped metabolic power curve. The available data suggests that the energetic requirements for flight within this species are unique, yet the metabolic power curve of the budgerigar is widely considered representative of birds in general. Given these conflicting results and the observation that the budgerigar's mass is less than 50% of the next smallest species to have been studied, we asked whether large and small birds have metabolic power curves of different shapes. To address this question we measured the rates of oxygen uptake and wingbeat kinematics in budgerigars and cockatiels flying within a variable-speed wind tunnel. These species are close phylogenetic relatives, have similar flight styles, wingbeat kinematics, and are geometrically similar but have body masses that differ by a factor of two. In contrast to our expectations, we found the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of both species to be acutely U-shaped. We also found that neither budgerigars nor cockatiels used their normal intermittent flight style while wearing a respirometric mask. We conclude that species size differences alone do not explain the previously unique metabolic power curve of the budgerigar; however, due to the absence of comparable data we cannot evaluate whether the mask-related kinematic response we document influences the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of these parrots, or whether the energetics of flight differ between this and other avian clades. PMID:17337719

  6. The relationship of sleep with temperature and metabolic rate in a hibernating primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Krystal

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: It has long been suspected that sleep is important for regulating body temperature and metabolic-rate. Hibernation, a state of acute hypothermia and reduced metabolic-rate, offers a promising system for investigating those relationships. Prior studies in hibernating ground squirrels report that, although sleep occurs during hibernation, it manifests only as non-REM sleep, and only at relatively high temperatures. In our study, we report data on sleep during hibernation in a lemuriform primate, Cheirogaleus medius. As the only primate known to experience prolonged periods of hibernation and as an inhabitant of more temperate climates than ground squirrels, this animal serves as an alternative model for exploring sleep temperature/metabolism relationships that may be uniquely relevant to understanding human physiology. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: We find that during hibernation, non-REM sleep is absent in Cheirogaleus. Rather, periods of REM sleep occur during periods of relatively high ambient temperature, a pattern opposite of that observed in ground squirrels. Like ground squirrels, however, EEG is marked by ultra-low voltage activity at relatively low metabolic-rates. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm a sleep-temperature/metabolism link, though they also suggest that the relationship of sleep stage with temperature/metabolism is flexible and may differ across species or mammalian orders. The absence of non-REM sleep suggests that during hibernation in Cheirogaleus, like in the ground squirrel, the otherwise universal non-REM sleep homeostatic response is greatly curtailed or absent. Lastly, ultra-low voltage EEG appears to be a cross-species marker for extremely low metabolic-rate, and, as such, may be an attractive target for research on hibernation induction.

  7. Effects of growth hormone transgenesis on metabolic rate, exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance in tilapia hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Martinez, R; Morales, A;

    2003-01-01

    Swimming respirometry was employed to compare inactive metabolic rate (Rr), maximum metabolic rate (Rmax), resultant aerobic scope and maximum sustainable (critical) swimming speed (Ucrit), in growth hormone transgenic (GHT) and wild-type (W) tilapia Oreochromis sp. hybrids. Although the Rr of GHT...... tilapia was significantly (58%) higher than their W conspecifics, there were no significant differences in their net aerobic scope because GHT tilapia exhibited a compensatory increase in Rmax that was equal to their net increase in Rr. As a consequence, the two groups had the same Ucrit. The GHT and W...... and preserve such physiological determinants of fitness as aerobic scope, swimming performance and tolerance of hypoxia....

  8. Intracerebroventricular injection of murine leptin enhances the postprandial metabolic rate in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, M; Nicolaidis, S

    2000-08-18

    Energy balance is achieved by means of a concomitant control of both food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin, synthesized in the adipose tissue, acts on brain structures and lowers body weight by inhibiting food intake and in parallel by enhancing energy expenditure i.e. metabolism or one of its components. Recording distinctly these components allowed us to assess the effect of an acute intracerebroventricular injection of leptin on both feeding pattern and background metabolism (i.e. energy expenditure free from the part of locomotor activity), respiratory quotient, feeding-related metabolism and locomotor activity-related metabolism. Leptin injection to Sprague-Dawley male rats induced an inhibition of feeding that began 90 min after the treatment and lasted 1 h before to return to the control feeding pattern level. Considering this late behavioral effect, it appeared that leptin may act during the postprandial period so that we recorded the different metabolic parameters following a 3 g calibrated meal itself preceded by leptin vs. artificial cerebrospinal fluid injection. Postprandial respiratory quotient was rapidly lowered in leptin-treated animals and subsequent background metabolism increased for 6 h. Thus it appeared that leptin increased the duration of the postprandial metabolic rate via the recruitment of endogenous fat stores. Enhancement in the thermic effect of food may be the reason for feeding behavior inhibition to be delayed. PMID:10936221

  9. Decrease in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose after high-dose methotrexate in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured changes in the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography for the assessment of neurotoxicity in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) therapy. We studied 8 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (mean age: 9.6 years) treated with HD-MTX (200 mg/kg or 2,000 mg/M2) therapy. CMRGlu after HD-MTX therapy was most reduced (40%) in the patient who had central nervous system leukemia and was treated with the largest total doses of both intrathecal MTX (IT-MTX) and HD-MTX. CMRGlu in the whole brain after HD-MTX therapy was reduced by an average of 21% (P less than 0.05). The reductions of CMRGlu in 8 patients were correlated with total doses of both IT-MTX (r = 0.717; P less than 0.05) and systemic HD-MTX (r = 0.784; P less than 0.05). CMRGlu of the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal and occipital cortex, was reduced more noticeably than that of the basal ganglia and white matter. We suggest that the measurement of changes in rCMRGlu after HD-MTX therapy is useful for detecting accumulated MTX neurotoxicity

  10. What do metabolic rates tell us about thermal niches? Mechanisms driving crayfish distributions along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, Rick J; Richardson, Adam J; Vogel, Matthew T; Coates, Simon P; Müller, Warren J

    2016-01-01

    Humans are rapidly altering thermal landscapes, so a central challenge to organismal ecologists is to better understand the thermal niches of ectotherms. However, there is much disagreement over how we should go about this. Some ecologists assume that a statistical model of abundance as a function of habitat temperature provides a sufficient approximation of the thermal niche, but ecophysiologists have shown that the relationship between fitness and temperature can be complicated, and have stressed the need to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying the response of species to thermal change. Towards this end, we studied the distribution of two crayfishes, Euastacus woiwuru and Euastacus armatus, along an altitudinal gradient, and for both species conducted experiments to determine the temperature-dependence of: (1) aerobic scope (the difference between maximum and basal metabolic rate; purported to be a proxy of the thermal niche); and (2) burst locomotor performance (primarily fuelled using anaerobic pathways). E. woiwuru occupied cooler habitats than E. armatus, but we found no difference in aerobic scope between these species. In contrast, locomotor performance curves differed significantly and strongly between species, with peak locomotor performances of E. woiwuru and E. armatus occurring at ~10 and ~18 °C, respectively. Crayfish from different thermal landscapes may have similar aerobic thermal performance curves but different anaerobic thermal performance curves. Our results support a growing body of literature implying different components of ectotherm fitness have different thermal performance curves, and further challenge our understanding of the ecology and evolution of thermal niches. PMID:26440800

  11. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  12. How does a fish's metabolic rate influence its performance in a changing environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Metcalfe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish provide some of the best-studied examples of marked intraspecific variation in metabolic rate: after accounting for variation in size and age, there can typically be a 2-3 fold variation among individual fish for both standard and maximum metabolic rate (SMR and MMR, and also in their aerobic scope (AS, the difference between SMR and MMR and hence a fish’s capacity to increase its aerobic metabolism. These differences are relatively stable over time, although individual fish differ in the extent to which they can alter their metabolism when environmental conditions change. In this presentation I will briefly consider the extent and causes of individual variation in SMR, MMR and AS, considering both the mechanistic basis (e.g. individual variation in mitochondrial performance and its origins, including a consideration of genetic and maternal effects. I will then describe both documented and potential links between metabolism, behaviour and performance. Intraspecific variation in metabolism has been found to be related to other traits. As an example, fish with a relatively high SMR tend to be more dominant, digest food faster and grow faster than those with a low SMR, but these advantages only apply in environments where the food supply is high and predictable; in less favourable environments they lose their advantage, and are more prone to risk-taking when conditions deteriorate. Less is known about the ecological consequences of individual variation in MMR and AS, although fish with a higher AS are known to have advantages in some contexts. This is especially important in the context of climate change, since it has been suggested that constraints on AS may underlie the poor performance of fishes at higher temperatures. Given these links between metabolism and measures of performance, understanding the metabolic responses of individuals to changing environments will be a key area for future research.

  13. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate - a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Mark B; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Christensen, Søren Just; Law, Ian; Rasmussen, Peter; Olsen, Niels V; Larsson, Henrik Bw

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration was unchanged (p = 0.36). In conclusion, acute hypoxia in healthy subjects increased perfusion and metabolic rate, which could represent an increase in neuronal activity. We conclude that marked changes in brain homeostasis occur in the healthy human brain during exposure to acute hypoxia. PMID:26661163

  14. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  15. Relationship between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions in Chinese adults living in rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-jian Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resting pulse rate has been observed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, its association with lipid metabolic dysfunctions remains unclear, especially resting pulse rate as an indicator for identifying the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions, and then evaluate the feasibility of resting pulse rate as an indicator for screening the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed, and 16,926 subjects were included in this study from rural community residents aged 35-78 years. Resting pulse rate and relevant covariates were collected from a standard questionnaire. The fasting blood samples were collected and measured for lipid profile. Predictive performance was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between resting pulse rate and TC (r = 0.102, P = 0.001, TG (r = 0.182, P = 0.001, and dyslipidemia (r = 0.037, P = 0.008. In the multivariate models, the adjusted odds ratios for hypercholesterolemia (from 1.07 to 1.15, hypertriglyceridemia (1.11 to 1.16, low HDL hypercholesterolemia (1.03 to 1.06, high LDL hypercholesterolemia (0.92 to 1.14, and dyslipidemia (1.04 to 1.07 were positively increased across quartiles of resting pulse rate (P for trend <0.05. The ROC curve indicated that resting pulse rate had low sensitivity (78.95%, 74.18%, 51.54%, 44.39%, and 54.22%, specificity (55.88%, 59.46%, 57.27%, 65.02%, and 60.56%, and the area under ROC curve (0.70, 0.69, 0.54, 0.56, and 0.58 for identifying the risk of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL hypercholesterolemia, high LDL hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fast resting pulse rate was associated with a moderate increased risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions in rural adults. However, resting pulse

  16. Influence of heart rate at rest for predicting the metabolic syndrome in older Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. ó Hartaigh; C.Q. Jiang; J.A. Bosch; W.S. Zhang; K.K. Cheng; T.H. Lam; G.N. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between seated resting heart rate and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among older residents of Guangzhou, South China. A total of 30,519 older participants (≥50 years) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study were stratified into quartiles based on

  17. Resting metabolic rate in Italians : relation with body composition and anthropometric parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo, de A.; Andreoli, A.; Bertoli, S.; Testolin, G.; Oriani, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain values for resting metabolic rate in Italians in relation to parameters of body composition, and to compare them to predicted values using the FAO/WHO/UNU equation. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 131 healthy subjects (46 males and 85

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  19. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  20. Metabolic rate and clothing insulation data of children and adolescents during various school activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    2007-01-01

    Data on metabolic rates (n = 0;81) and clothing insulation (n = 96) of school children and adolescents (A, primary school: age 9-10; B, primary school: age 10-11 year; C, junior vocational (technical) education: age 13-16 (lower level); D, same as C but at advanced level; and E, senior vocational (t

  1. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum

  2. Experimental study on trace chemical contaminant generation rates of human metabolism in spacecraft crew module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Guo; Xinxing, He; Guoxin, Xu; Xin, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Trace chemical contaminants generated by human metabolism is a major source of contamination in spacecraft crew module. In this research, types and generation rates of pollutants from human metabolism were determined in the Chinese diets. Expired air, skin gas, and sweat of 20 subjects were analyzed at different exercise states in a simulated module. The exercise states were designed according to the basic activities in the orbit of astronauts. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of contaminants generated by human metabolic were performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometer. Sixteen chemical compounds from metabolic sources were found. With the increase in physical load, the concentrations of chemical compounds from human skin and expired air correspondingly increased. The species and the offgassing rates of pollutants from human metabolism are different among the Chinese, Americans and the Russians due to differences in ethnicity and dietary customs. This research provides data to aid in the design, development and operation of China's long duration space mission.

  3. Mechanistic drivers of flexibility in summit metabolic rates of small birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Swanson

    Full Text Available Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054 for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495 than mass-specific (r = 0.378 CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

  4. The effect of microbial glucose metabolism on bytownite feldspar dissolution rates between 5 and 35 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, S.A.; Ullman, W.J.

    1999-10-01

    The rate of Si release from dissolving bytownite feldspar in abiotic batch reactors increased as temperatures increased from 5 to 35 C. Metabolically inert subsurface bacteria (bacteria in solution with no organic substrate) had no apparent effect on dissolution rates over this temperature range. When glucose was added to the microbial cultures, the bacteria responded by producing gluconic acid, which catalyzed the dissolution reaction by both proton- and ligand-promoted mechanisms. The metabolic production, excretion, and consumption of gluconic acid in the course of glucose oxidation, and therefore, the degree of microbial enhancement of mineral dissolution, depend on temperature. There was little accumulation of gluconic acid and therefore, no significant enhancement of mineral dissolution rates at 35 C compared to the abiotic controls. At 20 C, gluconate accumulated in the experimental solutions only at the beginning of the experiment and led to a twofold increase in dissolved Si release compared to the controls, primarily by the ligand-promoted dissolution mechanism. There was significant accumulation of gluconic acid in the 5 C experiment, which is reflected in a significant reduction in pH, leading to 20-fold increase in Si release, primarily attributable to the proton-promoted dissolution mechanism. These results indicate that bacteria and microbial metabolism can affect mineral dissolution rates in organic-rich, nutrient-poor environments; the impact of microbial metabolism on aluminum silicate dissolution rates may be greater at lower rather than at higher temperatures due to the metabolic accumulation of dissolution-enhancing protons and ligands in solution.

  5. Quantitative Rates of Brain Glucose Metabolism Distinguish Minimally Conscious from Vegetative State Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Johan; Kupers, Ron; Rodell, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of the vegetative or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) is an important clinical issue. The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) declines when consciousness is lost, and may reveal the residual cognitive function of these...... indistinguishable from those of MCS. Ordinal logistic regression predicted that patients are likely to emerge into MCS at CMRglc above 45% of normal. Receiver-operating characteristics showed that patients in MCS and VS/UWS can be differentiated with 82% accuracy, based on cortical metabolism. Together these...

  6. Effect of dietary fatty acids on metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating rodents prior to winter tend to select food rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several studies found that such diet may positively affect their winter energy budget by enhancing torpor episodes. However, the effect of composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) on metabolism of normothermic heterotherms is poorly understood. Thus we tested whether diets different in FA composition affect metabolic rate (MR) and the capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in normothermic golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures from May 2010 to April 2011 and fed a diet enriched with PUFA (i.e., standard food supplemented weekly with sunflower and flax seeds) or with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA/MUFA, standard food supplemented with mealworms). Since diet rich in PUFA results in lower MR in hibernating animals, we predicted that PUFA-rich diet would have similar effect on MR of normothermic hamsters, that is, normothermic hamsters on the PUFA diet would have lower metabolic rate in cold and higher NST capacity than hamsters supplemented with SFA/MUFA. Indeed, in winter resting metabolic rate (RMR) below the lower critical temperature was higher and NST capacity was lower in SFA/MUFA-supplemented animals than in PUFA-supplemented ones. These results suggest that the increased capacity for NST in PUFA-supplemented hamsters enables them lower RMR below the lower critical temperature of the thermoneural zone.

  7. Trade-offs between the metabolic rate and population density of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ming Deng

    Full Text Available The energetic equivalence rule, which is based on a combination of metabolic theory and the self-thinning rule, is one of the fundamental laws of nature. However, there is a progressively increasing body of evidence that scaling relationships of metabolic rate vs. body mass and population density vs. body mass are variable and deviate from their respective theoretical values of 3/4 and -3/4 or -2/3. These findings questioned the previous hypotheses of energetic equivalence rule in plants. Here we examined the allometric relationships between photosynthetic mass (M(p or leaf mass (M(L vs. body mass (beta; population density vs. body mass (delta; and leaf mass vs. population density, for desert shrubs, trees, and herbaceous plants, respectively. As expected, the allometric relationships for both photosynthetic mass (i.e. metabolic rate and population density varied with the environmental conditions. However, the ratio between the two exponents was -1 (i.e. beta/delta = -1 and followed the trade-off principle when local resources were limited. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the energetic equivalence rule of plants is based on trade-offs between the variable metabolic rate and population density rather than their constant allometric exponents.

  8. Measuring Rates of Herbicide Metabolism in Dicot Weeds with an Excised Leaf Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Skelton, Joshua J; Riechers, Dean E

    2015-01-01

    In order to isolate and accurately determine rates of herbicide metabolism in an obligate-outcrossing dicot weed, waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), we developed an excised leaf assay combined with a vegetative cloning strategy to normalize herbicide uptake and remove translocation as contributing factors in herbicide-resistant (R) and -sensitive (S) waterhemp populations. Biokinetic analyses of organic pesticides in plants typically include the determination of uptake, translocation (delivery to the target site), metabolic fate, and interactions with the target site. Herbicide metabolism is an important parameter to measure in herbicide-resistant weeds and herbicide-tolerant crops, and is typically accomplished with whole-plant tests using radiolabeled herbicides. However, one difficulty with interpreting biokinetic parameters derived from whole-plant methods is that translocation is often affected by rates of herbicide metabolism, since polar metabolites are usually not mobile within the plant following herbicide detoxification reactions. Advantages of the protocol described in this manuscript include reproducible, accurate, and rapid determination of herbicide degradation rates in R and S populations, a substantial decrease in the amount of radiolabeled herbicide consumed, a large reduction in radiolabeled plant materials requiring further handling and disposal, and the ability to perform radiolabeled herbicide experiments in the lab or growth chamber instead of a greenhouse. As herbicide resistance continues to develop and spread in dicot weed populations worldwide, the excised leaf assay method developed and described herein will provide an invaluable technique for investigating non-target site-based resistance due to enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism and detoxification. PMID:26383604

  9. Metabolic rates of the antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica at different temperatures and salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in environmental factors may deeply affect the energy budget of Antarctic organisms as many of them are stenothermal and/or stenohaline ectotherms. In this context, the aim of this study is to contribute to knowledge on variations in the energy demand of the Antarctic amphipod, Gondogeneia antarctica as a function of temperature and salinity. Experiments were held at the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz", under controlled conditions. Animals collected at Admiralty Bay were acclimated to temperatures of 0ºC; 2.5ºC and 5ºC and to salinities of 35, 30 and 25. Thirty measurements were made for each of the nine combinations of the three temperatures and three salinities, totalling 270 measurements. Metabolic rates were assessed by oxygen consumption and total nitrogenous ammonia excretion, in sealed respirometers. When acclimated to salinities 30 or 35, metabolic rates at 0ºC and 2.5ºC were very similar indicating a possible mechanism of metabolic compensation for temperature. At 5.0ºC, however, metabolic rates were always higher. Lower salinities enhanced the effects of temperature on metabolism and ammonia excretion rates. The physiological adaptations of individuals of G. antarctica suggest adaptive mechanisms for energy saving, adjusted to an environment with stable conditions of temperature and salinity. Little is known about the joint effects of salinity and temperature and this study is an important contribution to the understanding of the mechanism of polar organisms in their adaptation to both factors.

  10. Shoaling reduces metabolic rate in a gregarious coral reef fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S.; McClure, Eva C.; Munday, Philip L.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many animals live in groups because of the potential benefits associated with defense and foraging. Group living may also induce a ‘calming effect’ on individuals, reducing overall metabolic demand. This effect could occur by minimising the need for individual vigilance and reducing stress through social buffering. However, this effect has proved difficult to quantify. We examined the effect of shoaling on metabolism and body condition in the gregarious damselfish Chromis viridis. Using a novel respirometry methodology for social species, we found that the presence of shoal-mate visual and olfactory cues led to a reduction in the minimum metabolic rate of individuals. Fish held in isolation for 1 week also exhibited a reduction in body condition when compared with those held in shoals. These results indicate that social isolation as a result of environmental disturbance could have physiological consequences for gregarious species. PMID:27655821

  11. The implications of reduced metabolic rate in resource-limited corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lianne M; Edmunds, Peter J; Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    Many organisms exhibit depressed metabolism when resources are limited, a change that makes it possible to balance an energy budget. For symbiotic reef corals, daily cycles of light and periods of intense cloud cover can be chronic causes of food limitation through reduced photosynthesis. Furthermore, coral bleaching is common in present-day reefs, creating a context in which metabolic depression could have beneficial value to corals. In the present study, corals (massive Porites spp.) were exposed to an extreme case of resource limitation by starving them of food and light for 20 days. When resources were limited, the corals depressed area-normalized respiration to 37% of initial rates, and coral biomass declined to 64% of initial amounts, yet the corals continued to produce skeletal mass. However, the declines in biomass cannot account for the declines in area-normalized respiration, as mass-specific respiration declined to 30% of the first recorded time point. Thus, these corals appear to be capable of metabolic depression. It is possible that some coral species are better able to depress metabolic rates than others; such variation could explain differential survival during conditions that limit resources (e.g. shading). Furthermore, we found that maintenance of existing biomass, in part, supports the production of skeletal mass. This association could be explained if maintenance supplies needed energy (e.g. ATP) or inorganic carbon (i.e. CO2) that otherwise limits the production of skeletal mass. Finally, the observed metabolic depression can be explained as a change in pool sizes, and does not require a change in metabolic rules. PMID:26823098

  12. Cellular oxidative damage is more sensitive to biosynthetic rate than to metabolic rate: A test of the theoretical model on hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunugama, Kaushalya; Jiao, Lihong; Olbricht, Gayla R; Walker, Chance; Huang, Yue-Wern; Nam, Paul K; Hou, Chen

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theoretical model from an energetic viewpoint for unraveling the entangled effects of metabolic and biosynthetic rates on oxidative cellular damage accumulation during animal's growth, and test the model by experiments in hornworms. The theoretical consideration suggests that most of the cellular damages caused by the oxidative metabolism can be repaired by the efficient maintenance mechanisms, if the energy required by repair is unlimited. However, during growth a considerable amount of energy is allocated to the biosynthesis, which entails tradeoffs with the requirements of repair. Thus, the model predicts that cellular damage is more influenced by the biosynthetic rate than the metabolic rate. To test the prediction, we induced broad variations in metabolic and biosynthetic rates in hornworms, and assayed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. We found that the increase in the cellular damage was mainly caused by the increase in biosynthetic rate, and the variations in metabolic rate had negligible effect. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging suggests that high metabolism leads to high cellular damage and short lifespan. However, some empirical studies showed that varying biosynthetic rate, rather than metabolic rate, changes animal's lifespan. The conflicts between the empirical evidence and the hypothesis are reconciled by this study. PMID:27296440

  13. Low global sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature in calcified marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A; Bates, Amanda E; Clark, Melody S; Day, Robert W; Lamare, Miles; Martin, Stephanie M; Southgate, Paul C; Tan, Koh Siang; Tyler, Paul A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a key component of energy budgets that scales with body size and varies with large-scale environmental geographical patterns. Here we conduct an analysis of standard metabolic rates (SMR) of marine ectotherms across a 70° latitudinal gradient in both hemispheres that spanned collection temperatures of 0-30 °C. To account for latitudinal differences in the size and skeletal composition between species, SMR was mass normalized to that of a standard-sized (223 mg) ash-free dry mass individual. SMR was measured for 17 species of calcified invertebrates (bivalves, gastropods, urchins and brachiopods), using a single consistent methodology, including 11 species whose SMR was described for the first time. SMR of 15 out of 17 species had a mass-scaling exponent between 2/3 and 1, with no greater support for a 3/4 rather than a 2/3 scaling exponent. After accounting for taxonomy and variability in parameter estimates among species using variance-weighted linear mixed effects modelling, temperature sensitivity of SMR had an activation energy (Ea) of 0.16 for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere species which was lower than predicted under the metabolic theory of ecology (Ea 0.2-1.2 eV). Northern Hemisphere species, however, had a higher SMR at each habitat temperature, but a lower mass-scaling exponent relative to SMR. Evolutionary trade-offs that may be driving differences in metabolic rate (such as metabolic cold adaptation of Northern Hemisphere species) will have important impacts on species abilities to respond to changing environments. PMID:24036933

  14. A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Horia; Dulmage, Keely; Gillum, Nicholas; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Schmid, Amy K

    2014-09-01

    Co-ordinating metabolism and growth is a key challenge for all organisms. Despite fluctuating environments, cells must produce the same metabolic outputs to thrive. The mechanisms underlying this 'growth homeostasis' are known in bacteria and eukaryotes, but remain unexplored in archaea. In the model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum, the transcription factor TrmB regulates enzyme-coding genes in diverse metabolic pathways in response to glucose. However, H. salinarum is thought not to catabolize glucose. To resolve this discrepancy, we demonstrate that TrmB regulates the gluconeogenic production of sugars incorporated into the cell surface S-layer glycoprotein. Additionally, we show that TrmB-DNA binding correlates with instantaneous growth rate, likely because S-layer glycosylation is proportional to growth. This suggests that TrmB transduces a growth rate signal to co-regulated metabolic pathways including amino acid, purine, and cobalamin biosynthesis. Remarkably, the topology and function of this growth homeostatic network appear conserved across domains despite extensive alterations in protein components.

  15. Behaviour and metabolic rates of brown trout and Atlantic salmon : Influence of food, environment and social interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lans, Linnea

    2012-01-01

    For Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), the decision to migrate or when to migrate is believed to be influenced by the individual’s metabolic rate (MR) relative its food intake. As MR was expected to be related to behaviour, the potential links between behaviour and metabolic costs was studied. For both salmon and trout the dominant individual had a higher standard metabolic rate (SMR) than its subordinate counterpart. Also, successful migrants of brown trout had a h...

  16. Metabolic rate and gross efficiency at high work rates in world class and national level sprint skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) at moderate and high work rates, and the relationships to gross kinematics and physical characteristics in elite cross-country skiers. Eight world class (WC) and eight national level (NL) male sprint cross-country skiers performed three 5-min stages using the skating G3 technique, whilst roller skiing on a treadmill. GE was calculated by dividing work rate by MR. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against gravity and frictional rolling forces. MR was calculated using gas exchange and blood lactate values. Gross kinematics, i.e. cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR) were measured by video analysis. Furthermore, the skiers were tested for time to exhaustion (TTE), peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), and maximal speed (V(max)) on the treadmill, and maximal strength in the laboratory. Individual performance level in sprint skating was determined by FIS points. WC skiers did not differ in aerobic MR, but showed lower anaerobic MR and higher GE than NL skiers at a given speed (all P < 0.05). Moreover, WC skiers skated with longer CL and had higher V(max) and TTE (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study shows that WC skiers are more efficient than NL skiers, and it is proposed that this might be due to a better technique and to technique-specific power.

  17. Respiratory allocation and standard rate of metabolism in the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ashley W; Chapman, Lauren J

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between respiratory allocation (air vs. water) and the standard rate of metabolism (SMR) in the primitive air-breathing lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumed from both air and water were made to determine the SMR at ecologically relevant aquatic oxygen levels for juveniles 2 to 221 g. Total metabolic rate was positively correlated with body mass with a scaling exponent of 0.78. Aerial oxygen consumption averaged 98% (range=94% to 100%) of total respiratory allocation under low aquatic oxygen levels. Measurements of oxygen consumption made across a gradient of dissolved oxygen from normoxia to anoxia showed that P. aethiopicus maintains its SMR despite a change in respiratory allocation between water and air. PMID:16380279

  18. Metabolic Rate M[superscript 0.75] in Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal. D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Human beings consume energy every day. Even at rest, energy is still needed for the working of the internal organs. This is achieved by the metabolism of consumed food in the presence of inhaled oxygen. During the resting state this is called the maintenance rate, and follows the mouse-to-elephant formula, P[subscript met] = 70M[superscript 0.75]…

  19. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day) when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low tem...

  20. Is There a Chronic Elevation in Organ-Tissue Sleeping Metabolic Rate in Very Fit Runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Tanaka, Shigeho; Ando, Takafumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Masayuki, Konishi; Ohta, Megumi; Torii, Suguru; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the resting metabolic rate of individual organ-tissue in adults with high aerobic fitness is higher than that in untrained adults; in fact, this topic has been debated for years using a two-component model. To address this issue, in the present study, we examined the relationship between the measured sleeping energy expenditure (EE) by using an indirect human calorimeter (IHC) and the calculated resting EE (REE) from organ-tissue mass using magnetic resonance imaging, along with the assumed metabolic rate constants in healthy adults. Seventeen healthy male long-distance runners were recruited and grouped according to the median V·O2peak: very fit group (>60 mL/min/kg; n = 8) and fit group (<60 mL/min/kg; n = 9). Participants performed a graded exercise test for determining V·O2peak; X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine organ-tissue mass, and IHC was used to determine sleeping EE. The calculated REE was estimated as the sum of individual organ-tissue masses multiplied by their metabolic rate constants. No significant difference was observed in the measured sleeping EE, calculated REE, and their difference, as well as in the slopes and intercepts of the two regression lines between the groups. Moreover, no significant correlation between V·O2peak and the difference in measured sleeping EE and calculated REE was observed for all subjects. Thus, aerobic endurance training does not result in a chronic elevation in the organ-tissue metabolic rate in cases with V·O2peak of approximately 60 mL/min/kg.

  1. THE RATE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME AND COMORBIDITIES IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT: DATA OF A MULTICENTER TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    V G Barskova; Maksim Sergeyevich Eliseyev; I S Denisov; M E Eliseyeva; O A Belikov; G R Fadiyenko; F S Zharskaya; O P Polkovnikova; A. N. Kalyagin; M V Sklyanova; E A Shvetsova; L A Knyazeva; I M Marusenko; S E Myasoedova; E A Kozhevnikova

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to study the rate of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among gout patients in different regions of the Russian Federation. Subjects and methods. This cross-sectional multicenter study enrolled 2277 gout patients, including 1963 (86.2%) men and 314 (13.8%) women, from 12 independent medical centers in different regions of the Russian Federation. The patients over 18 years of age who met the classification criteria for gout, elaborated by S. Wallace et al., were included. Th...

  2. Transient and permanent effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on growth, metabolic rate, immune function and adrenocortical responses in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Haruka; Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Allen, Natalie; Schmidt, Kimberly L; Soma, Kiran K; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    In birds, incubation temperature can vary by several degrees Celsius among nests of a given species. Parents may alter incubation temperature to cope with environmental conditions and/or to manipulate embryonic development, and such changes in incubation behavior could have long-lasting effects on offspring phenotype. To investigate short- and long-term effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on survival and physiological functions in zebra finches, eggs were incubated at 36.2, 37.4 or 38.4 °C for the entire incubation period. The post-hatch environment was identical among the treatment groups. We found that hatching success was lowest in the 38.4 °C group, while post-hatch survival was lowest in the 36.2 °C group. Incubation temperature had sex-specific effects on offspring phenotype: incubation temperatures affected body mass (Mb) but not physiological parameters of males and conversely, the physiological parameters but not Mb of females. Specifically, males from the 38.4 °C group weighed significantly less than males from the 36.2 °C group from the nestling period to adulthood, whereas females from different incubation temperature groups did not differ in Mb. In contrast, females incubated at 36.2 °C had transient but significantly elevated basal metabolic rate and adrenocortical responses during the nestling and fledgling periods, whereas no treatment effect was observed in males. Innate immunity was not affected by incubation temperature in either sex. These results suggest that a 1 °C deviation from what is considered an optimal incubation temperature can lower offspring performance and offspring survival.

  3. Food composition influences metabolism, heart rate and organ growth during digestion in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Poul Secher; Enok, Sanne; Overgaard, Johannes; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Digestion in pythons is associated with a large increase in oxygen consumption (SDA), increased cardiac output and growth in visceral organs assisting in digestion. The processes leading to the large postprandial rise in metabolism in snakes is subject to opposing views. Gastric work, protein synthesis and organ growth have each been speculated to be major contributors to the SDA. To investigate the role of food composition on SDA, heart rate (HR) and organ growth, 48 ball pythons (Python regius) were fed meals of either fat, glucose, protein or protein combined with carbonate. Our study shows that protein, in the absence or presence of carbonate causes a large SDA response, while glucose caused a significantly smaller SDA response and digestion of fat failed to affect metabolism. Addition of carbonate to the diet to stimulate gastric acid secretion did not increase the SDA response. These results support protein synthesis as a major contributor to the SDA response and show that increased gastric acid secretion occurs at a low metabolic cost. The increase in metabolism was supported by tachycardia caused by altered autonomic regulation as well as an increased non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) tone in response to all diets, except for the lipid meal. Organ growth only occurred in the small intestine and liver in snakes fed on a high protein diet.

  4. Mathematical model for in vivo measurement of metabolic rates using externally monitored radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model was developed for analyzing data from in vivo metabolism studies based on external monitoring of radioisotopes used to label pharmaceuticals injected into the circulation. Our method is atraumatic, depending only on intravenous injection of two radiotracers and on continuous sampling of arterial blood via catheter from a peripheral site. One injection is of labeled substrate; the other, of a labeled nondiffusible vascular tracer. Following each injection, radioactivities in the organ of interest and in sampled arterial blood are monitored by two external radiation detectors. Thus, for each study, four detector response curves are obtained. The purpose of the second injection is to allow unextracted vascular radioactivity, and by difference, tissue radioactivity, to be determined in the organ of interest. The equations of the model show how tissue radioactivity is related to uptake and utilization of unlabeled substrate in the organ. We have developed algorithms based on these equations for processing the four response curves in order to compute the metabolic utilization rate and other parameters of interest. These algorithms can be implemented on a digital minicomputer if so desired. We have validated our model in a particular application by measuring brain glucose metabolism in live rhesus monkeys, noting the agreement between the results of our method and those of an independent (though traumatic) technique. In conclusion, we discuss possible applications of our model in studies of other metabolic systems

  5. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  6. Intraspecific variation in flight metabolic rate in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens: repeatability and functional determinants in workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau, Charles-A; Billardon, Fannie; Bélanger, Kasandra

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of flight energetics requires that phenotypes be variable, repeatable and heritable. We studied intraspecific variation in flight energetics in order to assess the repeatability of flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency, as well as the functional basis of phenotypic variation in workers and drones of the bumblebee species Bombus impatiens. We showed that flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency were highly repeatable in workers, even when controlling for body mass variation using residual analysis. We did not detect significant repeatability in drones, but a smaller range of variation might have prevented us from finding significant values in our sample. Based on our results and previous findings, we associated the high repeatability of flight phenotypes in workers to the functional links between body mass, thorax mass, wing size, wingbeat frequency and metabolic rate. Moreover, differences between workers and drones were as predicted from these functional associations, where drones had larger wings for their size, lower wingbeat frequency and lower flight metabolic rate. We also investigated thoracic muscle metabolic phenotypes by measuring the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and we found positive correlations between mass-independent metabolic rate and the activity of all enzymes measured, but in workers only. When comparing workers and drones that differ in flight metabolic rate, only the activity of the enzymes hexokinase and trehalase showed the predicted differences. Overall, our study indicates that there should be correlated evolution among physiological phenotypes at multiple levels of organization and morphological traits associated with flight.

  7. Intraspecific variation in flight metabolic rate in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens: repeatability and functional determinants in workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau, Charles-A; Billardon, Fannie; Bélanger, Kasandra

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of flight energetics requires that phenotypes be variable, repeatable and heritable. We studied intraspecific variation in flight energetics in order to assess the repeatability of flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency, as well as the functional basis of phenotypic variation in workers and drones of the bumblebee species Bombus impatiens. We showed that flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency were highly repeatable in workers, even when controlling for body mass variation using residual analysis. We did not detect significant repeatability in drones, but a smaller range of variation might have prevented us from finding significant values in our sample. Based on our results and previous findings, we associated the high repeatability of flight phenotypes in workers to the functional links between body mass, thorax mass, wing size, wingbeat frequency and metabolic rate. Moreover, differences between workers and drones were as predicted from these functional associations, where drones had larger wings for their size, lower wingbeat frequency and lower flight metabolic rate. We also investigated thoracic muscle metabolic phenotypes by measuring the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and we found positive correlations between mass-independent metabolic rate and the activity of all enzymes measured, but in workers only. When comparing workers and drones that differ in flight metabolic rate, only the activity of the enzymes hexokinase and trehalase showed the predicted differences. Overall, our study indicates that there should be correlated evolution among physiological phenotypes at multiple levels of organization and morphological traits associated with flight. PMID:24198266

  8. The effects of salt stress cause a diversion of basal metabolism in barley roots: possible different roles for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Manuela; Castiglia, Daniela; Ferrara, Myriam; Guerriero, Gea; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Esposito, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effects of salt stress and nitrogen assimilation have been investigated in roots of hydroponically-grown barley plants exposed to 150 mM NaCl, in presence or absence of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. Salt stress determines a diversion of root metabolism towards the synthesis of osmolytes, such as glycine betaine and proline, and increased levels of reduced glutathione. The metabolic changes triggered by salt stress result in a decrease in both activities and protein abundance of key enzymes, namely GOGAT and PEP carboxylase, and in a slight increase in HSP70. These variations would enhance the requirement for reductants supplied by the OPPP, consistently with the observed increase in total G6PDH activity. The involvement and occurrence of the different G6PDH isoforms have been investigated, and the kinetic properties of partially purified cytosolic and plastidial G6PDHs determined. Bioinformatic analyses examining co-expression profiles of G6PDHs in Arabidopsis and barley corroborate the data presented. Moreover, the gene coding for the root P2-G6PDH isoform was fully sequenced; the biochemical properties of the corresponding protein were examined experimentally. The results are discussed in the light of the possible distinct roles and regulation of the different G6PDH isoforms during salt stress in barley roots.

  9. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  10. Supplementing energy and protein source at different rate of degradability to mixture of corn waste and coffee pod as basal diet on rumen fermentation kinetic of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Pamungkas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of corn waste and coffee pod as basal diet needs energy and protein supplementation in order to optimize rumen microbial growth. A research was done to study the appropriate supplement which is suitable based on the result of rumen fermentation kinetics. Four ruminally canulated cows, (205-224 kg of live weight were placed in individual cages. The basal diet (BD offered were corn waste and coffee pod mixture (80:20. Source of high degradable energy (HDE was cassava pomace; while the low degradable energy (LDE was arenga piñata waste. The high degradable protein (HDP was mixed-concentrate while the low degradable protein (LDP was leucaena leave meal. The supplementation of energy and protein to basal diet was in ratio of 50:50 based on dry matter. Feed offered were basal diet and the supplement at ratio of 60: 40 (3 % of LW. Observation was carried out for 4 periods (10 days/period. In each period, animal was fed one of the following diets: A = BD, B = BD+ HDE+LDP, C = BD+LDE+LDP, and D = BD+HDE+HDP. Rumen kinetics observed were: pH, and VFA, NH3 and rumen microbial protein concentrations. Rumen fluid was taken at the end of each period gradually along the course of 24 hours fermentation. The results showed that the diets gave significant effect (P < 0.05 on rumen pH. The lowest rumen pH (5.76 was observed on diet D at 2:00, 12 hours after feeding. Meanwhile, the highest pH (7.22 was found in animal fed diet A at 16:00. The total VFA on diet D of periode:1, 3 and 4 showed the highest level: 68.1 mmol/l; 75.37 mmol/l and 85.14 mmol/l respectively. The highest NH3 concentration was found in diet D followed by diet C, B and A. At 12:00 observation or at 4 h after morning feeding the highest NH3 was observed from diet D (41.94 mg/100 ml. It is concluded that diet D resulted in the best rumen fermentation kinetic, therefore it could be used in feed formulation in cattle diets.

  11. Effects of Different Protein Levels on the Growth Performance and Metabolic Rate of Nutrition in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongda

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of different protein levels on the growth performance and metabolic rate of nutrition in broilers. Total 360 healthy and weight closed local broilers of 3 weeks were chosen and then divided into three groups randomly by one factor. Each group contains three handlings, each handling consists of 40 broilers. The period of experiment was 7 weeks. The metabolic experiment was performed at the 7th week. Three different protein levels were used in broilers' diet. The levels of protein were 19%, 17.5% and 16%. The results showed that the different levels of protein in crude dietary had significant difference between 19% group and the other two groups. The average daily weight gain and daily efficiency were significantly higher than that of the other two groups (P0.05), and the metabolic rate of the impact of phosphorus was significantly different (P<0.05). The result showed that when protein level was 19%, the growth of the local broiler was the best.

  12. The allometry of the smallest: superlinear scaling of microbial metabolic rates in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Francisca C; García-Martín, Enma Elena; Taboada, Fernando González; Sal, Sofía; Serret, Pablo; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic planktonic organisms are small in size but largely relevant in marine biogeochemical cycles. Due to their reduced size range (0.2 to 1 μm in diameter), the effects of cell size on their metabolism have been hardly considered and are usually not examined in field studies. Here, we show the results of size-fractionated experiments of marine microbial respiration rate along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean. The scaling exponents obtained from the power relationship between respiration rate and size were significantly higher than one. This superlinearity was ubiquitous across the latitudinal transect but its value was not universal revealing a strong albeit heterogeneous effect of cell size on microbial metabolism. Our results suggest that the latitudinal differences observed are the combined result of changes in cell size and composition between functional groups within prokaryotes. Communities where the largest size fraction was dominated by prokaryotic cyanobacteria, especially Prochlorococcus, have lower allometric exponents. We hypothesize that these larger, more complex prokaryotes fall close to the evolutionary transition between prokaryotes and protists, in a range where surface area starts to constrain metabolism and, hence, are expected to follow a scaling closer to linearity. PMID:26636550

  13. Mathematical model of cycad cones' thermogenic temperature responses: inverse calorimetry to estimate metabolic heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, R B; Booth, D; Bhavsar, A A; Walter, G H; Terry, L I

    2012-12-21

    A mathematical model based on conservation of energy has been developed and used to simulate the temperature responses of cones of the Australian cycads Macrozamia lucida and Macrozamia. macleayi during their daily thermogenic cycle. These cones generate diel midday thermogenic temperature increases as large as 12 °C above ambient during their approximately two week pollination period. The cone temperature response model is shown to accurately predict the cones' temperatures over multiple days as based on simulations of experimental results from 28 thermogenic events from 3 different cones, each simulated for either 9 or 10 sequential days. The verified model is then used as the foundation of a new, parameter estimation based technique (termed inverse calorimetry) that estimates the cones' daily metabolic heating rates from temperature measurements alone. The inverse calorimetry technique's predictions of the major features of the cones' thermogenic metabolism compare favorably with the estimates from conventional respirometry (indirect calorimetry). Because the new technique uses only temperature measurements, and does not require measurements of oxygen consumption, it provides a simple, inexpensive and portable complement to conventional respirometry for estimating metabolic heating rates. It thus provides an additional tool to facilitate field and laboratory investigations of the bio-physics of thermogenic plants.

  14. [Study on in vitro metabolic rate and metabolites or 9-dehydro-17-dehydro-andrographolide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun; Chen, Wei-kang; Zheng, Dong-kun; Ma, Shuang-cheng; Luo, Yue-hua

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the metabolic rate and metabolites of 9-dehydro-17-dehydro-andrographolide, which is the main active ingredient in Xiyanping injection, by using the in vitro rat liver microsome incubation system. 9-dehydro-17-dehydro-andrographolide was incubated together with liver microsome mixed with NADPH. Its metabolic rate was studied by determining its residual concentrations with the UHPLC-MS/MS method; Its metabolites were identified by the UPLC-TOF-MS(E) method. The results showed that 9-dehydro-17-dehydro-andrographolide was metabolized faster than rat liver microsomes mixed with coenzymes, with t½ and CL of (19.7 ± 0.5) min and (35.1 ± 0.8) mL x min(-1) x g(-1) (protein), respectively. Based on the high resolution mass spectrum data and information from literatures, altogether nine metabolites of 9-dehydro-17-dehydro-andrographolide were identified in the incubation system, particularly hydroxylated and dehydrogenized products. The results of identification would provide a basis for screening out more active andrographolide derivatives. PMID:26087565

  15. Allometric scaling of the maximum metabolic rate of mammals: oxygen transport from the lungs to the heart is a limiting step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Page R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maximum metabolic rate (MMR of mammals is approximately proportional to M0.9, where M is the mammal's body weight. Therefore, MMR increases with body weight faster than does the basal metabolic rate (BMR, which is approximately proportional to M0.7. MMR is strongly associated with the capacity of the cardiovascular system to deliver blood to capillaries in the systemic circulation, but properties of this vascular system have not produced an explanation for the scaling of MMR. Results Here we focus on the pulmonary circulation where resistance to blood flow (impedance places a limit on the rate that blood can be pumped through the lungs before pulmonary edema occurs. The maximum pressure gradient that does not produce edema determines the maximum rate that blood can flow through the pulmonary veins without compromising the diffusing capacity of oxygen. We show that modeling the pulmonary venous tree as a fractal-like vascular network leads to a scaling equation for maximum cardiac output that predicts MMR as a function of M as well as the conventional power function aMb does and that least-squares regression estimates of the equation's slope-determining parameter correspond closely to the value of the parameter calculated directly from Murray's law. Conclusion The assumption that cardiac output at the MMR is limited by pulmonary capillary pressures that produce edema leads to a model that is in agreement with experimental measurements of MMR scaling, and the rate of blood flow in pulmonary veins may be rate-limiting for the pathway of oxygen.

  16. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  17. The Relation of Standard Metabolic Rate to Water Temperature and Body Weight of Schlegels Black Rockfish (Sebastodes Fuscescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志敏; 孙耀; 张波; 唐启升

    2004-01-01

    Standard metabolic rates of Schlegels black rockfish with different body weights are determined in laboratory by using the flow-through respirometer at 11.2 ℃, 14.7 ℃, 18.0℃ and 23.6 ℃. The results indicate that the standard metabolic rates increase with the increase of body weight at different temperatures. Relationship between them could be described as Rs = a InW b. The mean of standard metabolic rate is significantly different among groups, but the b values are not. The standard metabolic rates of amended standard body weights decrease with the increase of temperature, and the mean of standard metabolic rate is also significantly different among groups when the standard body weights are 48.6 g, 147.9 g, and 243.1 g.Relationship between them could be described as Rsw = me-bT . The relations of standard metabolic rate ( Rs ) or relative metabolic rate ( Rs ) to body weight and temperature yield the following equations: Rs = 1.160 W0.752 e-9.494/7 and Rs1= 1.160 W0.254e-9.494/7.

  18. Quantifying metabolic rates in submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys: A reaction transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, D.; Dale, A.; Aguilera, D.; Amend, J. P.; Regnier, P.

    2012-12-01

    The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rate of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. Methanogenesis, hydrogen oxidation by oxygen and sulfate, sulfide oxidation by oxygen and methane oxidation by oxygen and sulfate are the metabolisms included in the reaction network. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney except for methane oxidation by oxygen, which peaks near the seawater-side of the chimney at 20 nmol /cm^3 yr. The dominant metabolisms in the chimney are hydrogen oxidation by sulfate and oxygen and sulfide oxidation at peak rates 3200 , 300 and 900 nmol /cm^3 yr, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogensis is just under 0.07 nmol /cm^3 yr, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to understanding the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to better understand the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

  19. Physiological effects of bioceramic material: harvard step, resting metabolic rate and treadmill running assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Hou, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-31

    Previous biomolecular and animal studies have shown that a room-temperature far-infrared-rayemitting ceramic material (bioceramic) demonstrates physical-biological effects, including the normalization of psychologically induced stress-conditioned elevated heart rate in animals. In this clinical study, the Harvard step test, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment and the treadmill running test were conducted to evaluate possible physiological effects of the bioceramic material in human patients. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Harvard step test indicated that the bioceramic material significantly increased the high-frequency (HF) power spectrum. In addition, the results of RMR analysis suggest that the bioceramic material reduced oxygen consumption (VO2). Our results demonstrate that the bioceramic material has the tendency to stimulate parasympathetic responses, which may reduce resting energy expenditure and improve cardiorespiratory recovery following exercise.

  20. Evaluation of rate law approximations in bottom-up kinetic models of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bin; Zielinski, Daniel C.; Kavvas, Erol S.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mechanistic description of enzyme kinetics in a dynamic model of metabolism requires specifying the numerical values of a large number of kinetic parameters. The parameterization challenge is often addressed through the use of simplifying approximations to form reaction rate laws...... with reduced numbers of parameters. Whether such simplified models can reproduce dynamic characteristics of the full system is an important question. Results: In this work, we compared the local transient response properties of dynamic models constructed using rate laws with varying levels of approximation...... with measured enzyme parameters yields an excellent approximation of the full system dynamics, while other assumptions cause greater discrepancies in system dynamic behavior. However, iteratively replacing mechanistic rate laws with approximations resulted in a model that retains a high correlation...

  1. High-intensity interval training without weight loss improves exercise but not basal or insulin-induced metabolism in overweight/obese African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Avigdor D; DiMenna, Fred J; Thomas, Naketa; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline; Weil, Richard; Geliebter, Allan; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of a 14-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention with weight stability on metabolic flexibility, insulin sensitivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary, premenopausal, nondiabetic, overweight/obese African American women. Twenty-eight subjects were allocated to one of two groups: HIIT, which performed three sessions per week of four high-intensity cycling intervals, or a control group (CON), which maintained their normal level of physical activity. Diet was controlled for all subjects to ensure weight stability. Pre- and postintervention (pre/post), subjects completed an incremental cycling test to limit of tolerance and, following a 10-day high-fat controlled feeding period, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation. Nine members of HIIT (age, 29 ± 4 yr; body mass, 90.1 ± 13.8 kg) and eleven members of CON (age, 30 ± 7 yr; body mass, 85.5 ± 10.7 kg) completed the study. HIIT experienced an increased limit of tolerance (post, 1,124 ± 202 s; pre, 987 ± 146 s; P High-intensity interval training with weight stability increased exercise fat oxidation and tolerance in subjects at risk for diabetic progression, but did not improve insulin sensitivity or fat oxidation in the postabsorptive or insulin-stimulated state.

  2. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  3. Kleptoparasitism and aggressiveness are influenced by standard metabolic rate in eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, Benjamin; Bolliet, Valérie; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2016-04-01

    Kleptoparasitism refers to either interspecific or intraspecific stealing of food already procured by other species or individuals. Within a given species, individuals might differ in their propensity to use such a tactic, in a similar manner to which they differ in their general level of aggressiveness. Standard metabolic rate is often viewed as a proxy for energy requirements. For this reason, it should directly impact on both kleptoparasitism and aggressiveness when individuals have to share the same food source. In the present study we first assessed the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of 128 juvenile European eels (Anguilla anguilla) by the determination of oxygen consumption. We then tested how the SMR could influence agonistic behavior of individuals competing for food in three distinct trials evenly distributed over three months. We demonstrate that SMR positively correlates with attacks (sum of bite and push events) in all trials. Similarly SMR correlated positively with kleptoparasitism (food theft), but this was significant only for the third trial (month 3). To our knowledge, the present study is the first reporting a link between kleptoparasitism and SMR in a fish species. This has ecological implications owing to the fact that this species is characterized by an environmental sex determination linked to early growth rate. We discuss theses findings in the light of the producer-scrounger foraging game. PMID:26861178

  4. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  5. Autonomic control of heart rate by metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Seifert, Thomas; Hartwich, Doreen;

    2010-01-01

    Isolated activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) using post-exercise ischaemia (PEI) following handgrip partially maintains exercise-induced increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), while heart rate (HR......) declines towards resting values. Although masking of metaboreflex-mediated increases in cardiac SNA by parasympathetic reactivation during PEI has been suggested, this has not been directly tested in humans. In nine male subjects (23 +/- 5 years) the muscle metaboreflex was activated by PEI following...... measured. During control PEI-M, HR was slightly elevated from rest (+3 +/- 2 beats min(-1)); however, this HR elevation was abolished with beta-adrenergic blockade (P

  6. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  7. Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss metabolic rate is affected by dietary Aloe vera inclusion but not by mounting an immune response against formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, F S; Urbinati, E C; Nash, G W; Gamperl, A K

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen consumption (MO2) of two groups of 10° C acclimated steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was measured for 72 h after they were given a 100 µl kg(-1) intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish from both groups prior to, and 1 and 3 h after, they were given a 30 s net stress. The first group was fed an unaltered commercial diet for 4 weeks, whereas the second group was fed the same diet but with 0·5% (5 g kg(-1) ) Aloe vera powder added; A. vera has potential as an immunostimulant for use in aquaculture, but its effects on basal and acute phase response (APR)-related metabolic expenditures and stress physiology, are unknown. Injection of ASAL v. PBS had no measurable effect on the MO2 of O. mykiss indicating that the APR in this species is not associated with any net increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, incorporating 0·5% A. vera powder into the feed decreased routine metabolic rate by c. 8% in both injection groups and standard metabolic rate in the ASAL-injected group (by c. 4 mg O2 kg(-1) h(-1) ; 5%). Aloe vera fed fish had resting cortisol levels that were approximately half of those in fish on the commercial diet (c. 2·5 v. 5·0 ng ml(-1) ), but neither this difference nor those post-stress reached statistical significance (P > 0·05).

  8. Supply-side constraints are insufficient to explain the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate in the tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Callier

    Full Text Available Explanations for the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate through ontogeny generally fall into two categories: supply-side constraints on delivery of oxygen, or decreased mass-specific intrinsic demand for oxygen. In many animals, supply and demand increase together as the body grows, thus making it impossible to tease apart the relative contributions of changing supply and demand to the observed scaling of metabolic rate. In larval insects, the large components of the tracheal system are set in size at each molt, but then remain constant in size until the next molt. Larvae of Manduca sexta increase up to ten-fold in mass between molts, leading to increased oxygen need without a concomitant increase in supply. At the molt, the tracheal system is shed and replaced with a new, larger one. Due to this discontinuous growth of the tracheal system, insect larvae present an ideal system in which to examine the relative contributions of supply and demand of oxygen to the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate. We observed that the metabolic rate at the beginning of successive instars scales hypoallometrically. This decrease in specific intrinsic demand could be due to a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues (the midgut or to a decrease in mitochondrial activity in individual cells. We found that decreased intrinsic demand, mediated by a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues in the fifth instar, along with a decrease in the specific mitochondrial activity, contribute to the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate.

  9. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic influences on life history expression: metabolism and parentally induced temperature influences on embryo development rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Nikilson, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic processes are assumed to underlie life history expression and trade-offs, but extrinsic inputs are theorised to shift trait expression and mask trade-offs within species. Here, we explore application of this theory across species. We do this based on parentally induced embryo temperature as an extrinsic input, and mass-specific embryo metabolism as an intrinsic process, underlying embryonic development rate. We found that embryonic metabolism followed intrinsic allometry rules among 49 songbird species from temperate and tropical sites. Extrinsic inputs via parentally induced temperatures explained the majority of variation in development rates and masked a relationship with metabolism; metabolism explained a minor proportion of the variation in development rates among species, and only after accounting for temperature effects. We discuss evidence that temperature further obscures the expected interspecific trade-off between development rate and offspring quality. These results demonstrate the importance of considering extrinsic inputs to trait expression and trade-offs across species.

  10. Relationship between resting heart rate and anthropometric, metabolic and hemodynamic parameters in the elderly aged 80 years and over

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício E. Rossi; Ana Laura Ricci-Vitor; Igor C. Gomes; Vanessa R. Santos; Sabino, João Paulo J.; Luiz Guilherme S. Branco; Diego G. D. Christofaro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ismael F. Freitas Junior

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the relationship between resting heart rate (RHRr) and anthropometric, metabolic and hemodynamic parameters in subjects aged 80 years and over. One hundred thirteen individuals were divided into two groups (RHR:

  11. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on planktonic metabolic rates and microbial community composition in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Reader, Heather E.; Muthusamy, Saraladevi;

    2016-01-01

    community composition, and metabolic rates: gross primary production (GPP), net community production (NCP), community respiration (CR) and bacterial production (BP). Nitrogen-rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) inputs from effluents increased bacterial production and decreased primary production...

  12. Association between the glomerular filtration rate of renal dysfunction and metabolic syndrome: an age-stratified analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the renal dysfunction rate and metabolic syndrome(MS),stratified by age.Methods People took part in physical check-up in a certain tertiary hospital from March 2010to September 2012,were enrolled in this study.Estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR),—a renal dysfunction indicator,was calculated by modified MDRD

  13. Water turnover rate and its metabolism in defaunated, refaunated and faunated male buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical countries like India, environment climatic conditions are variable throughout the year ranging from favourable to very hostile. The high temperature and humidity and often limited supply of water causes low productivity of livestock even when good quality of feed is supplied in required quantity. The turnover rate of water is related to environmental temperature, feed supply, protein or electrolyte content of the diet and also on physiological status of the animals.In the present experiment tritiated water dilution technique was used in an attempt to study the effect of removing ciliate protozoa from the rumen (defaunation) on water metabolism and its turnover rate in buffalo calves given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Effect of copper nanoparticles on metabolic rate and development of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Sawosz, E.; Vadalasetty, K. P.;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of an in ovo injection of CuNano and the timing of injection on metabolic rate (O consumption and heat production, HP) and development of layer hatchlings. On day 1 of incubation, 192 fertile eggs from 29-week-old Lohmann breeder strain ch...... embryos and depressed the development of organs; however, it did not affect YFBW, immunoglobulin concentrations and the expression of immuno-related genes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of an in ovo injection of CuNano and the timing of injection on metabolic rate (O consumption and heat production, HP) and development of layer hatchlings. On day 1 of incubation, 192 fertile eggs from 29-week-old Lohmann breeder strain...... chickens were distributed into four groups that were administered colloidal CuNano on: day 1 and/or 10. Gaseous exchange was measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and HP was calculated for 16- and 19-day-old embryos. Yolk free body weight (YFBW) at 24h after hatching and the relative organ...

  15. The emerging roles of microRNAs in the molecular responses of metabolic rate depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyle K. Biggar; Kenneth B. Storey

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rate depression is an important survival strategy for many animal species and a common element of hibernation, torpor,estivation, anoxia and diapause. Studies of the molecular mechanisms that regulate reversible transitions to and from hypometabolic states have identified principles of regulatory control. These control mechanisms are conserved among biologically diverse organisms and include the coordinated reduction of specific groups of key regulatory enzymes or proteins in the cell, a process likely driven by microRNA target repression/degradation. The present review focuses on a growing area of research in hypometabolism and mechanisms involving the rapid and reversible control of translation facilitated by microRNAs. The analysis draws primarily from current research on three animal models: hibernating mammals, anoxic turtles and freeze-tolerant frogs (with selected examples from multiple other sources). Here, we demonstrate a link between metabolic rate depression, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and microRNA expression. Microarray-based expression profiles and PCR-driven studies have revealed that specific microRNAs are induced in response to environmental stress. Selected members of this group decrease pro-apeptotic signaling,reduce muscle wasting and reduce protein translation, whereas other members contribute to cell cycle arrest and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Many of the same microRNAs are frequently deregulated in numerous disease pathologies and, hence, the hypometabolism model could provide a novel approach for the treatment of stroke and heart attack in humans.

  16. Thermal optimum for pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and the use of ventilation frequency as a predictor of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Michael; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    at six temperatures, ranging from 13 to 28 °C, in order to identify the temperature where pikeperch has the largest metabolic scope (MS). Between 13 and 25 °C, standard metabolic rates (SMR) increased as expected with a Q10=1.8 in response to increasing temperatures, while maximum metabolic rate (MMR......) did not change significantly within this temperature range. As a result,MSwas not significantly affected by acclimation temperature between 13 and 25 °C. Above 25 °C, SMR increased significantly with a Q10=2.5 while MMR declined, resulting in a decreased MS. In the present study, the maximum MS (MSMAX...

  17. Metabolic rate and prehibernation fattening in free-living arctic ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Michael J; Fridinger, Robert W; Tøien, Øivind; Barnes, Brian M; Buck, C Loren

    2013-01-01

    Hibernating mammals become sequestered and cease foraging during prolonged seasonal periods of reduced or unpredictable food availability and instead rely on cached food and/or endogenous reserves of fat and protein accumulated during the previous active season. The gain in weight is due to increased food consumption, but it also has been hypothesized that hibernators maximize rates of fattening by decreasing costs of maintenance before weight gain, reflected in reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR). We recorded repeated measures of total body, lean, and fat mass in individual adult male and female arctic ground squirrels across their active season and found that squirrels increased body mass by 42% (males) and 62% (females). This gain was achieved through a 17% increase in lean mass and a 7-8-fold increase in fat mass; however, mass gain was not linear and patterns differed between sexes. Contrary to our hypothesis, decreases in RMR were not associated with rapid mass gain. We found RMR of males increased (whole-animal RMR or lean-mass-specific RMR) or remained constant (mass-specific RMR) for most of the active season and decreased only after the majority of mass had been gained. In females, although RMR (whole-animal, mass-specific, and lean-mass RMR) generally decreased across the active season, the greatest decrease occurred late in the active season after the majority of mass had been gained. In conclusion, arctic ground squirrels do not trade off metabolism to facilitate rates of weight gain before hibernation, but they do use energy sparing strategies before hibernation that help maintain peak mass. PMID:23995482

  18. Nonlinear temperature effects on multifractal complexity of metabolic rate of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Jose M.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Complex physiological dynamics have been argued to be a signature of healthy physiological function. Here we test whether the complexity of metabolic rate fluctuations in small endotherms decreases with lower environmental temperatures. To do so, we examine the multifractal temporal scaling properties of the rate of change in oxygen consumption r(VO2), in the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, assessing their long range correlation properties across seven different environmental temperatures, ranging from 0 °C to 30 °C. To do so, we applied multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), finding that r(VO2) fluctuations show two scaling regimes. For small time scales below the crossover time (approximately 102 s), either monofractal or weak multifractal dynamics are observed depending on whether Ta  15 °C respectively. For larger time scales, r(VO2) fluctuations are characterized by an asymptotic scaling exponent that indicates multifractal anti-persistent or uncorrelated dynamics. For both scaling regimes, a generalization of the multiplicative cascade model provides very good fits for the Renyi exponents τ(q), showing that the infinite number of exponents h(q) can be described by only two independent parameters, a and b. We also show that the long-range correlation structure of r(VO2) time series differs from randomly shuffled series, and may not be explained as an artifact of stochastic sampling of a linear frequency spectrum. These results show that metabolic rate dynamics in a well studied micro-endotherm are consistent with a highly non-linear feedback control system.

  19. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  20. Predicting metabolic rate during level and uphill outdoor walking using a low-cost GPS receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Müllenheim, Pierre-Yves; Dumond, Rémy; Gernigon, Marie; Mahé, Guillaume; Lavenu, Audrey; Bickert, Sandrine; Prioux, Jacques; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Le Faucheur, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of using speed and grade data obtained from a low-cost global positioning system (GPS) receiver to estimate metabolic rate (MR) during level and uphill outdoor walking. Thirty young, healthy adults performed randomized outdoor walking for 6-min periods at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 km/h and on three different grades: 1) level walking, 2) uphill walking on a 3.7% mean grade, and 3) uphill walking on a 10.8% mean grade. The reference MR [metabolic equivalents (METs) and oxygen uptake (V̇o2)] values were obtained using a portable metabolic system. The speed and grade were obtained using a low-cost GPS receiver (1-Hz recording). The GPS grade (Δ altitude/distance walked) was calculated using both uncorrected GPS altitude data and GPS altitude data corrected with map projection software. The accuracy of predictions using reference speed and grade (actual[SPEED/GRADE]) data was high [R(2) = 0.85, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 0.68 MET]. The accuracy decreased when GPS speed and uncorrected grade (GPS[UNCORRECTED]) data were used, although it remained substantial (R(2) = 0.66, RMSE = 1.00 MET). The accuracy was greatly improved when the GPS speed and corrected grade (GPS[CORRECTED]) data were used (R(2) = 0.82, RMSE = 0.79 MET). Published predictive equations for walking MR were also cross-validated using actual or GPS speed and grade data when appropriate. The prediction accuracy was very close when either actual[SPEED/GRADE] values or GPS[CORRECTED] values (for level and uphill combined) or GPS speed values (for level walking only) were used. These results offer promising research and clinical applications related to the assessment of energy expenditure during free-living walking.

  1. The rate of metabolism as a factor determining longevity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molon, Mateusz; Szajwaj, Monika; Tchorzewski, Marek; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Despite many controversies, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be used as a model organism for the study of aging. Numerous theories and hypotheses have been created for several decades, yet basic mechanisms of aging have remained unclear. Therefore, the principal aim of this work is to propose a possible mechanism leading to increased longevity in yeast. In this paper, we suggest for the first time that there is a link between decreased metabolic activity, fertility and longevity expressed as time of life in yeast. Determination of reproductive potential and total lifespan with the use of fob1Δ and sfp1Δ mutants allows us to compare the "longevity" presented as the number of produced daughters with the longevity expressed as the time of life. The results of analyses presented in this paper suggest the need for a change in the definition of longevity of yeast by taking into consideration the time parameter. The mutants that have been described as "long-lived" in the literature, such as the fob1Δ mutant, have an increased reproductive potential but live no longer than their standard counterparts. On the other hand, the sfp1Δ mutant and the wild-type strain produce a similar number of daughter cells, but the former lives much longer. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the decreased efficiency of the translational apparatus and the longevity of the sfp1Δ mutant. We suggest that a possible factor regulating the lifespan is the rate of cell metabolism. To measure the basic metabolism of the yeast cells, we used the isothermal microcalorimetry method. In the case of sfp1Δ, the flow of energy, ATP concentration, polysome profile and translational fitness are significantly lower in comparison with the wild-type strain and the fob1Δ mutant.

  2. Effects of Time-Release Caffeine Containing Supplement on Metabolic Rate, Glycerol Concentration and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Gonzalez, Jay R. Hoffman, Adam J. Wells, Gerald T. Mangine, Jeremy R. Townsend, Adam R. Jajtner, Ran Wang, Amelia A. Miramonti, Gabriel J. Pruna, Michael B. LaMonica, Jonathan D. Bohner, Mattan W. Hoffman, Leonardo P. Oliveira, David H. Fukuda, Maren S. Fragala, Jeffrey R. Stout

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared caffeine pharmacokinetics, glycerol concentrations, metabolic rate, and performance measures following ingestion of a time-release caffeine containing supplement (TR-CAF versus a regular caffeine capsule (CAF and a placebo (PL. Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over design, ten males (25.9 ± 3.2 y who regularly consume caffeine ingested capsules containing either TR-CAF, CAF, or PL. Blood draws and performance measures occurred at every hour over an 8-hour period. Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05 in CAF compared to TR-CAF during hours 2-5 and significantly greater (p = 0.042 in TR-CAF compared to CAF at hour 8. There were no significant differences between trials in glycerol concentrations (p = 0.86 or metabolic measures (p = 0.17-0.91. Physical reaction time was significantly improved for CAF at hour 5 (p=0.01 compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was significantly improved for CAF and TR-CAF during hours 1-4 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively and over the 8-hour period (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was also significantly improved for TR-CAF compared to PL during hours 5-8 (p = 0.004. TR-CAF and CAF showed distinct pharmacokinetics yielding modest effects on reaction time, yet did not alter glycerol concentration, metabolic measures, or other performance measures.

  3. Physiological Status Drives Metabolic Rate in Mediterranean Geckos Infected with Pentastomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Caballero

    Full Text Available Negative effects of parasites on their hosts are well documented, but the proximate mechanisms by which parasites reduce their host's fitness are poorly understood. For example, it has been suggested that parasites might be energetically demanding. However, a recent meta-analysis suggests that they have statistically insignificant effects on host resting metabolic rate (RMR. It is possible, though, that energetic costs associated with parasites are only manifested during and/or following periods of activity. Here, we measured CO2 production (a surrogate for metabolism in Mediterranean geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus infected with a lung parasite, the pentastome Raillietiella indica, under two physiological conditions: rested and recently active. In rested geckos, there was a negative, but non-significant association between the number of pentastomes (i.e., infection intensity and CO2 production. In recently active geckos (chased for 3 minutes, we recorded CO2 production from its maximum value until it declined to a stationary phase. We analyzed this decline as a 3 phase function (initial decline, secondary decline, stationary. Geckos that were recently active showed, in the secondary phase, a significant decrease in CO2 production as pentastome intensity increased. Moreover, duration of the secondary phase showed a significant positive association with the number of pentastomes. These results suggest that the intensity of pentastome load exerts a weak effect on the metabolism of resting geckos, but a strong physiological effect on geckos that have recently been active; we speculate this occurs via mechanical constraints on breathing. Our results provide a potential mechanism by which pentastomes can reduce gecko fitness.

  4. Predicting metabolic rate during level and uphill outdoor walking using a low-cost GPS receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Müllenheim, Pierre-Yves; Dumond, Rémy; Gernigon, Marie; Mahé, Guillaume; Lavenu, Audrey; Bickert, Sandrine; Prioux, Jacques; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Le Faucheur, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of using speed and grade data obtained from a low-cost global positioning system (GPS) receiver to estimate metabolic rate (MR) during level and uphill outdoor walking. Thirty young, healthy adults performed randomized outdoor walking for 6-min periods at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 km/h and on three different grades: 1) level walking, 2) uphill walking on a 3.7% mean grade, and 3) uphill walking on a 10.8% mean grade. The reference MR [metabolic equivalents (METs) and oxygen uptake (V̇o2)] values were obtained using a portable metabolic system. The speed and grade were obtained using a low-cost GPS receiver (1-Hz recording). The GPS grade (Δ altitude/distance walked) was calculated using both uncorrected GPS altitude data and GPS altitude data corrected with map projection software. The accuracy of predictions using reference speed and grade (actual[SPEED/GRADE]) data was high [R(2) = 0.85, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 0.68 MET]. The accuracy decreased when GPS speed and uncorrected grade (GPS[UNCORRECTED]) data were used, although it remained substantial (R(2) = 0.66, RMSE = 1.00 MET). The accuracy was greatly improved when the GPS speed and corrected grade (GPS[CORRECTED]) data were used (R(2) = 0.82, RMSE = 0.79 MET). Published predictive equations for walking MR were also cross-validated using actual or GPS speed and grade data when appropriate. The prediction accuracy was very close when either actual[SPEED/GRADE] values or GPS[CORRECTED] values (for level and uphill combined) or GPS speed values (for level walking only) were used. These results offer promising research and clinical applications related to the assessment of energy expenditure during free-living walking. PMID:27402559

  5. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to

  6. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-09-22

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central role of energy consumption is well documented for some long-term health effects in humans (e.g. obesity), but little is known of the long-term effects of rearing conditions on energy requirements later in life. We manipulated the rearing conditions in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) using brood size manipulation and cross-fostering. It has previously been shown in this species that being reared in a large brood has negative fitness consequences, and that such effects are stronger in daughters than in sons. We show that, independent of mass, standard metabolic rate of 1-year-old birds was higher when they had been reared in a large brood, and this is to our knowledge the first demonstration of such an effect. Furthermore, the brood size effect was stronger in daughters than in sons. This suggests that metabolic efficiency may play a role in mediating the long-term fitness consequences of rearing conditions. PMID:17148435

  7. Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Miller, Nicole R; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2014-08-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists, and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress.

  8. Association between serum uric acid and different states of glucose metabolism and glomerular filtration rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-ling; HAN Xue-yao; JI Li-nong

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been suggested that the serum uric acid (SUA) level decreased in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to explore the association between SUA level and different state of glucose metabolism and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reflected by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and to test the hypothesis that high MDRD is one of the determinants of SUA level.Methods This cross-sectional study included 2373 subjects in Beijing who underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for screening of diabetes. According to the states of glucose metabolism, they were divided into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose regulation and diabetes.Results Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that adjusted by gender, SUA was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist/hippo ratio, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and triglyceride, meanwhile negatively correlated with age, hemoglobin A1c, fasting insulin and MDRD. There was an increasing trend in SUA concentration and a decreasing trend in MDRD when the levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) increased from low to high up to the FPG level of 8.0 mmol/L; thereafter, the SUA concentration started to decrease with further increases in FPG levels, and the MDRD started to increase with further increases in FPG levels.Conclusion This study confirmed the previous finding that SUA decreased in diabetes and provided the supporting evidence that the increased MDRD might contribute to the fall of SUA.

  9. MRI-based methods for quantification of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Zachary B; Detre, John A; Wehrli, Felix W

    2016-07-01

    The brain depends almost entirely on oxidative metabolism to meet its significant energy requirements. As such, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) represents a key measure of brain function. Quantification of CMRO2 has helped elucidate brain functional physiology and holds potential as a clinical tool for evaluating neurological disorders including stroke, brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. In recent years, a variety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based CMRO2 quantification methods have emerged. Unlike positron emission tomography - the current "gold standard" for measurement and mapping of CMRO2 - MRI is non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, and ubiquitously available in modern medical centers. All MRI-based CMRO2 methods are based on modeling the effect of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin on the magnetic resonance signal. The various methods can be classified in terms of the MRI contrast mechanism used to quantify CMRO2: T2*, T2', T2, or magnetic susceptibility. This review article provides an overview of MRI-based CMRO2 quantification techniques. After a brief historical discussion motivating the need for improved CMRO2 methodology, current state-of-the-art MRI-based methods are critically appraised in terms of their respective tradeoffs between spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and robustness, all of critical importance given the spatially heterogeneous and temporally dynamic nature of brain energy requirements. PMID:27089912

  10. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6 - 4.2 mg/100 g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7 mg/100 g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites ; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE. (author)

  11. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise.

  12. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  13. THE RATE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME AND COMORBIDITIES IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT: DATA OF A MULTICENTER TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Barskova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the rate of metabolic syndrome (MS and its components among gout patients in different regions of the Russian Federation. Subjects and methods. This cross-sectional multicenter study enrolled 2277 gout patients, including 1963 (86.2% men and 314 (13.8% women, from 12 independent medical centers in different regions of the Russian Federation. The patients over 18 years of age who met the classification criteria for gout, elaborated by S. Wallace et al., were included. The diagnosis of MS was established on the basis of Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria. The presence of MS, its individual components and comorbidities were recorded. Results. The total rate of MS in the patients with gout was 57%; however, it varied substantially (from 15 to 77% in different centers. Among the comorbidities, arterial hypertension was most common (in three fourths of the patients, coronary heart disease (CHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus were less common (43 and 25%, respectively; 15% of the patients had sustained myocardial infarction, renal and cardiac failure was also observed in 15%. In the gout patients, MS was associated with the presence of CHD. Conclusion. The patients with gout were observed to have a high rate of MS (57%, its components, and cardiovascular diseases. The findings suggest that there is a relationship between the presence of MS and the development of CHD.

  14. Contribution of mitochondrial proton leak to skeletal muscle respiration and to standard metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, D F; Brand, M D

    1996-10-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that the leak of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane (proton leak) is a significant contributor to standard metabolic rate (SMR). We found that proton leak accounts for around one-half of the resting respiration rate of perfused rat skeletal muscle. Proton leak is known to make a significant (26%) contribution to the resting respiration rate of isolated rat hepatocytes (M. D. Brand, L.-F. Chien, E. K. Ainscow, D. F. S. Rolfe, and R. K. Porter. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1187: 132-139, 1994). If the importance of proton leak in these isolated and perfused systems is similar to its importance in vivo, then using literature values for the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to SMR, we can calculate that proton leak in liver and skeletal muscle alone accounts for 11-26% (mean 20%) of the SMR of the rat. If proton leak activity in the other tissues of the rat is similar to that in liver cells, then the contribution of proton leak to rat SMR would be 16-31% (mean 25%).

  15. Microbial catabolic activities are naturally selected by metabolic energy harvest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabaleiro, Rebeca; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Lema, Juan M; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The fundamental trade-off between yield and rate of energy harvest per unit of substrate has been largely discussed as a main characteristic for microbial established cooperation or competition. In this study, this point is addressed by developing a generalized model that simulates competition between existing and not experimentally reported microbial catabolic activities defined only based on well-known biochemical pathways. No specific microbial physiological adaptations are considered, growth yield is calculated coupled to catabolism energetics and a common maximum biomass-specific catabolism rate (expressed as electron transfer rate) is assumed for all microbial groups. Under this approach, successful microbial metabolisms are predicted in line with experimental observations under the hypothesis of maximum energy harvest rate. Two microbial ecosystems, typically found in wastewater treatment plants, are simulated, namely: (i) the anaerobic fermentation of glucose and (ii) the oxidation and reduction of nitrogen under aerobic autotrophic (nitrification) and anoxic heterotrophic and autotrophic (denitrification) conditions. The experimentally observed cross feeding in glucose fermentation, through multiple intermediate fermentation pathways, towards ultimately methane and carbon dioxide is predicted. Analogously, two-stage nitrification (by ammonium and nitrite oxidizers) is predicted as prevailing over nitrification in one stage. Conversely, denitrification is predicted in one stage (by denitrifiers) as well as anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation). The model results suggest that these observations are a direct consequence of the different energy yields per electron transferred at the different steps of the pathways. Overall, our results theoretically support the hypothesis that successful microbial catabolic activities are selected by an overall maximum energy harvest rate. PMID:26161636

  16. Bringing metabolic networks to life: convenience rate law and thermodynamic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipp Edda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translating a known metabolic network into a dynamic model requires rate laws for all chemical reactions. The mathematical expressions depend on the underlying enzymatic mechanism; they can become quite involved and may contain a large number of parameters. Rate laws and enzyme parameters are still unknown for most enzymes. Results We introduce a simple and general rate law called "convenience kinetics". It can be derived from a simple random-order enzyme mechanism. Thermodynamic laws can impose dependencies on the kinetic parameters. Hence, to facilitate model fitting and parameter optimisation for large networks, we introduce thermodynamically independent system parameters: their values can be varied independently, without violating thermodynamical constraints. We achieve this by expressing the equilibrium constants either by Gibbs free energies of formation or by a set of independent equilibrium constants. The remaining system parameters are mean turnover rates, generalised Michaelis-Menten constants, and constants for inhibition and activation. All parameters correspond to molecular energies, for instance, binding energies between reactants and enzyme. Conclusion Convenience kinetics can be used to translate a biochemical network – manually or automatically - into a dynamical model with plausible biological properties. It implements enzyme saturation and regulation by activators and inhibitors, covers all possible reaction stoichiometries, and can be specified by a small number of parameters. Its mathematical form makes it especially suitable for parameter estimation and optimisation. Parameter estimates can be easily computed from a least-squares fit to Michaelis-Menten values, turnover rates, equilibrium constants, and other quantities that are routinely measured in enzyme assays and stored in kinetic databases.

  17. How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Groeneveld, Philip;

    1994-01-01

    how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth...

  18. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes : Effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Roby, DD; Suryan, RM; Irons, DB; Kaufman, AM; Turco, KR; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates

  19. Basal mercury concentrations and biomagnification rates in freshwater and marine food webs: Effects on Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, S. van der, E-mail: sdorn@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dempson, J.B. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, A1C 5X1 (Canada); Evans, M.S. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Muir, D.C.G. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    Patterns of total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) biomagnification were investigated in six pairs of co-located lacustrine and marine food webs supporting a common predator, Arctic charr. Mercury biomagnification rates (the slope of log Hg concentration versus δ{sup 15}N-inferred trophic level) did not differ significantly between the two feeding habitats for either THg or MeHg, but THg and MeHg concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in the lacustrine environment than in the marine environment. The proportion of THg as MeHg was related to trophic level, and the relationship was statistically similar in the lacustrine and marine habitats. The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats. We conclude that the known difference in Hg concentration between anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr is driven by differential Hg concentrations at the base of the lacustrine and marine foodwebs, and not by differential biomagnification rates. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and methylmercury ([MeHg]) were measured in 6 paired lacustrine and marine food webs. ► Biomagnification rates (slopes of [THg] or [MeHg] versus δ{sup 15}N-inferred trophic level) were similar in the two habitat types. ► Mercury concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in lacustrine than in marine food webs. ► The percentage of methylated mercury increased with trophic level similarly in the two habitat types. ► The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats.

  20. Basal mercury concentrations and biomagnification rates in freshwater and marine food webs: Effects on Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterns of total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) biomagnification were investigated in six pairs of co-located lacustrine and marine food webs supporting a common predator, Arctic charr. Mercury biomagnification rates (the slope of log Hg concentration versus δ15N-inferred trophic level) did not differ significantly between the two feeding habitats for either THg or MeHg, but THg and MeHg concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in the lacustrine environment than in the marine environment. The proportion of THg as MeHg was related to trophic level, and the relationship was statistically similar in the lacustrine and marine habitats. The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats. We conclude that the known difference in Hg concentration between anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr is driven by differential Hg concentrations at the base of the lacustrine and marine foodwebs, and not by differential biomagnification rates. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and methylmercury ([MeHg]) were measured in 6 paired lacustrine and marine food webs. ► Biomagnification rates (slopes of [THg] or [MeHg] versus δ15N-inferred trophic level) were similar in the two habitat types. ► Mercury concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in lacustrine than in marine food webs. ► The percentage of methylated mercury increased with trophic level similarly in the two habitat types. The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats

  1. Co-variation of metabolic rates and cell-size in coccolithophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aloisi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophores are sensitive recorders of environmental change. The size of their coccosphere varies in the ocean along gradients of environmental conditions and provides a key for understanding the fate of this important phytoplankton group in the future ocean. But interpreting field changes in coccosphere size in terms of laboratory observations is hard, mainly because the marine signal reflects the response of multiple morphotypes to changes in a combination of environmental variables. In this paper I examine the large corpus of published laboratory experiments with coccolithophores looking for relations between environmental conditions, metabolic rates and cell size (a proxy for coccosphere size. I show that growth, photosynthesis, and to a lesser extent calcification, co-vary with cell size when pCO2, irradiance, temperature, nitrate, phosphate and iron conditions change. With the exception of phosphate and temperature, a change from limiting to non-limiting conditions always results in an increase in cell size. An increase in phosphate or temperature produces the opposite effect. The magnitude of the coccosphere size changes observed in the laboratory is comparable to that observed in the ocean. If the biological reasons behind the environment-metabolism-size link are understood, it will be possible to use coccosphere size changes in the modern ocean and in marine sediments to investigate the fate of coccolithophores in the future ocean. This reasoning can be extended to the size of coccoliths if, as recent experiments are starting to show, coccolith size reacts to environmental change proportionally to coccosphere size. I introduce a simple model that simulates the growth rate and the size of cells forced by nitrate and phosphate concentrations. By considering a simple rule that allocates the energy flow from nutrient acquisition to cell structure (biomass and cell maturity (biological complexity, eventually leading to cell division

  2. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  3. Metabolic Free Energy and Biological Codes: A 'Data Rate Theorem' Aging Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2015-06-01

    A famous argument by Maturana and Varela (Autopoiesis and cognition. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1980) holds that the living state is cognitive at every scale and level of organization. Since it is possible to associate many cognitive processes with 'dual' information sources, pathologies can sometimes be addressed using statistical models based on the Shannon Coding, the Shannon-McMillan Source Coding, the Rate Distortion, and the Data Rate Theorems, which impose necessary conditions on information transmission and system control. Deterministic-but-for-error biological codes do not directly invoke cognition, but may be essential subcomponents within larger cognitive processes. A formal argument, however, places such codes within a similar framework, with metabolic free energy serving as a 'control signal' stabilizing biochemical code-and-translator dynamics in the presence of noise. Demand beyond available energy supply triggers punctuated destabilization of the coding channel, affecting essential biological functions. Aging, normal or prematurely driven by psychosocial or environmental stressors, must interfere with the routine operation of such mechanisms, initiating the chronic diseases associated with senescence. Amyloid fibril formation, intrinsically disordered protein logic gates, and cell surface glycan/lectin 'kelp bed' logic gates are reviewed from this perspective. The results generalize beyond coding machineries having easily recognizable symmetry modes, and strip a layer of mathematical complication from the study of phase transitions in nonequilibrium biological systems. PMID:25185747

  4. Effectiveness of eugenol sedation to reduce the metabolic rates of cool and warm water fish at high loading densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Hartleb, Christopher F.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of eugenol (AQUI-S®20E, 10% active eugenol) sedation on cool water, yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill), and warm water, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fish metabolic rates were assessed. Both species were exposed to 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L−1 eugenol using static respirometry. In 17°C water and loading densities of 60, 120 and 240 g L−1, yellow perch controls (0 mg L−1 eugenol) had metabolic rates of 329.6–400.0 mg O2 kg−1 h−1, while yellow perch exposed to 20 and 30 mg L−1 eugenol had significantly reduced metabolic rates of 258.4–325.6 and 189.1–271.0 mg O2 kg−1 h−1 respectively. Nile tilapia exposed to 30 mg L−1 eugenol had a significantly reduced metabolic rate (424.5 ± 42.3 mg O2 kg−1 h−1) relative to the 0 mg L−1 eugenol control (546.6 ± 53.5 mg O2 kg−1 h−1) at a loading density of 120 g L−1 in 22°C water. No significant differences in metabolic rates for Nile tilapia were found at 240 or 360 g L−1 loading densities when exposed to eugenol. Results suggest that eugenol sedation may benefit yellow perch welfare at high densities (e.g. live transport) due to a reduction in metabolic rates, while further research is needed to assess the benefits of eugenol sedation on Nile tilapia at high loading densities.

  5. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  6. Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jaideep J. Pandit; Caroline Allen; Evelyn Little; Federico Formenti; Harris, Adrian L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. ...

  7. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting he...

  8. Metabolic rate and membrane fatty acid composition in birds: a comparison between long-living parrots and short-living fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A

    2012-01-01

    Both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) vary with body size in mammals and birds and it has been suggested that these are mediated through size-related variation in membrane fatty acid composition. Whereas the physical properties of membrane fatty acids affect the activity of membrane proteins and, indirectly, an animal's BMR, it is the susceptibility of those fatty acids to peroxidation which influence MLSP. Although there is a correlation between body size and MLSP, there is considerable MLSP variation independent of body size. For example, among bird families, Galliformes (fowl) are relatively short-living and Psittaciformes (parrots) are unusually long-living, with some parrot species reaching maximum lifespans of more than 100 years. We determined BMR and tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition in seven tissues from three species of parrots with an average MLSP of 27 years and from two species of quails with an average MLSP of 5.5 years. We also characterised mitochondrial phospholipids in two of these tissues. Neither BMR nor membrane susceptibility to peroxidation corresponded with differences in MLSP among the birds we measured. We did find that (1) all birds had lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in mitochondrial membranes compared to those of the corresponding tissue, and that (2) irrespective of reliance on flight for locomotion, both pectoral and leg muscle had an almost identical membrane fatty acid composition in all birds.

  9. Growth against entropy in bacterial metabolism: the phenotypic trade-off behind empirical growth rate distributions in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Daniele; Capuani, Fabrizio; De Martino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The solution space of genome-scale models of cellular metabolism provides a map between physically viable flux configurations and cellular metabolic phenotypes described, at the most basic level, by the corresponding growth rates. By sampling the solution space of E. coli's metabolic network, we show that empirical growth rate distributions recently obtained in experiments at single-cell resolution can be explained in terms of a trade-off between the higher fitness of fast-growing phenotypes and the higher entropy of slow-growing ones. Based on this, we propose a minimal model for the evolution of a large bacterial population that captures this trade-off. The scaling relationships observed in experiments encode, in such frameworks, for the same distance from the maximum achievable growth rate, the same degree of growth rate maximization, and/or the same rate of phenotypic change. Being grounded on genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, these results allow for multiple implications and extensions in spite of the underlying conceptual simplicity.

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  11. Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep J. Pandit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113. However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045. In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain.

  12. Does amifostine reduce metabolic rate? Effect of the drug on gas exchange and acute ventilatory hypoxic response in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Jaideep J; Allen, Caroline; Little, Evelyn; Formenti, Federico; Harris, Adrian L; Robbins, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113). However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg) increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045). In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain. PMID:25894815

  13. 儿童基础代谢率与人体组成的关系%Relationships between Children's Basal Metabolic Rate and Body Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞; 蒋卓勤

    2004-01-01

    目的通过对儿童基础代谢率与人体组成关系的研究,为临床基础代谢率的应用提供资料.方法对114名儿童进行基础代谢能量消耗和人体组成(脂肪组织和去脂组织)测定,分析其相关关系.结果基础代谢的能量消耗肥胖组儿童高于非肥胖组儿童,两者比较差异有显著意义(P<0.05).用去脂组织(FFM)和脂肪组织(FM)校正后,肥胖组与非肥胖组无显著性差异(P>0.05),但男、女儿童间仍有显著性差异(P<0.05).基础代谢率与FFM呈显著正相关(r=0.895,P<0.001),FFM可解释基础代谢率变化的80%,是影响基础代谢率的主要因素,性别和FM分别可解释其2.4%和2.7%.用去脂组织、脂肪组织和性别预测基础代谢能量消耗的回归方程:基础代谢率(kJ/h)=100.984+3.243×去脂组织+15.333×性别+1.533×脂肪组织(性别:男童为1,女童为0).结论用FFM和FM对基础代谢率校正以后,基础代谢的能量消耗量肥胖儿童与非肥胖儿童无显著性差异.FFM是影响儿童基础代谢率的主要因素,FM对基础代谢率也有一定影响.

  14. Comparison between measured and predicted resting metabolic rate in moderately active adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo A; Bertini, I; Puijia, A; Testolin, G; Testolin, C

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to check the validity of predictive equations for the calculation of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in moderately active adolescents. The RMR was measured in a sample of 25 healthy 15.5-18.2-year-old boys practicing soccer. The RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry for 30 min following an overnight fast. Body composition was estimated from skinfold thickness measurements. Among the available equations to predict RMR, we decided to use those a of Molnar et al., Harris-Benedict, Schofield, and Cunningham. Measured and predicted values were compared by means of a one-way ANOVA. Also the Bland-Altman test was performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction equations compared to the measured value. The measured RMR was found to be 1834 +/- 160 kcal/day (mean +/- SD), while the Molnar et al., Schofield, Harris-Benedict, and Cunningham predicted values were 1707 +/- 78, 1866 +/- 89, 1779 +/- 84 and 1830 +/- 87 kcal/day, respectively. On average, compared to the measured values only the Molnar et al. equation differed significantly. On an individual basis, all the equations demonstrated considerable variability between measured and predicted RMRs. The predicted values also differed significantly. As regards the moderately active subjects (16-18 years old), we recommend the use of the Schofield equation, based on simple anthropometric parameters and also that of Cunningham, even if the estimation or measurement of fat-free mass may be cumbersome for everyday pediatric use. PMID:10664318

  15. Metabolic rate and plasma T3 in ad lib. fed and starved muskoxen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Nilssen

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting metabolic rate (RMR in two 12 yrs., semidomesticated, female muskoxen was 0.86 ± 0.10 W • kg-1 in winter, and 1.74 ± 0.27 W • kg-1 in summer, (p<0.001. After 6 days of starvation RMR was down to 0.62 + 0.07 W • kg-1 and 0.77 ± 0.03 W • kg-1 (p<0.001 in winter and summer, respectively. RMR during starvation in winter was 19% below predicted RMR for animals of equal body mass. Standing RMR was significantly higher (p<0.01 than lying RMR. Winter plasma levels of T3 in both animals were 1-1 nmol • l-1 when food was freely available, and 1.4 nmol • l-1 after 6 days of starvation. Plasma concentration of T3 in another 8 free ranging semi-domesticated, female muskoxen aged 12 yrs. in March was 0.64 ± 0.20 nmol • l-1. Corrseponding value in August was 1.00 ± 0.10 nmol • l-1, being significantly higher (p<0.01 than the winter value.

  16. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Díaz-Pérez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2015-10-01

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6ºC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μ at the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) and generally covaried with μ but, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μ and K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. PMID:26362925

  17. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan

    2015-09-11

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6oC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μat the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 106 cells mL-1 and generally covaried with μbut, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μand K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. © FEMS 2015.

  18. Hypoxic culture conditions induce increased metabolic rate and collagen gene expression in ACL-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Tomasz J; Leong, Natalie L; Dar, Ayelet; Wu, Ling; Kabir, Nima; Khan, Adam Z; Eliasberg, Claire D; Pedron, Andrew; Karayan, Ashant; Lee, Siyoung; Di Pauli von Treuheim, Theodor; Jiacheng, Jin; Wu, Ben M; Evseenko, Denis; McAllister, David R; Petrigliano, Frank A

    2016-06-01

    There has been substantial effort directed toward the application of bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissue. Recently, resident tissue-specific stem cells have been described in a variety of mesenchymal structures including ligament, tendon, muscle, cartilage, and bone. In the current study, we systematically characterize three novel anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-derived cell populations with the potential for ligament regeneration: ligament-forming fibroblasts (LFF: CD146(neg) , CD34(neg) CD44(pos) , CD31(neg) , CD45(neg) ), ligament perivascular cells (LPC: CD146(pos) CD34(neg) CD44(pos) , CD31(neg) , CD45(neg) ) and ligament interstitial cells (LIC: CD34(pos) CD146(neg) , CD44(pos) , CD31(neg) , CD45(neg) )-and describe their proliferative and differentiation potential, collagen gene expression and metabolism in both normoxic and hypoxic environments, and their trophic potential in vitro. All three groups of cells (LIC, LPC, and LFF) isolated from adult human ACL exhibited progenitor cell characteristics with regard to proliferation and differentiation potential in vitro. Culture in low oxygen tension enhanced the collagen I and III gene expression in LICs (by 2.8- and 3.3-fold, respectively) and LFFs (by 3- and 3.5-fold, respectively) and increased oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate in LICs (by 4- and 3.5-fold, respectively), LFFs (by 5.5- and 3-fold, respectively), LPCs (by 10- and 4.5-fold, respectively) as compared to normal oxygen concentration. In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time the presence of three novel progenitor cell populations in the adult ACL that demonstrate robust proliferative and matrix synthetic capacity; these cells may play a role in local ligament regeneration, and consequently represent a potential cell source for ligament engineering applications. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  19. Comparison of Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations in Estimating Resting Metabolic Rate in Underweight Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra ALIASGHARZADEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Underweight as a public health problem in young women is associated with nutritional deficiencies, menstrual irregularity, eating disorders, reduced fertility, etc. Since resting metabolic rate (RMR is a necessary compo-nent in the development of nutrition support therapy, therefore we determined the accuracy of commonly used pre-dictive equations against RMR measured by indirect calorimetry among healthy young underweight females.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 underweight females aged 18-30 years old with body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 in 2013 . After collecting anthropometric data, body composition was measured by bioelec-tric impedance analysis (BIA. RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (FitMate™ and was estimated by 10 commonly used predictive equations. Comparisons were conducted using paired t-test. The accuracy of the RMR equations was evaluated on the basis of the percentage of subjects’ predicted RMR within 10% of measured RMR.Results: The mean BMI of subjects was 17.3±1.3 kg/m2. The measured RMR ranged 736-1490 kcal/day (mean 1084.7±175 kcal/day. Findings indicated that except Muller and Abbreviation, other equations significantly over es-timated RMR, compared to measured value (P<0.05. As an individual prediction accuracy, these predictive equations showed poor performance with the highest accuracy rate of 54.8% for Muller equation (22.1% under and 23.1% over-prediction and 43.3% for Abbreviation equation (31.7% under and 25% over-prediction, the percentage bias was 1.8% and 0.63% and RMSE was 162 and 173 kcal/d, respectively.Conclusion: Although Muller equation gave fairly acceptable prediction, more suitable new equations are needed to be developed to help better management of nutritional plans in young underweight people.

  20. Maximal sum of metabolic exchange fluxes outperforms biomass yield as a predictor of growth rate of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarecki, Raphy; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Yizhak, Keren; Wagner, Allon; Shtifman Segal, Ella; Freilich, Shiri; Henry, Christopher S; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

    2014-01-01

    Growth rate has long been considered one of the most valuable phenotypes that can be measured in cells. Aside from being highly accessible and informative in laboratory cultures, maximal growth rate is often a prime determinant of cellular fitness, and predicting phenotypes that underlie fitness is key to both understanding and manipulating life. Despite this, current methods for predicting microbial fitness typically focus on yields [e.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome-scale metabolic Models (GEMs)] or notably require many empirical kinetic constants or substrate uptake rates, which render these methods ineffective in cases where fitness derives most directly from growth rate. Here we present a new method for predicting cellular growth rate, termed SUMEX, which does not require any empirical variables apart from a metabolic network (i.e., a GEM) and the growth medium. SUMEX is calculated by maximizing the SUM of molar EXchange fluxes (hence SUMEX) in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species, environments, and genetic conditions, outperforming traditional cellular objectives (most notably, the convention assuming biomass maximization). The success of SUMEX suggests that the ability of a cell to catabolize substrates and produce a strong proton gradient enables fast cell growth. Easily applicable heuristics for predicting growth rate, such as what we demonstrate with SUMEX, may contribute to numerous medical and biotechnological goals, ranging from the engineering of faster-growing industrial strains, modeling of mixed ecological communities, and the inhibition of cancer growth. PMID:24866123

  1. Maximal sum of metabolic exchange fluxes outperforms biomass yield as a predictor of growth rate of microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphy Zarecki

    Full Text Available Growth rate has long been considered one of the most valuable phenotypes that can be measured in cells. Aside from being highly accessible and informative in laboratory cultures, maximal growth rate is often a prime determinant of cellular fitness, and predicting phenotypes that underlie fitness is key to both understanding and manipulating life. Despite this, current methods for predicting microbial fitness typically focus on yields [e.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome-scale metabolic Models (GEMs] or notably require many empirical kinetic constants or substrate uptake rates, which render these methods ineffective in cases where fitness derives most directly from growth rate. Here we present a new method for predicting cellular growth rate, termed SUMEX, which does not require any empirical variables apart from a metabolic network (i.e., a GEM and the growth medium. SUMEX is calculated by maximizing the SUM of molar EXchange fluxes (hence SUMEX in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species, environments, and genetic conditions, outperforming traditional cellular objectives (most notably, the convention assuming biomass maximization. The success of SUMEX suggests that the ability of a cell to catabolize substrates and produce a strong proton gradient enables fast cell growth. Easily applicable heuristics for predicting growth rate, such as what we demonstrate with SUMEX, may contribute to numerous medical and biotechnological goals, ranging from the engineering of faster-growing industrial strains, modeling of mixed ecological communities, and the inhibition of cancer growth.

  2. METABOLIC RATE AS A FUNCTION OF AGE IN BROWN NORWAY AND LONG-EVANS RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Norway (BN) rats are commonly used in aging studies but relatively little is known on their metabolism as it varies with age. In fact, there is considerable disagreement on the wholebody metabolism of aging rats with some studies indicating a decrease and others showing an...

  3. Gender dependent rate of metabolism of the opioid receptor-PET ligand [{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl-diprenorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, G.; Spilker, M.E.; Hauser, A.I.; Boecker, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Wester, H.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sprenger, T.; Platzer, S.; Toelle, T.R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Neurology

    2006-07-01

    Aim: The morphinane-derivate 6-O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-6-O-desmethyldiprenorphine ([{sup 18}F]FDPN) is a non-selective opioid receptor ligand currently used in positron emission tomography (PET). Correction for plasma metabolites of the arterial input function is necessary for quantitative measurements of [{sup 18}]FDPN binding. A study was undertaken to investigate if there are gender dependent differences in the rate of metabolism of [{sup 18}F]FDPN. Methods: The rate of metabolism of [{sup 18}F]FDPN was mathematically quantified by fitting a bi-exponential function to each individual's dynamic metabolite data. Results: No statistically significant gender differences were found for age, weight, body mass index or dose. However, significant differences (p<0.01) in two of the four kinetic parameters describing the rate of metabolism were found between the two groups, with women metabolizing [{sup 18}F]FDPN faster than men. These differences were found in the contribution of the fast and slow kinetic components of the model describing the distribution of radioactive species in plasma, indicating a higher rate of enzyme-dependent degradation of [{sup 18}F]FDPN in women than in men. Conclusion: The findings reinforce the need for individualized metabolite correction during [{sup 18}F]FDPN-PET scans and also indicate that in certain cases, grouping according to gender could be performed in order to minimize methodological errors of the input function prior to kinetic analyses. (orig.)

  4. Effect of nanoparticles of silver and gold on metabolic rate and development of broiler and layer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, L; Sawosz, E; Hotowy, A;

    2012-01-01

    affected by either of the treatments, but it was significantly higher compared to the layer embryos. Neither of the nanoparticles promoted nor depressed growth and development of the embryos, irrespective of breed. Although the metabolic rate of AgNano-injected layer embryos was significantly increased...

  5. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  6. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Steffensen, John F.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included repr...

  7. Bile acid metabolism in hereditary forms of hypertriglyceridemia: evidence for an increased synthesis rate in monogenic familial hypertriglyceridemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Angelin, B; Hershon, K S; Brunzell, J D

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize bile acid metabolism in hereditary forms of hypertriglyceridemia. Ten hypertriglyceridemic patients (type IV phenotype) with familial combined hyperlipidemia and 7 patients with monogenic familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG) were compared with 18 healthy controls; all subjects were males. Pool size, synthesis rate, and fractional catabolic rate of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were determined with an isotope dilution technique. Patients with FHTG ...

  8. Visual rating of medial temporal lobe metabolism in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to examine the utility of visual inspection of medial temporal lobe (MTL) metabolism in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using FDG-PET scans. Seventy-five subjects [27 normal controls (NL), 26 MCI, and 22 AD] with FDG-PET and MRI scans were included in this study. We developed a four-point visual rating scale to evaluate the presence and severity of MTL hypometabolism on FDG-PET scans. The visual MTL ratings were compared with quantitative glucose metabolic rate (MRglc) data extracted using regions of interest (ROIs) from the MRI-coregistered PET scans of all subjects. A standard rating evaluation of neocortical hypometabolism was also completed. Logistic regressions were used to determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the MTL and cortical ratings. For both MTL and cortical ratings, high intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were found (p values glc measures (p values <0.001). The combination of MTL and cortical ratings significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy over the cortical rating alone, with 100% of AD, 77% of MCI, and 85% of NL cases being correctly identified. This study shows that the visual rating of MTL hypometabolism on PET is reliable, yields a diagnostic accuracy equal to the quantitative ROI measures, and is clinically useful and more sensitive than cortical ratings for patients with MCI. We suggest this method be further evaluated for its potential in the early diagnosis of AD. (orig.)

  9. The effect of microbial glucose metabolism on bytownite feldspar dissolution rates between 5° and 35°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, S. A.; Ullman, W. J.

    1999-10-01

    The rate of Si release from dissolving bytownite feldspar in abiotic batch reactors increased as temperatures increased from 5° to 35°C. Metabolically inert subsurface bacteria (bacteria in solution with no organic substrate) had no apparent effect on dissolution rates over this temperature range. When glucose was added to the microbial cultures, the bacteria responded by producing gluconic acid, which catalyzed the dissolution reaction by both proton- and ligand-promoted mechanisms. The metabolic production, excretion, and consumption of gluconic acid in the course of glucose oxidation, and therefore, the degree of microbial enhancement of mineral dissolution, depend on temperature. There was little accumulation of gluconic acid and therefore, no significant enhancement of mineral dissolution rates at 35°C compared to the abiotic controls. At 20°C, gluconate accumulated in the experimental solutions only at the beginning of the experiment and led to a twofold increase in dissolved Si release compared to the controls, primarily by the ligand-promoted dissolution mechanism. There was significant accumulation of gluconic acid in the 5°C experiment, which is reflected in a significant reduction in pH, leading to 20-fold increase in Si release, primarily attributable to the proton-promoted dissolution mechanism. These results indicate that bacteria and microbial metabolism can affect mineral dissolution rates in organic-rich, nutrient-poor environments; the impact of microbial metabolism on aluminum silicate dissolution rates may be greater at lower rather than at higher temperatures due to the metabolic accumulation of dissolution-enhancing protons and ligands in solution.

  10. Normal Weight Obese syndrome: role of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-1 5Ralpha and MTHFR 677C-->T genes in the relationship between body composition and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, L; Bigioni, M; Bottini, F G; Del Gobbo, V; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    We have identified a subset of metabolically obese, but normal weight individuals, with potentially increased risks of developing the metabolic syndrome, despite their normal body mass index. We determined the relationship among body fat distribution, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total body water amount (%TBW), selected gene polymorphism on interleukin-15 receptor-alpha (IL-15Ralpha) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T (MTHFR 677C-->T), to distinguish normal weight obese (NWO) from nonobese with a normal metabolic profile and obese individuals. We analysed anthropometric variables, body composition by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), RMR by indirect calorimetry, %TBW by bioimpedence analysis (BIA), MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15Ralpha genotypes of 128 clinically healthy Caucasian individuals. We compared a group of female, defined as NWO and characterised by a BMI or = 30% with groups of others female, and males, represented by nonobese with a BMI or = 25 kg/m(2) and %FM > or = 30%; none of the males was classified as NWO. Significant correlations were found among body fat mass distribution, metabolic variables, percentage of total body water distribution and selected genetic variations. The variables that contributed significantly to the separation of classes were body tissue (Tissue), %TBW, RMR, the volumes of both oxygen (VO2) and carbon dioxide (VCO2). The distribution of MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15 genotypes was significantly different between classes. Our data highlight that NWO individuals showed a significant relationship between the decrease in the basal metabolism (RMR), body fat mass increasing and total water amount. Possession of wild type homozygotes genotypes regarding IL-15Ralpha cytokine and 677C-->T MTHFR enzyme characterised NWO individuals. PMID:17121316

  11. Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, D. A.; Strangman, G.; Culver, J. P.; Hoge, R. D.; Jasdzewski, G.; Poldrack, R. A.; Rosen, B. R.; Mandeville, J. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have measured the changes in oxy-haemoglobin and deoxy-haemoglobin in the adult human brain during a brief finger tapping exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) can be estimated from these NIRS data provided certain model assumptions. The change in CMRO2 is related to changes in the total haemoglobin concentration, deoxy-haemoglobin concentration and blood flow. As NIRS does not provide a measure of dynamic changes in blood flow during brain activation, we relied on a Windkessel model that relates dynamic blood volume and flow changes, which has been used previously for estimating CMRO2 from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Because of the partial volume effect we are unable to quantify the absolute changes in the local brain haemoglobin concentrations with NIRS and thus are unable to obtain an estimate of the absolute CMRO2 change. An absolute estimate is also confounded by uncertainty in the flow-volume relationship. However, the ratio of the flow change to the CMRO2 change is relatively insensitive to these uncertainties. For the finger tapping task, we estimate a most probable flow-consumption ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 in agreement with previous findings presented in the literature, although we cannot exclude the possibility that there is no CMRO2 change. The large range in the ratio arises from the large number of model parameters that must be estimated from the data. A more precise estimate of the flow-consumption ratio will require better estimates of the model parameters or flow information, as can be provided by combining NIRS with fMRI.

  12. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature (5 oC, 10 oC, relatively and RMR increased significantly when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature (35 oC when 28 day; on 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30 oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of E. miletus in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  13. Seasonally constant field metabolic rates in free-ranging sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Darren G; Riek, Alexander; Green, Stuart; Smith, Andrew P; Geiser, Fritz

    2010-03-01

    Sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps (average body mass: 120 g) like other small wild mammals must cope with seasonal changes in food availability and weather and therefore thermoregulatory and energetic challenges. To determine whether free-ranging sugar gliders, an arboreal marsupial, seasonally adjust their energy expenditure and water use, we quantified field metabolic rates (FMR) and water flux at a seasonal cool-temperate site in eastern Australia. Thirty six male and female sugar gliders were labelled with doubly labelled water for this purpose in spring, summer and autumn. The mean FMR was 159+/-6 kJ d(-1) (spring), 155+/-8 kJ d(-1) (summer), and 152+/-20 kJ d(-1) (autumn) and the mean FMR for the three seasons combined was 158+/-5 kJ d(-1) (equivalent to 1.33 kJ g(-)(1)d(-1) or 780 kJ kg(-0.)(75)d(-1)). The mean total body water was 83+/-2 g, equal to 68.5% of body weight. Mean water flux was 29+/-1 mL day(-1). Season, ambient temperature or sex did not affect any of the measured and estimated physiological variables, but body mass and total body water differed significantly between sexes and among seasons. Our study is the first to provide evidence for a constant FMR in a small mammal in three different seasons and despite different thermal conditions. This suggests that seasonal changes in climate are compensated for by behavioural and physiological adjustments such as huddling and torpor known to be employed extensively by sugar gliders in the wild.

  14. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... and metabolism was originally performed using the Kety-Schmidt method and this method still represent the gold standard by which subsequent methods have been evaluated. However, in its classical setting, the method overestimates cerebral blood flow. Studies of metabolic changes during activation must take...... difficulties due to limitation in resolution and partial volume effects. In contrast to the tight coupling between regional glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow, there is an uncoupling between flow and oxygen consumption as the latter only increases to a limited extend. The excess glucose uptake is thus...

  15. Metabolic and organ mass responses to selection for high growth rates in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarzewski, M; Gavin, A; McDevitt, R; Wallis, I R

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should either lower the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a trade-off between the costs of growth and maintenance or increase RMR because of a buildup of metabolic machinery. Furthermore, some suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should reduce peak metabolic rate (PMR) through delayed tissue maturation and/or an increased energy allocation to organ growth. We studied this by comparing metabolic rates and organ sizes of fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) with those of birds from a laying strain, which grow much slower. During the first week of life, despite growing six times faster, the RMR of the broiler chickens was lower than that of birds of the laying strain. The difference between strains in RMR disappeared thereafter, even though broilers continued to grow twice as fast as layers. The differences between strains in growth rate during the first week after hatching were not reflected in similar differences in the relative masses of the heart, liver, and small intestine. However, broilers had heavier intestines once they reached a body mass of 80 g. In contrast, broilers had relatively smaller brains than did layers. There was a positive correlation, over both strains, between RMR and the masses of leg muscles, intestine, and liver. Furthermore, despite delayed maturation of muscle tissue, broilers exhibited significantly higher PMR. We hypothesize that a balance between the larger relative muscle mass but lower muscle maturation level explains this high PMR. Another correlation, between leg muscle mass and PMR, partly explained the positive correlation between RMR and PMR.

  16. Basal ganglia dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overdose Head injury Infection Liver disease Metabolic problems Multiple sclerosis Poisoning with copper, manganese, or other heavy metals Side effects of certain medications Stroke Tumors Many brain disorders are associated with ...

  17. Ventilation rates and activity levels of juvenile jumbo squid under metabolic suppression in the oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Pegado, Maria R; Seibel, Brad A; Rosa, Rui

    2013-02-01

    The Humboldt (jumbo) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is a part-time resident of the permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and, thereby, it encounters oxygen levels below its critical oxygen partial pressure. To better understand the ventilatory mechanisms that accompany the process of metabolic suppression in these top oceanic predators, we exposed juvenile D. gigas to the oxygen levels found in the OMZ (1% O(2), 1 kPa, 10 °C) and measured metabolic rate, activity cycling patterns, swimming mode, escape jet (burst) frequency, mantle contraction frequency and strength, stroke volume and oxygen extraction efficiency. In normoxia, metabolic rate varied between 14 and 29 μmol O(2) g(-1) wet mass h(-1), depending on the level of activity. The mantle contraction frequency and strength were linearly correlated and increased significantly with activity level. Additionally, an increase in stroke volume and ventilatory volume per minute was observed, followed by a mantle hyperinflation process during high activity periods. Squid metabolic rate dropped more than 75% during exposure to hypoxia. Maximum metabolic rate was not achieved under such conditions and the metabolic scope was significantly decreased. Hypoxia changed the relationship between mantle contraction strength and frequency from linear to polynomial with increasing activity, indicating that, under hypoxic conditions, the jumbo squid primarily increases the strength of mantle contraction and does not regulate its frequency. Under hypoxia, jumbo squid also showed a larger inflation period (reduced contraction frequency) and decreased relaxed mantle diameter (shortened diffusion pathway), which optimize oxygen extraction efficiency (up to 82%/34%, without/with consideration of 60% potential skin respiration). Additionally, they breathe 'deeply', with more powerful contractions and enhanced stroke volume. This deep-breathing behavior allows them to display a stable ventilatory volume per

  18. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. SWANSON, Marisa O. KING

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals, but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates, despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study. In addition, whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated. In this study, we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations, after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1, and again after an additional 1–2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2. Msum increased significantly (16.9% following the initial captive period, but remained stable thereafter. Body mass (Mb also increased significantly (9.2% during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter, suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation. Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds, but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups. These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations. In addition, Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable, but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses. This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals, and such variation could have fitness consequences [Current Zoology 59 (4: 439–448, 2013].

  19. EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON BODY TEMPERATURE AND REST METABOLIC RATE IN APODEMUS CHEVRIERI DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wan-long; Sun Shu-ran; Ge Fang; Sun Cong-nan; Zhang Lin; Wang Zheng-kun

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day) when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in lo...

  20. Metabolic rate variation over adult lifetime in the butterfly Vanessa cardui (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae): aging, feeding, and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, William A; Wood, C A L; Ebersole, John; Stevenson, R D

    2010-01-01

    Questions about the adaptive importance of metabolic rate can be approached only when measurements of differences between individuals are repeatable. We made daily measurements of CO(2) production, body mass, and food uptake over the adult life span of unmated Vanessa cardui kept under constant environmental conditions in both fed and unfed treatments. Mass and CO(2) production generally declined with age in both treatments, though with much day-to-day variability in the fed treatment. For the full samples, metabolic rate was repeatable for the unfed treatment (repeatability r = 0.60) but not for the fed treatment (r = 0.03). Differences between fed and unfed individuals of the same age range were repeatable for the unfed treatment (r = 0.39) but not for the fed treatment (r = -0.20). Removing age effects on CO(2) production yielded still higher repeatability in the unfed treatment (r = 0.83), though not in fed butterflies of the same age range (r = -0.02). However, repeatability of CO(2) production of fed butterflies increased sharply with age, rising to 0.82 for butterflies age 8-10 d. Although food uptake mass was repeatable (r = 0.52), feeding history explained little variation in CO(2) production. We conclude that for V. cardui and possibly for other insects of similar feeding habit, variation in metabolic rate between individuals is best represented by measurements of unfed individuals of the same age or of older fed individuals.

  1. Flight Modes in Migrating European Bee-Eaters : Heart Rate May Indicate Low Metabolic Rate during Soaring and Gliding

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Sapir; Martin Wikelski; McCue, Marshall D; Berry Pinshow; Ran Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many avian species soar and glide over land. Evidence from large birds (mb.0.9 kg) suggests that soaringgliding is considerably cheaper in terms of energy than flapping flight, and costs about two to three times the basalmetabolic rate (BMR). Yet, soaring-gliding is considered unfavorable for small birds because migration speed in small birds during soaring-gliding is believed to be lower than that of flapping flight. Nevertheless, several small bird species routinely soar and gli...

  2. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.

    2014-01-01

    , air-tight space, constant indoor pressure and temperature. The proposed approach for ACR evaluation can be applied to time intervals with any length, even with varying parameters of both indoor and outdoor air, in which metabolic CO2 generation rate is known and constant. This approach makes possible......IAQ in many residential buildings relies on non-organized natural ventilation. Accurate evaluation of air change rate (ACR) in this situation is difficult due to the nature of the phenomenon - intermittent infiltration-exfiltration periods of mass exchange between the room air and the outdoor air...

  3. Role of metabolic rate and DNA-repair in Drosophila aging Implications for the mitochondrial mutation theory of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Binnard, R.; Fleming, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The notion that injury to mitochondrial DNA is a cause of intrinsic aging was tested by correlating the different respiration rates of several wild strains of Drosophila melanogaster with the life-spans. Respiration rate and aging in a mutant of D. melanogaster deficient in postreplication repair were also investigated. In agreement with the rate of living theory, there was an inverse relation between oxygen consumption and median life-span in flies having normal DNA repair. The mutant showed an abnormally low life-span as compared to the controls and also exhibited significant deficiency in mating fitness and a depressed metabolic rate. Therefore, the short life-span of the mutant may be due to the congenital condition rather than to accelerated aging.

  4. Physical activity, heart rate, metabolic profile, and estradiol in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Veierød, Marit B; Furberg, Anne-Sofie;

    2008-01-01

    syndrome (zMS); total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, insulin resistance, total fat tissue, BP, and triglycerides] was defined. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used, and confounding factors were tested. RESULTS: Physically active women had lower fat percentage...... were also found for fat tissue, total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio, insulin resistance, and triglycerides. A dose-response relationship was observed among the three levels of LPA and HR and zMS (Ptrend = 0.03 for LPA; Ptrend = 0.004 for HR). Women in the highest tertile of the clustered metabolic risk score......PURPOSE: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. METHODS: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical...

  5. Melanin pattern morphs do not differ in metabolic rate: implications for the evolutionary maintenance of a melanophore polymorphism in the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christiane I.; Kaufman, Robert; Cech, Joseph J.

    2006-10-01

    Variation in melanin patterns among individuals, populations, and species is common in fishes of the genus Xiphophorus. In the variable platyfish, Xiphophorus variatus, variation in metabolic rate is associated with melanin coloration and the color morphs appear to be physiological specialists adapted to particular environmental conditions. This study investigates whether a melanin polymorphism in the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri, is likewise associated with variation in metabolic rate. We measured metabolic rate as oxygen consumption rate of both adult male and juvenile X. helleri in static respirometers. The oxygen consumption rate does not differ significantly between the spotted and nonspotted morphs in either group, suggesting that-unlike in X. variatus-selection on metabolic rate is not involved in maintaining the polymorphism in X. helleri. We suggest that explanations need to be sought for the evolution of melanophore diversity in Xiphophorus that are pertinent to each melanin pattern polymorphism or groups of similar polymorphisms.

  6. Comparison of physical characteristics, body temperature and resting metabolic rate at 30‡C between subtropical and temperate natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, S.; Ihzuka, H.

    1986-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements, measurements of skin temperatures, rectal temperature, heart rate and metabolic rate at 30‡C were made on 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa (group O) and 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland but moved to Okinawa less than 2 years before the test (group M) in summer. Group O showed significantly shorter height, lighter body weight, and slender body shape than group M. Group O showed thinner skinfold thickness and smaller percentage of body fat content than group M. Skin temperatures for group O were higher than those for group M, and rectal temperature for group O was slightly lower than that for group M. Group O showed, less metabolic rate per body surface area and slower heart rate than group M. It is concluded that physical characteristics of subtropical natives is favorable for heat dissipation, and subtropical natives have superior capacity for non-evaporative heat dissipation than migrants of temperate natives to a subtropical zone.

  7. Non-invasive Estimation of Metabolic Uptake Rate of Glucose using F18-FDG PET and Linear Transformation of Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, M.; Auerback, P.;

    different standard deviations with the best method-Parker and Feng- at 0.0030 i. e. around 10 %. Conclusion: Based on this study, we can estimate the metabolic uptake rate of glucose with good accuracy and precision in similar future studies without blood sampling. Given the high variance of the femoral......For quantitative analysis and kinetic modeling of dynamic PET-data an input function is needed. Normally this is obtained by arterial blood sampling, potentially an unpleasant experience for the patient and laborious for the staff. Aim: To validate methods for determination of the metabolic uptake...... apart and all with concurrent Arterial Blood Sampling (ABS). We proceeded to evaluate different earlier proposed methods as well as several new ones based on Archetypal Analysis for generating IDIFs. Comparison of the methods was based on the sets of Km-values generated for each scan from Patlak plots...

  8. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis

  9. Temperature influence on post-prandial metabolic rate of sub-Antarctic teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, Fabián Alberto; Boy, Claudia C; Lattuca, María Eugenia; Calvo, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    The influence of temperature on the aerobic metabolism and the energetic cost of food intake (Specific Dynamic Action; SDA) have been investigated in four species of Sub-Antarctic teleosts. The species were the notothenioids Paranotothenia magellanica, Patagonotothen sima and Harpagifer bispinis and the zoarcid Austrolycus depressiceps. Individuals were captured in the vicinity of Ushuaia Bay. Experimental temperatures were 10, 4 and 2 degrees C, which correspond to summer, winter and extreme winter respectively. Individual respirometry chambers and calorimetric techniques were used. Different food items were provided: crustaceans (isopods and amphipods) and Argentinean hake muscle. Interspecific analysis was done on species fed with isopods. A rapid increase in oxygen consumption was registered after meals, indicating a typical SDA response. The Duration of the SDA was longer at low temperatures. The extra energy spent during the process itself, and when expressed as a percentage of consumed food energy, decreased with decreasing temperature. The SDA Coefficient was higher for H. bispinis that were fed with isopods. We suggest that decreases in temperature diminish the metabolic cost and extend SDA. Energy-saving mechanisms could be an evolutionary advantage to minimize the energetic cost of living at low sub-Antarctic temperatures. A general model of exponential decay is suggested for the duration of SDA and Temperature, based on the present study and compiled from literature data. PMID:20167285

  10. Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate to predict metabolism in resting Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Haulena, Martin; Hindle, Allyson G; Trites, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use heart rate (fh) to predict oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text]) in Steller sea lions and other pinnipeds has been investigated in fasting animals. However, it is unknown whether established fh:[Formula: see text] relationships hold under more complex physiological situations, such as when animals are feeding or digesting. We assessed whether fh could accurately predict [Formula: see text] in trained Steller sea lions while fasting and after being fed. Using linear mixed-effects models, we derived unique equations to describe the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship for fasted sea lions resting on land and in water. Feeding did not significantly change the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship on land. However, Steller sea lions in water displayed a different fh:[Formula: see text] relationship after consuming a 4-kg meal compared with the fasting condition. Incorporating comparable published fh:[Formula: see text] data from Steller sea lions showed a distinct effect of feeding after a 6-kg meal. Ultimately, our study illustrated that both feeding and physical environment are statistically relevant when deriving [Formula: see text] from telemetered fh, but that only environment affects the practical ability to predict metabolism from fh. Updating current bioenergetic models with data gathered using these predictive fh:[Formula: see text] equations will yield more accurate estimates of metabolic rates of free-ranging Steller sea lions under a variety of physiological, behavioral, and environmental states.

  11. Is Mass-based Metabolism Rate Proportional to Surface Area in Plant Leaves? A Data Re-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Jin; Yiqiang Dai; Li Sun; Shucun Sun

    2008-01-01

    We re-analyzed two large published databases on leaf traits of plant species from seven different biomes, and determined the scaling relationship between leaf metabolism rate (mass-based photosynthesis capacity, Amass, and mass-based dark respiration, Rdmass) and specific leaf area (SLA) across biomes, using a standardized major axis (SMA) method. Overall pooled data produced a scaling exponent of 1.33 for the relationship between Amass and SLA, significantly larger than 1.0; and 1.04 between Rdmass and SLA. The scaling exponent of the relationship between Amass and SLA ranged between 1.23 (in tropical forest) and 1.66 (in alpine biome), and it was significantly larger in alpine (1.66) and grass/meadow (1.52) biomes than in tropical forest (1.23) and wetland (1.27). The exponent of the relationship between Rdmass and SLA, however,was much smaller in wetland (1.05) than in temperate forest (1.29) and tropical rainforest (1.65). In general, the predicated universal scaling relationship that the mass-based metabolism rate should be proportional to surface area in organisms is not applicable at the leaf-level in plants. Rather, the large slope difference of the relationship between leaf metabolism rate and SLA found among biomes indicates that the strength of the selective forces driving the scaling relationship is different among the biomes. The result basically suggests the importance of increasing SLA to plant carbon gain in stressful environments and to carbon loss in favorable habitats, and therefore has an important implication for survival strategies of plants in different biomes.

  12. Extraction of elementary rate constants from global network analysis of E. coli central metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Gordon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As computational performance steadily increases, so does interest in extending one-particle-per-molecule models to larger physiological problems. Such models however require elementary rate constants to calculate time-dependent rate coefficients under physiological conditions. Unfortunately, even when in vivo kinetic data is available, it is often in the form of aggregated rate laws (ARL that do not specify the required elementary rate constants corresponding to mass-action rate laws (MRL. There is therefore a need to develop a method which is capable of automatically transforming ARL kinetic information into more detailed MRL rate constants. Results By incorporating proteomic data related to enzyme abundance into an MRL modelling framework, here we present an efficient method operating at a global network level for extracting elementary rate constants from experiment-based aggregated rate law (ARL models. The method combines two techniques that can be used to overcome the difficult properties in parameterization. The first, a hybrid MRL/ARL modelling technique, is used to divide the parameter estimation problem into sub-problems, so that the parameters of the mass action rate laws for each enzyme are estimated in separate steps. This reduces the number of parameters that have to be optimized simultaneously. The second, a hybrid algebraic-numerical simulation and optimization approach, is used to render some rate constants identifiable, as well as to greatly narrow the bounds of the other rate constants that remain unidentifiable. This is done by incorporating equality constraints derived from the King-Altman and Cleland method into the simulated annealing algorithm. We apply these two techniques to estimate the rate constants of a model of E. coli glycolytic pathways. The simulation and statistical results show that our innovative method performs well in dealing with the issues of high computation cost, stiffness, local

  13. Metabolic control analysis of biochemical pathways based on a thermokinetic description of reaction rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    of the thermokinetic description of reaction rates to include the influence of effecters. Here the reaction rate is written as a linear function of the logarithm of the metabolite concentrations. With this type of rate function it is shown that the approach of Delgado and Liao [Biochem. J. (1992) 282......, 919-927] can be much more widely applied, although it was originally based on linearized kinetics. The methodology of determining elasticity coefficients directly from pool levels is illustrated with an analysis of the first two steps of the biosynthetic pathway of penicillin. The results compare well...

  14. Metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; Onderwater, Mark Q.; de Jong, Jelle; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre vertical bar Reade,

  15. Global rates of marine sulfate reduction and implications for sub–sea-floor metabolic activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowles, M.W.; Mogollón, J.M.; Kasten, S.; Zabel, M.; Hinrichs, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate reduction is a globally important yet poorly quantified redox process in marine sediments. We developed an artificial neural network trained with 199 sulfate profiles, constrained with geomorphological and geochemical maps to estimate global sulfate reduction rate distributions. Globally, 11

  16. Thermoregulatory and thermal dependence of resting metabolic rates in the Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus in the Luokeng Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen-Xing; WU Zheng-Jun; Yu, Hai; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Zhong, Yi-Ming

    2008-01-01

    To explore the thermoregulatory and thermal dependence of resting metabolic rates (RMR) in the Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus, we measured the active body temperature, the diel variation in body temperature, the average daily body temperatures, the ambient temperature and the resting metabolic rate in the wild and under controlled laboratory conditions. Results showed that in the wild, active body temperature (Tb) was higher than substrate temperature (Tc) and air temperat...

  17. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  18. Relationship between resting heart rate and anthropometric, metabolic and hemodynamic parameters in the elderly aged 80 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the relationship between resting heart rate (RHRr and anthropometric, metabolic and hemodynamic parameters in subjects aged 80 years and over. One hundred thirteen individuals were divided into two groups (RHR:<66 beats/min and ≥66 beats/min. Anthropometric parameters (weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference (WC were measured. Hemodynamic parameters (systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP pressure were measured and pulse pressures (PP were obtained. Metabolic parameters were fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol. In elderly aged 80 and over, RHR influenced the changes observed in DBP, PP and triglycerides. Additionally, subjects with RHR≥66 beats/min had higher DBP, glucose, total cholesterol and lower PP as compared with elderly with RHR<66 beats/min. Men demonstrated greater weight, height, and WC than women while women had higher percentage of body fat, trunk fat, and higher total cholesterol. Thus, subjects with 80 years old and over who present RHR≥66 have higher DBP and lower PP and heart rate variability compared with the elderly with RHR<66.

  19. The effects of laboratory housing and spatial enrichment on brain size and metabolic rate in the eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turschwell, Mischa P; White, Craig R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been hypothesised that there is a functional correlation between brain size and metabolic rate in vertebrates. The present study tested this hypothesis in wild-caught adult mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki by testing for an intra-specific association between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and brain size while controlling for variation in body size, and through the examination of the effects of spatial enrichment and laboratory housing on body mass-independent measures of brain size and RMR. Controlling for body mass, there was no relationship between brain size and RMR in wild-caught fish. Contrary to predictions, spatial enrichment caused a decrease in mass-independent brain size, highlighting phenotypic plasticity in the adult brain. As expected, after controlling for differences in body size, wild-caught fish had relatively larger brains than fish that had been maintained in the laboratory for a minimum of six weeks, but wild-caught fish also had significantly lower mass-independent RMR. This study demonstrates that an organisms' housing environment can cause significant plastic changes to fitness related traits including brain size and RMR. We therefore conclude that current standard laboratory housing conditions may cause captive animals to be non-representative of their wild counterparts, potentially undermining the transferability of previous laboratory-based studies of aquatic ectothermic vertebrates to wild populations. PMID:26794608

  20. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on planktonic metabolic rates and microbial community composition in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Reader, Heather E.; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Lindh, Markus V.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Conley, Daniel J.; Kritzberg, Emma S.

    2016-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is the world's largest area suffering from eutrophication-driven hypoxia. Low oxygen levels are threatening its biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The main causes for eutrophication-driven hypoxia are high nutrient loadings and global warming. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) contribute to eutrophication as they are important sources of nitrogen to coastal areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on Baltic Sea planktonic communities in four experiments. We tested for effects of effluent inputs on chlorophyll a content, bacterial community composition, and metabolic rates: gross primary production (GPP), net community production (NCP), community respiration (CR) and bacterial production (BP). Nitrogen-rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) inputs from effluents increased bacterial production and decreased primary production and community respiration. Nutrient amendments and seasonally variable environmental conditions lead to lower alpha-diversity and shifts in bacterial community composition (e.g. increased abundance of a few cyanobacterial populations in the summer experiment), concomitant with changes in metabolic rates. An increase in BP and decrease in CR could be caused by high lability of the DOM that can support secondary bacterial production, without an increase in respiration. Increases in bacterial production and simultaneous decreases of primary production lead to more carbon being consumed in the microbial loop, and may shift the ecosystem towards heterotrophy.

  1. The effects of laboratory housing and spatial enrichment on brain size and metabolic rate in the eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa P. Turschwell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been hypothesised that there is a functional correlation between brain size and metabolic rate in vertebrates. The present study tested this hypothesis in wild-caught adult mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki by testing for an intra-specific association between resting metabolic rate (RMR and brain size while controlling for variation in body size, and through the examination of the effects of spatial enrichment and laboratory housing on body mass-independent measures of brain size and RMR. Controlling for body mass, there was no relationship between brain size and RMR in wild-caught fish. Contrary to predictions, spatial enrichment caused a decrease in mass-independent brain size, highlighting phenotypic plasticity in the adult brain. As expected, after controlling for differences in body size, wild-caught fish had relatively larger brains than fish that had been maintained in the laboratory for a minimum of six weeks, but wild-caught fish also had significantly lower mass-independent RMR. This study demonstrates that an organisms' housing environment can cause significant plastic changes to fitness related traits including brain size and RMR. We therefore conclude that current standard laboratory housing conditions may cause captive animals to be non-representative of their wild counterparts, potentially undermining the transferability of previous laboratory-based studies of aquatic ectothermic vertebrates to wild populations.

  2. Effects of body mass and temperature on routine metabolic rate of juvenile largemouth bronze gudgeon Coreius guichenoti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y P; Wang, Q Q

    2012-04-01

    The effects of body mass (M) and temperature (T) on routine metabolic rate (m(R) ) were assessed in the largemouth bronze gudgeon Coreius guichenoti, from Three Gorges Reservoir, Yangtze River, China. The m(R) increased with increasing M by factors (b-value in the equation m(R) = aM(b) ) of 0·843, 0·800, 0·767, 0·788 and 0·822 at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30° C, respectively. A significant interaction between M and T on m(R) was observed. The variation in the b-value at different T suggests that the b-values were not consistent with the universal allometric exponent 0·75. After controlling for M, the relationship between the normalized standard metabolic rate (m(S), mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) and T was described by an exponential equation: m(S) = 9·89e((0·093T)) . The results indicate that the effects of M on m(R) depend on T. The increased water temperature induced by dam construction on the Yangtze River may cause a marked increase in energy demand by this species, with potential ecological consequences. PMID:22471803

  3. The fungicide Pristine® inhibits mitochondrial function in vitro but not flight metabolic rates in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacob B; Nath, Rachna; Gadau, Juergen; Fox, Trevor; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-03-01

    Honey bees and other pollinators are exposed to fungicides that act by inhibiting fungal mitochondria. Here we test whether a common fungicide (Pristine®) inhibits the function of mitochondria of honeybees, and whether consumption of ecologically-realistic concentrations can cause negative effects on the mitochondria of flight muscles, or the capability for flight, as judged by CO2 emission rates and thorax temperatures during flight. Direct exposure of mitochondria to Pristine® levels above 5 ppm strongly inhibited mitochondrial oxidation rates in vitro. However, bees that consumed pollen containing Pristine® at ecologically-realistic concentrations (≈ 1 ppm) had normal flight CO2 emission rates and thorax temperatures. Mitochondria isolated from the flight muscles of the Pristine®-consuming bees had higher state 3 oxygen consumption rates than control bees, suggesting that possibly Pristine®-consumption caused compensatory changes in mitochondria. It is likely that the lack of a strong functional effect of Pristine®-consumption on flight performance and the in vitro function of flight muscle mitochondria results from maintenance of Pristine® levels in the flight muscles at much lower levels than occur in the food, probably due to metabolism and detoxification. As Pristine® has been shown to negatively affect feeding rates and protein digestion of honey bees, it is plausible that Pristine® consumption negatively affects gut wall function (where mitochondria may be exposed to higher concentrations of Pristine®).

  4. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; HE Maoxian

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH,a process known as “ocean acidification”.The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata,the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis,and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China.We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance,respiration,and excretion rates in these three species.The animals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control),7.7,or 7.4.The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P.fucata and at pH 8.1 for C.nobilis and P.viridis.The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P.fucata and P.viridis.In contrast,the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C.nobilis.The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species.The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake,oxygen consumption,and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves.Different species respond differently to seawater acidification.Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechanisms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  5. The fungicide Pristine® inhibits mitochondrial function in vitro but not flight metabolic rates in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacob B; Nath, Rachna; Gadau, Juergen; Fox, Trevor; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-03-01

    Honey bees and other pollinators are exposed to fungicides that act by inhibiting fungal mitochondria. Here we test whether a common fungicide (Pristine®) inhibits the function of mitochondria of honeybees, and whether consumption of ecologically-realistic concentrations can cause negative effects on the mitochondria of flight muscles, or the capability for flight, as judged by CO2 emission rates and thorax temperatures during flight. Direct exposure of mitochondria to Pristine® levels above 5 ppm strongly inhibited mitochondrial oxidation rates in vitro. However, bees that consumed pollen containing Pristine® at ecologically-realistic concentrations (≈ 1 ppm) had normal flight CO2 emission rates and thorax temperatures. Mitochondria isolated from the flight muscles of the Pristine®-consuming bees had higher state 3 oxygen consumption rates than control bees, suggesting that possibly Pristine®-consumption caused compensatory changes in mitochondria. It is likely that the lack of a strong functional effect of Pristine®-consumption on flight performance and the in vitro function of flight muscle mitochondria results from maintenance of Pristine® levels in the flight muscles at much lower levels than occur in the food, probably due to metabolism and detoxification. As Pristine® has been shown to negatively affect feeding rates and protein digestion of honey bees, it is plausible that Pristine® consumption negatively affects gut wall function (where mitochondria may be exposed to higher concentrations of Pristine®). PMID:26685059

  6. [Influence of chitosan on clinical-biochemical rates and protein metabolism of patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭgarin, E K; Pogozheva, A V

    2008-01-01

    The article tells about influence of combined chitosan (5 g/day) and triweekly dietotherapy on clinical-biochemical rates and nitrogen balance of patients with cardiovascular diseases. We obtained data indicating negative influence of chitosan on nitrogen balance. PMID:19227863

  7. Inbreeding effects on standard metabolic rate investigated at cold, benign and hot temperatures in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, which is known to affect the mean and variance of fitness components such as growth, fecundity and mortality rate. Across inbred lines inbreeding depression is typically observed and the variance between lines is increased in inbred compared to outbred lines. It...

  8. Metabolic Rate and Ground Reaction Force During Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Meghan E.; Loehr, James A.; DeWitt, John K.; Laughlin, Mitzi; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at several velocities during exercise using a ground-based version of the ISS treadmill in the M and NM modes. METHODS: Subjects (n = 20) walked or ran at 0.89, 1.34, 1.79, 2.24, 2.68, and 3.12 m/s while VO2 and vGRF data were collected. VO2 was measured using open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400, Parvo-Medics). Data were averaged over the last 2 min of each 5-min stage. vGRF was measured in separate 15-s bouts at 125 Hz using custom-fitted pressure-sensing insoles (F-Scan Sport Sensors, Tekscan, Inc). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in VO2 and vGRF between M and NM and across speeds. Significance was set at P treadmill speeds above 1.79 m/s in the NM mode; however, vGRF data were obtained for all subjects at each speed in both modes. VO2 was approx.40% higher during NM than M exercise across treadmill speeds. vGRF increased with treadmill speed but was not different between modes. CONCLUSION: Higher VO2 with no change in vGRF suggests that the additional metabolic cost associated with NM treadmill exercise is accounted for in the horizontal forces required to move the treadmill belt. Although this may limit the exercise duration at faster speeds, high-intensity NM exercise activates the hamstrings and plantarflexors, which are not specifically targeted or well protected by other in-flight countermeasures.

  9. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 董双林; 田相利; 王芳; 高勤峰; 董云伟

    2010-01-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates (Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory ...

  10. Estimation of activity related energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate in freely moving mice from indirect calorimetry data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bert Van Klinken

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is a main determinant of total energy expenditure (TEE and has been suggested to play a key role in body weight regulation. However, thus far it has been challenging to determine what part of the expended energy is due to activity in freely moving subjects. We developed a computational method to estimate activity related energy expenditure (AEE and resting metabolic rate (RMR in mice from activity and indirect calorimetry data. The method is based on penalised spline regression and takes the time dependency of the RMR into account. In addition, estimates of AEE and RMR are corrected for the regression dilution bias that results from inaccurate PA measurements. We evaluated the performance of our method based on 500 simulated metabolic chamber datasets and compared it to that of conventional methods. It was found that for a sample time of 10 minutes the penalised spline model estimated the time-dependent RMR with 1.7 times higher accuracy than the Kalman filter and with 2.7 times higher accuracy than linear regression. We assessed the applicability of our method on experimental data in a case study involving high fat diet fed male and female C57Bl/6J mice. We found that TEE in male mice was higher due to a difference in RMR while AEE levels were similar in both groups, even though female mice were more active. Interestingly, the higher activity did not result in a difference in AEE because female mice had a lower caloric cost of activity, which was likely due to their lower body weight. In conclusion, TEE decomposition by means of penalised spline regression provides robust estimates of the time-dependent AEE and RMR and can be applied to data generated with generic metabolic chamber and indirect calorimetry set-ups.

  11. Measuring and modeling C flux rates through the central metabolic pathways in microbial communities using position-specific 13C-labeled tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, P.; van Groenigen, K.; Hagerty, S.; Salpas, E.; Fairbanks, D. E.; Hungate, B. A.; KOCH, G. W.; Schwartz, E.

    2012-12-01

    The production of energy and metabolic precursors occurs in well-known processes such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle. We use position-specific 13C-labeled metabolic tracers, combined with models of microbial metabolic organization, to analyze the response of microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, and C use efficiency (CUE) in soils, decomposing litter, and aquatic communities. The method consists of adding position-specific 13C -labeled metabolic tracers to parallel soil incubations, in this case 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose. The measurement of CO2 released from the labeled tracers is used to calculate the C flux rates through the various metabolic pathways. A simplified metabolic model consisting of 23 reactions is solved using results of the metabolic tracer experiments and assumptions of microbial precursor demand. This new method enables direct estimation of fundamental aspects of microbial energy production, CUE, and soil organic matter formation in relatively undisturbed microbial communities. We will present results showing the range of metabolic patterns observed in these communities and discuss results from testing metabolic models.

  12. Heart transcriptome of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus: towards understanding the evolutionary variation in metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive changes has been a major goal of evolutionary biology. In complex organisms without sequenced genomes, de novo transcriptome assembly using a longer read sequencing technology followed by expression profiling using short reads is likely to provide comprehensive identification of adaptive variation at the expression level and sequence polymorphisms in coding regions. We performed sequencing and de novo assembly of the bank vole heart transcriptome in lines selected for high metabolism and unselected controls. Results A single 454 Titanium run produced over million reads, which were assembled into 63,581 contigs. Searches against the SwissProt protein database and the ENSEMBL collection of mouse transcripts detected similarity to 11,181 and 14,051 genes, respectively. As judged by the representation of genes from the heart-related Gene Ontology categories and UniGenes detected in the mouse heart, our detection of the genes expressed in the heart was nearly complete (> 95% and almost 90% respectively. On average, 38.7% of the transcript length was covered by our sequences, with notably higher (45.0% coverage of coding regions than of untranslated regions (24.5% of 5' and 32.7% of 3'UTRs. Lower sequence conservation between mouse and bank vole in untranslated regions was found to be partially responsible for poorer UTR representation. Our data might suggest a widespread transcription from noncoding genomic regions, a finding not reported in previous studies regarding transcriptomes in non-model organisms. We also identified over 19 thousand putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. A much higher fraction of the SNPs than expected by chance exhibited variant frequency differences between selection regimes. Conclusion Longer reads and higher sequence yield per run provided by the 454 Titanium technology in comparison to earlier generations of pyrosequencing proved beneficial for the

  13. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  14. Resting heart rate as a predictor of metabolic dysfunctions in obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Júnior Ismael F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have identified that a higher resting heart rate (RHR is associated with elevated blood pressure, independent of body fatness, age and ethnicity. However, it is still unclear whether RHR can also be applied as a screening for other risk factors, such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Thus, the purpose of the presented study was to analyze the association between RHR, lipid profile and fasting glucose in obese children and adolescents. Methods The sample was composed of 180 obese children and adolescents, aged between 7-16 years. Whole-body and segmental body composition were estimated by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting heart rate (RHR was measured by heart rate monitors. The fasting blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and glucose, using the colorimetric method. Results Fasting glucose, TC, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C and RHR were similar in both genders. The group of obese subjects with a higher RHR presented, at a lower age, higher triglycerides and TC. There was a significant relationship between RHR, triglycerides and TC. In the multivariate model, triglycerides and TC maintained a significant relationship with RHR independent of age, gender, general and trunk adiposity. The ROC curve indicated that RHR has a high potential for screening elevated total cholesterol and triglycerides as well as dyslipidemia. Conclusion Elevated RHR has the potential to identify subjects at an increased risk of atherosclerosis development.

  15. Influence of GSM900 electromagnetic fields on the metabolic rate in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouardi, A.; Streckert, J.; Lerchl, A.; Schwarzpaul, K.; Hansen, V.

    2008-05-01

    The development of exposure devices for investigating possible effects of mobile communication systems to non-restrained animals aims at a homogenous field distribution in the area the animals occupy. In the presented 900 MHz exposure device a quite good field homogeneity of 5% (including the standing wave contribution due to internal reflections) is reached in the cage region mainly by flattening the transverse field. For the standard waveguide (WR1150) without dielectric sheets this value reads 14%. The desired maximal whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg in the Djungarian hamster model is achieved at an input power of only 3.7 W.

  16. Mescaline: its effects on learning rate and dopamine metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, E A; Couper, G S; Huprikar, S V; Mellow, A M; Moody, R R

    1976-11-15

    The pharmacological action of mescaline on goldfish was studied with the Bitterman-Agranoff shock-avoidance test. In short term experiments with high mescaline doses an increase in learning rates was observed. Similar results were obtained with apomorphine and L-dopa. However, when the fish were exposed to smaller mescaline doses (or to fluphenazine) for 3 days, their ability to avoid electric shock was reduced. Apparently, mescaline induced a release of dopamine which stimulated central dopaminergic systems. Subsequently, MAO destroys the liberated dopamine. Thus, the ensuing dopamine deficit appears to be responsible for the marked changes in behavior in the chronic experiment.

  17. Influence of GSM900 electromagnetic fields on the metabolic rate in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Ouardi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of exposure devices for investigating possible effects of mobile communication systems to non-restrained animals aims at a homogenous field distribution in the area the animals occupy. In the presented 900 MHz exposure device a quite good field homogeneity of 5% (including the standing wave contribution due to internal reflections is reached in the cage region mainly by flattening the transverse field. For the standard waveguide (WR1150 without dielectric sheets this value reads 14%. The desired maximal whole body specific absorption rate (SAR of 4 W/kg in the Djungarian hamster model is achieved at an input power of only 3.7 W.

  18. Comparative analysis of false discovery rate methods in constructing metabolic association networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Imhoi; Yao, Sen; Zhang, Xiang; Kim, Seongho

    2014-08-01

    Gaussian graphical model (GGM)-based method, a key approach to reverse engineering biological networks, uses partial correlation to measure conditional dependence between two variables by controlling the contribution from other variables. After estimating partial correlation coefficients, one of the most critical processes in network construction is to control the false discovery rate (FDR) to assess the significant associations among variables. Various FDR methods have been proposed mainly for biomarker discovery, but it still remains unclear which FDR method performs better for network construction. Furthermore, there is no study to see the effect of the network structure on network construction. We selected the six FDR methods, the linear step-up procedure (BH95), the adaptive linear step-up procedure (BH00), Efron's local FDR (LFDR), Benjamini-Yekutieli's step-up procedure (BY01), Storey's q-value procedure (Storey01), and Storey-Taylor-Siegmund's adaptive step-up procedure (STS04), to evaluate their performances on network construction. We further considered two network structures, random and scale-free networks, to investigate their influence on network construction. Both simulated data and real experimental data suggest that STS04 provides the highest true positive rate (TPR) or F1 score, while BY01 has the highest positive predictive value (PPV) in network construction. In addition, no significant effect of the network structure is found on FDR methods.

  19. Thermopreference, tolerance and metabolic rate of early stages juvenile Octopus maya acclimated to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Javier; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Sánchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Thermopreference, tolerance and oxygen consumption rates of early juveniles Octopus maya (O. maya; weight range 0.38-0.78g) were determined after acclimating the octopuses to temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) for 20 days. The results indicated a direct relationship between preferred temperature (PT) and acclimated temperature, the PT was 23.4°C. Critical Thermal Maxima, (CTMax; 31.8±1.2, 32.7±0.9, 34.8±1.4 and 36.5±1.0) and Critical Thermal Minima, (CTMin; 11.6±0.2, 12.8±0.6, 13.7±1.0, 19.00±0.9) increased significantly (Pmaya has an increased capability for adapting to moderate temperatures, and suggest increased culture potential in subtropical regions southeast of México. PMID:24229799

  20. Thermopreference, tolerance and metabolic rate of early stages juvenile Octopus maya acclimated to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Javier; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Sánchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Thermopreference, tolerance and oxygen consumption rates of early juveniles Octopus maya (O. maya; weight range 0.38-0.78g) were determined after acclimating the octopuses to temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) for 20 days. The results indicated a direct relationship between preferred temperature (PT) and acclimated temperature, the PT was 23.4°C. Critical Thermal Maxima, (CTMax; 31.8±1.2, 32.7±0.9, 34.8±1.4 and 36.5±1.0) and Critical Thermal Minima, (CTMin; 11.6±0.2, 12.8±0.6, 13.7±1.0, 19.00±0.9) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing acclimation temperatures. The endpoint for CTMax was ink release and for CTMin was tentacles curled, respectively. A thermal tolerance polygon over the range of 18-30°C resulted in a calculated area of 210.0°C(2). The oxygen consumption rate increased significantly α=0.05 with increasing acclimation temperatures between 18 and 30°C. Maximum and minimum temperature quotients (Q10) were observed between 26-30°C and 22-26°C as 3.03 and 1.71, respectively. These results suggest that O. maya has an increased capability for adapting to moderate temperatures, and suggest increased culture potential in subtropical regions southeast of México.

  1. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  2. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  3. The interactions between temperature and activity levels in driving metabolic rate: theory, with empirical validation from contrasting ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Matthews, P G D; Rezende, E L; Chauvaud, L; Robson, A A

    2015-04-01

    The rate of change in resting metabolic rate (RMR) as a result of a temperature increase of 10 °C is termed the temperature coefficient (Q10), which is often used to predict how an organism's total MR will change with temperature. However, this method neglects a potentially key component of MR; changes in activity level (and thus activity MR; AMR) with temperature may significantly alter the relationship between MR and temperature. The present study seeks to describe how thermal effects on total MR estimated from RMR-temperature measurements can be misleading when the contribution of activity to total MR is neglected. A simple conceptual framework illustrates that since the relationship between activity levels and temperature can be different to the relationship between RMR and temperature, a consistent relationship between RMR and total MR cannot be assumed. Thus the thermal effect on total MR can be considerably different to the thermal effect on RMR. Simultaneously measured MR and activity from three ectotherm species with differing behavioural and physiological ecologies were used to empirically examine how changes in temperature drive changes in RMR, activity level, AMR and the Q10 of MR. These species exhibited varied activity- and MR-temperature relationships, underlining the difficulty in predicting thermal influences on activity levels and total MR. These data support a model showing that thermal effects on total MR will deviate from predictions based solely on RMR; this deviation will depend upon the difference in Q10 between AMR and RMR, and the relative contribution of AMR to total MR. To develop mechanistic, predictive models for species' metabolic responses to temperature changes, empirical information about the relationships between activity levels, MR and temperature, such as reported here, is required. This will supersede predictions based on RMR alone. PMID:25575673

  4. Metabolic rates of ATP transfer through creatine kinase (CK Flux) predict clinical heart failure events and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A; Panjrath, Gurusher S; Lai, Shenghan; Hirsch, Glenn A; Wu, Katherine; Najjar, Samer S; Steinberg, Angela; Gerstenblith, Gary; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-12-11

    Morbidity and mortality from heart failure (HF) are high, and current risk stratification approaches for predicting HF progression are imperfect. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for normal cardiac contraction, and abnormalities in creatine kinase (CK) energy metabolism, the primary myocardial energy reserve reaction, have been observed in experimental and clinical HF. However, the prognostic value of abnormalities in ATP production rates through CK in human HF has not been investigated. Fifty-eight HF patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy underwent ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify cardiac high-energy phosphates and the rate of ATP synthesis through CK (CK flux) and were prospectively followed for a median of 4.7 years. Multiple-event analysis (MEA) was performed for HF-related events including all-cause and cardiac death, HF hospitalization, cardiac transplantation, and ventricular-assist device placement. Among baseline demographic, clinical, and metabolic parameters, MEA identified four independent predictors of HF events: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), African-American race, and CK flux. Reduced myocardial CK flux was a significant predictor of HF outcomes, even after correction for NYHA class, LVEF, and race. For each increase in CK flux of 1 μmol g⁻¹ s⁻¹, risk of HF-related composite outcomes decreased by 32 to 39%. These findings suggest that reduced CK flux may be a potential HF treatment target. Newer imaging strategies, including noninvasive ³¹P MRS that detect altered ATP kinetics, could thus complement risk stratification in HF and add value in conditions involving other tissues with high energy demands, including skeletal muscle and brain.

  5. Metabolic rate, evaporative water loss and thermoregulatory state in four species of bats in the Negev desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Larraín, Paloma; Ben-Hamo, Miriam; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo; Williams, Joseph B; Pinshow, Berry; Korine, Carmi

    2016-01-01

    Life in deserts is challenging for bats because of their relatively high energy and water requirements; nevertheless bats thrive in desert environments. We postulated that bats from desert environments have lower metabolic rates (MR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) than their mesic counterparts. To test this idea, we measured MR and TEWL of four species of bats, which inhabit the Negev desert in Israel, one species mainly restricted to hyper-arid deserts (Otonycteris hemprichii), two species from semi-desert areas (Eptesicus bottae and Plecotus christii), and one widespread species (Pipistrellus kuhlii). We also measured separately, in the same individuals, the two components of TEWL, respiratory water loss (RWL) and cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL), using a mask. In all the species, MR and TEWL were significantly reduced during torpor, the latter being a consequence of reductions in both RWL and CEWL. Then, we evaluated whether MR and TEWL in bats differ according to their geographic distributions, and whether those rates change with Ta and the use of torpor. We did not find significant differences in MR among species, but we found that TEWL was lowest in the species restricted to desert habitats, intermediate in the semi-desert dwelling species, and highest in the widespread species, perhaps a consequence of adaptation to life in deserts. Our results were supported by a subsequent analysis of data collected from the literature on rates of TEWL for 35 bat species from desert and mesic habitats.

  6. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  7. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  8. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Banet, Amanda I; Christensen, Rune H B; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-09-15

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a live-bearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (O2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, O2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.

  9. Importance of metabolic rate to the relationship between the number of genes in a functional category and body size in Peto's paradox for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Masato; Nishizuka, Satoshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of tumour suppression mechanisms is a major challenge in cancer biology. Therefore, Peto's paradox, or low cancer incidence in large animals, has attracted focus. According to the gene-abundance hypothesis, which considers the increase/decrease in cancer-related genes with body size, researchers evaluated the associations between gene abundance and body size. However, previous studies only focused on a few specific gene functions and have ignored the alternative hypothesis (metabolic rate hypothesis): in this hypothesis, the cellular metabolic rate and subsequent oxidative stress decreases with increasing body size. In this study, we have elected to explore the gene-abundance hypothesis taking into account the metabolic rate hypothesis. Thus, we comprehensively investigated the correlation between the number of genes in various functional categories and body size while at the same time correcting for the mass-specific metabolic rate (Bc). A number of gene functions that correlated with body size were initially identified, but they were found to be artefactual due to the decrease in Bc with increasing body size. By contrast, immune system-related genes were found to increase with increasing body size when the correlation included this correction for Bc. These findings support the gene-abundance hypothesis and emphasize the importance of also taking into account the metabolic rate when evaluating gene abundance–body size relationships. This finding may be useful for understanding cancer evolution and tumour suppression mechanisms as well as for determining cancer-related genes and functions.

  10. Energetics of the smallest: do bacteria breathe at the same rate as whales?

    OpenAIRE

    Makarieva, Anastassia M.; Gorshkov, Victor G.; Li, Bai-Lian

    2005-01-01

    Power laws describing the dependence of metabolic rate on body mass have been established for many taxa, but not for prokaryotes, despite the ecological dominance of the smallest living beings. Our analysis of 80 prokaryote species with cell volumes ranging more than 1 000 000-fold revealed no significant relationship between mass-specific metabolic rate q and cell mass. By absolute values, mean endogenous mass-specific metabolic rates of non-growing bacteria are similar to basal rates of euk...

  11. Greater left cerebral hemispheric metabolism in bulimia assessed by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.C.; Hagman, J.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Blinder, B.; Derrfler, M.; Tai, W.Y.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Eight women with bulimia and eight age- and sex-matched normal control subjects were studied with positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer of brain metabolic rate. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during FDG uptake. In control subjects, the metabolic rate was higher in the right hemisphere than in the left, but patients with bulimia did not have this normal asymmetry. Lower metabolic rates in the basal ganglia, found in studies of depressed subjects, and higher rates in the basal ganglia, reported in a study of anorexia nervosa, were not found. This is consistent with the suggestion that bulimia is a diagnostic grouping distinct from these disorders.

  12. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  13. An improved thermoregulatory model for cooling garment applications with transient metabolic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Johan K.

    Current state-of-the-art thermoregulatory models do not predict body temperatures with the accuracies that are required for the development of automatic cooling control in liquid cooling garment (LCG) systems. Automatic cooling control would be beneficial in a variety of space, aviation, military, and industrial environments for optimizing cooling efficiency, for making LCGs as portable and practical as possible, for alleviating the individual from manual cooling control, and for improving thermal comfort and cognitive performance. In this study, we adopt the Fiala thermoregulatory model, which has previously demonstrated state-of-the-art predictive abilities in air environments, for use in LCG environments. We validate the numerical formulation with analytical solutions to the bioheat equation, and find our model to be accurate and stable with a variety of different grid configurations. We then compare the thermoregulatory model's tissue temperature predictions with experimental data where individuals, equipped with an LCG, exercise according to a 700 W rectangular type activity schedule. The root mean square (RMS) deviation between the model response and the mean experimental group response is 0.16°C for the rectal temperature and 0.70°C for the mean skin temperature, which is within state-of-the-art variations. However, with a mean absolute body heat storage error 3¯ BHS of 9.7 W˙h, the model fails to satisfy the +/-6.5 W˙h accuracy that is required for the automatic LCG cooling control development. In order to improve model predictions, we modify the blood flow dynamics of the thermoregulatory model. Instead of using step responses to changing requirements, we introduce exponential responses to the muscle blood flow and the vasoconstriction command. We find that such modifications have an insignificant effect on temperature predictions. However, a new vasoconstriction dependency, i.e. the rate of change of hypothalamus temperature weighted by the

  14. Energy metabolism during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and lactation in well nourished Indian women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The measured basal metabolic rates (BMR) of present day Indian women were found to be comparable to published BMRs, measured in Indian women over 50 years ago, but 7 percent lower than present European/American women. This can possibly be due to differences in body composition or climate. Schofield'

  15. Winter metabolic depression does not change arterial baroreflex control of heart rate in the tegu lizard Salvator merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zena, Lucas A; Dantonio, Valter; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Bícego, Kênia C

    2016-03-01

    Baroreflex regulation of blood pressure is important for maintaining appropriate tissue perfusion. Although temperature affects heart rate (fH) reflex regulation in some reptiles and toads, no data are available on the influence of temperature-independent metabolic states on baroreflex. The South American tegu lizard Salvator merianae exhibits a clear seasonal cycle of activity decreasing fH along with winter metabolic downregulation, independent of body temperature. Through pharmacological interventions (phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside), the baroreflex control of fH was studied at ∼ 25 °C in spring-summer- and winter-acclimated tegus. In winter lizards, resting and minimum fH were lower than in spring-summer animals (respectively, 13.3 ± 0.82 versus 10.3 ± 0.81 and 11.2 ± 0.65 versus 7.97 ± 0.88 beats min(-1)), while no acclimation differences occurred in resting blood pressure (5.14 ± 0.38 versus 5.06 ± 0.56 kPa), baroreflex gain (94.3 ± 10.7 versus 138.7 ± 30.3% kPa(-1)) or rate-pressure product (an index of myocardial activity). Vagal tone exceeded the sympathetic tone of fH, especially in the winter group. Therefore, despite the lower fH, winter acclimation does not diminish the fH baroreflex responses or rate-pressure product, possibly because of increased stroke volume that may arise because of heart hypertrophy. Independent of acclimation, fH responded more to hypotension than to hypertension. This should imply that tegus, which have no pressure separation within the single heart ventricle, must have other protection mechanisms against pulmonary hypertension or oedema, presumably through lymphatic drainage and/or vagal vasoconstriction of pulmonary artery. Such a predominant fH reflex response to hypotension, previously observed in anurans, crocodilians and mammals, may be a common feature of tetrapods. PMID:26747909

  16. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen;

    2013-01-01

    of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided...... by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF...

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Impacts in the Deep-Sea: Is Maintaining a Metabolically Required CO2 Efflux Rate Challenging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Brewer, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion, from temperature driven changes in respiration, and from possible leakage from sub-seabed geologic CO2 disposal has aroused concern over the impacts of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine life. Here we describe the rate problem for animals who must export CO2 at about the same rate at which O2 is consumed. We analyze the basic properties controlling CO2 export within the diffusive boundary of marine animals in a changing ocean in order to compare the challenges posed by O2 uptake under stress with the equivalent problem of CO2 expulsion. The problem is more complex than that for a non-reactive gas since, as with gas exchange of CO2 at the air-sea interface, the influence of the ensemble of reactions within the CO2 - HCO3- - CO3= acid-base system needs to be considered. These reactions appear as an enhancement factor which significantly facilitates CO2 efflux compared to O2 intake at equal temperature, pressure and flow rate under typical oceanic concentrations. Possibly as an adaptation to this chemical advantage marine animals typically can respond to external CO2 stress simply by metabolic adjustment. This is energetically more favorable than having to resort to mechanically increasing flow over their surface to thin the boundary layer as is required to alleviate O2 stress. Regionally as with O2 the combination of T, P, and pH/pCO2 creates a zone of maximum CO2 stress at around 1000 m depth. But the net result is that the combination of an increase in T combined with declining O2 poses a greater respiratory challenge to marine life than does increasing CO2. The relationships developed here allow a more accurate prediction of the impacts on marine life from the combined effects of changing T, O2, and CO2 than can be estimated from single variable studies.

  19. Reduced Cardiovascular Capacity and Resting Metabolic Rate in Men with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A. Wall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate if androgen deprivation therapy exposure is associated with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic treatment-related toxicities. Methods. One hundred and seven men (42–89 years with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy completed a maximal graded objective exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, assessments for resting metabolic rate, body composition, blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and blood biomarker analysis. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to investigate the potential impact of therapy exposure with participants stratified into two groups according to duration of androgen deprivation therapy (<3 months and ≥3 months. Results. Maximal oxygen uptake (26.1 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min versus 23.2 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, p=0.020 and resting metabolic rate (1795 ± 256 kcal/d versus 1647 ± 236 kcal/d, p=0.005 were significantly higher in those with shorter exposure to androgen deprivation. There were no differences between groups for peripheral and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness, or metabolic profile. Conclusion. Three months or longer exposure to androgen deprivation therapy was associated with reduced cardiorespiratory capacity and resting metabolic rate, but not in a range of blood biomarkers. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to androgen deprivation therapy is associated with negative alterations in cardiovascular outcomes. Trial registry is: ACTRN12609000200280.

  20. Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaál T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.

  1. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control. PMID:26037633

  2. Analytical Treatment of the Metabolic Effects of Isocaloric Stimulant on Heart Rate Variability as Measured by Electrocardiograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffe, Lauren Rachelle

    Heart Rate variability (HRV) is measured during a period that includes ingestion and digestion of 900 kilogram calories of carbohydrate and fat beverages on two separate occasions. Autoregressive (AR) analysis, Poincare Plot Analysis (PPA), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), and the Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) highlights variations in the linear and non-linear indices with respect to time. DFA indices indicated that all individuals were healthy (α≈1). In addition, an overall increase of α over the 3-hour observation time shows increased sympathetic intonation. Body Mass Index (BMI) influences on HRV were found. Over short time scales, DFA's α 1 index suggests the potentiality for future patho-physiological risk in those with high BMI>25. Over longer time scales, α2 has no significant differentiation among different BMI groups. The application of k-means cluster analysis revealed a connection to BMI when α and α 1 /α2 parameters were used. We believe that the LLE indicates an increased stability during digestion of the hypercaloric beverages. Groups with BMI>25 have smaller LLE, on average, than BMI≤ 25. This does substantiate the AR, Poincare, and DFA analyses of groups with higher BMI having less sympathetic increase when compared to lower BMI groups due to caloric metabolism.

  3. Deuterium isotope effects on toluene metabolism. Product release as a rate-limiting step in cytochrome P-450 catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver microsomes from phenobarbital-induced rats oxidize toluene to a mixture of benzyl alcohol plus o-, m- and p-cresol (ca. 69:31). Stepwise deuteration of the methyl group causes stepwise decreases in the yield of benzyl alcohol relative to cresols (ca. 24:76 for toluene-d3). For benzyl alcohol formation from toluene-d3 DV = 1.92 and D(V/K) = 3.53. Surprisingly, however, stepwise deuteration induces stepwise increases in total oxidation, giving rise to an inverse isotope effect overall (DV = 0.67 for toluene-d3). Throughout the series (i.e. d0, d1, d2, d3) the ratios of cresol isomers remain constant. These results are interpreted in terms of product release for benzyl alcohol being slower than release of cresols (or their epoxide precursors), and slow enough to be partially rate-limiting in turnover. Thus metabolic switching to cresol formation causes a net acceleration of turnover

  4. Towards improved models for predicting bioconcentration of well-metabolized compounds by rainbow trout using measured rates of in vitro intrinsic clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consensus models were developed to predict the bioconcentration of well-metabolized chemicals by rainbow trout. The models employ intrinsic clearance data from in vitro studies with liver S9 fractions or isolated hepatocytes to estimate a liver clearance rate which is extrapolat...

  5. The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Somchai Chantsavang,; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3–6 weeks after parturition

  6. Locomotor, Heart-Rate, and Metabolic Power Characteristics of Youth Women's Field Hockey: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the locomotor, heart-rate, and metabolic power characteristics of high-level youth female field hockey matches. Method: Players from the U21 and U17 Canadian women's national teams were monitored during a 4-match test series using Global Positioning System technology. Position (forward,…

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Logan

    Full Text Available Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1 metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2 resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3 body composition; 4 strength and physical function, and; 5 blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.

  8. Karsinoma Sel Basal Pada Wajah

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti

    2008-01-01

    Karsinoma sel basal merupakan tumor ganas pada lapisan epidermis kulit yang paling umum dijumpai. Lokasi tumor iui paling banyak pada wajah dibandingkan anggota tubuh lainnya. Etiologi tumor iui diduga berhubungan dengan cahaya matahari yang mengandung sinar ultraviolet yang karsinogenik. Klasifikasi tumor ini dibagi berdasarkan gambaran kliuis dan histopatologisnya. Diagnosa tumor ini dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan k1inis dan histologis, pemeriksaan radiologis jarang digunakan. Diag...

  9. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  10. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  11. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  12. Brain and high metabolic rate organ mass: contributions to resting energy expenditure beyond fat-free mass1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fahad; He, Qing; Davidson, Lance E; Thornton, John C; Albu, Jeanine; Boxt, Lawrence; Krasnow, Norman; Elia, Marinos; Kang, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Background: The degree to which interindividual variation in the mass of select high metabolic rate organs (HMROs) mediates variability in resting energy expenditure (REE) is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate how much REE variability is explained by differences in HMRO mass in adults and whether age, sex, and race independently predict REE after adjustment for HMRO. Design: A cross-sectional evaluation of 55 women [30 African Americans aged 48.7 ± 22.2 y (mean ± SD) and 25 whites aged 46.4 ± 17.7 y] and 32 men (8 African Americans aged 34.3 ± 18.2 y and 24 whites aged 51.3 ± 20.6 y) was conducted. Liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and brain masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and fat and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results: REE estimated from age (P = 0.001), race (P = 0.006), sex (P = 0.31), fat (P = 0.001), and FFM (P brain (P = 0.006) to the model increased the explained variance to 75% and rendered the contributions of age, sex, and race statistically nonsignificant, whereas fat and FFM continued to make significant contributions (both P brain to the model rendered the intercept (69 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) consistent with zero, which indicated zero REE for zero body mass. Conclusions: Relatively small interindividual variation in HMRO mass significantly affects REE and reduces the role of age, race, and sex in explaining REE. Decreases in REE with increasing age may be partly related to age-associated changes in the relative size of FFM components. PMID:20164308

  13. A killer appetite: metabolic consequences of carnivory in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T M; Haun, J; Davis, R W; Fuiman, L A; Kohin, S

    2001-07-01

    Among terrestrial mammals, the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract reflects the metabolic demands of the animal and individual requirements for processing, distributing, and absorbing nutrients. To determine if gastrointestinal tract morphology is similarly correlated with metabolic requirements in marine mammals, we examined the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and small intestinal length in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Oxygen consumption was measured for resting bottlenose dolphins and Weddell seals, and the results combined with data for four additional species of carnivorous marine mammal. Data for small intestinal length were obtained from previously published reports. Similar analyses were conducted for five species of carnivorous terrestrial mammal, for which BMR and intestinal length were known. The results indicate that the BMRs of Weddell seals and dolphins resting on the water surface are 1.6 and 2.3 times the predicted levels for similarly sized domestic terrestrial mammals, respectively. Small intestinal lengths for carnivorous marine mammals depend on body size and are comparatively longer than those of terrestrial carnivores. The relationship between basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)) and small intestinal length (m) for both marine and terrestrial carnivores was, BMR=142.5 intestinal length(1.20) (r(2)=0.83). We suggest that elevated metabolic rates among marine mammal carnivores are associated with comparatively large alimentary tracts that are presumably required for supporting the energetic demands of an aquatic lifestyle and for feeding on vertebrate and invertebrate prey. PMID:11440865

  14. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  15. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  16. Nutrition and Metabolic Support in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Ergin Özcan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in a dramatic increase of the basal metabolic rate. Severe burn injury nearly doubles resting energy expenditure and hypermetabolism associated with burn results in a loss of body fat stores and a loss of visceral and structural protein mass. The clinical effects of these changes include immunosuppression, delayed wound healing, and generalized muscle weakness. Post burn, the metabolic and catabolic responses are prolonged in severity and time course, lasting weeks to months in contrast to the days and weeks observed in other injuries. Nutrition support provides the substrates and nutrients to prevent the complications of deficiencies as well as supporting wound healing, and recovery from hormonal and metabolic abnormalities after thermal injury. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 21-5

  17. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Dutcher, Susan K.; O’Toole, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes...

  18. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  19. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  20. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  1. Association of metabolic syndrome with decreased glomerular filtration rate among 75,468 Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    Full Text Available The impact of the various elements of metabolic syndrome (MetS on chronic kidney disease (CKD has been conflicting. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to examine the association of MetS and its components with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR.A total of 75,468 urban workers who underwent annual health examinations under the auspices of the local governments between March 2010 and September 2012 at the health examination center of Xuzhou center hospital were enrolled in the cross-sectional survey. Decreased GFR was defined as an estimated GFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The definition of MetS was based on the most-recent interim joint consensus definition, requiring any three of the five components, consisting of elevated blood pressure (BP, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, or triglycerides (TG, reduced high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, and obesity.MetS was related to the reduced GFR with an odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI] of 1.43 (1.13-1.83. In multivariable analyses, individual components of MetS that were independently associated with decreased GFR were elevated BP (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00-1.78, low HDL-c (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.44-2.43, and elevated FPG (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.85. The age-adjusted population-attributable risk percent (PARP for reduced GFR was 27.55%, 19.67% and14.31% for elevated BP, low HDL-c and elevated FPG respectively. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI of decreased GFR were 1.70(1.11-2.60, 2.38(1.53-3.71, or 4.11(2.42-6.98 for those with 1, 2, or 3 critical elements (versus zero, respectively. The corresponding multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI of decreased GFR were 1.11(0.84-1.48 and 0.89(0.63-1.27 for those with 1 or 2 noncritical components (versus zero, respectively.We concluded that various elements of MetS and the cumulative number of MetS should not be considered indiscriminately as risk factors for reduced GFR.

  2. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Vanessa A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO; or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03, a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04, and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08. No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg, RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05. There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11. There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02 and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001. Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased

  3. Effects of Impaired Glucose Metabolism on Heart Rate Variability and Blood Pessure Variability in Essential Hpertensive Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) on cardiovascular autonomic nervous systems in essential hypertensive (EH) patients by comparing heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in EH patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Simultaneous 24-h recordings of ambulatory ECG and blood pressure monitoring were performed in 36 male old patients with simple EH and 33 male old patients with EH combined with T2DM. HRV analysis included time domain parameters such as SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD and pNN50, and total spectral power (TP) of HRV, which mainly consists of VLF, LF and HF component along with LF/HF ratio, was also obtained. The value of ambulatory blood pressure was represented as the mean blood pressure (mean systolic/mSBP, diastolic/mDBP and pulse pressure/mPP)during different periods (24 h/24 h, day time/d and night time/n). Standard deviation (SD) as well as coefficient of variance (CV) of blood pressure during each above-mentioned period were obtained to reflect the long-term BPV. Our result showed that SDNN, SDNNi, SDANN, rMSSD, PNN50, TP and HF of HRV in cases of EH with T2DM were all significantly lower than those in simple EH subjects (P<0.05). No significant differences in VLF or LF was found between the two groups (P>0.05), while LF/HF ratio was significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.01).Moreover, dmSBP, 24 h-mPP and dmPP were all significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.05), while nmSBP, 24 h-mSBP, 24 h-mDBP, dmDBP, nmDBP or nmPP showed no significant difference between this two groups of patients (P>0.05). And dSBPSD,dSBPCV and 24 h-SBPSD were all significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.05), while the other BPV indexes showed no significant difference between this two groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that the cardiovascular autonomic nervous systems in EH patients

  4. Visual rating of medial temporal lobe metabolism in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosconi, Lisa [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); University of Florence, Department of Clinical Pathophysiology, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Florence (Italy); New York University School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, New York, NY (United States); Santi, Susan De; Li, Yi; Li, Juan; Zhan, Jiong; Boppana, Madhu [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Tsui, Wai Hon; Leon, Mony J. de [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Department of Clinical Pathophysiology, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Florence (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the utility of visual inspection of medial temporal lobe (MTL) metabolism in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using FDG-PET scans. Seventy-five subjects [27 normal controls (NL), 26 MCI, and 22 AD] with FDG-PET and MRI scans were included in this study. We developed a four-point visual rating scale to evaluate the presence and severity of MTL hypometabolism on FDG-PET scans. The visual MTL ratings were compared with quantitative glucose metabolic rate (MR{sub glc}) data extracted using regions of interest (ROIs) from the MRI-coregistered PET scans of all subjects. A standard rating evaluation of neocortical hypometabolism was also completed. Logistic regressions were used to determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the MTL and cortical ratings. For both MTL and cortical ratings, high intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were found (p values <0.001). The MTL rating was highly correlated with and yielded a diagnostic accuracy equivalent to the ROI MR{sub glc} measures (p values <0.001). The combination of MTL and cortical ratings significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy over the cortical rating alone, with 100% of AD, 77% of MCI, and 85% of NL cases being correctly identified. This study shows that the visual rating of MTL hypometabolism on PET is reliable, yields a diagnostic accuracy equal to the quantitative ROI measures, and is clinically useful and more sensitive than cortical ratings for patients with MCI. We suggest this method be further evaluated for its potential in the early diagnosis of AD. (orig.)

  5. Metabolism and thermoregulation in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maximum metabolic rate is a physiological limitation that is an important for animals' survival, reproduction and geographic. Basal metabolic rate (BMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST, and maximum metabolic rate (MMR were measured was in a small mammal species, Tupaia belangeri, which is a unique species of small-bodied mammals in the Oriental realm. Thermal neutral zone (TNZ was 30 - 35°C and BMR was 1.38±0.09 ml g-1 h-1. NST and MMR were 2.64±0.08 ml g-1 h-1 and 7.14±0.38 ml g-1 h-1 in summer, respectively. The ecophysiological properties of relatively high body temperature, wide TNZ, low BMR and thermogenic capacity enable this species to adapt to its environment.

  6. Increased metabolic rate in obese women after ingestion of potassium, magnesium- and phosphate-enriched orange juice or injection of ephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaedig, S; Henningsen, N C

    1991-06-01

    Thirty-six obese, pre-menopausal women were studied after an overnight fast and randomized to four different regimens of metabolic stimuli: group I (n = 12), 100 ml orange juice with dissolved K- and Mg-phosphates (K, 40 mmol; Mg, 17.5 mmol; HPO4, 35 mmol); group II (n = 8), 100 ml of water with electrolytes as in group I; group III (n = 8), 100 ml of orange juice; group IV (n = 8), injection of ephedrine intravenously, 0.25 mg/kg body weight. The women in groups I, II and III were further stimulated with ephedrine as in group IV and new measurements made. Thirty minutes after the first stimulus VO2, VCO2 and energy expenditure (EE) rose significantly (13.1-16.5 per cent) in groups I and IV only. In groups I and III the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide rose significantly. After the second stimulus (ephedrine i.v.) no further increase in VO2, VCO2 and EE occurred in group I, but the increases from basal values became significant in group III. In all women at baseline, whole-body potassium was significantly correlated to VO2. Serum-magnesium was negatively correlated to A/I weight (actual/ideal weight). We conclude that the addition of K- and Mg-phosphates to glucose increases the postprandial thermogenesis in obese patients.

  7. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  8. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bo Wang; Fei She; Li-Fang Xie; Wen-Hua Yan; Jin-Zhi Ouyang; Bao-An Wang; Hang-Yun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Background:Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism.This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls.Moreover,this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients.Methods:This was a retrospective case-control study involving 75 Chinese male IHH patients (mean age 21.4 ± 3.8 years,range 17-30 years) and 135 healthy controls after matching for gender and age.All subjects underwent physical examination and blood testing for serum testosterone,luteinizing hormone,follicle-stimulating hormone,ACTH,and cortisol and biochemical tests.Results:Higher basal serum ACTH levels (8.25 ± 3.78 pmol/L vs.6.97 ± 2.81 pmol/L) and lower cortisol levels (366.70 ± 142.48 nmol/L vs.452.82 ± 141.53 nmol/L) were observed in male IHH patients than healthy subjects (all P < 0.05).IHH patients also showed higher metabolism parameters and higher prevalence rate of NAFLD (34.9% vs.4.4%) than the controls (all P < 0.05).Basal serum ACTH (9.91 ± 4.98 pmol/L vs.7.60 ± 2.96 pmol/L) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (2123.7 ± 925.8 μg/L vs.1417.1 ± 498.4 μg/L) levels were significantly higher in IHH patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (all P < 0.05).We also found that basal serum ACTH levels were positively correlated with NAFLD (r =0.289,P < 0.05) and triglyceride levels (r =0.268,P < 0.05) in male IHH patients.Furthermore,NAFLD was independently associated with ACTH levels in male IHH patients by multiple linear regression analysis.Conclusions:The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls.NAFLD was

  9. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  10. Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from two years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Hill, Walter [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Headwater streams are key sites of nutrient and organic matter processing and retention, but little is known about temporal variability in gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates as a result of the short duration of most ecosystem metabolism measurements in lotic ecosystems. We examined temporal variability and controls on ecosystem metabolism by measuring daily rates continuously for two years in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream. Four important scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates were identified: (1) seasonal, (2) day-to-day, (3) episodic (storm-related), and (4) inter-annual. Seasonal patterns were largely controlled by the leaf phenology and productivity of the deciduous riparian forest. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic throughout the year with the exception of the open-canopy spring when GPP and ER rates were similar. Day-to-day variability in weather conditions influenced light reaching the streambed, resulting in high day-to-day variability in GPP particularly during spring (daily light levels explained 84% of the variance in daily GPP in April). Episodic storms depressed GPP for several days in spring, but increased GPP in autumn by removing leaves shading the streambed. Storms depressed ER initially, but then stimulated ER to 2-3 times pre-storm levels for several days. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic in both years of the study (NEP = -1156 and -773 g O2 m-2 y-1), with annual GPP being similar (488 and 519 g O2 m-2 y-1) but annual ER being higher in 2004 than 2005 (-1645 vs. -1292 g O2 m-2 y-1). Inter-annual variability in ecosystem metabolism (assessed by comparing 2004 and 2005 rates with previous measurements) was the result of the storm frequency and timing and the size of the spring macroalgal bloom. Changes in local climate can have substantial impacts on stream ecosystem metabolism rates and ultimately influence the carbon source and sink properties of

  11. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, Dan; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper

  12. Assessment of metabolic properties and kinetic parameters of methanogenic sludge by on-line methane production rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new approach to studying the metabolic and kinetic properties of anaerobic sludge from single batch experiments. The two main features of the method are that the methane production is measured on-line with a relatively cheap system, and that the methane production data can be

  13. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore

  14. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  15. Real-time monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bruce; Van Laer, Koen; Owusu, Theresa N E; Ezeriņa, Daria; Pastor-Flores, Daniel; Amponsah, Prince Saforo; Tursch, Anja; Dick, Tobias P

    2016-06-01

    Genetically encoded probes based on the H2O2-sensing proteins OxyR and Orp1 have greatly increased the ability to detect elevated H2O2 levels in stimulated or stressed cells. However, these proteins are not sensitive enough to monitor metabolic H2O2 baseline levels. Using yeast as a platform for probe development, we developed two peroxiredoxin-based H2O2 probes, roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR and roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCPΔCR, that afford such sensitivity. These probes are ∼50% oxidized under 'normal' unstressed conditions and are equally responsive to increases and decreases in H2O2. Hence, they permit fully dynamic, real-time measurement of basal H2O2 levels, with subcellular resolution, in living cells. We demonstrate that expression of these probes does not alter endogenous H2O2 homeostasis. The roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR probe revealed real-time interplay between basal H2O2 levels and partial oxygen pressure. Furthermore, it exposed asymmetry in H2O2 trafficking between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix and a strong correlation between matrix H2O2 levels and cellular growth rate. PMID:27089028

  16. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  17. Mycobacterial Metabolic Syndrome: LprG and Rv1410 Regulate Triacylglyceride Levels, Growth Rate and Virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Martinot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb mutants lacking rv1411c, which encodes the lipoprotein LprG, and rv1410c, which encodes a putative efflux pump, are dramatically attenuated for growth in mice. Here we show that loss of LprG-Rv1410 in Mtb leads to intracellular triacylglyceride (TAG accumulation, and overexpression of the locus increases the levels of TAG in the culture medium, demonstrating a role of this locus in TAG transport. LprG binds TAG within a large hydrophobic cleft and is sufficient to transfer TAG from donor to acceptor membranes. Further, LprG-Rv1410 is critical for broadly regulating bacterial growth and metabolism in vitro during carbon restriction and in vivo during infection of mice. The growth defect in mice is due to disrupted bacterial metabolism and occurs independently of key immune regulators. The in vivo essentiality of this locus suggests that this export system and other regulators of metabolism should be considered as targets for novel therapeutics.

  18. Mycobacterial Metabolic Syndrome: LprG and Rv1410 Regulate Triacylglyceride Levels, Growth Rate and Virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, Amanda J; Farrow, Mary; Bai, Lu; Layre, Emilie; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Tsai, Jennifer H; Iqbal, Jahangir; Annand, John W; Sullivan, Zuri A; Hussain, M Mahmood; Sacchettini, James; Moody, D Branch; Seeliger, Jessica C; Rubin, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) mutants lacking rv1411c, which encodes the lipoprotein LprG, and rv1410c, which encodes a putative efflux pump, are dramatically attenuated for growth in mice. Here we show that loss of LprG-Rv1410 in Mtb leads to intracellular triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation, and overexpression of the locus increases the levels of TAG in the culture medium, demonstrating a role of this locus in TAG transport. LprG binds TAG within a large hydrophobic cleft and is sufficient to transfer TAG from donor to acceptor membranes. Further, LprG-Rv1410 is critical for broadly regulating bacterial growth and metabolism in vitro during carbon restriction and in vivo during infection of mice. The growth defect in mice is due to disrupted bacterial metabolism and occurs independently of key immune regulators. The in vivo essentiality of this locus suggests that this export system and other regulators of metabolism should be considered as targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:26751071

  19. Relationship between fish size and metabolic rate in the oxyconforming inanga Galaxias maculatus reveals size-dependent strategies to withstand hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic rate and body size in animals is unlikely to be a constant but is instead shaped by a variety of intrinsic (i.e., physiological) and extrinsic (i.e., environmental) factors. This study examined the effect of environmental oxygen tension on oxygen consumption as a function of body mass in the galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus). As an oxyconformer, this fish lacks overt intrinsic regulation of oxygen consumption, eliminating this as a factor affecting the scaling relationship at different oxygen tensions. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and body size was best described by a power function, with an exponent of 0.82, higher than the theoretical values of 0.66 or 0.75. The value of this exponent was significantly altered by environmental P(O2), first increasing as P(O2) decreased and then declining at the lowest P(O2) tested. These data suggest that the scaling exponent is species specific and regulated by extrinsic factors. Furthermore, the external P(O2) at which fish lost equilibrium was related to fish size, an effect explained by the scaling of anaerobic capacity with fish mass. Therefore, although bigger fish were forced to depress aerobic metabolism more rapidly than small fish when exposed to progressive hypoxia, they were better able to enact anaerobic metabolism, potentially extending their survival in hypoxia. PMID:24241070

  20. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  1. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  2. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  3. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive m...

  4. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  5. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  6. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  7. Impact of metabolic syndrome and its components on cardiovascular disease event rates in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to placebo in the field randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Russell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with the metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD events.We aimed to establish whether CVD event rates were influenced by the metabolic syndrome as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and to determine which component(s of the metabolic syndrome (MS conferred the highest cardiovascular risk in in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes allocated to placebo in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD trial. Research design and methods We determined the influence of MS variables, as defined by NCEP ATPIII, IDF and WHO, on CVD risk over 5 years, after adjustment for CVD, sex, HbA1c, creatinine, and age, and interactions between the MS variables in a Cox proportional-hazards model. Results About 80% had hypertension, and about half had other features of the metabolic syndrome (IDF, ATPIII. There was no difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome variables between those with and without CVD at study entry. The WHO definition identified those at higher CVD risk across both sexes, all ages, and in those without prior CVD, while the ATPIII definition predicted risk only in those aged over 65 years and in men but not in women. Patients meeting the IDF definition did not have higher risk than those without IDF MS. CVD risk was strongly influenced by prior CVD, sex, age (particularly in women, baseline HbA1c, renal dysfunction, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (low HDL-c, triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/L. The combination of low HDL-c and marked hypertriglyceridemia (> 2.3 mmol/L increased CVD risk by 41%. Baseline systolic blood pressure increased risk by 16% per 10 mmHg in those with no prior CVD, but had no effect in those with CVD. In those without prior CVD, increasing numbers of

  8. Effects of p-Synephrine alone and in Combination with Selected Bioflavonoids on Resting Metabolism, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Self-Reported Mood Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney J. Stohs, Harry G Preuss, Samuel C. Keith, Patti L. Keith, Howard Miller, Gilbert R. Kaats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium extract is widely used in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. Its primary protoalkaloid is p-synephrine. Most studies involving bitter orange extract and p-synephrine have used products with multiple ingredients. The current study assessed the thermogenic effects of p-synephrine alone and in conjunction with the flavonoids naringin and hesperidin in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled protocol with 10 subjects per treatment group. Resting metabolic rates (RMR, blood pressure, heart rates and a self-reported rating scale were determined at baseline and 75 min after oral ingestion of the test products in V-8 juice. A decrease of 30 kcal occurred in the placebo control relative to baseline. The group receiving p-synephrine (50 mg alone exhibited a 65 kcal increase in RMR as compared to the placebo group. The consumption of 600 mg naringin with 50 mg p-synephrine resulted in a 129 kcal increase in RMR relative to the placebo group. In the group receiving 100 mg hesperidin in addition to the 50 mg p-synephrine plus 600 mg naringin, the RMR increased by 183 kcal, an increase that was statistically significant with respect to the placebo control (p<0.02. However, consuming 1000 mg hesperidin with 50 mg p-synephrine plus 600 mg naringin resulted in a RMR that was only 79 kcal greater than the placebo group. None of the treatment groups exhibited changes in heart rate or blood pressure relative to the control group, nor there were no differences in self-reported ratings of 10 symptoms between the treatment groups and the control group. This unusual finding of a thermogenic combination of ingredients that elevated metabolic rates without corresponding elevations in blood pressure and heart-rates warrants longer term studies to assess its value as a weight control agent.

  9. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Doi

    Full Text Available Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1 trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2 the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  10. Development of 17O NMR approach for fast imaging of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in rat brain at high field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Yi; Tian, Run-Xia; Lei, Hao; Zhang, Nanyin; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Merkle, Hellmut; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei(Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive technique was developed for using three-dimensional 17O magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 9.4T for rapidly imaging the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in the rat brain during a two-min inhalation of 17O2. The CMRO2 value (2.19 ± 0.14 μmol/g/min, n = 7) was determined in the rat anesthetized with α-chloralose by independent and concurrent 17O NMR measurements of cerebral H217O content, arterial input function, and cerebral perfusion. CMRO2 values...

  11. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  12. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  13. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  14. Objective and self-rated sedentary time and indicators of metabolic health in Dutch and Hungarian 10-12 year olds: the ENERGY-Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai J M Chinapaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between objectively assessed sedentary time and metabolic risk factors in childhood have rarely been studied. Therefore, we examined the independent relationship between objectively assessed and self-rated sedentary time and indicators of metabolic health in Dutch and Hungarian 10-12 year olds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional survey in primary schools. Participants were Dutch and Hungarian girls (n = 73, aged 12.2 ± 0.6 years, 18% overweight/obese and boys (n = 69, aged 12.2 ± 0.7 years, 38% overweight/obese. Sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer. TV and PC time were assessed by self-report. Adiposity indicators included body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC. Fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined in capillary blood and summed into a metabolic risk score. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for physical activity, number of sedentary bouts and WC. Children spent on average 7.6 hours of their daily waking time in sedentary behavior and self-reported 116 ± 64 min/day watching TV and 85 ± 57 min/day using the computer. Comparing the 1(st and 4(th quartile of objectively assessed sedentary time, C-Peptide levels, WC and BMI were significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in metabolic risk score was borderline significant (p = 0.09. Comparing the 1(st and 4(th quartile of TV time, BMI was significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in WC score was borderline significant (p = 0.06. In the adjusted linear regression analysis we found no significant association of sedentary time with metabolic risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although BMI and WC were higher in the most sedentary versus the least sedentary children; we found no further evidence that more

  15. The effects of indoor and outdoor temperature on metabolic rate and adipose tissue - the Mississippi perspective on the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J B; Kumar, A; Koch, C A

    2016-03-01

    Global warming, primarily caused by emissions of too much carbon dioxide, and climate change is a reality. This will lead to more extreme weather events with heatwaves and flooding. Some studies propose an association between thermal exposures and the prevalence of obesity with an increasing trend towards time spent in the thermal comfort zone. Longterm exposure to the thermal comfort zone can lead to a reduction of brown adipose tissue activity with an impact on energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Reduced seasonal cold exposure in combination with reduced diet-induced thermogenesis by a highly palatable high-fat and high-sugar diet and reduced physical activity contribute to the prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27165258

  16. The effects of indoor and outdoor temperature on metabolic rate and adipose tissue - the Mississippi perspective on the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J B; Kumar, A; Koch, C A

    2016-03-01

    Global warming, primarily caused by emissions of too much carbon dioxide, and climate change is a reality. This will lead to more extreme weather events with heatwaves and flooding. Some studies propose an association between thermal exposures and the prevalence of obesity with an increasing trend towards time spent in the thermal comfort zone. Longterm exposure to the thermal comfort zone can lead to a reduction of brown adipose tissue activity with an impact on energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Reduced seasonal cold exposure in combination with reduced diet-induced thermogenesis by a highly palatable high-fat and high-sugar diet and reduced physical activity contribute to the prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based prediction needs further investigation.

  18. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A. R.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2013-03-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  19. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  20. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  3. Effects of Temperature on Maximum Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope of Juvenile Manchurian Trout, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas)%温度对细鳞鲑幼鱼最大代谢率和代谢范围的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐革锋; 尹家胜; 韩英; 刘洋; 牟振波

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of water temperature on the metabolic characteristics and aerobic exer-cise capacity of juvenile manchurian trout , Brachymystax lenok ( Pallas) .The resting metabolic rate ( RMR) ,maxi-mum metabolic rate (MMR), metabolic scope(MS)and critical swimming speed (UCrit) of juveniles were measured at different temperature (4, 8, 12, 16, 20℃).The results showed that both the RMR and the MMR increased sig-nificantly with the increasing of water temperature ( P<0 .05 ) .Compared with test group at 4℃, the RMR for 8℃, 12℃, 16℃ and 20℃increased by 62%, 165%, 390%, 411%,respectively, and the MMR increased by 3%, 34%, 111%, 115%, respectively .However , the MS decreased with the increasing of water temperature with the highest MS occurring at 4℃.UCrit was significantly affected by water temperature (P<0.05), but the varia-tions of UCrit didn′t follow certain pattern with temperature .In the test of aerobic exercise , the MMR for each tem-perature level occurred at the swimming speed of 70% UCrit , probably due to the start of anaerobic metabolism , which caused excessive creatine in body , consequently hindered the aerobic metabolism .%为了探究温度对细鳞鲑( Brachymystax lenok)幼鱼的代谢特征和有氧运动能力的影响,在不同温度(4℃、8℃、12℃、16℃、20℃)下测定了实验鱼的静止代谢率( RMR)、有氧运动过程中的最大代谢率( MMR)以及能量代谢范围(MS)和临界游泳速度(UCrit)。结果表明,随着温度的上升,RMR和MMR均显著提高(P<0.05),各温度下的RMR和MMR分别较4℃条件的提高了62%(8℃)、165%(12℃)、390%(16℃)、411%(20℃)和3%(8℃)、34%(12℃)、111%(16℃)、115%(20℃);MS随水温的升高呈现下降的趋势,且4℃条件具有最大的代谢范围。不同温度条件下UCrit存在显著性差异,但随着温度升高未表现出明显的变

  4. Effects of both ecdysone and the acclimation to low temperature, on growth and metabolic rate of juvenile freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda, Parastacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Chaulet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth, metabolic rate, and energy reserves of Cherax quadricarinatus (von Martens, 1868 juveniles were evaluated in crayfish acclimated for 16 weeks to either 25ºC (temperature near optimum or 20ºC (marginal for the species. Additionally, the modulating effect of ecdsyone on acclimation was studied. After 12 weeks of exposure, weight gain of both experimental groups acclimated to 25ºC (control: C25, and ecdysone treated: E25 was significantly higher than that of those groups acclimated to 20ºC (C20 and E20. A total compensation in metabolic rate was seen after acclimation from 25ºC to 20ºC; for both the control group and the group treated with ecdysone. A Q10value significantly higher was only observed in the group acclimated to 20ºC and treated with ecdysone. A reduction of glycogen reserves in both hepatopancreas and muscle, as well as a lower protein content in muscle, was seen in both groups acclimated to 20ºC. Correspondingly, glycemia was always higher in these groups. Increased lipid levels were seen in the hepatopancreas of animals acclimated to 20ºC, while a higher lipid level was also observed in muscle at 20ºC, but only in ecdysone-treated crayfish.

  5. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

    1989-06-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.

  6. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system

  7. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of berberine on the menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Berberine 0.4 g three times per day was given for four months to 102 anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared before and after the berberine treatment. Ovulation was confirmed by serum progesterone level ≥10 ng/ml.A total of 98 of 102 subjects (96.1% completed the four month treatment, including 69 (70.4%, 69/98 normal weight and 29 (29.6%, 29/98 overweight/obese. Fourteen women (14.3%, 14/98 had regained regular menses after berberine treatment and there was no significant difference between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. The ovulation rate was 25.0% over four months in the whole group, 22.5% in the normal weight group and 31.0% in the overweight/obese group. Sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after berberine treatment in the normal weight group only.Our study found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine can also decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women.Chictr.org ChiCTR-OO-13003943.

  8. Independent regulation of chylomicron lipolysis and particle removal rates: effects of insulin and thyroid hormones on the metabolism of artificial chylomicrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinatti, C V; Oliveira, H C; Wechesler, S; Quintao, E C

    1991-11-01

    The processes of chylomicron lipolysis and removal from plasma were investigated by the intra-arterial infusion of doubly labeled artificial chylomicrons in rats. The rate of lipolysis was measured as a delipidation index (DI), which is the glyceryl-tri-9,10(N)-3H oleate (3H-TO) fraction removed from the particle as fatty acids, whereas the cholesteryl(1-14C) oleate (14C-CO) plasma disappearance rate measures the splanchnic organ particle uptake. In the alloxan-diabetic rats, despite a normal DI, the 14C-CO plasma residence time (RT) was longer than in control animals and remained longer after stimulation of the lipoprotein lipase by heparin. DI and 14C-CO removal rate were not significantly altered by insulin administration to glucose-supplemented control rats. Lipolysis was remarkable in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism, and yet the 14C-CO removal rate was retarded. In hypothyroidism, heparin enhanced the 14C-CO removal more than in the control group; however, after heparin, the 14C-CO RT still remained higher in the hypothyroid animals as compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism lowered the DI; nevertheless, the 14C-CO disappearance rate was faster than in controls. In summary, lack or excess of thyroid hormone influences both the chylomicron lipolysis and removal systems, whereas lack of insulin impairs mostly the particle removal from plasma, and excess of insulin has no effect on the chylomicron metabolism. PMID:1943739

  9. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  10. Prosthetic ankle push-off work reduces metabolic rate but not collision work in non-amputee walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Joshua M.; Collins, Steven H.

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with unilateral below-knee amputation expend more energy than non-amputees during walking and exhibit reduced push-off work and increased hip work in the affected limb. Simple dynamic models of walking suggest a possible solution, predicting that increasing prosthetic ankle push-off should decrease leading limb collision, thereby reducing overall energy requirements. We conducted a rigorous experimental test of this idea wherein ankle-foot prosthesis push-off work was incrementally varied in isolation from one-half to two-times normal levels while subjects with simulated amputation walked on a treadmill at 1.25 m.s-1. Increased prosthesis push-off significantly reduced metabolic energy expenditure, with a 14% reduction at maximum prosthesis work. In contrast to model predictions, however, collision losses were unchanged, while hip work during swing initiation was decreased. This suggests that powered ankle push-off reduces walking effort primarily through other mechanisms, such as assisting leg swing, which would be better understood using more complete neuromuscular models.

  11. Growth hormone transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) compensate for increased metabolic rate to preserve exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Martínez, R.; Morales, A.;

    2001-01-01

    higher in transgenics, such that aerobic scope was similar in both groups, and there was no difference in maximum sustainable U (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 bl s-1 in transgenics vs. wild-types, respectively). Following 2 h recovery from exercise, tilapia were exposed to progressive hypoxia (stepwise...... and 14.7 ± 0.9 cm vs. 75.8 ± 16 g and 15.7 ± 1.0 cm, respectively, n = 6) were exposed to stepwise increments in swimming speed (U), of 0.5 body lengths s-1 (bl s-1) every 30 min, in a Brett-type swimming respirometer at 25¡C. Oxygen uptake was measured at each speed until fatigue. Extrapolation...... of the exponential relationship between U and O2 uptake back to a notional stationary baseline was taken as an estimate of maintenance metabolism. This was significantly higher in transgenic vs. wild-type fish (8.63 ± 0.86 vs. 5.39 ± 0.27 mmol O2 kg-1 h-1, respectively). However, maximum O2 uptake was also slightly...

  12. Energetics of the smallest: Do bacteria breathe at the same rate as whales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

    2005-10-22

    Power laws describing the dependence of metabolic rate on body mass have been established for many taxa, but not for prokaryotes, despite the ecological dominance of the smallest living beings. Our analysis of 80 prokaryote species with cell volumes ranging more than 1,000,000-fold revealed no significant relationship between mass-specific metabolic rate q and cell mass. By absolute values, mean endogenous mass-specific metabolic rates of non-growing bacteria are similar to basal rates of eukaryote unicells, terrestrial arthropods and mammals. Maximum mass-specific metabolic rates displayed by growing bacteria are close to the record tissue-specific metabolic rates of insects, amphibia, birds and mammals. Minimum mass-specific metabolic rates of prokaryotes coincide with those of larger organisms in various energy-saving regimes: sit-and-wait strategists in arthropods, poikilotherms surviving anoxia, hibernating mammals. These observations suggest a size-independent value around which the mass-specific metabolic rates vary bounded by universal upper and lower limits in all body size intervals. PMID:16191633

  13. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  14. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  15. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Juan C; Didelija, Inka Cajo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (pancreas) were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight. PMID:25775142

  16. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Marini

    Full Text Available Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20 on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (<1 μmol/L, and increased citrulline concentration more than tenfold. Body weight and body composition, however, were not affected by ADI-PEG 20. Despite the depletion of arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight.

  17. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  18. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  19. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  20. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  1. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Sicher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species.

  2. The application of solvent-additive SAGD processes in reservoirs with associated basal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.; Riva, D.; Edmunds, N.; Solanki, S. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Within the oil sands project developments areas of northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, most thermal projects have associated basal water of varying thickness. More associated basal water will be encountered as these projects continue to develop more resource. Basal water can be either in the form of primarily water sand with low oil saturation, a transition zone of lower oil saturation than the main reservoir, or a mixture of both. This paper outlined the results of a simulation and optimization study on the application of solvent-additive steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process to reservoirs with associated basal water. It is thought that ideal solvent application to SAGD in reservoirs will likely involve time variations in both rate and composition of the solvent, which is also the case for reservoirs with associated basal water, resulting in an optimization problem that has a significant number of dimensions, and is quite nonlinear. In order to address such problems, genetic algorithms can be effective. The paper discussed the optimization of a simple clastic reservoir with associated basal water. Specific topics that were addressed in the paper included SAGD with associated basal water; solvent addition; project optimization; and the reservoir model description including operating constraints and objective function. It was concluded that solvent retention is not excessive with basal water, and migration of solvent outside the steam chamber area is not significant if pressure is controlled. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Modeling metabolic networks in C. glutamicum: a comparison of rate laws in combination with various parameter optimization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldiges Marco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the dynamic behavior of cellular systems, mathematical modeling is often necessary and comprises three steps: (1 experimental measurement of participating molecules, (2 assignment of rate laws to each reaction, and (3 parameter calibration with respect to the measurements. In each of these steps the modeler is confronted with a plethora of alternative approaches, e. g., the selection of approximative rate laws in step two as specific equations are often unknown, or the choice of an estimation procedure with its specific settings in step three. This overall process with its numerous choices and the mutual influence between them makes it hard to single out the best modeling approach for a given problem. Results We investigate the modeling process using multiple kinetic equations together with various parameter optimization methods for a well-characterized example network, the biosynthesis of valine and leucine in C. glutamicum. For this purpose, we derive seven dynamic models based on generalized mass action, Michaelis-Menten and convenience kinetics as well as the stochastic Langevin equation. In addition, we introduce two modeling approaches for feedback inhibition to the mass action kinetics. The parameters of each model are estimated using eight optimization strategies. To determine the most promising modeling approaches together with the best optimization algorithms, we carry out a two-step benchmark: (1 coarse-grained comparison of the algorithms on all models and (2 fine-grained tuning of the best optimization algorithms and models. To analyze the space of the best parameters found for each model, we apply clustering, variance, and correlation analysis. Conclusion A mixed model based on the convenience rate law and the Michaelis-Menten equation, in which all reactions are assumed to be reversible, is the most suitable deterministic modeling approach followed by a reversible generalized mass action kinetics

  4. Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gram-negative sepsis on the kinetics and oxidation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acids was assessed in conscious dogs in the normal state and 24 h after infusion of live Escherichia coli. VLDL, labeled with [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitic acid, was used to trace VLDL kinetics and oxidation, and [1-13C]palmitic acid bound to albumin was infused simultaneously to quantify kinetics and oxidation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma. Sepsis caused a fivefold increase in the rate of VLDL production (RaVLDL). In the control dogs, the direct oxidation of VLDL-fatty acids was not an important contributor to their overall energy metabolism, but in dogs with sepsis, 17% of the total rate of CO2 production could be accounted for by VLDL-fatty acid oxidation. When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis. The authors conclude that the increase in triglyceride concentration in fasting dogs with gram-negative sepsis is the result of an increase in VLDL production and that the fatty acids in VLDL can serve as an important source of energy in sepsis

  5. Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Shaw, J.H.; Durkot, M.J.

    1985-06-01

    The effect of gram-negative sepsis on the kinetics and oxidation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acids was assessed in conscious dogs in the normal state and 24 h after infusion of live Escherichia coli. VLDL, labeled with (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitic acid, was used to trace VLDL kinetics and oxidation, and (1-/sup 13/C)palmitic acid bound to albumin was infused simultaneously to quantify kinetics and oxidation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma. Sepsis caused a fivefold increase in the rate of VLDL production (RaVLDL). In the control dogs, the direct oxidation of VLDL-fatty acids was not an important contributor to their overall energy metabolism, but in dogs with sepsis, 17% of the total rate of CO2 production could be accounted for by VLDL-fatty acid oxidation. When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis. The authors conclude that the increase in triglyceride concentration in fasting dogs with gram-negative sepsis is the result of an increase in VLDL production and that the fatty acids in VLDL can serve as an important source of energy in sepsis.

  6. Dietary Caffeine and Polyphenol Supplementation Enhances Overall Metabolic Rate and Lipid Oxidation at Rest and After a Bout of Sprint Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Edward; Lewis, Kiana L; Higuera, Daniel; Hernandez, Joshua; Osmond, Adam D; Directo, Dean J; Wong, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Jo, E, Lewis, KL, Higuera, D, Hernandez, J, Osmond, AD, Directo, DJ, and Wong, M. Dietary caffeine and polyphenol supplementation enhances overall metabolic rate and lipid oxidation at rest and after a bout of sprint interval exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1871-1879, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a caffeine-polyphenolic supplement on (a) metabolic rate and fat oxidation at rest and after a bout of sprint interval exercise (SIE) and (b) SIE performance. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study and after an initial familiarization visit, 12 subjects (male: n = 11; female: n = 1) (body mass = 76.1 ± 2.2 kg; height = 169.8 ± 1.6 cm; body mass index = 22.7 ± 3.0 kg·m; body fat % = 21.6 ± 2.0%) underwent 2 testing sessions during which time they consumed either a caffeine-polyphenol supplement or placebo. After supplementation, resting energy expenditure, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were assessed. Subsequently, subjects performed 30 minutes of SIE while researchers collected performance data. Subjects were then tested for post-SIE energy expenditure, HR, and BP. The caffeine-polyphenol treatment resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater energy expenditure (+7.99% rest; +10.16% post-SIE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+9.64% rest; +12.10% post-SIE), and fat oxidation rate (+10.60% rest; +9.76% post-SIE) vs. placebo at rest and post-SIE. No significant differences were detected for peak and average power at all sprint intervals between treatments. Post-SIE HR was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with caffeine-polyphenol supplementation vs. placebo (90.8 ± 3.5 vs. 85.1 ± 3.6 b·min). There were no significant between-treatment differences for BP. It may be concluded that the observed thermogenic response after SIE was directly attributable to caffeine-polyphenol supplementation as opposed to an indirect manifestation of enhanced performance and work output. Collectively, these results

  7. Selected regulation of gastrointestinal acid-base secretion and tissue metabolism for the diamondback water snake and Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    manifested in a depressed gastric and intestinal metabolism, which selectively serves to reduce basal metabolism and hence promote survival between infrequent meals. By maintaining elevated GI performance between meals, fasted water snakes incur the additional cost of tissue activity, which is expressed in a higher standard metabolic rate.

  8. Comparison of clinical types of Wilson's disease and glucose metabolism in extrapyramidal motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Hesse, S; Grahmann, F; Kühn, H-J; Wagner, A; Villmann, T

    2002-07-01

    In Wilson's disease a disturbed glucose metabolism especially in striatal and cerebellar areas has been reported. This is correlated with the severity of extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS). These findings are only based on a small number of patients. Up to now it is unknown whether EPS are caused by various patterns of disturbed basal ganglia glucose metabolism. We investigated 37 patients and 9 normal volunteers to characterize the disturbed glucose metabolism in Wilson's disease more precisely. The glucose metabolism was determined in 5 cerebellar and cerebral areas (putamen, caput nuclei caudati, cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic area) by using (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography ( [(18)F]FDG-PET). The database was evaluated by a cluster analysis. Additionally, the severity extrapyramidal motor symptoms were judged by a clinical score system. Three characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in basal ganglia were obtained. Two of them may be assigned to patients with neurological symptoms whereas the third cluster corresponds to most patients without EPS or normal volunteers. The clusters can be identified by characteristic consumption rates in this 5 brain areas. The severity of EPS can not clearly be assigned to one of the clusters with disturbed glucose metabolism. However, the most severe cases are characterized by the lowest consumption in the striatal area. When there is marked improvement of EPS impaired glucose consumption reveals a persistent brain lesion. Finally, the neurological symptoms in Wilson's disease are caused by (at least) two different patterns of disturbed glucose metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum. The severity of EPS seems to be determined by a disturbed consumption in the striatal area. PMID:12140675

  9. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  10. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  11. Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30/70: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Compared With Once-Daily Biphasic Human Insulin and Basal-Bolus Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Tim; Heinemann, Lutz; Hövelmann, Ulrike; Brauns, Bianca; Nosek, Leszek; Haahr, Hanne L.; Olsen, Klaus J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pharmacological profiles of biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30) once daily (OD), twice daily (b.i.d.), and three times daily (t.i.d.) were compared with other insulin regimens in two crossover glucose clamp studies of insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS Study 1 consisted of BIAsp 30 OD, b.i.d., and t.i.d. versus biphasic human insulin 30/70 (BHI 30), OD (n = 24). Study 2 examined BIAsp 30 t.i.d. versus basal-bolus therapy (insulin glargine OD plus insulin glulisine t.i.d.) (n = 24). Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) were investigated over 24 h. RESULTS Study 1: PK and PD were markedly different between BIAsp 30 OD and BHI 30 OD: the maximum insulin concentration and glucose infusion rate (GIR) were higher for BIAsp 30; time to maximum metabolism was 1.7 h sooner for BIAsp 30. Study 2: both regimens showed three distinct prandial-related GIR peaks. GIR 24-h area under the curve for BIAsp t.i.d. was higher than for basal-bolus therapy: 2,585.2 vs. 2,289.2 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS BIAsp had pharmacological advantages over BHI. BIAsp t.i.d. had a similar PD profile to basal-bolus therapy. PMID:19487640

  12. Microbial biomass and basal respiration in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abakumov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the unique place for pedological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century. Antarctic logistic provides the possibility to scientists access the terrestrial landscapes mainly in the places of polar stations. That is why the main and most detailed pedological investigations were conducted in Mc Murdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann hills and Schirmacher Oasis. Investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions on the base of soil pits and samples collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Soils of diverse Antarctic landscapes were studied with aim to assess the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. The investigation conducted shows that soils of Antarctic are quite different in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod organo-mineral horizons as well as the upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King-George Island, where its thickness reach even 80 cm. These soils as well as soils under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC 7.22–33.70%. Coastal and continental soils of Antarctic are presented by less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol with TOC levels about 0.37–4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones which can be interpreted as result of higher amounts of fresh organic remnants in organic and organo-mineral horizons. Also the soils of King-George island have higher portion of microbial biomass (max 1.54 mg g−1 than coastal (max 0.26 mg g−1 and continental (max 0.22 mg g−1 Antarctic soils. Sub-Antarctic soils mainly differ from Antarctic ones in increased organic layers thickness and total

  13. 温度对成体荒漠沙蜥代谢率、心率和呼吸频率的影响%Effect of temperature on the metabolic rate, heart rate and respiration rate of adult lizard Phrynocephalus przewalskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐意; 岳丰; 马明; 田晓柱; 陈强

    2014-01-01

    对荒漠沙蜥成体代谢率和心率等生理指标的温度适应性进行了研究,旨在检测不同温度下成体荒漠沙蜥的静止代谢率、心率和呼吸频率的差异。结果显示:成体荒漠沙蜥的静止代谢率和心率随外界温度的升高而明显上升,但呼吸频率的上升并不显著。雌雄两性间,雄性蜥蜴呼吸频率对温度变化的依赖性比雌性的略强,且35◦C下雄性的代谢率显著高于雌性的。这些生理特征与荒漠沙蜥的生境和活动特点直接相关。我们推测25∼35◦C荒漠沙蜥可能更多地依赖于提高心率和增加血流量来调整代谢率。%Thermal fitness of resting metabolic rate, heart rate and respiration rates were investigated in adult oviparous lizard Phrynocephalus przewalskii under different temperatures. Resting metabolic rate and heart rate of adult P. przewalskii notably increased with temperature, while respiration rate was not significantly different. Compared with females, the respiration rate of males was more sensitive to temperature, which might be related to the active characteristics of male P. przewalskii, the metabolic rate of males was positively higher than that of females under 35◦C. We speculated that P. przewalskii may rely more on increased heart rate and blood flow to adjust its metabolic rate at 25–35◦C.

  14. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14CO2. Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  15. Self-Rated Health in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, determinants and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH has been demonstrated to be an accurate reflection of a person's health and a valid predictor of incident mortality and chronic morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the distribution and factors associated with SRH and its association with biomarkers of cardio-metabolic diseases among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Methods Survey of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50 to 70 years, conducted in one urban and two rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai in 2005. SRH status was measured and categorized as good (very good and good vs. not good (fair, poor and very poor. Determinants of SRH and associations with biomarkers of cardio-metabolic diseases were evaluated using logistic regression. Results Thirty two percent of participants reported good SRH. Males and rural residents tended to report good SRH. After adjusting for potential confounders, residence, physical activity, employment status, sleep quality and presence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression were the main determinants of SRH. Those free from cardiovascular disease (OR 3.68; 95%CI 2.39; 5.66, rural residents (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.47; 2.43, non-depressed participants (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.67; 3.73 and those with good sleep quality (OR 2.95; 95% CI 2.22; 3.91 had almost twice or over the chance of reporting good SRH compared to their counterparts. There were significant associations -and trend- between SRH and levels of inflammatory markers, insulin levels and insulin resistance. Conclusion Only one third of middle-aged and elderly Chinese assessed their health status as good or very good. Although further longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings, interventions targeting social inequalities, lifestyle patterns might not only contribute to prevent chronic morbidity but as well to improve populations' perceived health.

  16. Post-hatching development of mitochondrial function, organ mass and metabolic rate in two ectotherms, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsat, Sarah K G; Sirsat, Tushar S; Price, Edwin R; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The ontogeny of endothermy in birds is associated with disproportionate growth of thermogenic organs and increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. However, no similar study has been made of the development of these traits in ectotherms. For comparison, we therefore investigated the metabolism, growth and muscle mitochondrial function in hatchlings of a turtle and a crocodilian, two ectotherms that never develop endothermy. Metabolic rate did not increase substantially in either species by 30 days post-hatching. Yolk-free body mass and heart mass did not change through 30 days in alligators and heart mass was a constant proportion of body mass, even after 1 year. Yolk-free body mass and liver mass grew 36% and 27%, respectively, in turtles during the first 30 days post-hatch. The mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria, assessed using permeabilized muscle fibers, increased by a non-significant 47% in alligator thigh and a non-significant 50% in turtle thigh over 30 days, but did not increase in the heart. This developmental trajectory of mitochondrial function is slower and shallower than that previously observed in ducks, which demonstrate a 90% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity in thigh muscles over just a few days, a 60% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the heart over a few days, and disproportionate growth of the heart and other organs. Our data thus support the hypothesis that these developmental changes in ducks represent mechanistic drivers for attaining endothermy. PMID:26962048

  17. Post-hatching development of mitochondrial function, organ mass and metabolic rate in two ectotherms, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. G. Sirsat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of endothermy in birds is associated with disproportionate growth of thermogenic organs and increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. However, no similar study has been made of the development of these traits in ectotherms. For comparison, we therefore investigated the metabolism, growth and muscle mitochondrial function in hatchlings of a turtle and a crocodilian, two ectotherms that never develop endothermy. Metabolic rate did not increase substantially in either species by 30 days post-hatching. Yolk-free body mass and heart mass did not change through 30 days in alligators and heart mass was a constant proportion of body mass, even after 1 year. Yolk-free body mass and liver mass grew 36% and 27%, respectively, in turtles during the first 30 days post-hatch. The mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria, assessed using permeabilized muscle fibers, increased by a non-significant 47% in alligator thigh and a non-significant 50% in turtle thigh over 30 days, but did not increase in the heart. This developmental trajectory of mitochondrial function is slower and shallower than that previously observed in ducks, which demonstrate a 90% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity in thigh muscles over just a few days, a 60% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the heart over a few days, and disproportionate growth of the heart and other organs. Our data thus support the hypothesis that these developmental changes in ducks represent mechanistic drivers for attaining endothermy.

  18. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  19. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  1. 砷化合物致人表皮癌A431细胞的毒性及氧化应激和砷代谢研究%Cytotoxicity,oxidative stress and arsenic metabolism in human skin basal cell carcinoma cell (A431) induced by different speciations of arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆景坤; 田艳; 俞腾飞; 陈朝军; 王一博; 尹若熙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress and arsenic metabolism induced by different speciations of arsenic in human skin basal carcinoma cell (A431). Methods Cultured A431 cells were exposed to 0.05—50.0 μmol/L methylarsonous acid (MMAⅢ), 0.05-200.0 μmol/L arsenic trioxide (As2O3,As3+) , 0.5-500.0 μmol/L disodium hydrogen arsenate(As5+) or sodium dimethylarsonate(DMAⅤ) for 24 h, respectively. MTT assay were used to evaluate the cell viability, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOU) in HaCaT were detected respectively. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected with flow cytometry and the atomic fluorescence were used to analyze intracellular or extracellular levels of different speciations of arsenic. Results When the dose was in a certain range, MMAⅢ (≥0.5μmol/L), As2O3 (≥200.0 μmol/L), disodium hydrogen arsenate (0.5, ≥200.0 μmol/L)and sodium dimethylarsonate (500.0 μmoL/L) could all decrease the cell viability (P50.0 μmol/L As2O3> 100.0 μmol/L disodium hydrogen arsenate > 100.0 μmol/L sodium dimethylarsonate. As for As2O3 and disodium hydrogen arsenate, the methylation ratios in low—dose groups were higher than the high—dose ones' , and the ratios in As2O3 groups was higher than those in As5+ groups. Conclusion Arsenides may inhibit A431 cells proliferation in higher exposure levels and promote proliferation in lower exposure levels, the mechanism probably relates to oxidative stress and arsenic metabolism in A431 cells induced by different speciations of arsenide with various concentrations.%目的 探讨不同砷化合物致人表皮癌细胞(A431)的细胞毒性及氧化应激和砷代谢的情况.方法 培养的A431细胞分别暴露于0.05~50.0 μmol/L一甲基亚胂酸(MMAⅢ),0.05~200.0 μmol/L三氧化二砷(As2O3,As3+),0.5~500.0μmol/L砷酸氢二纳(As5+)和二甲基胂酸钠(DMAV)24 h,应用四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法测定细

  2. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. PMID:27179108

  3. Early Detection of Regional and Global Left Ventricular Myocardial Function Using Strain and Strain-rate Imaging in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strain and strain-rate imaging (SRI have been found clinically useful in the assessment of cardiac systolic and diastolic function as well as providing new insights in deciphering cardiac physiology and mechanics in cardiomyopathies, and identifying early subclinical changes in various pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional and global left ventricular (LV myocardial function in metabolic syndrome (MS with SRI so that we can provide more myocardial small lesions in patients with MS, which is robust and reliable basis for early detection of LV function. Methods: Thirty-nine adults with MS were enrolled in the study. There was a control group of 39 healthy adults. In addition to classic echocardiographic assessment of LV global functional changes, SRI was used to evaluate regional and global LV function. Including: Peak systolic strain (S, peak systolic strain-rate (SR-s, peak diastolic strain-rate (SR-e. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between MS and controls in all traditional parameters of LV systolic function. On the other hand, significant differences were observed between MS and the control group in most of the parameters of S, SR-s, SR-e in regional LV function. Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that S and SR significantly were negatively correlated with blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, uric acid, suggesting that risk factories were relevant to regional systolic dysfunction. Conclusion: In MS with normal LV ejection fraction, there was regional myocardial dysfunction, risk factors contributed to the impairment of systolic and diastolic function of the regional myocardium. Assessment of myocardial function using SRI could be more accurate in MS patient evaluation than conventional echocardiography alone.

  4. Early Detection of Regional and Global Left Ventricular Myocardial Function Using Strain and Strain-rate Imaging in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Wang; Qi-Wei Sun; Dan Wu; Ming-Wu Yang; Rong-Juan Li; Bo Jiang; Jiao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Strain and strain-rate imaging (SRI) have been found clinically useful in the assessment of cardiac systolic and diastolic function as well as providing new insights in deciphering cardiac physiology and mechanics in cardiomyopathies,and identifying early subclinical changes in various pathologies.The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional and global left ventricular (LV) myocardial function in metabolic syndrome (MS) with SRI so that we can provide more myocardial small lesions in patients with MS,which is robust and reliable basis for early detection of LV function.Methods:Thirty-nine adults with MS were enrolled in the study.There was a control group of 39 healthy adults.In addition to classic echocardiographic assessment of LV global functional changes,SRI was used to evaluate regional and global LV function.Including:Peak systolic strain (S),peak systolic strain-rate (SR-s),peak diastolic strain-rate (SR-e).Results:There were no statistically significant differences between MS and controls in all traditional parameters of LV systolic function.On the other hand,significant differences were observed between MS and the control group in most of the parameters of S,SR-s,SR-e in regional LV function.Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that S and SR significantly were negatively correlated with blood pressure,waist circumference,fasting plasma glucose,uric acid,suggesting that risk factories were relevant to regional systolic dysfunction.Conclusion:In MS with normal LV ejection fraction,there was regional myocardial dysfunction,risk factors contributed to the impairment of systolic and diastolic function of the regional myocardium.Assessment of myocardial function using SRI could be more accurate in MS patient evaluation than conventional echocardiography alone.

  5. Effects of whole-body electromyostimulation on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and maximum strength in postmenopausal women: the Training and ElectroStimulation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Schliffka, Rebecca; Mayhew, Jerry L; von Stengel, Simon

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) during dynamic exercises over 14 weeks on anthropometric, physiological, and muscular parameters in postmenopausal women. Thirty women (64.5 +/- 5.5 years) with experience in physical training (>3 years) were randomly assigned either to a control group (CON, n = 15) that maintained their general training program (2 x 60 min.wk of endurance and dynamic strength exercise) or to an electromyostimulation group (WB-EMS, n = 15) that additionally performed a 20-minute WB-EMS training (2 x 20 min.10 d). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) determined from spirometry was selected to indicate muscle mass. In addition, body circumferences, subcutaneous skinfolds, strength, power, and dropout and adherence values. Resting metabolic rate was maintained in WB-EMS (-0.1 +/- 4.8 kcal.h) and decreased in CON (-3.2+/-5.2 kcal.h, p = 0.038); although group differences were not significant (p = 0.095), there was a moderately strong effect size (ES = 0.62). Sum of skinfolds (28.6%) and waist circumference (22.3%) significantly decreased in WB-EMS whereas both parameters (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively) increased in CON (p = 0.001, ES = 1.37 and 1.64, respectively), whereas both parameters increased in CON (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively). Isometric strength changes of the trunk extensors and leg extensors differed significantly (p < or = 0.006) between WB-EMS and CON (9.9% vs. -6.4%, ES = 1.53; 9.6% vs. -4.5%, ES = 1.43, respectively). In summary, adjunct WB-EMS training significantly exceeds the effect of isolated endurance and resistance type exercise on fitness and fatness parameters. Further, we conclude that for elderly subjects unable or unwilling to perform dynamic strength exercises, electromyostimulation may be a smooth alternative to maintain lean body mass, strength, and power.

  6. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  7. Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Nakamura, Kae; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2006-02-01

    Expectation of reward motivates our behaviors and influences our decisions. Indeed, neuronal activity in many brain areas is modulated by expected reward. However, it is still unclear where and how the reward-dependent modulation of neuronal activity occurs and how the reward-modulated signal is transformed into motor outputs. Recent studies suggest an important role of the basal ganglia. Sensorimotor/cognitive activities of neurons in the basal ganglia are strongly modulated by expected reward. Through their abundant outputs to the brain stem motor areas and the thalamocortical circuits, the basal ganglia appear capable of producing body movements based on expected reward. A good behavioral measure to test this hypothesis is saccadic eye movement because its brain stem mechanism has been extensively studied. Studies from our laboratory suggest that the basal ganglia play a key role in guiding the gaze to the location where reward is available. Neurons in the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata are extremely sensitive to the positional difference in expected reward, which leads to a bias in excitability between the superior colliculi such that the saccade to the to-be-rewarded position occurs more quickly. It is suggested that the reward modulation occurs in the caudate where cortical inputs carrying spatial signals and dopaminergic inputs carrying reward-related signals are integrated. These data support a specific form of reinforcement learning theories, but also suggest further refinement of the theory.

  8. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  9. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master social…

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  11. Ambient temperature does not affect fuelling rate in absence of digestive constraints in long-distance migrant shorebird fuelling up in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Magali; Vézina, François; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Pre-flight fuelling rates in free-living red knots Calidris canutus, a specialized long-distance migrating shorebird species, are positively correlated with latitude and negatively with temperature. The single published hypothesis to explain these relationships is the heat load hypothesis that states that in warm climates red knots may overheat during fuelling. To limit endogenous heat production (measurable as basal metabolic rate BMR), birds would minimize the growth of digestive organs at ...

  12. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  13. Effect of constitution on mass of individual organs and their association with metabolic rate in humans--a detailed view on allometric scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred J Müller

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE-power relationships result from multiple underlying factors including weight and height. In addition, detailed body composition, including fat free mass (FFM and its components, skeletal muscle mass and internal organs with high metabolic rates (i.e. brain, heart, liver, kidneys, are major determinants of REE. Since the mass of individual organs scales to height as well as to weight (and, thus, to constitution, the variance in these associations may also add to the variance in REE. Here we address body composition (measured by magnetic resonance imaging and REE (assessed by indirect calorimetry in a group of 330 healthy volunteers differing with respect to age (17-78 years, sex (61% female and BMI (15.9-47.8 kg/m(2. Using three dimensional data interpolation we found that the inter-individual variance related to scaling of organ mass to height and weight and, thus, the constitution-related variances in either FFM (model 1 or kidneys, muscle, brain and liver (model 2 explained up to 43% of the inter-individual variance in REE. These data are the first evidence that constitution adds to the complexity of REE. Since organs scale differently as weight as well as height the "fit" of organ masses within constitution should be considered as a further trait.

  14. Assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by means of Bayesian ICA and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in small animal PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berradja, Khadidja; Boughanmi, Nabil

    2016-09-01

    In dynamic cardiac PET FDG studies the assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MMRG) requires the knowledge of the blood input function (IF). IF can be obtained by manual or automatic blood sampling and cross calibrated with PET. These procedures are cumbersome, invasive and generate uncertainties. The IF is contaminated by spillover of radioactivity from the adjacent myocardium and this could cause important error in the estimated MMRG. In this study, we show that the IF can be extracted from the images in a rat heart study with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based on Bayesian theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method (BICA). Images of the heart from rats were acquired with the Sherbrooke small animal PET scanner. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the rat image and decomposed into blood and tissue using BICA. The Statistical study showed that there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between MMRG obtained with IF extracted by BICA with respect to IF extracted from measured images corrupted with spillover.

  15. Direct calorimetry identifies deficiencies in respirometry for the determination of resting metabolic rate in C57Bl/6 and FVB mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Colin M L; Grobe, Justin L

    2013-10-01

    Substantial research efforts have been aimed at identifying novel targets to increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) as an adjunct approach to the treatment of obesity. Respirometry (one form of "indirect calorimetry") is unquestionably the dominant technique used in the obesity research field to assess RMR in vivo, although this method relies upon a lengthy list of assumptions that are likely to be violated in pharmacologically or genetically manipulated animals. A "total" calorimeter, including a gradient layer direct calorimeter coupled to a conventional respirometer, was used to test the accuracy of respirometric-based estimations of RMR in laboratory mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus) of the C57Bl/6 and FVB background strains. Using this combined calorimeter, we determined that respirometry underestimates RMR of untreated 9- to 12-wk-old male mice by ∼10-12%. Quantitative and qualitative differences resulted between methods for untreated C57Bl/6 and FVB mice, C57Bl/6 mice treated with ketamine-xylazine anesthesia, and FVB mice with genetic deletion of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor. We conclude that respirometric methods underestimate RMR in mice in a magnitude that is similar to or greater than the desired RMR effects of novel therapeutics. Sole reliance upon respirometry to assess RMR in mice may lead to false quantitative and qualitative conclusions regarding the effects of novel interventions. Increased use of direct calorimetry for the assessment of RMR and confirmation of respirometry results and the reexamination of previously discarded potential obesity therapeutics are warranted.

  16. Inhibition of photosynthesis in duckweed by elevated CO[sub 2] concentration is rapid and is not offset by a temperature induced increase in metabolic rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smernoff, D.T.; Gale, J.; Macler, B.A.; Reuveni, J. (NASA, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Ames Research Center)

    1993-01-01

    The rate of net photosynthesis (P(N)), respiration and growth of [ital Lemna gibba]L. were measured as functions of time across ranges of temperature, irradiance and carbon dioxide concentrations. P(N) on an area basis increased with temperature up to 30[degree]C but decreased dramatically with a few hours of exposure to elevated CO[sub 2] when reported on a dry mass basis. Reductions in the apparent quantum efficiency, photosynthetic capacity and the affinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase for CO[sub 2] were observed for plants grown at elevated CO[sub 2]. Starch concentration was not significantly affected by elevated CO[sub 2]. Although elevated temperature increased metabolic activity, it only partially alleviated the inhibition of P(N). [ital L. gibba] exhibits a characteristic C[sub 3]-type response to elevated CO[sub 2] and the methodology described is useful for further elucidating the mechanism of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO[sub 2].

  17. The effects of green tea consumption and resistance training on body composition and resting metabolic rate in overweight or obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gabrielle Aparecida; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Cesar, Marcelo de Castro; Donado-Pestana, Carlos Mario

    2013-02-01

    Green tea has been shown to have thermogenic and antiobesity properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate its effect on weight loss in humans, especially in women. We investigated the effects of green tea consumption combined with resistance training on the body composition and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women who were overweight or obese (grade I). After 4 weeks on an adaptive diet, 36 women were divided into four groups (group 1 green tea; group 2 placebo; group 3 green tea plus resistance training; group 4 placebo plus resistance training). The study was double-blinded and placebo-controlled. The RMR and body composition were ascertained for each volunteer, blood tests were performed, and subjects in groups 3 and 4 were tested for their one repetition maximum. Each subject followed the protocol and continued the diet for eight additional weeks, and periodic evaluations were administered. The mean RMR of group 1 decreased significantly and was accompanied by weight loss, maintenance of lean body mass, and decreases in both waist circumference and body mass index. Group 2 showed no variations in anthropometric or blood variables and significantly decreased their mean RMR. Group 3 showed significant increases in RMR, lean body mass, and muscle strength, and significant decreases in body fat, triglycerides, and waist circumference as compared to group 4. Green tea combined with resistance training its potential is increased with decreasing body fat, waist circumference, and triacylglyceride levels and by increasing lean body mass and muscle strength. PMID:23140132

  18. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  19. Low level of basal testosterone: a significant risk factor for poor oocyte yield after ovulation induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Qingxue; Li, Yu; Wang, Wenjun; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the association of low androgen levels and poor ovarian response or negative pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilisation treatment using a retrospective cohort study. Chinese women (n=1950) of relatively young age, with normal range of basal FSH and antral follicle count undergoing an in vitro fertilisation cycle were selected and testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were measured on Day 3 of the menstrual cycle before subsequent in vitro fertilisation treatment. The main outcome measures of the study were ovarian stimulation parameters and clinical pregnancy. Basal testosterone levels of poor responders and non-pregnant women were significantly lower than normal responders and pregnant women, respectively. Patients with low basal testosterone levels had significantly lower number of mature oocytes, cleavage-stage embryos, frozen embryos, lower fertilisation and pregnancy rates and required higher doses of gonadotrophins. Androgen levels had no correlation with early spontaneous abortion rates. Multivariable logistic analysis revealed that low basal testosterone (oocyte yield (odds ratio: 1.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.57; P=0.045). In conclusion, a low level of basal testosterone was a significant risk factor for poor oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation and might negatively influence pregnancy chances with in vitro fertilisation. Basal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were not predictive for poor ovarian response or negative pregnancy outcome in this population. PMID:25023952

  20. 干部人群代谢综合征患病率分析%The Analysis of The Prevalence Rate of Metabolic Syndrome in Cadre Members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国红; 杨英; 任艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome( MS) in cadre members,and provide sci-entific evidence for prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods The physical examination data of 1348 the cadre mem-bers were collected who took the health examination in West China Hospital in 2013. The patients were diagnosed based on the di-agnostic criteria of International Diabetes Federation(IDF)in 2005. The general prevalence rate of MS and metabolic abnormalities were analyzed. Resultes The detection rate of MS was 26. 19%in total ,27. 06% in the males ,20. 23% in the females. There was no difference between the males and the females(P>0. 05). The highest detection rate of MS was in the age group of 50-60 years old ( 35. 91%) . The single metabolic disorder tests in ascending order were hyperglycaemia ( 44. 70%) , hypertension (40. 8%),central obesity(39. 91%),high hyper triglyceridemia(33. 82%),low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol(14. 98%). There are 31 people of five abnormal components(2. 23%),There are 119 people of four abnormal components(8. 83%),There are 202 people of three abnormal components(14. 98%), the most common combination of three components of prevalence of MS were hyperglycaemia,hypertention,central obesity(6. 0%). The unconditional logistic regression analysis rerealed that age,BMI, triglyceride ,fasting glycaemia level and blood pressure are major risk factors of MS and blood HDL-C level is a protective factors of MS. Conclusion the Prevalence rate of MS in cadre members was higher than that of other members. Effeetive measunes of prevence and controlling of all risk factors of MS should be made in order to reduce the prevalence rate of cardiovascular and cere-brovascular disease and diabetes.%目的 了解干部人群代谢综合征( MS)的患病情况,为该类人群疾病的防治提供科学依据. 方法 收集2013年在华西医院健康体检的1348例干部人群资料,按2005年国际糖尿病联盟( IDF)的MS

  1. fMRI of Cocaine Self-Administration in Macaques Reveals Functional Inhibition of Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeville, Joseph B.; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jarraya, Bechir; Rosen, Bruce R.; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Disparities in cocaine-induced neurochemical and metabolic responses between human beings and rodents motivate the use of non-human primates (NHP) to model consequences of repeated cocaine exposure in human subjects. To characterize the functional response to cocaine infusion in NHP brain, we employed contrast-enhanced fMRI during both non-contingent injection of drug and self-administration of cocaine in the magnet. Cocaine robustly decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) throughout basal gang...

  2. Comparison of the Blood and Lymphatic Microvessel Density of Pleomorphic Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Andresa Borges Soares; Albina Altemani; Thais Ribeiro de Oliveira; Felipe de Oliveira Fonseca Rodrigues; Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva; Danilo Figueiredo Soave; Fabricio Passador-Santos; Suellen Trentin Brum; Marcelo Henrique Napimoga; Vera Cavalcanti de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common tumor of the salivary gland, while basal cell adenoma (BCA) is an uncommon neoplasm. Blood and lymphatic vessels are crucial for tumor metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and lymphatic vascular density and vascular and endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in PA and BCA tumors. In addition, cell proliferation was evaluated in these tumors. METHODS Blood and lymphatic vessel content, VEGF expression, and cell p...

  3. Cerebral gigantism associated with jaw cyst basal cell naevoid syndrome in two families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, H; Niederdellmann, H

    1983-01-01

    We report 9 subjects from 2 families with the syndrome of cerebral gigantism, seven of the patients also had jaw cyst basal cell naevoid syndrome. Neurological, radiological, somatic and biochemical features of this hitherto unreported association are described. Neurological symptoms included mild hydrocephalus, ventricular malformation, cerebellar syndrome, intracranial calcification, oculomotor disturbances, EEG abnormalities and rarely, mild peripheral nervous disorders. A disturbance of calcium metabolism appears to be a prominent feature of the genetically determined nonprogressive syndrome.

  4. Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rates and daily energy expenditures of police officials doing shift work by type of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy expenditure in policemen on a rotating shift. Subjects were 28 healthy policemen on a rotating shift (males) age of 23-46 years. The participants' RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (TrueOne2400) and also calculated from various predicted equations of RMR (Harris-Benedict, Schofield(W)/(WH), FAO/WHO/UNU(W)/(W/H), Cunningham, Mifflin, Liu, Owen, IMNA and Henry(W)/(WH)). The accuracy of these equations were evaluated on basis of accurate prediction (the percentage of subjects whose RMR was predicted within 90% to 110% of the RMR measured), mean difference, root mean squared prediction error, mean % difference, limits of agreement of Bland-Altman method between predicted and measured RMR. The measured RMR value of subjects was 1748 ± 205.9 kcal. Of the predictive equations tested, the Harris-Benedict equation (mean difference: -14.8 kcal/day, RMSPE: 195.8 kcal/day, mean % difference: 0.1%) was the most accurate and precise, but accuracy in prediction of the equation were only 35.7%. The daily energy expenditure at night-duty was 3062 kcal calculated as multiplying RMR by its physical activity level. Subsequently, daily energy expenditure of day-duty was 2647 kcal and the lowest daily energy expenditure was, 2310 kcal at holiday duty. Daily energy intake of all study participants was 2351 kcal at day-duty, 1959 kcal at night-duty and 1796 kcal at holiday-duty in order. The estimated energy requirements for policemen on a rotating shift on day shift, night shift and holiday came to 2743.6 kcal/day, 2998.6 kcal/day and 2576.9 kcal/day, respectively. These results suggest that estimated energy requirements (EER) of policemen on a rotating shift should be differently proposed by a proper equation which can closely reflect their metabolic status at each time shift. PMID:23429979

  5. Acute effects of food, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and noradrenaline on metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue in normal and atropinised lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, N J; Saville, M E; Stock, M J

    1981-12-01

    1. Intragastric feeding (40 kJ) produced a 17% rise in metabolic rate in lean Zucker rats but only an 8% increase in obese (fa/fa) rats, and both of these responses were significantly reduced by beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (10 mg/kg, s.c.). 2. Parasympathetic blockade with atropine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a doubling of the response to food in lean rats and a threefold increase in the obese mutants, such that all atropinised animals showed the same increase in metabolic rate after food. 3. Feeding also caused a significant rise in interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature, which was greatest in the lean animals and was enhanced by atropine in both groups. 4. Injection of noradrenaline (250 micrograms/kg, s.c.) caused a similar (40%) rise in metabolic rate in lean and obese animals but this response was unaffected by atropine. 5. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose injection (360 mg/kg, s.c.) depressed oxygen consumption by 25 and 8% in lean and obese rats respectively and this effect was totally abolished by atropine. 6. These results suggest that the rise in metabolic rate after a meal is partly due to sympathetic activation of brown adipose tissue. The reduced thermic response in obese Zucker rats is not due to insensitivity to noradrenaline, but may be partly due to parasympathetic inhibition of thermogenesis and partly to insensitivity to glucose availability. PMID:7322844

  6. Change of oxygen free radical metabolism and free amino acids of patients with hyperthyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Ling Ruan; Li Zhao; Kun-Quan Guo; Kun Yang; Lin-Xiu Ye; Xue Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the change situation of oxygen free radical metabolism and free amino acids of patients with hyperthyroidism.Methods:Eighty-one patients with hyperthyroidism who were treated in our hospital from May 2013 to October 2014 were selected as the observation group, while 81 healthy persons with health examination at the same period were the control group. Then, the serum oxygen free radical indexes and free amino acids of the two groups were respectively detected and compared, and the detection results of patients in the observation group with different etiologic types and basal metabolic rate were also compared. Results:The serum oxygen free radical related indexes of the observation group were all higher than those of the control group; the serum antioxidant related indexes were all lower than those of the control group; and the serum free amino acids levels were all obviously lower than those of the control group. Besides, the detection results of patients with severe hyperthyroidism in the observation group were worse than those of patients with mild and moderate disease, while the detection results of the observation group with different types of hyperthyroidism had no significant differences.Conclusions:The fluctuation of oxygen free radical metabolism and free amino acids of patients with hyperthyroidism are obvious, and the detection results of patients with different basal metabolic rates are also quite obvious.

  7. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Sami N. Nasrallah; L. Raymond Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism...

  8. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  9. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and Pcontrols. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non-triple-negative tumours have similar vascular characteristics in terms of lymphatic vessel density and vascular invasion but higher microvessel density, suggesting that such groups may

  10. Relationship between resting heart rate and metabolic syndrome%静息心率与代谢综合征的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向鸿鹄; 刘小雪; 董岩; 陶杰; 高新颖; 杨光; 郑瑶; 季春鹏; 吴寿岭

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between resting heart rate (RHR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the healthy population in Kailuan Reseach was investigated.A total of 87 778 employees of the Kailuan Group were enrolled in this cross-sectional study.The prevalence rate of MS for RHR<66,66 ~ <70,70 ~ <75,75 ~ <80,≥ 80 bpm group were 15.3%,18.6%,20.5%,22.4%,26.5%,respectively,and the corresponding prevalence rate for men and women in the five groups were respectively 13.4%,15.5%,17.3%,17.5%,23.0%,and 15.8%,19.4%,21.4%,23.5%,27.3%.The other four RHR groups had an increased risk trend of MS after adjusting for age,body mass index,uric acid,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol,smoke,and alcohol drink.Increased RHR may induce higher risk of MS.%采用横断面的研究方法,以参加健康体检的87 778名开滦集团职工作为观察对象,探讨其静息心率与代谢综合征(MS)的关系.静息心率<66、66~ <70、70~ <75、75~<80、≥80 次/min组MS的患病率分别为15.3%、18.6%、20.5%、22.4%、26.5%.5组男性和女性分别为13.4%、15.5%、17.3%、17.5%、23.0%和15.8%、19.4%、21.4%、23.5%、27.3%.校正了年龄、体重指数、尿酸、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、吸烟和饮酒后,与静息心率第1组比较,其余4组MS患病风险呈递增趋势.静息心率增快者MS的患病风险增加.

  11. Intraspecific differences in metabolic rate of Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: the effect of thermal acclimation in arid and mesic habitats Diferencias intraespecíficas en la tasa metabólica de Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: efecto de la aclimatación térmica en hábitat áridos y mésicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernando Novoa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metabolic capacities in rodents have been largely studied at an inter-specific levels, but physiological capacities of populations belonging to the same species have received lesser attention. Here we studied the maximum and basal metabolic rates of two populations of the rodent Chroeomys olivaceus dwelling in habitats with contrasting temperature and rainfall regimes, and to test if differences in metabolic capacities are due to local adaptation or acclimatization effect. After four weeks of acclimation to 25 ºC and 10 ºC, the BMR and MMR were determined in individuals from the northern population of Caleta Loa, and the southern population of La Picada. Individuals from ‘La Picada’ population were heavier than those from Caleta Loa. MMR and BMR exhibited higher values in cold acclimated animals compared with warm-acclimated animals. Besides, BMR, but not MMR, was lower in Caleta Loa individuals, in spite of the acclimation treatment. Hence, the differences in the metabolic capacities and the response to acclimation of C. olivaceus populations appear to be an evolutionary response to the environmental cuesLas capacidades metabólicas en roedores han sido ampliamente estudiadas en un nivel ínterespecífico, pero los atributos fisiológicos de las poblaciones que pertenecen a una misma especie, han recibido menos atención. Aquí estudiamos las tasas metabólicas máximas y basales de dos poblaciones del roedor Chroeomys olivaceus que viven en habitats con temperaturas y regímenes de precipitaciones contrastantes y se analiza si las diferencias en las capacidades metabólicas se deben a diferenciación local o a efectos de aclimatación. Después de cuatro semanas de aclimatación a 25 ºC y 10 ºC, el BMR y MMR fueron determinados en individuos de la población norteña de Caleta Loa y en la población sureña de "La Picada". Los individuos de la población "La Picada" presentaron mayor masa corporal que los de Caleta Loa. Los

  12. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Lamos EM; Younk LM; Davis SN

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with in...

  13. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  15. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  16. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  17. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-05-01

    The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708

  18. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  19. Glucose metabolism in small subcortical structures in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Hansen, Søren B; Eggers, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests a characteristic pattern of metabolic perturbation in discrete, very small basal ganglia structures. These structures are generally too small to allow valid investigation by conventional positron emission tomography (PET...

  20. Assessing Psychological Functioning in Metabolic Disorders: Validation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for Identification of Individuals at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of neuropsychological functioning in metabolic disorders remains difficult due to limited opportunities for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. This study examined the validity of using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for assessing developmental status in metabolic disorders and for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits. Results from individuals with urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and fatty acid oxidation disorders were obtained on the ABAS-II and BRIEF and were compared to results obtained from neuropsychological testing performed on the same day. Correlations between scores on the ABAS-II and developmental or IQ tests for individuals with urea cycle disorders ranged from 0.48 to 0.72 and concordance rates for scores greater than a standard deviation below the normative mean ranged from 69 to 89%. Correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.68 with concordance ranging from 73 to 90% in the other metabolic disorders. For the BRIEF, correlations with other tests of executive functioning were significant for urea cycle disorders, with concordance ranging from 52 to 80%. For the other metabolic disorders, correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.55. Concordance rates for at-risk status on the BRIEF and executive functioning tests ranged from 55% in adults to 80% in children with other metabolic disorders. These results indicate that the ABAS-II and BRIEF together can confidently be used as an adjunct or supplementary method for clinical follow-up and for research on functional status involving infants, children, and adults with metabolic disorders. PMID:25712381

  1. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  2. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min-1 100 g-1, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O2 min-1 100 g-1, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO2. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO2. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO2. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  3. Patients' perceptions of their cosmetic appearance more than ten years after radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 47 elderly patients treated by simple radiotherapeutic techniques for basal cell carcinomas, 12 are alive and free of disease more than 10 years after treatment. They were asked to rate their perception of the current cosmetic appearance of their lesions on a scale consisting of: excellent, very good, good, mediocre, and poor. Six of the 12 rated their cosmetic appearance as excellent, three considered it very good, and three called it good. Despite undeniable objective deterioration of the cosmetic appearance of irradiated basal cell carcinomas, patients appear to be pleased with the results. (author)

  4. [Influence of below-freezing temperatures on the rate of post-mortem metabolism and the water-holding capacity in prerigor frozen beef muscles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Honikel, K O; Hamm, R

    1980-09-01

    Prerigor beef is very suitable for the production of "bruehwurst" (frankfurter and bologna type sausages) because of its high waterholding capacity (WHC). This high WHC can be preserved for several months by rapid freezing of prerigor beef either unsalted or salted. In order to elucidate the optimum conditions of frozen storage for the preservation of high WHC, intact beef muscle, ground beef and ground, salted (2% NaC1) beef (neck muscles) were frozen at - 18 degrees or --40 degrees C in a thin layer (0.5-1 cm) 30--60 min after slaugther and stored at various temperatures between --5 degrees and --40 degrees C. The changes of biochemical parameters (content of glycogen and lactate, R-value [it corresponds to ATP concentration] and pH) in the tissue and the WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates, prepared from the frozen material and containing 2% NaC1, were measured and related to time and temperature of frozen storage. At storage temperature of --18 degrees and --40 degrees C no appreciable biochemical changes occur in intact and ground, unsalted tissue over a period of 10 months. Above 18 degrees C, however, rising temperature causes an increased rate of ATP turnover and glycolysis. In ground muscle higher rates of postmortem metabolism are generally found than in the intact tissue. In prerigor salted and frozen beef a faster drug of ATP concentration (increase of R-value) occurs whereas the breakdown of glycogen to lactate is inhibited. The WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates depends on time and temperature of frozen storage. As soon as the ATP concentration in unsalted beef falls to a level, at which the onset of rigor mortis occurs, the WHC of homogenates decreases markedly. With beef, ground and salted in the prerigor state and than frozen muscle homogenates are obtained which show always a high WHC even after complete breakdown at ATP during frozen storage. These results have practical consequences with regard to processing of hot-deboned beef.

  5. Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity (DaTA Study: The effects of exercise and technology on heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stuckey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that an eight-week exercise intervention supported by mobile health (mHealth technology would improve metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors and heart rate variability (HRV in a population with MetS risk factors. Participants (n=12; 3 male; aged 56.9±7.0y reported to the laboratory for assessment of MetS risk factors and fitness (VO2max at baseline (V0 and after eight-weeks (V2 of intervention. Participants received an individualized exercise prescription and a mHealth technology kit for remote monitoring of blood pressure (BP, blood glucose, physical activity and body weight via smartphone. Participants underwent 24-h ambulatory monitoring of R-R intervals following V0 and V2. Low and high frequency powers of HRV were assessed from the recording and the ratio of low-to-high frequency powers and low and high frequency power in normalized units were calculated. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that waist circumference (V0: 113.1±11.0cm, V2: 108.1±14.7cm; p=0.004 and diastolic BP (V0: 81±6mmHg, V2: 76±11mmHg; p=0.04 were reduced and VO2max increased (V0: 31.3ml/kg/min, V2: 34.8ml/kg/min; p=0.02 with no changes in other MetS risk factors. Low and high frequency powers in normalized units were reduced (V0: 75.5±12.0, V2: 72.0±12.1; p=0.03 and increased (V0: 24.5±12.0, V2: 28.0±12.1; p=0.03, respectively, with no other changes in HRV. Over the intervention period, changes in systolic BP were correlated negatively with the changes in R-R interval (r=-0.600; p=0.04 and positively with the changes in heart rate (r=0.611; p=0.03, with no other associations between MetS risk factors and HRV parameters. Thus, this eight-week mHealth supported exercise intervention improved MetS risk factors and HRV parameters, but only changes in systolic BP were associated with improved autonomic function.

  6. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.

  7. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(−/−) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate–cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(−/−)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(−/−) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(−/−) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(−/−) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(−/−) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(−/−) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(−/−) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(−/−) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: ► A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(−/−) mice. ► A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(−/−) mice. ► Gclm(−/−) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial oxygen consumption.

  8. Electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus enhances both fat utilization and metabolic rate that precede and parallel the inhibition of feeding behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruffin, MP; Nicolaidis, S

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) stimulation on various metabolic parameters in freely moving animals were measured using a specific indirect calorimetric chamber associated with a quantitative measurement of locomotor activity, which allows the separate measurement of locomotor energy

  9. Sympathetic system activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, N; Liatis, S; Katsilambros, N

    2006-11-01

    Obesity is a very common disease worldwide, resulting from a disturbance in the energy balance. The metabolic syndrome is also a cluster of abnormalities with basic characteristics being insulin resistance and visceral obesity. The major concerns of obesity and metabolic syndrome are the comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and certain types of cancers. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with both energy balance and metabolic syndrome. Sympathomimetic medications decrease food intake, increase resting metabolic rate (RMR), and thermogenic responses, whereas blockage of the SNS exerts opposite effects. The contribution of the SNS to the daily energy expenditure, however, is small ( approximately 5%) in normal subjects consuming a weight maintenance diet. Fasting suppresses, whereas meal ingestion induces SNS activity. Most of the data agree that obesity is characterized by SNS predominance in the basal state and reduced SNS responsiveness after various sympathetic stimuli. Weight loss reduces SNS overactivity in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by enhanced SNS activity. Most of the indices used for the assessment of its activity are better associated with visceral fat than with total fat mass. Visceral fat is prone to lipolysis: this effect is mediated by catecholamine action on the sensitive beta(3)-adrenoceptors found in the intraabdominal fat. In addition, central fat distribution is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, suggesting that a disturbed axis may be implicated in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, SNS activity induces a proinflammatory state by IL-6 production, which in turn results in an acute phase response. The increased levels of inflammatory markers seen in the metabolic syndrome may be elicited, at least in part, by SNS overactivity. Intervention studies showed that the disturbances of the autonomic nervous system seen in the

  10. Non-universal Interspecific Allometric Scaling of Metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Jafferson K L

    2008-01-01

    We extend a previously theory for the interspecific allometric scaling developed in a $d+1$-dimensional space of metabolic states. The time, which is characteristic of all biological processes, is included as an extra dimension to $d$ biological lengths. The different metabolic rates, such as basal (BMR) and maximum (MMR), are described by supposing that the biological lengths and time are related by different transport processes of energy and mass. We consider that the metabolic rates of animals are controlled by three main transport processes: convection, diffusion and anomalous diffusion. Different transport mechanisms are related to different metabolic states, with its own values for allometric exponents. In $d=3$, we obtain that the exponent $b$ of BMR is $b=0.71$, and that the aerobic sustained MMR upper value of the exponent is $b=0.86$ (best empirical values for mammals: $b=0.69(2)$ and $b=0.87(3)$). The 3/4-law appears as an upper limit of BMR. The MMR scaling in different conditions, other exponents...

  11. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  12. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  13. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReitsma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primatesshow increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burstrate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brainactivity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behaviorof downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns ofbasal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics,we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC relay neurons receivingcorrelated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus(GPi, a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observethat the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increaseswith the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as thoseseen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlationsthan do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also showthat the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlationtransfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatoryfiring patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlationsare best transferred through the system. To explain this lastresult, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficientfor oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysisindicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer isrobust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arisesdue to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when thelong timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall,these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affectthe transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  14. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  15. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  16. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  17. Nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton algal growth, and estimated rates of instream metabolic processes in the Quinebaug River Basin, Connecticut, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael J.; Grady, Stephen J.; Todd Trench, Elaine C.

    2004-01-01

    productivity and respiration obtained from diel dissolved oxygen monitoring and from light- and dark-bottle dissolved oxygen measurements demonstrated that instream metabolic processes are consistent with a seston-algae dominant system. The highest estimated maximum primary productivity rate was 1.72 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per hour at the Quinebaug River at Jewett City during September 2001. The observed extremes in diel dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 5 milligrams per liter) and pH (greater than 9) may periodically stress aquatic organisms in the Quinebaug River Basin.