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Sample records for basal meristem region

  1. Salt stress affects the redox status of Arabidopsis root meristems

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    Keni eJiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the redox status (profiles for specific populations of cells that comprise the Arabidopsis root tip. For recently germinated, 3-5-day-old seedlings we show that the region of the root tip with the most reduced redox status includes the root cap initials, the quiescent center and the most distal portion of the proximal meristem, and coincides with (overlays the region of the auxin maximum. As one moves basally, further into the proximal meristem, and depending on the growth conditions, the redox status becomes more oxidized, with a 5-10 mV difference in redox potential between the two borders delimiting the proximal meristem. At the point on the root axis at which cells of the proximal meristem cease division and enter the transition zone, the redox potential levels off and remains more or less unchanged throughout the transition zone. As cells leave the transition zone and enter the zone of elongation the redox potentials become more oxidized. Treating roots with salt (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl results in marked changes in root meristem structure and development, and is preceded by changes in the redox profile, which flattens, and initially becomes more oxidized, with pronounced changes in the redox potentials of the root cap, the root cap initials and the quiescent center. Roots exposed to relatively mild levels of salt (< 100 mM are able to re-establish a normal, pre-salt treatment redox profile 3-6 days after exposure to salt. Coincident with the salt-associated changes in redox profiles are changes in the distribution of auxin transporters (AUX1, PIN1/2, which become more diffuse in their localization. We conclude that salt stress affects root meristem maintenance, in part, through changes in redox and auxin transport.

  2. Grass meristems II: inflorescence architecture, flower development and meristem fate.

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    Tanaka, Wakana; Pautler, Michael; Jackson, David; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2013-03-01

    Plant development depends on the activity of various types of meristems that generate organs such as leaves and floral organs throughout the life cycle. Grass species produce complex inflorescences and unique flowers. The grass inflorescence is composed of different types of branches, including a specialized branch called a spikelet. The spikelet is a special unit of the inflorescence and forms one to several florets, depending on the species. In the floret, floral organs such as perianth organs, carpels and stamens are formed. In Arabidopsis, because the inflorescence meristem (IM) forms the floral meristems (FMs) directly on its flanks, the change of meristem fate is relatively simple. In contrast, in grasses, different types of meristem, such as the IM, the branch meristem (BM), the spikelet pair meristem (SPM) in some grasses, the spikelet meristem (SM) and the FM, are responsible for the elaboration of their complex inflorescences and flowers. Therefore, sequential changes of meristem fate are required, and a number of genes involved in the specification of the fate of each meristem have been identified. In this review, we focus on the following issues concerning the fate of the reproductive meristems in two grass species, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa): (i) meristem regulation during inflorescence development; (ii) specification and fate change of the BM and the SM; (iii) determinacy of the FM; and (iv) communication between the meristem and lateral organs.

  3. [Regional differences in the health care of basal cell carcinoma].

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    Augustin, J; Schäfer, I; Thiess, P; Reusch, M; Augustin, M

    2016-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer in Germany. So far, it is unclear whether regional variations exist in the health care of the BCC. Analysis of regional variations in health care (e. g., skin cancer screening) and their causes using the example of BCC. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the regional health care situation of BCC based on three studies was undertaken. These studies include the analysis of n = 7015 histopathological indications whose average tumor thickness is regarded as a characteristic of the quality of care, and a secondary data analysis of GK insured (n = 6.1 million DAK-insured persons), and a nationwide survey (FORSA) of n = 1004 participants focusing on the use of skin cancer screening. Analysis of the histopathological examination showed regional variations in average tumor depth of penetration. These are associated with the rural/urban characteristics of the region and individual sociodemographic indicators (e. g., employment sector or education). The results for age- and gender-specific use (DAK data) showed higher participation rates regarding skin cancer screening in western than in eastern federal states (Bundesländer). Moreover, it was revealed that the trend for using skin cancer screening was higher in urban than in rural areas. The results of population-related surveys confirm this trend. Although it is not possible to compare the studies directly, all three showed an association between city/state and the use of skin cancer screenings. In addition, sociodemographic characteristics that are related to the quality of health care were identified.

  4. Three Arabidopsis AIL/PLT genes act in combination to regulate shoot apical meristem function.

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    Mudunkothge, Janaki S; Krizek, Beth A

    2012-07-01

    The shoot apical meristem, a small dome-shaped structure at the shoot apex, is responsible for the initiation of all post-embryonic shoot organs. Pluripotent stem cells within the meristem replenish themselves and provide daughter cells that become incorporated into lateral organ primordia around the meristem periphery. We have identified three novel regulators of shoot apical meristem activity in Arabidopsis thaliana that encode related AIL/PLT transcription factors: AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6)/PLETHORA3 (PLT3) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE7 (AIL7)/PLETHORA7 (PLT7). Loss of these genes results in plants that initiate only a few leaves prior to termination of shoot apical meristem activity. In 7-day-old ant ail6 ail7 seedlings, we observed reduced cell division in the meristem region, differentiation of meristematic cells and altered expression of the meristem regulators WUSCHEL (WUS), CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). Genetic experiments suggest that these three AIL genes do not act specifically in either the WUS/CLV or STM pathway regulating meristem function. Furthermore, these studies indicate that ANT, AIL6 and AIL7 have distinct functions within the meristem rather than acting in a strictly redundant manner. Our study thus identifies three new genes whose distinct functions are together required for continuous shoot apical meristem function. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. II. The basal regions.

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    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2014-04-01

    The expression patterns of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the basal hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development by means of combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The connectivity of the main subdivisions was investigated by in vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines. The basal hypothalamic region is topologically rostral to the basal diencephalon and is composed of the tuberal (rostral) and mammillary (caudal) subdivisions, according to the prosomeric model. It is dorsally bounded by the optic chiasm and the alar hypothalamus, and caudally by the diencephalic prosomere p3. The tuberal hypothalamus is defined by the expression of Nkx2.1, xShh, and Isl1, and rostral and caudal portions can be distinguished by the distinct expression of Otp rostrally and Nkx2.2 caudally. In the mammillary region the xShh/Nkx2.1 combination defined the rostral mammillary area, expressing Nkx2.1, and the caudal retromammillary area, expressing xShh. The expression of xLhx1, xDll4, and Otp in the mammillary area and Isl1 in the tuberal region highlights the boundary between the two basal hypothalamic territories. Both regions are strongly connected with subpallial regions, especially those conveying olfactory/vomeronasal information, and also possess abundant intrahypothalamic connections. They show reciprocal connections with the diencephalon (mainly the thalamus), project to the midbrain tectum, and are bidirectionally related to the rhombencephalon. These results illustrate that the basal hypothalamus of anurans shares many features of specification, regionalization, and hodology with amniotes, reinforcing the idea of a basic bauplan in the organization of this prosencephalic region in all tetrapods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary and seromucous glands of the head and neck region.

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    Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1996-05-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma of salivary glands is an uncommon and recently described entity occurring almost exclusively at the major salivary glands. This report provides an overview of the clinicopathologic profile of this neoplasm by including the personal experience on the clinical features, microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics, proliferation activity, and DNA tumor patterns of 12 lesions occurring at the minor salivary glands of the head and neck region, where basal cell adenocarcinoma is probably an underecognized entity, previously reported under different designations. Basal cell adenocarcinoma predominates at the seventh decade without sex preference. The tumors affecting the minor salivary glands occur most frequently at the oral cavity (jugal mucosa, palate) and the upper respiratory tract. The prevalent histologic tumor pattern is represented by solid neoplastic aggregates with a peripheral cell palisading arrangement frequently delineated by basement membrane-like material. The neoplastic clusters are formed by two cell populations: the small dark cell type (that predominates) and a large cell type. Necrosis, either of the comedo or the apoptotic type, is a frequent finding. Perineural growth occurs in 50% of the cases and vascular permeation in 25%. Immunohistochemistry identifies a dual differentiation with a reactivity pattern indicative of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, which can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The differential diagnosis of the neoplasm includes its benign counterpart, the basal cell adenoma, solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and basaloid squamous carcinoma. The tumors recur more frequently than lesions originating in major salivary glands. Mortality is associated with the anatomic site of the lesion, advanced stage, residual neoplasia at surgery, and tumor recurrence. The importance of recognizing basal cell adenocarcinoma outside major salivary glands is

  7. Region of Interest Template for the Human Basal Ganglia: Comparing EPI and Standardized Space Approaches

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    Janey Prodoehl, PT; Yu, Hong; Little, Deborah M.; Abraham, Ivy; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying task related activation in the basal ganglia (BG) is an important area of interest in normal motor systems and cognitive neuroscience. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in brain activation in the BG using results obtained from two different masking methods: a mask drawn in standardized space from a T1 weighted anatomical image and individual region of interest (ROI) masks drawn from each subject’s echo-planar (EPI) image from different tasks with reference to the hi...

  8. MRI pattern of infarcts in basal ganglia region in patients with tuberculous meningitis

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    Nair, P.P.; Kalita, J.; Misra, U.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology, Lucknow (India); Kumar, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical sciences, Department of Radiology, Lucknow (India)

    2009-04-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of infarct in basal ganglia region in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and ischemic strokes and its sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of these disorders. Patients with TBM and ischemic strokes in basal ganglia region were retrospectively evaluated from our tuberculous meningitis and ischemic stroke registry. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were grouped into anterior (caudate, genu, anterior limb of internal capsule, anteromedial thalamus) and posterior (lentiform nuclei, posterior limb of internal capsule, posterolateral thalamus). The sensitivity and specificity of these patterns in diagnosing TBM and ischemic stroke were evaluated. There were 24 patients in each group. Infarct in TBM was purely anterior in eight patients and in ischemic stroke purely posterior in 18 patients. The frequency of caudate infarct was significantly higher in TBM compared to ischemic stroke (37.5% vs 8.3%). In TBM patients, purely posterior infarcts were present in seven patients; three had associated risk factors of ischemic stroke. The sensitivity of pure anterior infarct in the diagnosis of TBM was 33%, specificity 91.66%. For ischemic stroke, the sensitivity of posterior infarct was 75% and specificity 70.83%. TBM patients having infarcts in posterior region should be looked for associated risk factors of ischemic stroke. (orig.)

  9. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots

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    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schlupmann, Henriette|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827819; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises

  10. Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lumbosacral Region: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Arzu Akçal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although frequently regarded as a low grade malignancy, basal cell carcinoma (BCC sometimes shows aggressive behavior. Giant BCC is defined as a lesion  greater then 5 centimeter. Material and Methods: The authors described the diagnosis and treatment protocol of giant BCC, involving lumbosacral region without any local or distant metastasis. Also the authors went through a thorough a retrospective literature research of giant BCCs in terms of frequency and treatment. Results: Giant BCCs are biologically more aggressive; however, patient’s negligence is a key factor for the tumor size. İnternational medical database (PubMed search reveals 253 giant BCCs with the most commonly seen site as the face and back area. However perianal BCCs are seen lower then 1%. Conclusion: In general, diagnosed giant BCCs account for  lower then 1% of all BCCs. One must keep in mind this diagnosis to discard the metastasis rate among BCCs.

  11. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

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    Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Parrenin, Frédéric; Urbini, Stefano; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF), which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice-bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km × 130 km area, with a N-S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m-2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  12. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

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    O. Passalacqua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF, which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice–bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km  ×  130 km area, with a N–S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m−2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  13. Live imaging of developmental processes in a living meristem of Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae

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    Markus eJerominek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis in plants is usually reconstructed by scanning electron microscopy and histology of meristematic structures. These techniques are destructive and require many samples to obtain a consecutive series of states. Unfortunately, using this methodology the absolute timing of growth and complete relative initiation of organs remain obscure. To overcome this limitation, an in vivo observational method based on Epi-Illumination Light Microscopy (ELM was developed and tested with a male inflorescence meristem (floral unit of the handkerchief tree Davidia involucrata Baill. (Nyssaceae. We asked whether the most basal flowers of this floral unit arise in a basipetal sequence or, alternatively, are delayed in their development.The growing meristem was observed for 30 days, the longest live observation of a meristem achieved to date. The sequence of primordium initiation indicates a later initiation of the most basal flowers and not earlier or simultaneously as SEM images could suggest. D. involucrata exemplarily shows that live-ELM gives new insights into developmental processes of plants. In addition to morphogenetic questions such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive meristems or the absolute timing of ontogenetic processes, this method may also help to quantify cellular growth processes in the context of molecular physiology and developmental genetics studies.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on potato meristems

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    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds in potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 8 and 12 Krad is studied at histological level. The irradiation was supplied at the beguining and end of the resting period, and the irradiated buds were observed at different stages of their development. Meristem's sensitivity depends on the state of activity involved at the moment of irradiation. Different parts of the meristem present different radiosensitivity, being the most radioresistant. (author) [es

  15. Meristem maturation and inflorescence architecture--lessons from the Solanaceae.

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    Park, Soon Ju; Eshed, Yuval; Lippman, Zachary B

    2014-02-01

    Plant apical meristems (AMs) grow continuously by delicately balancing cells leaving at the periphery to form lateral organs with slowly dividing central domain cells that replenish reservoirs of pluripotent cells. This balance can be modified by signals originating from within and outside the meristem, and their integration results in a gradual maturation process that often culminates with the meristem differentiating into a flower. Accompanying this 'meristem maturation' are changes in spacing and size of lateral organs and in rates at which lateral meristems are released from apical dominance. Modulation of distinct meristem maturation parameters through environmental and genetic changes underlies the remarkable diversity of shoot architectures. Here, we discuss recent studies relating the dynamics of meristem maturation with organization of floral branching systems--inflorescences--in the nightshades. From this context, we suggest general principles on how factors coordinating meristem maturation impact shoot organization more broadly. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Meristem identity and phyllotaxis in inflorescence development

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    Madelaine Elisabeth Bartlett

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflorescence morphology is incredibly diverse. This diversity of form has been a fruitful source of inquiry for plant morphologists for more than a century. Work in the grasses (Poaceae, the tomato family (Solanaceae, and Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae has led to a richer understanding of the molecular genetics underlying this diversity. The character of individual meristems, a combination of the number (determinacy and nature (identity of the products a meristem produces, is key in the development of plant form. A framework that describes inflorescence development in terms of shifting meristem identities has emerged and garnered empirical support in a number of model systems. We discuss this framework and highlight one important aspect of meristem identity that is often considered in isolation, phyllotaxis. Phyllotaxis refers to the arrangement of lateral organs around a central axis. The development and evolution of phyllotaxis in the inflorescence remains underexplored, but recent work analyzing early inflorescence development in the grasses identified an evolutionary shift in primary branch phyllotaxis in the Pooideae. We discuss the evidence for an intimate connection between meristem identity and phyllotaxis in both the inflorescence and vegetative shoot, and touch on what is known about the establishment of phyllotactic patterns in the meristem. Localized auxin maxima are instrumental in determining the position of lateral primordia. Upstream factors that regulate the position of these maxima remain unclear, and how phyllotactic patterns change over the course of a plant’s lifetime and evolutionary time, is largely unknown. A more complete understanding of the molecular underpinnings of phyllotaxis and architectural diversity in inflorescences will require capitalizing on the extensive resources available in existing genetic systems, and developing new model systems that more fully represent the diversity of plant morphology.

  17. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

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    Jitka Klimešová

    Full Text Available Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1 with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury would increase; (2 favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3 consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems.

  18. Meristem culture and subsequent micropropagation of Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis (L. Duch.

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    Karla A. Quiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Vegetative propagation of Fragaria sp. is traditionally carried out using stolons. This system of propagation, in addition to being slow, can spread plant diseases, particularly serious being viral. In vitro culture of meristems and the establishment of micropropagation protocols are important tools for solving these problems. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to develop in vitro propagation of the commercial strawberry in order to produce virus-free plants of high quality. These previous results can serve as the basis for developing in vitro-based propagation technologies in the less studied species Fragaria chiloensis. Results: In this context, we studied the cultivation of meristems and establishment of a micropropagation protocol for F. chiloensis. The addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP improved the meristem regeneration efficiency of F. chiloensis accessions. Similarly, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in the culture media increased the average rate of multiplication to 3-6 shoots per plant. In addition, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, had low levels (near zero of explant losses due to oxidation. However, plant height as well as number of leaves and roots were higher in media without growth regulators, with average values of 0.5 cm, 9 leaves and 4 roots per plant. Conclusions: For the first time in Chilean strawberry, meristem culture demonstrated to be an efficient tool for eliminating virus from infected plants, giving the possibility to produce disease free propagation material. Also, the addition of PVP into the basal MS medium improved the efficiency of plant recovery from isolated meristems. Farmers can now access to high quality plant material produced by biotech tools which will improve their technological practices.

  19. Meristem culture and subsequent micropropagation of Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch.).

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    Quiroz, Karla A; Berríos, Miguel; Carrasco, Basilio; Retamales, Jorge B; Caligari, Peter D S; García-Gonzáles, Rolando

    2017-06-02

    Vegetative propagation of Fragaria sp. is traditionally carried out using stolons. This system of propagation, in addition to being slow, can spread plant diseases, particularly serious being viral. In vitro culture of meristems and the establishment of micropropagation protocols are important tools for solving these problems. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to develop in vitro propagation of the commercial strawberry in order to produce virus-free plants of high quality. These previous results can serve as the basis for developing in vitro-based propagation technologies in the less studied species Fragaria chiloensis. In this context, we studied the cultivation of meristems and establishment of a micropropagation protocol for F. chiloensis. The addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) improved the meristem regeneration efficiency of F. chiloensis accessions. Similarly, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the culture media increased the average rate of multiplication to 3-6 shoots per plant. In addition, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), had low levels (near zero) of explant losses due to oxidation. However, plant height as well as number of leaves and roots were higher in media without growth regulators, with average values of 0.5 cm, 9 leaves and 4 roots per plant. For the first time in Chilean strawberry, meristem culture demonstrated to be an efficient tool for eliminating virus from infected plants, giving the possibility to produce disease free propagation material. Also, the addition of PVP into the basal MS medium improved the efficiency of plant recovery from isolated meristems. Farmers can now access to high quality plant material produced by biotech tools which will improve their technological practices.

  20. Analysis of the changes in the basal cell region of oral lichen planus: An ultrastructural study

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    Paul, Mayura; Shetty, Devi Charan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Oral lichen planus (OLP) affects 0.5-1% of the total world's population. The histological features of oral lichen planus were first described by Dubreuill in 1906. Despite the advent of various techniques, the etiology of lichen planus remains obscure, although many theories for the etiology have been proposed. Aims: By studying OLP electron microscopically, we shall be emphasizing on the cells and its interactions in specific/altered surroundings which would help us in hypothesizing the effects of its specific cell-to-cell interactions. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases of oral lichen planus were selected and categorized into erosive and nonerosive forms based upon clinical pattern and confirmed as lichen planus by histopathological analysis. Tissue specimens thus obtained were cut into two halves and fixed in appropriate fixatives, i.e., neutral buffered formalin for paraffin-embedded hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde for electron microscopic purpose respectively. Results: Ultrastructural comparison among the two forms showed significant differences between them. The basal layer showed cytoplasmic processes, intercellular spaces, desmosomes, nuclei, and signs of degeneration. The erosive form showed elongated, narrow or irregular cytoplasmic projections whereas the nonerosive showed short and broad based projections. Conclusions: The present study confirms the ultrastructural findings of basal cells in OLP with previous authors findings. Besides this, the categorization of the ultrastructural differences between erosive and nonerosive has raised the question of difference in the probable cellular and molecular mechanism between erosive and nonerosive forms. PMID:23798823

  1. Correlation of iron deposition and change of gliocyte metabolism in the basal ganglia region evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging techniques: an in vivo study.

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    Liu, Haodi; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the correlation between iron deposition and the change of gliocyte metabolism in healthy subjects' basal ganglia region, by using 3D-enhanced susceptibility weighted angiography (ESWAN) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Seventy-seven healthy volunteers (39 female and 38 male subjects; age range: 24-82 years old) were enrolled in the experiment including ESWAN and proton MRS sequences, consent for which was provided by themselves or their guardians. For each subject, the mean phase value gained by ESWAN was used to evaluate the iron deposition; choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and mI/Cr ratios gained by (1)H-MRS were used to evaluate gliocyte metabolism in the basal ganglia region of both sides. The paired t test was used to test the difference between the two sides of the basal ganglia region. Linear regression was performed to evaluate the relation between mean phase value and age. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the relationship between the result of ESWAN and (1)H-MRS. There was no difference between the two sides of the basal ganglia region in the mean phase value and Cho/Cr. But in mI/Cr the mean phase value of each nucleus in bilateral basal ganglia decreased with increasing age. There are 16 r-values between the mean phase value and Cho/Cr and mI/Cr in bilateral basal ganglia region. And each of all p-values is less than 0.001 (p basal ganglia is associated with the change of gliocyte metabolism with increasing age. Iron deposition in each nucleus of the basal ganglia region changes with age.

  2. A supervised visual model for finding regions of interest in basal cell carcinoma images

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    Romero Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper introduces a supervised learning method for finding diagnostic regions of interest in histopathological images. The method is based on the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during a pathologist's image examination. The proposed strategy emulates the interaction of the visual cortex areas V1, V2 and V4, being the V1 cortex responsible for assigning local levels of relevance to visual inputs while the V2 cortex gathers together these small regions according to some weights modulated by the V4 cortex, which stores some learned rules. This novel strategy can be considered as a complex mix of "bottom-up" and "top-down" mechanisms, integrated by calculating a unique index inside each region. The method was evaluated on a set of 338 images in which an expert pathologist had drawn the Regions of Interest. The proposed method outperforms two state-of-the-art methods devised to determine Regions of Interest (RoIs in natural images. The quality gain with respect to an adaptated Itti's model which found RoIs was 3.6 dB in average, while with respect to the Achanta's proposal was 4.9 dB.

  3. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots.

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    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36,091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Basal Settings Control Fast Ice Flow in the Recovery/Slessor/Bailey Region, East Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, Anja; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Ferraccioli, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    The region of Recovery Glacier, Slessor Glacier, and Bailey Ice Stream, East Antarctica, has remained poorly explored, despite representing the largest potential contributor to future global sea level rise on a centennial to millennial time scale. Here we use new airborne radar data to improve...

  5. Potential Bud Bank Responses to Apical Meristem Damage and Environmental Variables: Matching or Complementing Axillary Meristems?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), e88093 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP504/12/P540; GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bud bank * axillary meristem * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  6. UFO in the Arabidopsis inflorescence apex is required for floral-meristem identity and bract suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Shelley R; Klenz, Jennifer E; Haughn, George W

    2006-03-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene of Arabidopsis encodes an F-box protein required for the determination of floral-organ and floral-meristem identity. Mutation of UFO leads to dramatic changes in floral-organ type which are well-characterized whereas inflorescence defects are more subtle and less understood. These defects include an increase in the number of secondary inflorescences, nodes that alternate between forming flowers and secondary inflorescences, and nodes in which a single flower is subtended by a bract. Here, we show how inflorescence defects correlate with the abnormal development of floral primordia and establish a temporal requirement for UFO in this process. At the inflorescence apex of ufo mutants, newly formed primordia are initially bract-like. Expression of the floral-meristem identity genes LFY and AP1 are confined to a relatively small adaxial region of these primordia with expression of the bract-identity marker FIL observed in cells that comprise the balance of the primordia. Proliferation of cells in the adaxial region of these early primordia is delayed by several nodes such that primordia appear "chimeric" at several nodes, having visible floral and bract components. However, by late stage 2 of floral development, growth of the bract generally ceases and is overtaken by development of the floral primordium. This abnormal pattern of floral meristem development is not rescued by expression of UFO from the AP1 promoter, indicating that UFO is required prior to AP1 activation for normal development of floral primordia. We propose that UFO and LFY are jointly required in the inflorescence meristem to both promote floral meristem development and inhibit, in a non-cell autonomous manner, growth of the bract.

  7. Use of Petunia to unravel plant meristem functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angenent, G.C.; Stuurman, J.; Snowden, K.C.; Koes, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, enormous progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular and genetic control of meristem growth, maintenance and differentiation into plant organs. Several model plants have contributed to our current knowledge of meristem function. Research using Petunia has had a

  8. WUS and STM-based reporter genes for studying meristem development in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Y; Dharmawardhana, P; Arias, R; Allen, M B; Ma, C; Strauss, Steven H

    2009-06-01

    We describe the development of a reporter system for monitoring meristem initiation in poplar using promoters of poplar homologs to the meristem-active regulatory genes WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM). When ~3 kb of the 5' flanking regions of close homologs were used to drive expression of the GUSPlus gene, 50-60% of the transgenic events showed expression in apical and axillary meristems. However, expression was also common in other organs, including in leaf veins (40 and 46% of WUS and STM transgenic events, respectively) and hydathodes (56% of WUS transgenic events). Histochemical GUS staining of explants during callogenesis and shoot regeneration using in vitro stems as explants showed that expression was detectable prior to visible shoot development, starting 3-15 days after explants were placed onto callus inducing medium. A minority of WUS and STM events also showed expression in the cambium, phloem, or xylem of regenerated, greenhouse grown plants undergoing secondary growth. Based on microarray gene expression data, a paralog of poplar WUS was detectably up-regulated during shoot initiation, but the other paralog was not. Both paralogs of poplar STM were down-regulated threefold to sixfold during early callus initiation. We identified 15-35 copies of cytokinin response regulator binding motifs (ARR1AT) and one copy of the auxin response element (AuxRE) in both promoters. Several of the events recovered may be useful for studying the process of primary and secondary meristem development, including treatments intended to stimulate meristem development to promote clonal propagation and genetic transformation.

  9. Meristem Culture of Aloe vera L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay Thi Mya; Thida Myint; Myo Han; Khin Maung Sein

    2005-10-01

    Shoot tips of Aloe vera L were excised and inoculated in basal and modified MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium. Growth regulators and growth factors were supplemented to the basal medium. Development of explants, initiation of callus and multiplication of shoots in culture were recorded.

  10. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  11. Improved and Reproducible Flow Cytometry Methodology for Nuclei Isolation from Single Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina Ribeiro Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root meristems have increasingly been target of cell cycle studies by flow cytometric DNA content quantification. Moreover, roots can be an alternative source of nuclear suspension when leaves become unfeasible and for chromosome analysis and sorting. In the present paper, a protocol for intact nuclei isolation from a single root meristem was developed. This proceeding was based on excision of the meristematic region using a prototypical slide, followed by short enzymatic digestion and mechanical isolation of nuclei during homogenization with a hand mixer. Such parameters were optimized for reaching better results. Satisfactory nuclei amounts were extracted and analyzed by flow cytometry, producing histograms with reduced background noise and CVs between 3.2 and 4.1%. This improved and reproducible technique was shown to be rapid, inexpensive, and simple for nuclear extraction from a single root tip, and can be adapted for other plants and purposes.

  12. Correlation of iron deposition and change of gliocyte metabolism in the basal ganglia region evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging techniques: an in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haodi; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the correlation between iron deposition and the change of gliocyte metabolism in healthy subjects? basal ganglia region, by using 3D-enhanced susceptibility weighted angiography (ESWAN) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Material and methods Seventy-seven healthy volunteers (39 female and 38 male subjects; age range: 24?82 years old) were enrolled in the experiment including ESWAN and proton MRS sequences, consent for which was provided by themselves...

  13. Basal ganglia and thalamic input from neurons located within the ventral tier cell cluster region of the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Carolina; Prensa, Lucía

    2010-04-15

    The most caudally located dopaminergic (DA) ventral tier neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) form typical cell clusters that are deeply embedded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Here we examine the efferent projections of 35 neurons located in the SNr region where these SNc cell clusters reside. The neuronal cell body was injected with biotinylated dextran amine so as to trace each complete axon in the sagittal or the coronal plane. Electrophysiological guidance guaranteed that the tracer was ejected among neurons displaying a typical SNc discharge pattern. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical labeling ensured that the tracer deposits were placed within the DA cell clusters. Three types of projection neurons occurred in the SNc ventral tier cell cluster region: type I neurons, projecting to basal ganglia; type II neurons, targeting both the basal ganglia and thalamus; and type III neurons, projecting only to the thalamus. The striatum was targeted by most of the type I and II neurons and the innervation reached both the striosome/subcallosal streak and matrix compartments. Many nigrostriatal fibers provided collaterals to the globus pallidus and, less frequently, to the subthalamic nucleus. At a thalamic level, type II and III neurons preferentially targeted the reticular, ventral posterolateral, and ventral medial nuclei. Our results reveal that the SNr region where DA ventral tier cell clusters reside harbors neurons projecting to the basal ganglia and/or the thalamus, thus suggesting that neurodegeneration of nigral neurons in Parkinson's disease might affect various extrastriatal basal ganglia structures and multiple thalamic nuclei. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Sugar-Mediated Acclimation: The Importance of Sucrose Metabolism in Meristems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, S.C.; Vertommen, A.; Swennen, R.; Witters, E.; Fortes, C.; Souza, M.T.; Panis, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed an in vitro experimental setup to study the role of sucrose in sugar-mediated acclimation of banana meristems using established highly proliferating meristem cultures. It is a first step toward the systems biology of a meristem and the understanding of how it can survive severe

  15. Shoot apical meristem arrest in brassica and tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.

    2013-01-01

    A pool of cells known as stem cells located in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are responsible to maintain meristematic activity throughout a plants life in order to produce organs. The maintenance of these stem cells is tightly controlled by a complex genetic and hormonal network. Any

  16. Transcript profiling of a novel plant meristem, the monocot cambium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Zinkgraf; Suzanne Gerttula; Andrew Groover

    2017-01-01

    While monocots lack the ability to produce a vascular cambium or woody growth, some monocot lineages evolved a novel lateral meristem, the monocot cambium, which supports secondary radial growth of stems. In contrast to the vascular cambium found in woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, the monocot cambium produces secondary vascular bundles, which have an...

  17. Shoot and plantlet regeneration from meristems of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro culture media capable of regenerating moderate to high shoots and/or plantlets from meristems of two yam species – Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea alata within comparable duration of 10 weeks as commonly obtained in other monocots and root and tuber crops were investigated. The study comprised 125 ...

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  19. Floral Meristem Identity Genes Are Expressed during Tendril Development in Grapevine1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonje, Myriam; Cubas, Pilar; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Carmona, María José

    2004-01-01

    To study the early steps of flower initiation and development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), we have isolated two MADS-box genes, VFUL-L and VAP1, the putative FUL-like and AP1 grapevine orthologs, and analyzed their expression patterns during vegetative and reproductive development. Both genes are expressed in lateral meristems that, in grapevine, can give rise to either inflorescences or tendrils. They are also coexpressed in inflorescence and flower meristems. During flower development, VFUL-L transcripts are restricted to the central part of young flower meristems and, later, to the prospective carpel-forming region, which is consistent with a role of this gene in floral transition and carpel and fruit development. Expression pattern of VAP1 suggests that it may play a role in flowering transition and flower development. However, its lack of expression in sepal primordia, does not support its role as an A-function gene in grapevine. Neither VFUL-L nor VAP1 expression was detected in vegetative organs such as leaves or roots. In contrast, they are expressed throughout tendril development. Transcription of both genes in tendrils of very young plants that have not undergone flowering transition indicates that this expression is independent of the flowering process. These unique expression patterns of genes typically involved in reproductive development have implications on our understanding of flower induction and initiation in grapevine, on the origin of grapevine tendrils and on the functional roles of AP1-and FUL-like genes in plant development. These results also provide molecular support to the hypothesis that Vitis tendrils are modified reproductive organs adapted to climb. PMID:15247405

  20. Basal and hyperaemic myocardial blood flow in regionally denervated canine hearts: an in vivo study with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, Ornella E.; Camici, Paolo G.; Drake-Holland, Angela J.; Noble, Mark I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) have demonstrated the impact of this disease on cardiac sympathetic innervation and myocardial blood flow (MBF). To investigate the effects of selective partial sympathetic denervation of the left ventricle (LV) on baseline and hyperaemic MBF, we measured myocardial presynaptic catecholamine re-uptake (uptake-1), β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) density and MBF non-invasively by means of PET in a canine model of regional sympathetic denervation. In 11 anaesthetised dogs, the sympathetic nerves of the free wall and septum of the LV were removed by means of dissection and phenol painting. Three weeks later, the animals were studied with PET. MBF was measured at baseline and following i.v. adenosine (140 μg kg -1 min -1 ) and dobutamine (20 μg kg -1 min -1 ) using 15 O-labelled water. Sympathetic denervation was confirmed by an 80±12% decrease in the volume of distribution (V d ) of [ 11 C]hydroxyephedrine (HED) compared with innervated regions. Myocardial β-AR density was measured using [ 11 C]CGP12177. Innervated and denervated regions showed no differences in MBF at baseline and during adenosine or dobutamine. [ 11 C]HED V d was inversely correlated with MBF in both regions at baseline, and the correlation was lost during hyperaemia in denervated regions. However, for any given value of MBF, [ 11 C]HED V d was significantly lower in the denervated regions. β-AR density was comparable in denervated and innervated regions (17.9±4.2 vs 18.4±3.3 pmol g -1 ;p=NS). In this experimental model, selective, regional sympathetic denervation of the LV, which results in a profound reduction in [ 11 C]HED V d , did not affect baseline or hyperaemic MBF. In addition, we demonstrated that, under baseline conditions, there was a significant inverse correlation between [ 11 C]HED V d and MBF in both denervated and innervated regions. (orig.)

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Region: A Retrospective Analysis of Completely Excised 331 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duriye Deniz Demirseren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze all completely excised BCCs in the head and neck region with regard to age, sex, personal and familial history, skin type, tumor localization and size, histopathological subtype of tumor, reconstruction method, and recurrence rates. Incompletely excised BCCs were not included in this study since incomplete excision is the most important preventable risk factor for recurrence. In 320 patients, 331 lesions were retrospectively evaluated by dividing into the following 8 subunits: scalp, frontotemporal, orbital, nose, cheek, auricula, perioral, and chin-neck area. Most of the patients were in 60–70 age group (34.7%. The nose (32.3% was the most common site of presentation. Clinically, all lesions and, histopathologically, most of the lesions (42.2% presented were of the nodular type. All cases of recurrence after complete excision (n=9, 2.7% were located in the median parts of the head and neck region and were mainly diagnosed histopathologically as sclerotic and micronodular. Even though completely excised, head and neck region BCCs, especially which are more prone to recurrence due to anatomical and histopathological properties, should be more closely monitored in order to decrease morbidity and health care costs.

  2. Inter regional correlations of glucose metabolism between the basal ganglia and different cortical areas: an ultra-high resolution PET/MRI fusion study using 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Son, Y.D.; Kim, H.K.; Oh, C.H.; Kim, J.M.; Kim, Y.B.; Lee, C.

    2018-01-01

    Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an inter regional correlation analysis of the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using 18 F-FDG. For detailed inter regional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the inter regional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using 18 F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders. (author)

  3. Inter regional correlations of glucose metabolism between the basal ganglia and different cortical areas: an ultra-high resolution PET/MRI fusion study using {sup 18}F-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Research Institute for Advanced Industrial Technology, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Son, Y.D.; Kim, H.K.; Oh, C.H., E-mail: ohch@korea.ac.kr [College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.M. [College of Science and Technology, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.B. [Gachon University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. [Bioimaging Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-01

    Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an inter regional correlation analysis of the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using {sup 18}F-FDG. For detailed inter regional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the inter regional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders. (author)

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the...

  5. Basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Seven cases of basal cell carcinoma are reported in this paper. The incidence of this disease is two percent of all malignancies seen at the Miraj Medical Centre, Miraj, Maharashtra. There were five male and two female patients in this series. The youngest patient was 40 years old and the oldest 70 years. The average age of the patients was 57.3 years. All the cases in the series had lesions confined to the head and neck region. Radiation therapy was given to all the seven cases which was the primary form of treatment in five cases. In two cases surgical excision had been done and the growth in both the cases had recurred. Radiation therapy is considered more ideal and suitable in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas. (auth.)

  6. Developmental Anatomy of the Root Cortex of the Basal Monocotyledon, Acorus calamus (Acorales, Acoraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOUKUP, ALEŠ; SEAGO, JAMES L.; VOTRUBOVÁ, OLGA

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The anatomical structure and development of adventitious roots were analysed in the basal monocotyledon, Acorus calamus, to determine to what extent those features are related to phylogenetic position. • Methods Root specimens were harvested and sectioned, either with a hand microtome or freehand, at varying distances from the root tip and examined under the microscope using a variety of staining techniques. • Key Results Roots of Acorus calamus possess a unique set of developmental characteristics that produce some traits similar to those of another basal angiosperm group, Nymphaeales. The root apical meristem organization seems to be intermediate between that of a closed and an open monocotyledonous root apical meristem organization. The open-type root apical meristem consists of a curved zone of cortical initials and epidermal initials overlying the vascular cylinder initials; the epidermal part of the meristem varies in its association with the cortical initials and columellar initials of the promeristem. The cortex develops an endodermis with only Casparian bands, a dimorphic exodermis with Casparian bands and suberin lamellae, and a polygonal aerenchyma by differential expansion, as also observed in the Nymphaeales and some dicotyledonous species. The stele has characteristics like those of members of the Nymphaeaceae. • Conclusions Specific anatomical and developmental attributes of Acorus roots seem to be related to the phylogenetic position of this genus. PMID:15965268

  7. Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Addie M.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick; Crants, James E.; Scanlon, Michael J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In maize (Zea mays), leaves are formed throughout vegetative development; on transition to floral development, the shoot meristem forms the tassel. Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. Previous work identified loci controlling meristem architecture in a recombinant inbred line population. The study presented here expanded on this by investigating shoot apical meristem morphology across a diverse set of maize inbred lines. Crosses of these lines to common parents showed varying phenotypic expression in the F1, with some form of heterosis occasionally observed. An investigation of meristematic growth throughout vegetative development in diverse lines linked the timing of reproductive transition to flowering time. Phenotypic correlations of meristem morphology with adult plant traits showed an association between the meristem and flowering time, leaf shape, and yield traits, revealing links between the control and architecture of undifferentiated and differentiated plant organs. Finally, quantitative trait loci mapping was utilized to map the genetic architecture of these meristem traits in two divergent populations. Control of meristem architecture was mainly population-specific, with 15 total unique loci mapped across the two populations with only one locus identified in both populations. PMID:25748433

  8. New basal temperature and basal melt rate maps of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Yasmina M.; Martin, Carlos; Vaughan, David G.

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheet basal conditions are key to initialize ice flow models and be able to estimate the future of the cryosphere. The thermal conditions are of importance because of the widespread presence of water beneath the Antarctic continent that affects both the ice-dynamics and the mass budget. The melting or freezing at the base of the ice sheet is consequence of several contributions to the heat balance. This includes the geothermal heat flux, the heat conducted or advected through the ice sheet, the latent heat and the friction heat at the interface. Here we present a new basal temperature and a total basal melting rate distributions of Antarctica. For this we use the most recent heat flux map (Martos et al., 2016) and an advanced ice flow model to incorporate the effect of advection and estimate frictional heat. We assume steady state conditions to estimate the basal properties. We found higher basal melting rates in West Antarctica than in East Antarctica as well as in the coastal regions of the continent and ice shelves. The spatial variation of our new basal temperature and basal melting rate distributions are greater than previously proposed which will help to unveil the Antarctic subglacial hydrology.

  9. Plasticity in Meristem Allocation as an Adaptive Strategy of a Desert Shrub under Contrasting Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of resource allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth is a core component of a plant’s life-history strategy. Plants can modify their biomass allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting environments. Meristems can have alternative fates to commit to vegetative growth, reproduction, or remaining inactive (dormant or senescent/dead. However, knowledge about whether meristem fates can interpret adaptive changes in biomass allocation remains largely unknown. We measured aboveground plant biomass (a proxy of plant size and meristem number of a dominant shrub Artemisia ordosica in three populations occupying different habitats in the Mu Us Desert of northern China. Size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation among habitats were compared. The size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation of A. ordosica strongly varied across habitats. There were significant positive linear relationships between meristem allocation and biomass allocation in all habitats, indicating that meristem allocation is an indicator of the estimated resource allocation to reproductive and vegetative organs in this species. Plasticity in meristem allocation was more likely caused by larger individuals having less active meristems due to environmental stress. Vegetative meristems (VM were likely more vulnerable to environmental limitation than reproductive ones, resulting in the ratio of resource investment between vegetative and reproductive functions exhibiting plasticity in different habitats. A. ordosica invested a higher fraction of its resource to reproduction in the adverse habitat, while more resource to vegetative growth in the favorable habitat. A. ordosica adopts different resource allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting habitat conditions through altering its meristem fates. Our results suggest that the arid-adapted shrub A. ordosica deactivates more VM than reproductive ones to hedge against environmental stress

  10. Phytoplasmal infection derails genetically preprogrammed meristem fate and alters plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert Edward; Nuss, Donald L; Zhao, Yan

    2013-11-19

    In the life cycle of higher plants, it is the fate of meristem cells that determines the pattern of growth and development, and therefore plant morphotype and fertility. Floral transition, the turning point from vegetative growth to reproductive development, is achieved via genetically programmed sequential changes in meristem fate from vegetative to inflorescence, and to floral, leading to flower formation and eventual seed production. The transition is rarely reversible once initiated. In this communication, we report that a bacterial infection can derail the genetically programmed fate of meristem cells, thereby drastically altering the growth pattern of the host plant. We identified four characteristic symptoms in tomato plants infected with a cell wall-less bacterium, phytoplasma. The symptoms are a manifestation of the pathogen-induced alterations of growth pattern, whereas each symptom corresponds to a distinct phase in the derailment of shoot apical meristem fate. The phases include premature floral meristem termination, suppressed floral meristem initiation, delayed conversion of vegetative meristem to inflorescence meristem, and repetitive initiation and outgrowth of lateral vegetative meristems. We further found that the pathogen-induced alterations of growth pattern were correlated with transcriptional reprogramming of key meristem switching genes. Our findings open an avenue toward understanding pathological alterations in patterns of plant growth and development, thus aiding identification of molecular targets for disease control and symptom alleviation. The findings also provide insights for understanding stem cell pluripotency and raise a tantalizing possibility for using phytoplasma as a tool to dissect the course of normal plant development and to modify plant morphogenesis by manipulating meristem fate.

  11. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Bulur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors.

  12. Impact of L-DOPA treatment on regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlin, K Elisabet; Sebastianutto, Irene; Adkins, Chris E; Lundblad, Cornelia; Lockman, Paul R; Cenci, M Angela

    2012-05-15

    Large increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been measured in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) following the administration of L-DOPA, but the underlying mechanisms have remained unknown. In this study, rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions were used to compare patterns of rCBF and regional cerebral glucose utilisation (rCGU) in chronically L-DOPA-treated subjects following a final injection of L-DOPA or saline. The same animal model was used to the leakage of a blood-brain barrier (BBB) tracer molecule at 60 min vs. 24h following the last L-DOPA injection of a chronic treatment. All the parameters under investigation were examined with brain autoradiography following intravenous injections of specific radiotracers in awake animals ([14C]-iodoantipyrine for rCBF, [14C]-2-deoxyglucose for rCGU, and [14C]-α-aminoisobutyric acid for BBB leakage). Significant changes in rCBF and rCGU on the side ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA lesion relative to the non-lesioned side were seen at 60 min ("ON") but not 24h ("OFF") following L-DOPA administration. These changes were not seen in sham-operated rats. In the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the entopeduncular nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata) both rCBF and rCGU were elevated both in acutely L-DOPA-treated rats and chronically L-DOPA-treated rats displaying dyskinesia, but did not change significantly in chronically L-DOPA-treated non-dyskinetic cases. Acutely and chronically L-DOPA-treated rats with dyskinesia exhibited increases in rCBF "ON L-DOPA" also in the motor cortex, the striatum, and the globus pallidus, but the corresponding changes in rCGU did not show the same direction, magnitude, and/or relative group differences. The uptake of a BBB tracer (studied in the striatum and the substantia nigra reticulata in chronically L-DOPA treated rats) was significantly higher ON vs. OFF L-DOPA. The present results are the first to show that the administration of L-DOPA is

  13. Analysis of the Arabidopsis superman allelic series and the interactions with other genes demonstrate developmental robustness and joint specification of male–female boundary, flower meristem termination and carpel compartmentalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil-Broyer, Stéphanie; Trehin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Boltz, Véronique; Sun, Bo; Chambrier, Pierre; Ito, Toshiro; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims SUPERMAN is a cadastral gene controlling the sexual boundary in the flower. The gene’s functions and role in flower development and evolution have remained elusive. The analysis of a contrasting SUP allelic series (for which the names superman, superwoman and supersex have been coined) makes it possible to distinguish early vs. late regulatory processes at the flower meristem centre to which SUP is an important contributor. Their understanding is essential in further addressing evolutionary questions linking bisexuality and flower meristem homeostasis. Methods Inter-allelic comparisons were carried out and SUP interactions with other boundary factors and flower meristem patterning and homeostasis regulators (such as CLV, WUS, PAN, CUC, KNU, AG, AP3/PI, CRC and SPT) have been evaluated at genetic, molecular, morphological and histological levels. Key Results Early SUP functions include mechanisms of male–female (sexual) boundary specification, flower mersitem termination and control of stamen number. A SUP-dependent flower meristem termination pathway is identified and analysed. Late SUP functions play a role in organ morphogenesis by controlling intra-whorl organ separation and carpel medial region formation. By integrating early and late SUP functions, and by analyzing in one single experiment a series of SUP genetic interactions, the concept of meristematic ‘transference’ (cascade) – a regulatory bridging process redundantly and sequentially co-ordinating the triggering and completion of flower meristem termination, and carpel margin meristem and placenta patterning – is proposed. Conclusions Taken together, the results strongly support the view that SUP(-type) function(s) have been instrumental in resolving male/female gradients into sharp male and female identities (whorls, organs) and in enforcing flower homeostasis during evolution. This has probably been achieved by incorporating the meristem patterning system of the floral

  14. Analysis of the Arabidopsis superman allelic series and the interactions with other genes demonstrate developmental robustness and joint specification of male-female boundary, flower meristem termination and carpel compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil-Broyer, Stéphanie; Trehin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Boltz, Véronique; Sun, Bo; Chambrier, Pierre; Ito, Toshiro; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    SUPERMAN is a cadastral gene controlling the sexual boundary in the flower. The gene's functions and role in flower development and evolution have remained elusive. The analysis of a contrasting SUP allelic series (for which the names superman, superwoman and supersex have been coined) makes it possible to distinguish early vs. late regulatory processes at the flower meristem centre to which SUP is an important contributor. Their understanding is essential in further addressing evolutionary questions linking bisexuality and flower meristem homeostasis. Inter-allelic comparisons were carried out and SUP interactions with other boundary factors and flower meristem patterning and homeostasis regulators (such as CLV, WUS, PAN, CUC, KNU, AG, AP3/PI, CRC and SPT) have been evaluated at genetic, molecular, morphological and histological levels. Early SUP functions include mechanisms of male-female (sexual) boundary specification, flower mersitem termination and control of stamen number. A SUP-dependent flower meristem termination pathway is identified and analysed. Late SUP functions play a role in organ morphogenesis by controlling intra-whorl organ separation and carpel medial region formation. By integrating early and late SUP functions, and by analyzing in one single experiment a series of SUP genetic interactions, the concept of meristematic 'transference' (cascade) - a regulatory bridging process redundantly and sequentially co-ordinating the triggering and completion of flower meristem termination, and carpel margin meristem and placenta patterning - is proposed. Taken together, the results strongly support the view that SUP(-type) function(s) have been instrumental in resolving male/female gradients into sharp male and female identities (whorls, organs) and in enforcing flower homeostasis during evolution. This has probably been achieved by incorporating the meristem patterning system of the floral axis into the female/carpel programme. © The Author 2016

  15. Ds tagging of BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (BFL1 that mediates the transition from spikelet to floret meristem in rice (Oryza sativa L

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    Hoque Mohammad

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetics of spikelet formation, a feature unique to grasses such as rice and maize, is yet to be fully understood, although a number of meristem and organ identity mutants have been isolated and investigated in Arabidopsis and maize. Using a two-element Ac/Ds transposon tagging system we have isolated a rice mutant, designated branched floretless 1 (bfl1 which is defective in the transition from spikelet meristem to floret meristem. Results The bfl1 mutant shows normal differentiation of the primary rachis-branches leading to initial spikelet meristem (bract-like structure equivalent to rudimentary glumes formation but fails to develop empty glumes and florets. Instead, axillary meristems in the bract-like structure produce sequential alternate branching, thus resulting in a coral shaped morphology of the branches in the developing panicle. The bfl1 mutant harbours a single Ds insertion in the upstream region of the BFL1 gene on chromosome 7 corresponding to PAC clone P0625E02 (GenBank Acc No. message URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=nucleotide&list_uids=34395191&dopt=GenBank&term=ap004570AP004570. RT-PCR analyses revealed a drastic reduction of BFL1 transcript levels in the bfl1 mutant compared to that in the wild-type. In each of the normal panicle-bearing progeny plants, from occasional revertant seeds of the vegetatively-propagated mutant plant, Ds was shown to be excised from the bfl1 locus. BFL1 contains an EREBP/AP2 domain and is most likely an ortholog of the maize transcription factor gene BRANCHED SILKLESS1 (BD1. Conclusions bfl1 is a Ds-tagged rice mutant defective in the transition from spikelet meristem (SM to floret meristem (FM. BFL1 is most probably a rice ortholog of the maize ERF (EREBP/AP2 transcription factor gene BD1. Based on the similarities in mutant phenotypes bfl1 is likely to be an allele of the previously reported frizzy panicle locus.

  16. Basal cell nevus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nevus syndrome Basal cell nevus syndrome - face References Evans DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  17. Live Imaging of Shoot Meristems on an Inverted Confocal Microscope Using an Objective Lens Inverter Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchuk, Zachary L; Perdue, Tony D

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging of above ground meristems can lead to new insights in plant development not possible from static imaging of fixed tissue. The use of an upright confocal microscope offers several technical and biological advantages for live imaging floral or shoot meristems. However, many departments and core facilities possess only inverted confocal microscopes and lack the funding for an additional upright confocal microscope. Here we show that imaging of living apical meristems can be performed on existing inverted confocal microscopes with the use of an affordable and detachable InverterScope accessory.

  18. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  19. Do spotty high intensity regions found in basal ganglia on MRI T2-weighted brain images of elderly subjects indicate gliosis? Comparison of brain MRI T2-weighted images of elderly subjects and necropsy brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hiroshi; Hattori, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2001-01-01

    Spotty high intensity regions are frequently found on the MRI T2-weighted brain images (T2WI) of elderly people. High intensity regions with a diameter of 3 mm or less have been considered as expanded perivascular space with no pathological implications on radiological diagnosis. However, its morphometrical basis is not clear. We examined the character of the spotty regions using brain MRI of brain screening subjects, and studied morphometrically arteriolosclerosis and perivascular tissue damage using necropsy brains of subjects aged 65 years and over. The size, number and location of the spotty high intensity regions were examined using the brain MRI of 109 T2WI which is used for brain screening at Kanazawa Medical University Hospital. The frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain and basal ganglia were sampled from 15 subjects aged 65 years and over, and the tissue sections were processed for HE stain, Elastica van Gieson stain and immunostaining with GFAP. We took photographs of brain arterioli and surrounding parenchyma with a digital telescope camera and the degree of arterioscleosis and tissue damage were assessed by measurements with an image analyzer. Spotty high intensity regions on T2WI with a diameter of 3 mm or less were observed in 95.5% subjects aged 65 years and over. 69.4% spotty region was observed in basal ganglia. There was a significant correlation between age and size. In morphometrical examination, at the basal ganglia, the density of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the perivascular tissue had a significant positive correlation with the proportional thickness of the adventitia, which is an index of arteriosclerosis, and a significant negative correlation with the size of the perivascular space. The results suggested that the spotty regions in the brain MRI of elderly people do not represent dilatations of the perivascular space, but is mild brain damage caused by arteriosclerosis. (author)

  20. VFL, the Grapevine FLORICAULA/LEAFY Ortholog, Is Expressed in Meristematic Regions Independently of Their Fate1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María José; Cubas, Pilar; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2002-01-01

    The flowering process in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) takes place in buds and extends for two consecutive growing seasons. To understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying this process, we have characterized grapevine bud development, cloned the grapevine FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FLO/LFY) ortholog, VFL, and analyzed its expression patterns during vegetative and reproductive development. Flowering induction takes place during the first season. Upon induction, the shoot apical meristem begins to produce lateral meristems that will give rise to either inflorescences or tendrils. During the second season, after a winter dormancy period, buds reactivate and inflorescence meristems give rise to flower meristems. VFL is expressed in lateral meristems that give rise to inflorescence and flower meristems, consistent with a role in reproductive development. Furthermore, VFL is also detected in other meristematic regions such as the vegetative shoot apical meristem and the lateral meristems that will give rise to tendrils. VFL is also expressed in leaf primordia and in growing leaf margins until later stages of development. Accumulation of VFL transcripts in cell-proliferating regions suggests a role for VFL not only in flower meristem specification, but also in the maintenance of indeterminacy before the differentiation of derivatives of the apical meristem: flowers, leaves, or tendrils. PMID:12226487

  1. Embryonic development in Arabidopsis thaliana: from the zygote division to the shoot meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eBoscá

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Postembryonic organ formation of plants is fueled with cells from the stem cell niches in the shoot and root meristems. During the last two decades considerable progress has been made in identifying factors that regulate stem cell maintenance. With these factors in hand, the mechanisms establishing stem cell niches during embryo development can be addressed. Here we discuss current models of how the shoot meristem stem cell niche arises during embryonic pattern formation.

  2. Regulation of floral meristem activity through the interaction of AGAMOUS, SUPERMAN, and CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Xu, Yifeng; Wee, WanYi; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Shibata, Arisa; Shirasu, Ken; Ito, Toshiro

    2017-12-07

    Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity. Previous research has not addressed the genetic interactions among these three genes. Here, we quantified the floral developmental stage-specific phenotypic consequences of combining mutations of AG, SUP, and CLV3. Our detailed phenotypic and genetic analyses revealed that these three genes act in partially redundant pathways to coordinately modulate floral meristem sizes in a spatial and temporal manner. Analyses of the ag sup clv3 triple mutant, which developed a mass of undifferentiated cells in its flowers, allowed us to identify downstream targets of AG with roles in reproductive development and in the termination of floral meristem activity. Our study highlights the role of AG in repressing genes that are expressed in organ initial cells to control floral meristem activity.

  3. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

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    Eddy Risseeuw

    Full Text Available Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  4. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  5. Induced mutations in ornamental plants by 'in vitro' irradiation of Petunia hybrida meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades it has been observed that for the induction of mutation in ornamental plants we can obtain better results when the plants are irradiated in vegetative state and even better 'in vitro' that when its are irradiated 'in vivo'. In this work the possibilities are showed to avoid the best use of a new biotechnology: the gamma irradiations on the meristem 'in vitro'. A tissue culture method was described for the best vegetative propagation of Petunia hybrid hort through morphogenesis induction of meristem. These were planted in the Murashige and Skoog's basic medium added with BAP and ANA. The pH was adjusted to 6.5 prior autoclaving at 121 Centigrade degree and 1.1 Kg/ cm 2 for 15 minutes. Latter the meristem of plantules in immature and mature physiology stated were irradiated with gamma ray doses ranging from 1.0 at 10.0 Gy. The meristem were then subcultived aseptically with the following results: 1) The immature stage was higher radio sensibilities. 2) The LD 50 for the matured plants was to ranged from 1.0 at 9.0 Gy. and immature 1.0 at 8.0 Gy. 3) The better doses was at 7.5 Gy. 4) The meristem gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy. showed in the first culture: the adventitious bud induced and the multi meristem formation. 5) In the second cultured the results reveals the 'variegadas' plants formations and the new purples flowers. (Author)

  6. From shoot to leaf: step-wise shifts in meristem and KNOX1 activity correlate with the evolution of a unifoliate body plan in Gesneriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Kanae; Huang, Bing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Neng; Möller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM. To investigate the origin and evolution of the BM and one-leaf plants, the meristem activity and KNOX1 SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) expression in cotyledons and leaves were systematically studied by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization across the family Gesneriaceae, Jovellana in Calceolariaceae (sister family to Gesneriaceae), and Antirrhinum in Plantaginaceae, all families of order Lamiales (asterids), in comparison to Arabidopsis (Brassicales, rosids). In all examined Lamiales samples, unlike Arabidopsis, BM activity accompanied by STM expression was found in both cotyledons in early stages. Foliage leaves of Gesneriaceae and Jovellana also showed the correlation of BM and STM expression. An extension of BM activity was found following a phylogenetic trajectory towards one-leaf plants where it is active throughout the lifetime of the macrocotyledon. Our results suggest that KNOX1 involvement in early cotyledon expansion originated early on in the diversification of Lamiales and is proposed as the prerequisite for the evolution of vegetative diversity in Gesneriaceae. Step-wise morphological shifts, driven by transfers of meristematic activity, as evidenced by shifts in KNOX1 expression, may be one mechanism by which morphological diversity evolves in plants.

  7. Transcript profiling of a novel plant meristem, the monocot cambium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkgraf, Matthew; Gerttula, Suzanne; Groover, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    While monocots lack the ability to produce a vascular cambium or woody growth, some monocot lineages evolved a novel lateral meristem, the monocot cambium, which supports secondary radial growth of stems. In contrast to the vascular cambium found in woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, the monocot cambium produces secondary vascular bundles, which have an amphivasal organization of tracheids encircling a central strand of phloem. Currently there is no information concerning the molecular genetic basis of the development or evolution of the monocot cambium. Here we report high-quality transcriptomes for monocot cambium and early derivative tissues in two monocot genera, Yucca and Cordyline. Monocot cambium transcript profiles were compared to those of vascular cambia and secondary xylem tissues of two forest tree species, Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis. Monocot cambium transcript levels showed that there are extensive overlaps between the regulation of monocot cambia and vascular cambia. Candidate regulatory genes that vary between the monocot and vascular cambia were also identified, and included members of the KANADI and CLE families involved in polarity and cell-cell signaling, respectively. We suggest that the monocot cambium may have evolved in part through reactivation of genetic mechanisms involved in vascular cambium regulation. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Brachytic2/ZmABCB1 functions in IAA export from intercalary meristems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöller, Anne Sophie; Richards, Elizabeth L.; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S.

    2010-01-01

    Dwarfism traits in Zea mays are regulated by multiple factors including the hormone auxin. Dwarf brachytic2 (br2) mutants harbour lesions in the gene encoding an orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB1 which functions in auxin efflux out of meristematic regions in the shoot and root. br2 mesocotyls and coleoptiles exhibit reduced auxin transport. However, the dwarf stature of br2 derives from shortened lower internodes whilst the upper portion of the plant is completely normal. As such, it is counter-intuitive to attribute br2 dwarfism exclusively to reduced auxin export out of the shoot apex. Arabidopsis abcb1 mutants exhibit only minor reductions in auxin transport and plant height unless combined with mutations in the ABCB19 auxin transporter. Phylogenetic modelling analysis excludes the possibility that BR2 is more closely related to ABCB19 which has three more closely related orthologues in maize. BR2 is expressed in nodal meristems, and analyses of auxin transport and content indicate that BR2 function in these grass-specific tissues is analogous to ABCB1 function in the shoot and root apex of Arabidopsis. These results indicate that ABCB1/BR2 function is conserved between dicots and monocots, but also suggests that this function must be understood in the context of the segmental organization of grass plants. PMID:20581123

  9. MERISTEM STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT OF CONES AND MICROSPOROGENESIS OF TEHRAN PINE (PINUS ELDARICA Medw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MAJD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tehran pine (Pinus eldarica Medw. belongs to Pinaceae family with significant economic and ecological benefits. To gain further insight into anatomical-developmental structure of P. eldarica, both the vegetative and generative meristematic tissues and microsporogenesis were been studied during certain stages of development. To do this, meristematic tissues and male cones were initially fixed in FAA solution (37% formaldehyde, 96% ethanol and glacial acetic acid with a 2:7:1 ratio, respectively. They were then embedded in paraffin and sectioned using a rotary microtome. Prior to visualization and photography under a camera-equipped light microscope, they were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (Zeiss model. Our results revealed the vegetative meristem of P. eldarica to be in the Cryptomerya-Abies category. The results also indicated it is a protuberant (dome-like type containing four regions. The meiosis occurs before the winter dormancy and continues through the winter. The pollen is shed at the four-cell stage of development.

  10. Cryopreservation of Lilium martagon l. meristems by droplet-vitrification and evaluation of their physiological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniec-Kiepura, M; Bach, A

    The aim of the present study was to compare different strategies for cryopreservation of martagon lily meristems and to evaluate the physiological status of the regenerants. The bulblets were stored at 5 degree C or 20 degree C and pretreated with 3% or 6% sucrose prior to droplet-vitrification. The meristems were then assessed for their survival and regeneration. Their photochemical activity was investigated using a Photosynthesis Yield Analyzer MINI PAM 2000 Portable Chlorophyll Fluorometer and their photosynthesis oxygen production was evaluated with a Plant Vital 5030 device. The plant material stored at 5 degree C on medium containing 3% sucrose exhibited lower survival (40.8%) and regeneration (75%) of meristems following cryopreservation compared with material stored at 20 degree C on medium containing 3% sucrose, for which survival was 65% and regeneration 87%. Treatment of lily meristems for 30 min with PVS2 yielded high survival and regeneration. The implemented cryopreservation protocol did not induce any physiological changes in regenerants. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was 0.822 for cryopreserved samples (+LN) and 0.824 for non-cryopreserved ones (-LN). Photosynthetic oxygen production (KphA) was 1.531 (+LN) and 1.410 (-LN). Droplet-vitrification seems to be an effective method for cryopreservation of martagon lily meristems with the aim of its ex situ protection.

  11. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitimu, Shedrack R; Taylor, Julian; March, Timothy J; Tairo, Fred; Wilkinson, Mike J; Rodríguez López, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype by sequencing identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologs have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops.

  12. Brassinosteroids Modulate Meristem Fate and Differentiation of Unique Inflorescence Morphology in Setaria viridis[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Shuiyi; Jiang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture is a key determinant of yield potential in many crops and is patterned by the organization and developmental fate of axillary meristems. In cereals, flowers and grain are borne from spikelets, which differentiate in the final iteration of axillary meristem branching. In Setaria spp, inflorescence branches terminate in either a spikelet or a sterile bristle, and these structures appear to be paired. In this work, we leverage Setaria viridis to investigate a role for the phytohormones brassinosteroids (BRs) in specifying bristle identity and maintaining spikelet meristem determinacy. We report the molecular identification and characterization of the Bristleless1 (Bsl1) locus in S. viridis, which encodes a rate-limiting enzyme in BR biosynthesis. Loss-of-function bsl1 mutants fail to initiate a bristle identity program, resulting in homeotic conversion of bristles to spikelets. In addition, spikelet meristem determinacy is altered in the mutants, which produce two florets per spikelet instead of one. Both of these phenotypes provide avenues for enhanced grain production in cereal crops. Our results indicate that the spatiotemporal restriction of BR biosynthesis at boundary domains influences meristem fate decisions during inflorescence development. The bsl1 mutants provide insight into the molecular basis underlying morphological variation in inflorescence architecture. PMID:29263085

  13. Effects of apical meristem loss on sylleptic branching and growth of hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleznik, Joseph D. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Plant Sciences Department

    2007-07-15

    The effects of apical meristem loss on the growth and development of hybrid poplar trees was investigated. This was done by clipping back either the apical meristem alone (dividing cells), or the apical meristem plus a small amount of additional stem tissue (expanding cells, <1 cm), at various times during the first growing season. Two clones (NM6-nonsylleptic habit, and DN34-slightly sylleptic habit) were tested at close spacing (0.6 m) in the nursery. Clipping generally increased the number of sylleptic branches formed. Clipping 69 days after planting resulted in the largest number of sylleptic branches while clipping 4 weeks later gave no increase in syllepsis. Clipping temporarily reduced height growth of both clones but total height at the end of the first growing season was not affected by any treatment. There were some slight differences in growth during the second growing season; despite these differences, total stem biomass and total tree biomass after 2 years were not affected by temporary loss of the apical meristem in the first growing season. Results suggest that death or removal of hybrid poplar apical meristems by tip borers or ungulates has no long-term effects on aboveground growth as measured by height or biomass. (author)

  14. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  15. Comparação de métodos e processos de amostragem para estimar a área basal para grupos de espécies em uma floresta ecotonal da região norte matogrossense Comparison of sampling and processes for estimating basal areas for groups of species from an ecotonal forest in the northern region of Matogrosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Antonio Ubialli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar a acuracidade e a precisão das estimativas de área basal obtidas de processos, intensidades e métodos amostrais com valores obtidos pelo censo, numa floresta ecotonal de 120 hectares na região norte matogrossense, para oito grupos de espécies e para espécies individuais para árvores com DAP ≥ 30 centímetros. Aplicaram-se os processos: aleatório e o sistemático, com uma intensidade amostral de 5 e 10% para 22 tamanhos e formas de parcelas variando de 400 m² a 10000 m². A área basal média por hectare foi de 11,08 m². As parcelas de 2500 m² (125 m x 20 m apresentaram erros reais e de amostragem sempre inferiores a 10% na estimativa de área basal para os grupos de todas as espécies e para as 15 de maiores valores de importância (VI. Para os demais grupos os erros aumentam na medida em que decresce a quantidade de árvores por hectare. Para as espécies, individualmente, os erros variaram de 28,7% (Vochysia sp. a 250,59 (Hymenaeae courbaril, respectivamente, para a mais e a menos freqüente, mostrando inviabilidade na aplicação de processos estimativos tradicionalmente empregados nos inventários florestais, notadamente para estimar parâmetros específicos de espécies raras (baixa freqüência por hectare.The objective of this research was to compare the accuracy and the precision of estimates from basal area obtained by processes, intensities and methods of sampling with true values gotten from the census, in an ecotonal forest of 120 hectares in the northern region of Matogrosso, for eight groups of species and for individual tree species with dbh ≥ 30 centimeters. The applied processes were: random and the systematic, with a sampling intensity of 5% and 10% for 22 sizes and forms of plots ranging from 400 m to 10000 m². The average basal area per hectare was 11.08 m². The 2500 m² (125 m x 20 m plots presented actual and sampling errors always inferior to 10% in

  16. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  17. Effect of 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) on meristem culture for virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Granula and Cardinal for meristem culture and four 6-benzyl aminopurine levels namely 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg/l. As a whole, twenty treatments were allotted in complete randomized design with three replications. Resulted in vitro regenerated ...

  18. (BAP) on meristem culture for virus free seed production of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hiru

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... tubers for ware potato production: Influence of size and plant spacing. Asian Potato J. 3:14-17. Sanavy SAMM, Moieni MJ (2003). Effects of different hormone combinations and planting beds on growth of single nodes and plantlets resulted from potato meristem culture. Plant Tissue Cult. 13(2):145-150.

  19. The bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA: A multifunctional hub for meristem control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eLohmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. Since plants grow and initiate new organs continuously, they have to modulate the underlying developmental program accordingly to cope with this challenge. At the heart of this extraordinary developmental plasticity are pluripotent stem cells, which are maintained during the entire life-cycle of the plant and that are embedded within dynamic stem cell niches. While the complex regulatory principles of plant stem cell control under artificial constant growth conditions begin to emerge, virtually nothing is known about how this circuit adapts to variations in the environment. In addition to the local feedback system constituted by the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS and the CLAVATA signaling cascade in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM, the bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA (PAN not only has a broader expression domain in SAM and flowers, but also carries out more diverse functions in meristem maintenance: pan mutants show alterations in environmental response, shoot meristem size, floral organ number and exhibit severe defects in termination of floral stem cells in an environment dependent fashion. Genetic and genomic analyses indicate that PAN interacts with a plethora of developmental pathways including light, plant hormone and meristem control systems, suggesting that PAN is as an important regulatory node in the network of plant stem cell control.

  20. Requirement of B2-Type Cyclin-Dependent Kinases for Meristem Integrity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersen, S.U.; Buechel, S.; Zhao, Z.; Ljung, K.; Novák, Ondřej; Busch, W.; Schuster, Ch.; Lohmann, J.U.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2008), s. 88-100 ISSN 1040-4651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM * CELL-CYCLE * PLANT DEVELOPMENT Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.296, year: 2008

  1. CYCP2;1 integrates genetic and nutritional information to promote meristem cell division in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peng, L.; Skylar, A.; Chang, P.L.; Bišová, Kateřina; Wu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 393, č. 2 (2014), s. 160-170 ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR M200201205 Grant - others:NSF(US) MCB-1122213 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * arabidopsis * meristem Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.547, year: 2014

  2. Spatial coordination between stem cell activity and cell differentiation in the root meristem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moubayidin, L.; Mambro, Di R.; Sozzani, R.; Pacifici, E.; Salvi, E.; Terpstra, I.; Bao, D.; Dijken, van A.; Dello loio, R.; Perilli, S.; Ljung, K.; Benfey, P.N.; Heidstra, R.; Costantino, P.; Sabatini, S.

    2013-01-01

    A critical issue in development is the coordination of the activity of stem cell niches with differentiation of their progeny to ensure coherent organ growth. In the plant root, these processes take place at opposite ends of the meristem and must be coordinated with each other at a distance. Here,

  3. FON2 SPARE1 Redundantly Regulates Floral Meristem Maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Takuya; Ohneda, Masako; Toriba, Taiyo; Yoshida, Akiko; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2009-01-01

    CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2), closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM). Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1) gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP) at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems. PMID:19834537

  4. FON2 SPARE1 redundantly regulates floral meristem maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Suzaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa, FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2, closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM. Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1 gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems.

  5. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  6. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A W

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the left lateral canthus of the eye which metastasized to the intraparotid lymph nodes with infiltration of the adjacent parotid parenchyma. More awareness and vigilance is required on the part of the reporting pathologist to consider metastasis in the presence of a parotid tumour. Features favouring metastasis include history of primary cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, histological similarity to the primary lesion and absence of any demonstrable direct extension from the skin lesion. We also review the literature on metastatic basal cell carcinoma and discuss the need for adequate follow up in high risk patients.

  7. Future of newer basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins

  8. Differential spatial expression of A- and B-type CDKs, and distribution of auxins and cytokinins in the open transverse root apical meristem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Bruno, Leonardo; Salimonti, Amelia; Muto, Antonella; Jones, Jessica; Rogers, Hilary J; Francis, Dennis; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2011-05-01

    Aside from those on Arabidopsis, very few studies have focused on spatial expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in root apical meristems (RAMs), and, indeed, none has been undertaken for open meristems. The extent of interfacing between cell cycle genes and plant growth regulators is also an increasingly important issue in plant cell cycle studies. Here spatial expression/localization of an A-type and B-type CDK, auxin and cytokinins are reported in relation to the hitherto unexplored anatomy of RAMs of Cucurbita maxima. Median longitudinal sections were cut from 1-cm-long primary root tips of C. maxima. Full-length A-type CDKs and a B-type CDK were cloned from C. maxima using degenerate primers, probes of which were localized on sections of RAMs using in situ hybridization. Isopentenyladenine (iPA), trans-zeatin (t-Z) and indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were identified on sections by immunolocalization. The C. cucurbita RAM conformed to an open transverse (OT) meristem typified by an absence of a clear boundary between the eumeristem and root cap columella, but with a distinctive longitudinally thickened epidermis. Cucma;CDKA;1 expression was detected strongly in the longitudinally thickened epidermis, a tissue with mitotic competence that contributes cells radially to the root cap of OT meristems. Cucma;CDKB2 was expressed mainly in proliferative regions of the RAM and in lateral root primordia. iPA and t-Z were mainly distributed in differentiated cells whilst IAA was distributed more uniformly in all tissues of the RAM. Cucma;CDKA;1 was expressed most strongly in cells that have proliferative competence whereas Cucma;CDKB2 was confined mainly to mitotic cells. iPA and t-Z marked differentiated cells in the RAM, consistent with the known effect of cytokinins in promoting differentiation in root systems. iPA/t-Z were distributed in a converse pattern to Cucma;CDKB2 expression whereas IAA was detected in most cells in the RAM regardless of their proliferative

  9. The natural compound benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one selectively retards cell cycle in lettuce root meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; de la Peña, Teodoro Coba; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2008-08-01

    Benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) is a natural plant product that is phytotoxic to target plant species, inhibiting germination and growth and causing oxidative damage. We investigated its effects on the root meristems of seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) by means of light and transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and conventional determination of mitotic index. Flow cytometry analyses and mitotic index showed a retard of cell cycle in BOA-treated meristems with selective activity at G2/M checkpoint.

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seum Chung

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, predominantly affecting the head and neck, and can be diagnosed clinically in most cases. Metastasis of BCC is rare, but localised tissue invasion and destruction can lead to morbidity.Risk factors for BCC include tendency to freckle, degree of sun exposure, excessive sun-bed use, and smoking.Incidence of BCC increases markedly after the age of 40 years, but incidence in younger people is rising, possibly as a result of inc...

  11. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-05-01

    We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles. UFO is required for the proper identity of the floral meristem and acts in three different aspects of the process that distinguishes flowers from shoots. UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity. In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth. Finally, genetic interactions that prevent flower formation and lead to the generation of filamentous structures implicate UFO as a member of a new, large, and diverse class of genes in Arabidopsis necessary for flower formation.

  12. Mechanically, the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis behaves like a shell inflated by a pressure of about 1 MPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léna eBeauzamy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the shoot apical meristem contains the stem cells and is responsible for the generation of all aerial organs. Mechanistically, organogenesis is associated with an auxin-dependent local softening of the epidermis. This has been proposed to be sufficient to trigger outgrowth, because the epidermis is thought to be under tension and stiffer than internal tissues in all the aerial part of the plant. However, this has not been directly demonstrated in the shoot apical meristem. Here we tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis using indentation methods and modeling. We considered two possible scenarios: either the epidermis does not have unique properties and the meristem behaves as a homogeneous linearly-elastic tissue, or the epidermis is under tension and the meristem exhibits the response of a shell under pressure. Large indentation depths measurements with a large tip (~size of the meristem were consistent with a shell-like behavior. This also allowed us to deduce a value of turgor pressure, estimated at 0.82 ± 0.16 MPa. Indentation with atomic force microscopy provided local measurements of pressure in the epidermis, further confirming the values obtained from large deformations. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem behaves like a shell under a MPa range pressure and support a key role for the epidermis in shaping the shoot apex.

  13. Autoradiographic study of gamma-ray induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in bean root meristem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenshen; Qiu Quanfa; Chen Dongli

    1989-01-01

    The gamma-ray induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in root meristem cells of Vica faba was studied autoradiographically by calculating the number of cells with different 3H-thymidine labelling degree. It was found that the level of unscheduled synthesis in cells with intermediate dose (500 R) irradiation was higher than that in cells with lower dose (250 R) irradiation; however, higher dose (1000 R) irradiation would inhibit the reparative replication

  14. Impairment of Meristem Proliferation in Plants Lacking the Mitochondrial Protease AtFTSH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Dolzblasz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot and root apical meristems (SAM and RAM, respectively are crucial to provide cells for growth and organogenesis and therefore need to be maintained throughout the life of a plant. However, plants lacking the mitochondrial protease AtFTSH4 exhibit an intriguing phenotype of precocious cessation of growth at both the shoot and root apices when grown at elevated temperatures. This is due to the accumulation of internal oxidative stress and progressive mitochondria dysfunction. To explore the impacts of the internal oxidative stress on SAM and RAM functioning, we study the expression of selected meristem-specific (STM, CLV3, WOX5 and cell cycle-related (e.g., CYCB1, CYCD3;1 genes at the level of the promoter activity and/or transcript abundance in wild-type and loss-of-function ftsh4-1 mutant plants grown at 30 °C. In addition, we monitor cell cycle progression directly in apical meristems and analyze the responsiveness of SAM and RAM to plant hormones. We show that growth arrest in the ftsh4-1 mutant is caused by cell cycle dysregulation in addition to the loss of stem cell identity. Both the SAM and RAM gradually lose their proliferative activity, but with different timing relative to CYCB1 transcriptional activity (a marker of G2-M transition, which cannot be compensated by exogenous hormones.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  16. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Löfdahl, Elisabet; Berg, Gertrud; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Zachrisson, Maria Leonsson; Malmgren, Helge; Mercke, Claes; Olsson, Erik; Wiren, Lena; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-01-01

    Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls

  17. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfdahl Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL. Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism, their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Methods Consecutive patients (n=101 treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, and Psychological Well Being (PGWB questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Results The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2. The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. Conclusion In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  18. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, Elisabet; Berg, Gertrud; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Zachrisson, Maria Leonsson; Malmgren, Helge; Mercke, Claes; Olsson, Erik; Wiren, Lena; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-10-29

    Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5-2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8-3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0-9.3 Gy and 33.5-46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  19. A plant U-box protein, PUB4, regulates asymmetric cell division and cell proliferation in the root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Atsuko; ten Hove, Colette A; Tabata, Ryo; Yamada, Masashi; Shimizu, Noriko; Ishida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Kurata, Tetsuya; Wada, Takuji; Seo, Mitsunori; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Blilou, Ikram; Fukuda, Hiroo; Scheres, Ben; Heidstra, Renze; Kamiya, Yuji; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2015-02-01

    The root meristem (RM) is a fundamental structure that is responsible for postembryonic root growth. The RM contains the quiescent center (QC), stem cells and frequently dividing meristematic cells, in which the timing and the frequency of cell division are tightly regulated. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several gain-of-function analyses have demonstrated that peptide ligands of the Clavata3 (CLV3)/embryo surrounding region-related (CLE) family are important for maintaining RM size. Here, we demonstrate that a plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, PUB4, is a novel downstream component of CLV3/CLE signaling in the RM. Mutations in PUB4 reduced the inhibitory effect of exogenous CLV3/CLE peptide on root cell proliferation and columella stem cell maintenance. Moreover, pub4 mutants grown without exogenous CLV3/CLE peptide exhibited characteristic phenotypes in the RM, such as enhanced root growth, increased number of cortex/endodermis stem cells and decreased number of columella layers. Our phenotypic and gene expression analyses indicated that PUB4 promotes expression of a cell cycle regulatory gene, CYCD6;1, and regulates formative periclinal asymmetric cell divisions in endodermis and cortex/endodermis initial daughters. These data suggest that PUB4 functions as a global regulator of cell proliferation and the timing of asymmetric cell division that are important for final root architecture. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sobjanek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Polymorphic variants of MCP-1 and RANTES genes and their protein serum levels have been implicated in the increased risk and severity of several malignancies. However, the subject has not been explored in basal cell carcinoma (BCC patients so far. Aim : To investigate the association between monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 (–2518 A/G and RANTES (–403 G/A polymorphism and risk and clinical course of BCC. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 150 unrelated patients with BCC and 140 healthy, unrelated, age- and sex-matched volunteers. The polymorphisms were analysed using the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method (ARMS-PCR and single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR. Serum cytokine levels were measured with ELISA. Results : The presence of the MCP-1 –2518 GG genotype was statistically more frequent in BCC patients and it increased the risk of BCC (OR = 2.63, p = 0.003. Genotype –330 GG was statistically more common in patients with less advanced tumours (OR = 2.8, p = 0.017. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 serum level was statistically higher with GG genotype. In the BCC group MCP-1 serum levels were decreased. Neither polymorphic variants of RANTES nor the chemokine serum concentration differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusions : These findings suggest that –2518 A/G MCP-1 polymorphism may be involved in BCC pathogenesis.

  1. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma, a distinctive morphologic variant of basal cell carcinoma that presents as a small red macule (dot) or papule, is described on a woman’s thigh. A high index of suspicion is necessary to consider the diagnosis since the tumor mimics a telangiectasia or an angioma. PMID:28670359

  2. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  3. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erik; Eckerström, Carl; Berg, Gertrud; Borga, Magnus; Ekholm, Sven; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ribbelin, Susanne; Starck, Göran; Wysocka, Anna; Löfdahl, Elisabet; Malmgren, Helge

    2012-11-29

    An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients' lowered QoL was coupled to a reduction in hippocampal volume. Patients (11 men and 4 women, age 31-65) treated for head and neck cancer 4-10 years earlier and with no sign of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, and 15 matched controls were included. The estimated radiation doses to the basal brain including the hippocampus (1.5 - 9.3 Gy) had been calculated in the earlier study. The hippocampal volumetry was done on coronal sections from a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Measurements were done by two independent raters, blinded to patients and controls, using a custom method for computer assisted manual segmentation. The volumes were normalized for intracranial volume which was also measured manually. The paired t test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test were used for the main statistical analysis. There was no significant difference with respect to left, right or total hippocampal volume between patients and controls. All mean differences were close to zero, and the two-tailed 95% confidence interval for the difference in total, normalized volume does not include a larger than 8% deficit in the patients. The study gives solid evidence against the hypothesis that the patients' lowered quality of life was due to a major reduction of hippocampal volume.

  4. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain. A case–control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients’ lowered QoL was coupled to a reduction in hippocampal volume. Methods Patients (11 men and 4 women, age 31–65) treated for head and neck cancer 4–10 years earlier and with no sign of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, and 15 matched controls were included. The estimated radiation doses to the basal brain including the hippocampus (1.5 – 9.3 Gy) had been calculated in the earlier study. The hippocampal volumetry was done on coronal sections from a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Measurements were done by two independent raters, blinded to patients and controls, using a custom method for computer assisted manual segmentation. The volumes were normalized for intracranial volume which was also measured manually. The paired t test and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were used for the main statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference with respect to left, right or total hippocampal volume between patients and controls. All mean differences were close to zero, and the two-tailed 95% confidence interval for the difference in total, normalized volume does not include a larger than 8% deficit in the patients. Conclusion The study gives solid evidence against the hypothesis that the patients’ lowered quality of life was due to a major reduction of hippocampal volume. PMID:23193977

  5. Ultrastructural changes associated with cryopreservation of banana ( Musa spp.) highly proliferating meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliot, B; Swennen, R; Poumay, Y; Frison, E; Lepoivre, P; Panis, B

    2003-03-01

    Cryopreservation has been shown to improve the frequency of virus elimination - specifically cucumber mosaic virus and banana streak virus - from banana ( Musa spp.) plants. To understand the mode of action of cryopreservation for the eradication of viral particles, we examined the ultrastructure of meristem tips at each step of the cryopreservation process. Excised meristematic clumps produced from infected banana plants belonging to cv. Williams (AAA, Cavendish subgroup) were cryopreserved through vitrification using the PVS-2 solution. We demonstrated that the cryopreservation method used only allowed survival of small areas of cells in the meristematic dome and at the base of the primordia. Cellular and subcellular changes occurring during the cryopreservation process are discussed.

  6. Aphidicolin as synchronizing agent in root tip meristems of Haplopappus gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, M G; Sala, F

    1983-06-01

    Aphidicolin, a reversible inhibitor of nuclear DNA replication, was tested as syncrhonizing agent in root tip meristems of Haplopappus gracilis. Embryos (i.e. decoated seeds) or 3-day-old seedlings were used to this purpose. After a 24 h treatment with the drug, a high level of synchrony was observed in both experimental materials for two cell cycles as assessed by determining the accumulation of cells in the S and M phases of the cycle. Highest synchronization was obtained with germinating embryos, possibly owing to a low degree of synchrony already existing in this system.

  7. Optimization of a protocol for direct organogenesis of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. meristems for breeding purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C CARRILLO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments were carried out in order to optimize a protocol for the direct organogenesis of Chilean red clover germplasm. A range of cultivars were used to analyze the effect of explant source (crown or stem meristems of vegetative plants, culture media and plant growth regulators. Our findings showed that stem meristems were easier to obtain, presented lower levels of contamination and a better development than crown meristems. The L2 medium showed better results than B5 and MS media for the cultivars and experimental lines studied. L2 medium supplemented with 0.003 mg/l of 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid and 1.0 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine gave consistently better results and will be applied in our breeding program to propagate, maintain and eliminate viruses from elite red clover clones.

  8. Evolution of floral meristem identity genes. Analysis of Lolium temulentum genes related to APETALA1 and LEAFY of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gocal, G.F.W.; King, R.W.; Blundell, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Flowering (inflorescence formation) of the grass Lolium temulentum is strictly regulated, occurring rapidly on exposure to a single long day (LD). During floral induction, L. temulentum differs significantly from dicot species such as Arabidopsis in the expression, at the shoot apex, of two APETALA......1 (AP1)-like genes, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2, and of L. temulentum LEAFY (LtLFY). As shown by in situ hybridization, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2 are expressed in the vegetative shoot apical meristem, but expression increases strongly within 30 h of LD floral induction. Later in floral development, LtMADS1 and Lt......MADS2 are expressed within spikelet and floret meristems and in the glume and lemma primordia. It is interesting that LtLFY is detected quite late (about 12 d after LD induction) within the spikelet meristems, glumes, and lemma primordia. These patterns contrast with Arabidopsis, where LFY and AP1...

  9. Basal ganglia mechanisms underlying precision grip force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E

    2009-06-01

    The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review, we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force.

  10. Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Solis L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 10 mg.L-1 de adenina. La mejor multiplicación se logró con el medio MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 0,3 mg.L-1 de AG3, con un coeficiente de multiplicación de 3,42; mientras que el mejor medio para el enraizamiento fue la combinación del medio MS, 3 mg.L-1 de AIB y 5 mg.L-1 de adenina, donde se obtuvo 83,33% de plantas enraizadas.An in vitro protocol was develop to propagate variety of papaya PTM-331 from apical meristems, with the objective of obtaining vigorous and disease-free seedlings, using tissue culture techniques. Apical buds were obtained from seedlings cultivated in greenhouse and used as explants for meristem dissection. Meristems were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 10 mg.L-1 of adenine for their differentiation. The best multiplication of explants was achieved with the combination of MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 0,3 mg.L-1 of AG3, where largest seedlings, with more shoots were obtained. The best medium for rooting was the combination of MS, 3 mg.L-1 of AIB and 5 mg.L-1 of adenine, where 83,33% of rooted plants were obtained.

  11. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  12. Repression of Lateral Organ Boundary Genes by PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH Is Essential for Meristem Maintenance and Flowering in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Madiha; Ragni, Laura; Tabb, Paul; Salasini, Brenda C; Chatfield, Steven; Datla, Raju; Lock, John; Kuai, Xiahezi; Després, Charles; Proveniers, Marcel; Yongguo, Cao; Xiang, Daoquan; Morin, Halima; Rullière, Jean-Pierre; Citerne, Sylvie; Hepworth, Shelley R; Pautot, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), endogenous and environmental signals acting on the shoot apical meristem cause acquisition of inflorescence meristem fate. This results in changed patterns of aerial development seen as the transition from making leaves to the production of

  13. The dicerlike-1 homologue, fuzzy tassel, is required for the regulatin of meristem deteminancy in the inflorescence and vegetative growth in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant architecture is determined by meristems that initiate leaves during vegetative development and flowers during reproductive development. Maize (Zea mays) inflorescences are patterned by a series of branching events, culminating in floral meristems that produce sexual organs. The maize fuzzy tas...

  14. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 gene is required for boundary and shoot meristem formation in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vroemen, Casper W; Mordhorst, Andreas P; Albrecht, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    From an enhancer trap screen for genes expressed in Arabidopsis embryos, we identified a gene expressed from the octant stage onward in the boundary between the two presumptive cotyledons and in a variety of postembryonic organ and meristem boundaries. This gene, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3...... revealing an even higher degree of redundancy in this class of genes than was thought previously. The CUC3 expression pattern, the cuc3 phenotypes, and CUC3 expression in a series of shoot meristem mutants and transgenes suggest a primary role for CUC3 in the establishment of boundaries that contain cells...

  15. Optimized Whole-Mount In Situ Immunolocalization for Arabidopsis thaliana Root Meristems and Lateral Root Primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelias, Michael; Tejos, Ricardo; Friml, Jiří; Vanneste, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Immunolocalization is a valuable tool for cell biology research that allows to rapidly determine the localization and expression levels of endogenous proteins. In plants, whole-mount in situ immunolocalization remains a challenging method, especially in tissues protected by waxy layers and complex cell wall carbohydrates. Here, we present a robust method for whole-mount in situ immunolocalization in primary root meristems and lateral root primordia in Arabidopsis thaliana. For good epitope preservation, fixation is done in an alkaline paraformaldehyde/glutaraldehyde mixture. This fixative is suitable for detecting a wide range of proteins, including integral transmembrane proteins and proteins peripherally attached to the plasma membrane. From initiation until emergence from the primary root, lateral root primordia are surrounded by several layers of differentiated tissues with a complex cell wall composition that interferes with the efficient penetration of all buffers. Therefore, immunolocalization in early lateral root primordia requires a modified method, including a strong solvent treatment for removal of hydrophobic barriers and a specific cocktail of cell wall-degrading enzymes. The presented method allows for easy, reliable, and high-quality in situ detection of the subcellular localization of endogenous proteins in primary and lateral root meristems without the need of time-consuming crosses or making translational fusions to fluorescent proteins.

  16. Direct conversion of root primordium into shoot meristem relies on timing of stem cell niche development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosspopoff, Olga; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Saffar, Julie; Lecorgne, Lena; Gey, Delphine; Caillieux, Erwann; Colot, Vincent; Roudier, François; Hilson, Pierre; Berthomé, Richard; Da Costa, Marco; Rech, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    To understand how the identity of an organ can be switched, we studied the transformation of lateral root primordia (LRP) into shoot meristems in Arabidopsis root segments. In this system, the cytokinin-induced conversion does not involve the formation of callus-like structures. Detailed analysis showed that the conversion sequence starts with a mitotic pause and is concomitant with the differential expression of regulators of root and shoot development. The conversion requires the presence of apical stem cells, and only LRP at stages VI or VII can be switched. It is engaged as soon as cell divisions resume because their position and orientation differ in the converting organ compared with the undisturbed emerging LRP. By alternating auxin and cytokinin treatments, we showed that the root and shoot organogenetic programs are remarkably plastic, as the status of the same plant stem cell niche can be reversed repeatedly within a set developmental window. Thus, the networks at play in the meristem of a root can morph in the span of a couple of cell division cycles into those of a shoot, and back, through transdifferentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips and apical meristems of the forage legume Arachis pintoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Hebe Y; Faloci, Mirta; Medina, Ricardo; Dolce, Natalia; Mroginski, Luis; Engelmann, Florent

    2009-01-01

    A cryopreservation protocol using the encapsulation-dehydration procedure was established for shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) and meristems (0.3-0.5 mm) sampled from in vitro plantlets of diploid and triploid cytotypes of Arachis pintoi. The optimal protocol was the following: after dissection, explants were precultured for 24 h on establishment medium (EM), encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and pretreated in liquid EM medium with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 M) and desiccated to 22-23 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). Explants were frozen using slow cooling (1 C per min from 25C to -30C followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen), thawed rapidly and post-cultured in liquid EM medium enriched with daily decreasing sucrose concentrations (0.75, 0.50, 0.1 M). Explants were then transferred to solid EM medium in order to achieve shoot regeneration, then on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.05 microM naphthalene acetic acid to induce rooting of shoots. With this procedure, 53 percent and 56 percent of cryopreserved shoot tips of the diploid and triploid cytotypes, respectively, survived and formed plants. However, only 16 percent of cryopreserved meristems of both cytotypes regenerated plants. Using ten isozyme systems and seven RAPD profiles, no modification induced by cryopreservation could be detected in plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved material.

  18. Redox Changes During the Cell Cycle in the Embryonic Root Meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simone, Ambra; Hubbard, Rachel; de la Torre, Natanael Viñegra; Velappan, Yazhini; Wilson, Michael; Considine, Michael J; Soppe, Wim J J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-12-20

    The aim of this study was to characterize redox changes in the nuclei and cytosol occurring during the mitotic cell cycle in the embryonic roots of germinating Arabidopsis seedlings, and to determine how redox cycling was modified in mutants with a decreased capacity for ascorbate synthesis. Using an in vivo reduction-oxidation (redox) reporter (roGFP2), we show that transient oxidation of the cytosol and the nuclei occurred at G1 in the synchronized dividing cells of the Arabidopsis root apical meristem, with reduction at G2 and mitosis. This redox cycle was absent from low ascorbate mutants in which nuclei were significantly more oxidized than controls. The cell cycle-dependent increase in nuclear size was impaired in the ascorbate-deficient mutants, which had fewer cells per unit area in the root proliferation zone. The transcript profile of the dry seeds and size of the imbibed seeds was strongly influenced by low ascorbate but germination, dormancy release and seed aging characteristics were unaffected. These data demonstrate the presence of a redox cycle within the plant cell cycle and that the redox state of the nuclei is an important factor in cell cycle progression. Controlled oxidation is a key feature of the early stages of the plant cell cycle. However, sustained mild oxidation restricts nuclear functions and impairs progression through the cell cycle leading to fewer cells in the root apical meristem. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1505-1519.

  19. Analysis of Transcriptional Responses of the Inflorescence Meristems in Jatropha curcas Following Gibberellin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Kai Hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seeds an oilseed plant with great potential for biodiesel production. However, low seed yield, which was limited by its lower female flowers, was a major drawback for its utilization. Our previous study found that the flower number and female-to-male ratio were increased by gibberellin treatment. Here, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of inflorescence meristem at different time points after gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 treatment. The present study showed that 951 differentially expressed genes were obtained in response to gibberellin treatment, compared with control samples. The 6-h time point was an important phase in the response to exogenous gibberellin. Furthermore, the plant endogenous gibberellin, auxin, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinolide-signaling transduction pathways were repressed, whereas the genes associated with cytokinin and jasmonic acid signaling were upregulated for 24-h time point following GA3 treatment. In addition, the floral meristem determinacy genes (JcLFY, JcSOC1 and floral organ identity genes (JcAP3, JcPI, JcSEP1-3 were significantly upregulated, but their negative regulator (JcSVP was downregulated after GA3 treatment. Moreover, the effects of phytohormone, which was induced by exogenous plant growth regulator, mainly acted on the female floral differentiation process. To the best of our knowledge, this data is the first comprehensive analysis of the underlying transcriptional response mechanism of floral differentiation following GA3 treatment in J. curcas, which helps in engineering high-yielding varieties of Jatropha.

  20. The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 affects the inflorescence meristem and stamen development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ross; Schocken, John; Kaldis, Athanasios; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Hark, Amy T; McCain, Elizabeth R

    2009-11-01

    A central question in biology is to understand how gene expression is precisely regulated to give rise to a variety of forms during the process of development. Epigenetic effects such as DNA methylation or histone modification have been increasingly shown to play a critical role in regulation of genome function. GCN5 is a prototypical histone acetyltransferase that participates in regulating developmental gene expression in several metazoan species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with T-DNA insertions in GCN5 (also known as HAG1) display a variety of pleiotropic effects including dwarfism, loss of apical dominance, and floral defects affecting fertility. We sought to determine when during early development floral abnormalities first arise. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that gcn5-1/hag1-1 and gcn5-5/hag1-5 mutants display overproliferation of young buds and development of abnormal structures around the inflorescence meristem. gcn5 mutants also display defects in stamen number and arrangement at later stages. This analysis provides temporal and spatial information to aid in the identification of GCN5 target genes in the developing flower. Preliminary studies of putative targets using reverse transcriptase PCR suggest that the floral meristem identity gene LEAFY is among factors upregulated in gcn5-1 mutants.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  2. Basal Ganglia Mechanisms Underlying Precision Grip Force Control

    OpenAIRE

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We revi...

  3. Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem development after ipt transcriptional activation in pOp/LhG4 system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubová, J.; Ryšavá, Hana; Reková, Alena; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), S22 [2nd International Symposium Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Development. Prague, 07.07.2005-12.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600380507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : shoot apical meristem * cytokinin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Cytokinin regulates the activity of reproductive meristems, flower organ size, ovule formation, and thus seed yield in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartrina, I.; Otto, E.; Strnad, Miroslav; Werner, T.; Schmülling, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2011), s. 69-80 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM * STEM-CELL FATE * RESPONSE REGULATORS * PLANT DEVELOPMENT * HOMEOBOX GENES Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 8.987, year: 2011

  5. The Shark Basal Hypothalamus: Molecular Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a key integrative center of the vertebrate brain. To better understand its ancestral morphological organization and evolution, we previously analyzed the segmental organization of alar subdivisions in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a cartilaginous fish and thus a basal representative of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). With the same aim, we deepen here in the segmental organization of the catshark basal hypothalamus by revisiting previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScNkx2.1, ScShh expression and Shh immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScLhx5, ScEmx2, ScLmx1b, ScPitx2, ScPitx3a, ScFoxa1, ScFoxa2 and ScNeurog2 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity. Our study reveals a complex genoarchitecture for chondrichthyan basal hypothalamus on which a total of 21 microdomains were identified. Six belong to the basal acroterminal region, the rostral-most point of the basal neural tube; seven are described in the tuberal region (Tu/RTu); four in the perimamillar region (PM/PRM) and four in the mamillar one (MM/RM). Interestingly, the same set of genes does not necessarily describe the same microdomains in mice, which in part contributes to explain how forebrain diversity is achieved. This study stresses the importance of analyzing data from basal vertebrates to better understand forebrain diversity and hypothalamic evolution. PMID:29593505

  6. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence.

  7. Implications of basal micro-earthquakes and tremor for ice stream mechanics: Stick-slip basal sliding and till erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. Grace; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Walter, Jacob I.; Winberry, J. Paul

    2018-03-01

    The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) is unique among Antarctic ice streams because it moves by stick-slip. The conditions allowing stick-slip and its importance in controlling ice dynamics remain uncertain. Local basal seismicity previously observed during unstable slip is a clue to the mechanism of ice stream stick-slip and a window into current basal conditions, but the spatial extent and importance of this basal seismicity are unknown. We analyze data from a 2010-2011 ice-plain-wide seismic and GPS network to show that basal micro-seismicity correlates with large-scale patterns in ice stream slip behavior: Basal seismicity is common where the ice moves the least between unstable slip events, with small discrete basal micro-earthquakes happening within 10s of km of the central stick-slip nucleation area and emergent basal tremor occurring downstream of this area. Basal seismicity is largely absent in surrounding areas, where inter-slip creep rates are high. The large seismically active area suggests that a frictional sliding law that can accommodate stick-slip may be appropriate for ice stream beds on regional scales. Variability in seismic behavior over inter-station distances of 1-10 km indicates heterogeneity in local bed conditions and frictional complexity. WIP unstable slips may nucleate when stick-slip basal earthquake patches fail over a large area. We present a conceptual model in which basal seismicity results from slip-weakening frictional failure of over-consolidated till as it is eroded and mobilized into deforming till.

  8. Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harley M S; Ung, Nolan; Lal, Shruti; Courtier, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In Arabidopsis floral meristems are specified on the periphery of the inflorescence meristem by the combined activities of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-FD complex and the flower meristem identity gene LEAFY. The floral specification activity of FT is dependent upon two related BELL1-like homeobox (BLH) genes PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) which are required for floral evocation. PNY and PNF interact with a subset of KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox proteins including SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). Genetic analyses show that these BLH proteins function with STM to specify flowers and internodes during inflorescence development. In this study, experimental evidence demonstrates that the specification of flower and coflorescence meristems requires the combined activities of FT-FD and STM. FT and FD also regulate meristem maintenance during inflorescence development. In plants with reduced STM function, ectopic FT and FD promote the formation of axillary meristems during inflorescence development. Lastly, gene expression studies indicate that STM functions with FT-FD and AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24)-SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONTANS1 (SOC1) complexes to up-regulate flower meristem identity genes during inflorescence development.

  9. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  10. Soft tissue metastasis in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common of the cutaneous malignancies, accounting for 65-75% of all skin cancers. The natural history of this disease is one of chronic local invasion. Metastatic BCC Is a rare clinical entity, with a reported incidence of only 0.0028-0.5%. Approximately 85% of all metastatic BCCs arise in the head and neck region. We present a case of BCC that spread to the muscles of the cheek and nodes (intraparotid and internal jugular, in a man who had a lesion near the inner canthus of his right eye and adjoining nasal bridge.

  11. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  12. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Organogênese de ápices meristemáticos de batata em meios de isolamento e multiplicação in vitro Organogenesis of potato meristem tips on the in vitro isolation and multiplication media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski Pereira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da consistência do meio de cultura sobre a organogênese de ápices meristemáticos de batata nas etapas de isolamento e multiplicação in vitro, das cultivares Baronesa, Eliza e Pérola. Para o cultivo utilizaram-se tubos de ensaio (20 x 150 mm contendo 5 ml de meio de cultura de isolamento (sais de MS, 30g.L-1 sacarose, 1,0 mg.L-1 BAP, 0,01mg.L-1 ANA, 0,1 mg.L-1 AG3 de consistência semi-sólida (6g.L-1 de ágar ou líquida. Ao meio de cultura semi-sólido acrescentou-se ainda 300 mg.L-1 de carvão ativado. Como suporte dos meristemas em meio líquido, foram introduzidas fitas de papel filtro em forma de "U" invertido. Após 30 dias em meio de isolamento, os meristemas diferenciados foram transferidos para meio de multiplicação (sais de MS, 1,0 mg.L-1 de tiamina, 5,0 mg.L-1 de ácido pantotênico, 0,25 mg.L-1 de AG3 e 20 g.L-1 de sacarose semi-sólido e líquido, onde permaneceram por mais 21 dias. O desenvolvimento dos meristemas em meio de multiplicação de consistência líquida proporcionou brotações com altura, pelo menos, quatro vezes superior àquelas desenvolvidas em meio semi-sólido. A taxa de multiplicação obtida em meio líquido foi 1,6 e 3,6 vezes superior ao meio semi-sólido quando os meristemas diferenciaram-se em meio de isolamento líquido e semi-sólido, respectivamente. Houve formação indesejável de calo na base dos meristemas desenvolvidos em meio de isolamento líquido, o que proporcionou maior número de brotações regeneradas nestes meristemas. A diferenciação de meristemas de batata em meio de isolamento semi-sólido por 30 dias, seguida do cultivo em meio líquido sob agitação por mais 21 dias, promove melhoria nas taxas de crescimento e multiplicação dos meristemas.The effect of the culture media consistency on the organogenesis of potato meristem tips was evaluated on the in vitro isolation and multiplication stages from cultivars Baronesa, Eliza and Perola. The meristems

  14. Effect of 6-BAP and IAA in meristems in vitro establishment of Colocasia esculenta (L Schott 'INIVIT MC 2012' cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arletys Santos Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meristems for the in vitro establishment of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott cv. 'INIVIT MC-2012' decreases bacterial contamination but is required to increase its growth. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of 6-Benzylaminopurine and indoleacetic acid on its in vitro establishment. Various concentrations of the two growth regulators were included in the culture medium and with the best combination the explants were cultured in shaking and static liquid culture medium. With the use of the culture medium constituted by 80% of the salts and vitamins MS, 30 g l-1 sucrose, 0.1 g l-1 myo-inositol, 0.1 mg l-1 6-BAP, 0.05 mg l-1 of AIA and culture in agitation were obtained meristems with the appropriate morphological characteristics to transfer to the multiplication phase at 28 days of culture. Keywords: orbital agitator, propagation, taro

  15. Transcriptome of the inflorescence meristems of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas treated with cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bang-Zhen; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Ni, Jun; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-11-17

    Jatropha curcas, whose seed content is approximately 30-40% oil, is an ideal feedstock for producing biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha plants have a low number of female flowers, which results in low seed yield that cannot meet the needs of the biofuel industry. Thus, increasing the number of female flowers is critical for the improvement of Jatropha seed yield. Our previous findings showed that cytokinin treatment can increase the flower number and female to male ratio and also induce bisexual flowers in Jatropha. The mechanisms underlying the influence of cytokinin on Jatropha flower development and sex determination, however, have not been clarified. This study examined the transcriptional levels of genes involved in the response to cytokinin in Jatropha inflorescence meristems at different time points after cytokinin treatment by 454 sequencing, which gave rise to a total of 294.6 Mb of transcript sequences. Up-regulated and down-regulated annotated and novel genes were identified, and the expression levels of the genes of interest were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The identified transcripts include those encoding genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of cytokinin and other plant hormones, flower development and cell division, which may be related to phenotypic changes of Jatropha in response to cytokinin treatment. Our analysis indicated that Jatropha orthologs of the floral organ identity genes known as ABCE model genes, JcAP1,2, JcPI, JcAG, and JcSEP1,2,3, were all significantly repressed, with an exception of one B-function gene JcAP3 that was shown to be up-regulated by BA treatment, indicating different mechanisms to be involved in the floral organ development of unisexual flowers of Jatropha and bisexual flowers of Arabidopsis. Several cell division-related genes, including JcCycA3;2, JcCycD3;1, JcCycD3;2 and JcTSO1, were up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased flower number after cytokinin treatment. This study

  16. Basal cell carcinoma does metastasize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgediz, Doruk; Smith, E B; Zheng, Jie; Otero, Jose; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Corvera, Carlos U

    2008-08-15

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) rarely metastasizes. However, this unfortunate outcome can occur, usually in neglected tumors. We report a 52-year-old man with a BCC on the left chest that enlarged and then ulcerated over a 6-year period. Metastasis of the tumor to lymph nodes in the left axilla resulted, but the patient remains free of disease 24 months after wide excision, lymph node dissection, and local radiation therapy to the axilla.

  17. Inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus replication in lateral roots is dependent on an activated meristem-derived signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, T A; Roberts, I M; Oparka, K J

    2002-05-01

    Viral invasion of the root system of Nicotiana benthamiana was studied noninvasively with a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector expressing the green-fluorescent protein (GFP). Lateral root primordia, which developed from the pericycle of primary roots, became heavily infected as they emerged from the root cortex. However, following emergence, a progressive wave of viral inhibition occurred that originated in the lateral-root meristem and progressed towards its base. Excision of source and sink tissues suggested that the inhibition of virus replication was brought about by the basipetal movement of a root meristem signal. When infected plants were inoculated with tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expressing the red-fluorescent protein, DsRed, TRV entered the lateral roots and suppressed the host response, leading to a reestablishment of TMV infection in lateral roots. By infecting GFP-expressing transgenic plants with TMV carrying the complementary GFP sequence it was possible to silence the host GFP, leading to the complete loss of fluorescence in lateral roots. The data suggest that viral inhibition in lateral roots occurs by a gene-silencing-like mechanism that is dependent on the activation of a lateral-root meristem.

  18. Single-cell telomere-length quantification couples telomere length to meristem activity and stem cell development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Mary-Paz; Pavelescu, Irina; Canela, Andrés; Sevillano, Xavier; Leehy, Katherine A; Nelson, Andrew D L; Ibañes, Marta; Shippen, Dorothy E; Blasco, Maria A; Caño-Delgado, Ana I

    2015-05-12

    Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein caps that protect chromosome ends assuring cell division. Single-cell telomere quantification in animals established a critical role for telomerase in stem cells, yet, in plants, telomere-length quantification has been reported only at the organ level. Here, a quantitative analysis of telomere length of single cells in Arabidopsis root apex uncovered a heterogeneous telomere-length distribution of different cell lineages showing the longest telomeres at the stem cells. The defects in meristem and stem cell renewal observed in tert mutants demonstrate that telomere lengthening by TERT sets a replicative limit in the root meristem. Conversely, the long telomeres of the columella cells and the premature stem cell differentiation plt1,2 mutants suggest that differentiation can prevent telomere erosion. Overall, our results indicate that telomere dynamics are coupled to meristem activity and continuous growth, disclosing a critical association between telomere length, stem cell function, and the extended lifespan of plants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ELIMINATION OF Cucumber Mozaic Virus (CMV FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM CULTIVARS THROUGH MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Budiarto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV is one of pathogenic viruses that commonly found and has caused significant losses in many chrysanthemum growers in Indonesia.  Efforts have been made to get healthy plant source through eliminating virus from infected plants and one of the promising methods was the combination of thermotherapy and meristem culture. The research was conducted to find out the effect of meristem culture following heat treatments on the existence of CMV in infected chrysanthemum plantlets. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of tissue culture and virology at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute (IOCRI from August 2007 until June 2008. A complete factorial with ten replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors.  The first factor was three chrysanthemum cultivars, namely Stroika, Dewi Sartika and White Fiji, while the second dealt with the durations of heat treatment i.e. one, two and three weeks.  The results showed that plantlet survival decreased, yet improved plantlet performance by faster bud initiation with lengthened heat duration.  The percentage of virus-free planlets also increased along with the duration of treatment and three weeks heat treatment followed by meristem culture effectively eliminated CMV from infected planlets.

  20. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  1. TCPs, WUSs, and WINDs: Families of transcription factors that regulate shoot meristem formation, stem cell maintenance, and somatic cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eIkeda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to somatic mammalian cells, which cannot alter their fate, plant cells can dedifferentiate to form totipotent callus cells and regenerate a whole plant, following treatment with specific phytohormones. However, the regulatory mechanisms and key factors that control differentiation-dedifferentiation and cell totipotency have not been completely clarified in plants. Recently, several plant transcription factors that regulate meristem formation and dedifferentiation have been identified and include members of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR (TCP, WUSCHEL (WUS, and WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION (WIND1 families. WUS and WIND positively control plant cell totipotency, while TCP negatively controls it. Interestingly, TCP is a transcriptional activator that acts as a negative regulator of shoot meristem formation, and WUS is a transcriptional repressor that positively maintains totipotency of the stem cells of the shoot meristem. We describe here the functions of TCP, WUS and WIND transcription factors in the regulation of differentiation-dedifferentiation by positive and negative transcriptional regulators.

  2. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  3. Effect of growth regulators in meristem culture of potato (solanum tuberosmum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.; Zaidi, S.S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Two growth regulators, viz., Gibberellic acid (GA3) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and a combination of both (GA3 and NAA) were evaluated at three different levels (200, 300 and 400 meul) to check the growth rate of root, shoot, number of leaves and nodes of potato plantlets in two potato varieties, namely cardinal and SH-5, grown by meristem culture. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences between varieties, hormones and their interaction for all the studied traits. Mean values revealed that among two varieties Cardinal produced root length (0.70 cm), shoot length (2.50 cm), number of leaves (6.96) and number of nodes (8) are better than the SH-5 which produced root length (0.54 cm), shoot length (1.38 cm), number of leaves (4.29) and number of nodes (5.3). The variety cardinal and GA3 at 300 meul followed by 200 meul produced most suitable results. By using the concentration of 300 meul maximum root length of (1.40 cm), shoot length of (3.43 cm), number of leaves (10) and no of nodes (11) was obtained. At 200 meul, though root and shoot length obtained was very similar at 300 meul but produced less number of leaves and nodes. (author)

  4. Dataset of Arabidopsis plants that overexpress FT driven by a meristem-specific KNAT1 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Duplat-Bermúdez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this dataset we integrated figures comparing leaf number and rosette diameter in three Arabidopsis FT overexpressor lines (AtFTOE driven by KNAT1 promoter, “A member of the KNOTTED class of homeodomain proteins encoded by the STM gene of Arabidopsis” [5], vs Wild Type (WT Arabidopsis plats. Also, presented in the tables are some transcriptomic data obtained by RNA-seq Illumina HiSeq from rosette leaves of Arabidopsis plants of AtFTOE 2.1 line vs WT with accession numbers SRR2094583 and SRR2094587 for AtFTOE replicates 1–3 and AtWT for control replicates 1–2 respectively. Raw data of paired-end sequences are located in the public repository of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States of America, Bethesda, MD, USA as Sequence Read Archive (SRA. Performed analyses of differential expression genes are visualized by Mapman and presented in figures. “Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering” [2], described the interpretation and discussion of the obtained data.

  5. MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 encodes TEN1, an essential telomere protein that modulates telomerase processivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehy, Katherine A; Lee, Jung Ro; Song, Xiangyu; Renfrew, Kyle B; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2013-04-01

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage, and they facilitate the complete replication of linear chromosomes. CST [for CTC1(Cdc13)/STN1/TEN1] is a trimeric chromosome end binding complex implicated in both aspects of telomere function. Here, we characterize TEN1 in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that TEN1 (for telomeric pathways in association with Stn1, which stands for suppressor of cdc thirteen) is encoded by a previously characterized gene, MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 (MDO1). A point mutation in MDO1, mdo1-1/ten1-3 (G77E), triggers stem cell differentiation and death as well as a constitutive DNA damage response. We provide biochemical and genetic evidence that ten1-3 is likely to be a null mutation. As with ctc1 and stn1 null mutants, telomere tracts in ten1-3 are shorter and more heterogeneous than the wild type. Mutants also exhibit frequent telomere fusions, increased single-strand telomeric DNA, and telomeric circles. However, unlike stn1 or ctc1 mutants, telomerase enzyme activity is elevated in ten1-3 mutants due to an increase in repeat addition processivity. In addition, TEN1 is detected at a significantly smaller fraction of telomeres than CTC1. These data indicate that TEN1 is critical for telomere stability and also plays an unexpected role in modulating telomerase enzyme activity.

  6. Transformation of Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA Gene into Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Pirade Paserang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha is one of the many biodiesel plants developed in tropical countries. Efforts to increase its productivity can be done using various methods of breeding. One of the breeding methods is the introduction of genes into the Jatropha plant. The aim of this study is to assess the success of genetic transformation using the Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA gene in Jatropha curcas. The research procedures included inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, callus induction, screening test of selection media, regeneration, and gene expression analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. IMA is one of the genes that controls flowering genes and ovule development. It was first isolated from tomato plants and has been successfully overexpressed in these plants using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S promoter. In this experiment, plant transformation was performed on J. curcas as the target. Explant callus formation in both the control and treated samples was good, but shoot formation decreased dramatically in the treated explants. PCR analysis indicated that IMA genes can be inserted into J. curcas with the size of the IMA gene is 500 bp.

  7. Unique cell-type specific patterns of DNA methylation in the root meristem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Stuart, Tim; Valdes, Manuel; Breakfield, Natalie; Schmitz, Robert J.; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Han, Xinwei; Lister, Ryan; Benfey, Philip N.; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that differs between plant organs and tissues, but the extent of variation between cell types is not known. Here, we report single-base resolution whole genome DNA methylomes, mRNA transcriptomes, and small RNA transcriptomes for six cell populations covering the major cell types of the Arabidopsis root meristem. We identify widespread cell type specific patterns of DNA methylation, especially in the CHH sequence context. The genome of the columella root cap is the most highly methylated Arabidopsis cell characterized to date. It is hypermethylated within transposable elements, accompanied by increased abundance of transcripts encoding RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway components and 24 nt small RNAs. Absence of the nucleosome remodeler DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1, required for maintenance of DNA methylation, and low abundance of histone transcripts involved in heterochromatin formation suggests a loss of heterochromatin may occur in the columella, thus allowing access of RdDM factors to the whole genome, and producing excess 24 nt small RNAs in this tissue. Together, these maps provide new insights into the epigenomic diversity that exists between distinct plant somatic cell types. PMID:27243651

  8. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma: a biological continuum of Basal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Karaninder S; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Sharma, Anju Lath; Sharma, Vikas; Abhinav, C; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg) and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg) on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  9. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaninder S. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  10. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple - an unusual location in a male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Oktay; Pabuççuoğlu, Uğur; Koçdor, M Ali; Unlü, Mehtat; Akin, Ciler; Soyal, Cüneyt; Canda, Tülay

    2008-02-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is extremely common, it only rarely occurs on the nipple. Men are affected more often than women. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple-areola complex may be more aggressive as metastases to regional lymph nodes have been reported. We report a basal cell carcinoma of the nipple with features of a fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in a man and review the literature.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  12. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Karaninder S. Mehta; Vikram K. Mahajan; Pushpinder S. Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; C. Abhinav; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  13. [Modern diagnosis and treatment in children with congenital basal encephalocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A V; Roginskiy, V V; Kapitanov, D N; Ivanov, A L; Shelesko, E V; Gorelyshev, S K; Evteev, A A; Lemeneva, N V; Zinkevich, D N; Kochkin, Yu A; Ozerova, V I; Satanin, L A

    Basal encephalocele is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in children. Its most common symptoms include nasal liquorrhea, difficulty in nasal breathing, and deformity of the naso-orbital region. The study group included 19 patients with basal encephalocele, aged 2 months to 18 years. Ten (59%) patients were operated on through a transnasal endoscopic approach; 3 (17.5%) patients were operated on through a transcranial approach; 4 (23.5%) patients were operated on using a combined approach: the patients underwent simultaneous elimination of a cranio-orbital region deformity using the basal transcranial approach as well as hernial sac resection and hernioplasty using the transnasal endoscopic approach. Two children had no surgery due to minimal symptoms and a lack of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Application of the algorithms for diagnosis and treatment of encephalocele, suggested by the authors, enabled making the timely diagnose, defining the optimal surgical tactics, and achieving good treatment results. A differentiated approach to the choice of a surgical technique for basal encephalocele, the use of auto-tissues for skull base reconstruction, intraoperative and postoperative lumbar drainage, and simultaneous elimination of deformity of the fronto-naso-orbital region enable avoiding complications and achieving good functional and aesthetic results.

  14. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05. No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  16. Auxin-cytokinin synergismin vitrofor producing genetically stable plants ofRuta graveolensusing shoot tip meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Ahmad, Naseem; Anis, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Qahtan, Ahmad A

    2018-02-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for Ruta graveolens Linn. using shoot tip meristems derived from a 4-month-old field grown plant. In vitro shoot regeneration and proliferation was accomplished on Murashige and Skoogs (MS) semi-solid medium in addition to different doses of cytokinins viz.6- benzyl adenine (BA), Kinetin (Kn) or 2-isopetynyl adenine (2iP), singly or in combination with auxins viz. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Highest regeneration frequency (27.6%) was obtained on (MS) medium composed of BA (10 µM) with maximum number (9.4) of shoots and 4.3 cm shoot length after 4 weeks of incubation. Among various combinations tried best regeneration frequency (71%) of multiple shoot formation with highest number (12.6) of shoots per shoot tip explants were achieved in MS medium augmented with a combination BA (10.0 µM) and NAA (2.5 µM) after 4 weeks of incubation. The optimum frequency (97%) of rhizogenesis was achieved on half-strength MS medium having 0.5 µM IBA after 4 weeks of incubation. Tissue culture raised plantlets with 5-7 fully opened leaves with healthy root system were successfully acclimatized off in Soilrite™ with 80% survival rate followed by transportation to normal soil under natural light. Genetic stability among in vitro raised progeny was evaluated by ISSR and RAPD markers. The entire banding pattern revealed from in vitro regenerated plants was monomorphic to the donor. The present protocol provides an alternative option for commercial propagation and fruitful setting up of genetically uniform progeny for sustainable utilization and germplasm preservation.

  17. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Timo; Elomaa, Paula; Moritz, Thomas; Junttila, Olavi

    2009-02-11

    Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA) in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot) or to crown branches (short shoot) is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control induction of cell division in subapical tissues of axillary

  18. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot or to crown branches (short shoot is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control

  19. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Timo; Elomaa, Paula; Moritz, Thomas; Junttila, Olavi

    2009-01-01

    Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA) in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot) or to crown branches (short shoot) is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control induction of cell division in

  20. miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Jérémie; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Sorin, Céline; Palatnik, Javier; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The root system is crucial for acquisition of resources from the soil. In legumes, the efficiency of mineral and water uptake by the roots may be reinforced due to establishment of symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi and interactions with soil rhizobia. Here, we investigated the role of miR396 in regulating the architecture of the root system and in symbiotic interactions in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Analyses with promoter-GUS fusions suggested that the mtr-miR396a and miR396b genes are highly expressed in root tips, preferentially in the transition zone, and display distinct expression profiles during lateral root and nodule development. Transgenic roots of composite plants that over-express the miR396b precursor showed lower expression of six growth-regulating factor genes (MtGRF) and two bHLH79-like target genes, as well as reduced growth and mycorrhizal associations. miR396 inactivation by mimicry caused contrasting tendencies, with increased target expression, higher root biomass and more efficient colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In contrast to MtbHLH79, repression of three GRF targets by RNA interference severely impaired root growth. Early activation of mtr-miR396b, concomitant with post-transcriptional repression of MtGRF5 expression, was also observed in response to exogenous brassinosteroids. Growth limitation in miR396 over-expressing roots correlated with a reduction in cell-cycle gene expression and the number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem. These results link the miR396 network to the regulation of root growth and mycorrhizal associations in plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venura Samarasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs, which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC.

  2. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E.; Melendrez A, R.

    2007-01-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of 60 Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene production

  3. Auxin-cytokinin synergism in vitro for producing genetically stable plants of Ruta graveolens using shoot tip meristems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Faisal; Naseem Ahmad; Mohammad Anis; Abdulrahman A. Alatar; Ahmad A. Qahtan

    2018-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for Ruta graveolens Linn. using shoot tip meristems derived from a 4-month-old field grown plant. In vitro shoot regeneration and proliferation was accomplished on Murashige and Skoogs (MS) semi-solid medium in addition to different doses of cytokinins viz.6- benzyl adenine (BA), Kinetin (Kn) or 2-isopetynyl adenine (2iP), singly or in combination with auxins viz. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or α-naphthalene acet...

  4. A dynamic genetic-hormonal regulatory network model explains multiple cellular behaviors of the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Mónica L; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2017-04-01

    The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base. A minimal model of the gene regulatory network that underlies cell-fate specification and patterning at the root stem cell niche was proposed before. In this study, we update and couple such network with both the auxin and cytokinin hormone signaling pathways to address how they collectively give rise to attractors that correspond to the genetic and hormonal activity profiles that are characteristic of different cell types along A. thaliana root apical meristem. We used a Boolean model of the genetic-hormonal regulatory network to integrate known and predicted regulatory interactions into alternative models. Our analyses show that, after adding some putative missing interactions, the model includes the necessary and sufficient components and regulatory interactions to recover attractors characteristic of the root cell types, including the auxin and cytokinin activity profiles that correlate with different cellular behaviors along the root apical meristem. Furthermore, the model predicts the existence of activity configurations that could correspond to the transition domain. The model also provides a possible explanation for apparently paradoxical cellular behaviors in the root meristem. For example, how auxin may induce and at the same time inhibit WOX5 expression. According to the model proposed here the hormonal regulation of WOX5 might depend on the cell type. Our results

  5. A dynamic genetic-hormonal regulatory network model explains multiple cellular behaviors of the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica L García-Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base. A minimal model of the gene regulatory network that underlies cell-fate specification and patterning at the root stem cell niche was proposed before. In this study, we update and couple such network with both the auxin and cytokinin hormone signaling pathways to address how they collectively give rise to attractors that correspond to the genetic and hormonal activity profiles that are characteristic of different cell types along A. thaliana root apical meristem. We used a Boolean model of the genetic-hormonal regulatory network to integrate known and predicted regulatory interactions into alternative models. Our analyses show that, after adding some putative missing interactions, the model includes the necessary and sufficient components and regulatory interactions to recover attractors characteristic of the root cell types, including the auxin and cytokinin activity profiles that correlate with different cellular behaviors along the root apical meristem. Furthermore, the model predicts the existence of activity configurations that could correspond to the transition domain. The model also provides a possible explanation for apparently paradoxical cellular behaviors in the root meristem. For example, how auxin may induce and at the same time inhibit WOX5 expression. According to the model proposed here the hormonal regulation of WOX5 might depend on the cell

  6. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  7. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO 2 , and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using 15 O 2 , C 15 O 2 inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO 2 were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia. These results suggest that measurements of cerebral blood flow and metabolism were necessary to study the responsible lesion for aphasia. (author)

  8. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  9. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another ou...

  10. AtREM1, a Member of a New Family of B3 Domain-Containing Genes, Is Preferentially Expressed in Reproductive Meristems1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Zorrilla, José M.; Cubas, Pilar; Jarillo, José A.; Fernández-Calvín, Begoña; Salinas, Julio; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2002-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized AtREM1, the Arabidopsis ortholog of the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) BoREM1. AtREM1 belongs to a large gene family of more than 20 members in Arabidopsis. The deduced AtREM1 protein contains several repeats of a B3-related domain, and it could represent a new class of regulatory proteins only found in plants. Expression of AtREM1 is developmentally regulated, being first localized in a few central cells of vegetative apical meristems, and later expanding to the whole inflorescence meristem, as well as primordia and organs of third and fourth floral whorls. This specific expression pattern suggests a role in the organization of reproductive meristems, as well as during flower organ development. PMID:11842146

  11. Investigating the Molecular Mechanism of TSO1 Function in Arabidopsis cell division and meristem development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongchi Liu

    2004-10-01

    Unlike animals, plants are constantly exposed to environmental mutagens including ultraviolet light and reactive oxygen species. Further, plant cells are totipotent with highly plastic developmental programs. An understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of plants to monitor and repair its DNA and to eliminate damaged cells are of great importance. Previously we have identified two genes, TSO1 and TSO2, from a flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in these two genes cause callus-like flowers, fasciated shoot apical meristems, and abnormal cell division, indicating that TSO1 and TSO2 may encode important cell cycle regulators. Previous funding from DOE led to the molecular cloning of TSO1, which was shown to encode a novel nuclear protein with two CXC domains suspected to bind DNA. This DOE grant has allowed us to characterize and isolate TSO2 that encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR comprises two large subunits (R1) an d two small subunits (R2), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair. Previous studies in yeast and mammals indicated that defective RNR often led to cell cycle arrest, growth retardation and p53-dependent apoptosis while abnormally elevated RNR activities led to higher mutation rates. Subsequently, we identified two additional R2 genes, R2A and R2B in the Arabidopsis genome. Using reverse genetics, mutations in R2A and R2B were isolated, and double and triple mutants among the three R2 genes (TSO2, R2A and R2B) were constructed and analyzed. We showed that Arabidopsis tso2 mutants, with reduced dNTP levels, were more sensitive to UV-C. While r2a or r2b single mutants did not exhibit any phenotypes, tso2 r2b double mutants were embryonic lethal and tso2 r2a double mutants were seedling lethal indicating redundant functions among the three R2 genes. Furthermore, tso2 r2a double mutants exhibited increased DNA dam age

  12. CENL1 expression in the rib meristem affects stem elongation and the transition to dormancy in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruonala, Raili; Rinne, Päivi L H; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; van der Schoot, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the short day (SD)-induced transition to dormancy in wild-type hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) and its absence in transgenic poplar overexpressing heterologous PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA). CENTRORADIALIS-LIKE1 (CENL1), a poplar ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1), was markedly downregulated in the wild-type apex coincident with SD-induced growth cessation. By contrast, poplar overexpressing a heterologous Avena sativa PHYA construct (P35S:AsPHYA), with PHYA accumulating in the rib meristem (RM) and adjacent tissues but not in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), upregulated CENL1 in the RM area coincident with an acceleration of stem elongation. In SD-exposed heterografts, both P35S:AsPHYA and wild-type scions ceased growth and formed buds, whereas only the wild type assumed dormancy and P35S:AsPHYA showed repetitive flushing. This shows that the transition is not dictated by leaf-produced signals but dependent on RM and SAM properties. In view of this, callose-enforced cell isolation in the SAM, associated with suspension of indeterminate growth during dormancy, may require downregulation of CENL1 in the RM. Accordingly, upregulation of CENL1/TFL1 might promote stem elongation in poplar as well as in Arabidopsis during bolting. Together, the results suggest that the RM is particularly sensitive to photoperiodic signals and that CENL1 in the RM influences transition to dormancy in hybrid poplar.

  13. CENL1 Expression in the Rib Meristem Affects Stem Elongation and the Transition to Dormancy in Populus[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruonala, Raili; Rinne, Päivi L.H.; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; van der Schoot, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the short day (SD)–induced transition to dormancy in wild-type hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) and its absence in transgenic poplar overexpressing heterologous PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA). CENTRORADIALIS-LIKE1 (CENL1), a poplar ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1), was markedly downregulated in the wild-type apex coincident with SD-induced growth cessation. By contrast, poplar overexpressing a heterologous Avena sativa PHYA construct (P35S:AsPHYA), with PHYA accumulating in the rib meristem (RM) and adjacent tissues but not in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), upregulated CENL1 in the RM area coincident with an acceleration of stem elongation. In SD-exposed heterografts, both P35S:AsPHYA and wild-type scions ceased growth and formed buds, whereas only the wild type assumed dormancy and P35S:AsPHYA showed repetitive flushing. This shows that the transition is not dictated by leaf-produced signals but dependent on RM and SAM properties. In view of this, callose-enforced cell isolation in the SAM, associated with suspension of indeterminate growth during dormancy, may require downregulation of CENL1 in the RM. Accordingly, upregulation of CENL1/TFL1 might promote stem elongation in poplar as well as in Arabidopsis during bolting. Together, the results suggest that the RM is particularly sensitive to photoperiodic signals and that CENL1 in the RM influences transition to dormancy in hybrid poplar. PMID:18192437

  14. Impact of early season apical meristem injury by gall inducing tipworm (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on reproductive and vegetative growth of cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S; Buonaccorsi, J P; Averill, A L

    2013-06-01

    Larvae of cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, disrupt early season growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) uprights or shoots by feeding on apical meristem tissue. A 2-yr field study was carried out at three different locations to determine the impact of tipworm feeding injury on the reproductive and vegetative growth of two cranberry cultivars ('Howes' and 'Stevens') in Massachusetts. In addition to tipworm-injured and intact control uprights, an artificial injury treatment simulating tipworm feeding was also included. Individual uprights of cranberry exhibited tolerance to natural (tipworm) and simulated apical meristem injury in the current growing season (fruit production) and results were corroborated by a greenhouse study. In the field study, weight of fruit was higher in tipworm-injured uprights as compared with intact control uprights at the sites with Howes. However, majority of injured uprights (tipworm and simulated) did not produce new growth from lateral buds (side-shoots) before the onset of dormancy. In the next growing season, fewer injured uprights resumed growth and produced flowers as compared with intact uprights at two of the three sites. We suggest that multiple-year studies focusing on whole plant response to tipworm herbivory will be required to determine the costs of chronic feeding injury over time.

  15. The iRoCS Toolbox--3D analysis of the plant root apical meristem at cellular resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thorsten; Pasternak, Taras; Liu, Kun; Blein, Thomas; Aubry-Hivet, Dorothée; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Duerr, Jasmin; Teale, William; Ditengou, Franck A; Burkhardt, Hans; Ronneberger, Olaf; Palme, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    To achieve a detailed understanding of processes in biological systems, cellular features must be quantified in the three-dimensional (3D) context of cells and organs. We described use of the intrinsic root coordinate system (iRoCS) as a reference model for the root apical meristem of plants. iRoCS enables direct and quantitative comparison between the root tips of plant populations at single-cell resolution. The iRoCS Toolbox automatically fits standardized coordinates to raw 3D image data. It detects nuclei or segments cells, automatically fits the coordinate system, and groups the nuclei/cells into the root's tissue layers. The division status of each nucleus may also be determined. The only manual step required is to mark the quiescent centre. All intermediate outputs may be refined if necessary. The ability to learn the visual appearance of nuclei by example allows the iRoCS Toolbox to be easily adapted to various phenotypes. The iRoCS Toolbox is provided as an open-source software package, licensed under the GNU General Public License, to make it accessible to a broad community. To demonstrate the power of the technique, we measured subtle changes in cell division patterns caused by modified auxin flux within the Arabidopsis thaliana root apical meristem. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  17. Meristem maintenance, auxin, jasmonic and abscisic acid pathways as a mechanism for phenotypic plasticity in Antirrhinum majus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julia; Alcantud-Rodriguez, Raquel; Toksöz, Tugba; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Plants grow under climatic changing conditions that cause modifications in vegetative and reproductive development. The degree of changes in organ development i.e. its phenotypic plasticity seems to be determined by the organ identity and the type of environmental cue. We used intraspecific competition and found that Antirrhinum majus behaves as a decoupled species for lateral organ size and number. Crowding causes decreases in leaf size and increased leaf number whereas floral size is robust and floral number is reduced. Genes involved in shoot apical meristem maintenance like ROA and HIRZ, cell cycle (CYCD3a; CYCD3b, HISTONE H4) or organ polarity (GRAM) were not significantly downregulated under crowding conditions. A transcriptomic analysis of inflorescence meristems showed Gene Ontology enriched pathways upregulated including Jasmonic and Abscisic acid synthesis and or signalling. Genes involved in auxin synthesis such as AmTAR2 and signalling AmANT were not affected by crowding. In contrast, AmJAZ1, AmMYB21, AmOPCL1 and AmABA2 were significantly upregulated. Our work provides a mechanistic working hypothesis where a robust SAM and stable auxin signalling enables a homogeneous floral size while changes in JA and ABA signalling maybe responsible for the decreased leaf size and floral number.

  18. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  19. Kip-related protein 3 is required for control of endoreduplication in the shoot apical meristem and leaves of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sang Eun; Okushima, Yoko; Nam, Jaesung; Umeda, Masaaki; Kim, Gyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The cell cycle plays an important role in the development and adaptation of multicellular organisms; specifically, it allows them to optimally adjust their architecture in response to environmental changes. Kip-related proteins (KRPs) are important negative regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which positively control the cell cycle during plant development. The Arabidopsis genome possesses seven KRP genes with low sequence similarity and distinct expression patterns; however, why Arabidopsis needs seven KRP genes and how these genes function in cell cycle regulation are unknown. Here, we focused on the characterization of KRP3, which was found to have unique functions in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and leaves. KRP3 protein was localized to the SAM, including the ground meristem and vascular tissues in the ground part of the SAM and cotyledons. In addition, KRP3 protein was stabilized when treated with MG132, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, indicating that the protein may be regulated by 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation. KRP3-overexpressing (KRP3 OE) transgenic plants showed reduced organ size, serrated leaves, and reduced fertility. Interestingly, the KRP3 OE transgenic plants showed a significant reduction in the size of the SAM with alterations in cell arrangement. In addition, compared to the wild type, the KRP3 OE transgenic plants had a higher DNA ploidy level in the SAM and leaves. Taken together, our data suggest that KRP3 plays important regulatory roles in the cell cycle and endoreduplication in the SAM and leaves.

  20. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain : a case–control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Erik; Eckerström, Carl; Berg, Gertrud; Borga, Magnus; Ekholm, Sven; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ribbelin, Susanne; Starck, Görgan; Wysocka, Anna; Löfdahl, Elisabet; Malmgren, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients’ lowered QoL was coupled to a reduc...

  1. The future of basal insulin supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Airin C. R.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2011-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a

  2. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  3. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  4. A single exposure to cocaine during development elicits regionally-selective changes in basal basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) gene expression and alters the trophic response to a second injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Malpighi, Chiara; Melfi, Simona; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    During adolescence, the brain is maturing and more sensitive to drugs of abuse that can influence its developmental trajectory. Recently, attention has been focused on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) given that its administration early in life enhances the acquisition of cocaine self-administration and sensitization at adulthood (Turner et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:100-4, 2009), Clinton et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav103:6-17, 2012)). Additionally, we found that abstinence from adolescent cocaine exposure long lastingly dysregulates FGF-2 transcription (Giannotti et al. (Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:553-60, 2013 ). The objectives of the study are to evaluate if (1) a single injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg) at postnatal day 35 alters FGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and (2) the first injection influences the trophic response to a second injection (10 mg/kg) provided 24 h or 7 days later. We found regional differences in the FGF-2 expression pattern as either the first or the second injection of cocaine by themselves upregulated FGF-2 mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens while downregulating it in the hippocampus. The first injection influences the trophic response of the second. Of note, 24 h after the first injection, accumbal and hippocampal FGF-2 changes produced by cocaine in saline-pretreated rats were prevented in cocaine-pretreated rats. Conversely, in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 7 days after the first injection, the cocaine-induced FGF-2 changes were modified by the subsequent exposure to the psychostimulant. These findings show that a single cocaine injection is sufficient to produce enduring changes in the adolescent brain and indicate that early cocaine priming alters the mechanisms regulating the trophic response in a brain region-specific fashion.

  5. Determination of the cause of the symptoms on yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.) leaf tissue and their eradication, enriching the culture medium and using techniques of meristem culture, thermo and chemotherapy on in vitro conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes Huertas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp) has been cultivated for exportation in Costa Rica, in North Huetar region. In vitro culture technique has been used for multiplying planting material for many advantages. However, cleaning of viruses that affect has been ineffective. Viruses such as: the potyvirus, potexvirus, cucumovirus . Methods like meristem culture, chemotherapy, thermotherapy and combinations of these have been used for the elimination of virus in plant species. The plants were evaluated in indexing assays, observing symptoms, serological methods and electron microscopy, among others. Other problems that have been affecting in vitro plant are deficient culture media in some nutrient. The presence of some abnormal characteristics in leaf tissue was determined whether have been caused by a virus or a nutritional deficiency in the culture medium. The presence of the virus has tried to find using ELISA and electron microscopy. Tests meristem culture, thermotherapy and chemotherapy have been made for the eradication of a possible virus; which have been assessed by observation of symptomatology and ELISA. The efficiency of the culture medium was evaluated to enrich it with nitrogen or excess iron. None of the suspected virus found in ELISA tests. Filaments are presumably viral particles were found through analysis of ultrastructure, as well as alterations in chloroplasts which indicated the presence of a pathogen or toxicity. Thermotherapy and chemotherapy with the concentration of 40 mg/L of ribavirin have been the most effective for the elimination of symptoms in virus eradication treatments. Assessments nutrient concentrations have shown that the differences between the various treatments used were undetectable. The symptoms presented were caused, according to the conclusions, by a virus which should preferably deal with thermotherapy. (author) [es

  6. Meristem-localized inducible expression of a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene is essential for growth and development in pea and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H H; Orbach, M J; Hirsch, A M; Hawes, M C

    1999-12-01

    PsUGT1, which encodes a microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, was cloned from root tips of Pisum sativum. PsUGT1 expression is correlated with mitosis and strongly induced in dividing cells. A region at the C terminus of the encoded protein is closely related to the UDP-glucuronic acid binding site consensus sequence, and the protein encoded by PsUGT1 catalyzes conjugation of UDP-glucuronic acid to an unknown compound. Overexpression of PsUGT1 sense mRNA has no detectable effect on transgenic pea hairy root cultures or regenerated alfalfa. However, inhibiting PsUGT1 expression by the constitutive expression of antisense mRNA (under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter) markedly retards growth and development of transgenic alfalfa. Cell structure and organization in the antisense plants are similar to those of controls, but plant growth is reduced and development is delayed. This inhibition in growth is correlated with a twofold delay in the time required for completion of a cell cycle and with a >99% inhibition of border cell production. Inhibition of PsUGT1 expression by meristem-localized inducible expression of PsUGT1 antisense mRNA (under the control of its own promoter) is lethal both in pea hairy roots and in transgenic alfalfa plants. These results indicate that PsUGT1 expression is required for normal plant growth and development, and they are consistent with the hypothesis that this UDP-glycosyltransferase regulates activity of a ligand(s) needed for cell division.

  7. The future of basal insulin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Airin C R; DeVries, J Hans

    2011-06-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a longer duration of action than currently available analogs. Phase 2 studies show comparable efficacy and safety outcomes compared with insulin glargine once daily with less hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. The final results of phase 3 studies seem to confirm this, also in type 2 diabetes. Biodel (Danbury, CT) has two long-acting basal insulin formulations in the pipeline, both in the preclinical phase of development: BIOD-Adjustable Basal, a modified formulation of insulin glargine, is available in long-, medium-, and short-acting forms and could be mixed, and BIOD-Smart Basal releases insulin proportional to the subcutaneous glucose concentration. Eli Lilly (Indianapolis, IN) is also developing a basal insulin. Phase 2 trials have been completed, but no results are published yet. Clinical trials with the new patch pump from CeQur (Montreux, Switzerland) have recently started in Europe. This patch pump delivers both basal and bolus doses subcutaneously and is intended for people with type 2 diabetes who need multiple daily injection insulin therapy.

  8. Cytokinin-Deficient Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Show Multiple Developmental Alterations Indicating Opposite Functions of Cytokinins in the Regulation of Shoot and Root Meristem Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Werner, T.; Motyka, Václav; Laucou, V.; Smets, R.; Onckelen, H. V.; Schmülling, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 11 (2003), s. 2532-2550 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants * Cytokinins * Root Meristem Activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.679, year: 2003

  9. Revealing the importance of meristems and roots for the development of hypersensitive responses and full foliar resistance to Phytophthora infestans in the resistant potato cultivar Sarpo Mira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Basile, Alessio; Kandzia, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The defence responses of potato against Phytophthora infestans were studied using the highly resistant Sarpo Mira cultivar. The effects of plant integrity, meristems, and roots on the hypersensitive response (HR), plant resistance, and the regulation of PR genes were analysed. Sarpo Mira shoots a...

  10. Centering the organizing center in the Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristem by a combination of cytokinin signaling and self-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adibi, Milad; Yoshida, Saiko; Weijers, Dolf; Fleck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Plants have the ability to continously generate new organs by maintaining populations of stem cells throught their lives. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) provides a stable environment for the maintenance of stem cells. All cells inside the SAM divide, yet boundaries and patterns are maintained.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Cases with or without Xeroderma Pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Ghosh, Arnab; Shrestha, Sushil Ram; Shrestha, Sachet; Thapa, Sushma; Narasimhan, Raghavan; Talwar, O P

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer in humans and comprises the vast majority of skin cancers. It predominantly affects fair-skinned individuals, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The objective of the study is to identify the epidemiology, its topography and different histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma in patients with or without Xeroderma Pigmentosum. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from Jan 2009 to Dec 2016. Ethical approval was taken from MEMG/IRC/GA. The study included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma irrespective of their age and sex. This study showed 77 individuals with 91 biopsies of BCC including 5 cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum. The predominant histological subtype was nodular with 41 (53.94%) cases, followed by the 14 (18.42%) cases of pigmented and 10 (13.15%) cases baso-squamous subtype. The most frequent sites of involvement were the head and neck, with predominance in the nasal and orbital region. The mean age was 57.68 years but the basal cell carcinoma in cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum was seen more in younger age groups. There were 43 (55.84 %) male patients and 34 (44.16 %) female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.26:1. Nodular and pigmented varieties were the most frequent subtypes with nose being the commonest site of involvement. Basal cell carcinomas in cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum were noted in younger age group with multiple lesions.

  12. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-03

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  13. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  14. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  15. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  16. Sygepleje tilbage til det basale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Bahnsen, Iben Bøgh; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for the initiation of a development and research project in North Denmark Region in collaboration with international researchers led by Professor Alison Kitson, University of Adelaide, Australia. The international project has assumed a lead position with the o......This article describes the rationale for the initiation of a development and research project in North Denmark Region in collaboration with international researchers led by Professor Alison Kitson, University of Adelaide, Australia. The international project has assumed a lead position...... is provided in the article. Keywords: Conceptual framework, nursing practice, Fundamentals of Care, FoC...

  17. Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1–14 mg L−1 with or without 0.2 mg L−1 IAA, or BAP at 7–14 mg L−1 with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L−1 (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L−1 (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L−1 (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. BAP at 11 mg L−1 with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. PMID:24575235

  18. Dynamic expression reveals a two-step patterning of WUS and CLV3 during axillary shoot meristem formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wei; Wang, Zhicai; Liang, Yan; Wang, Yonghong; Hu, Yuxin

    2017-07-01

    Seed plants have a remarkable capability to produce axillary meristems (AM) in the leaf axils, however, the dynamic establishment of a stem cell niche in AM is largely uncharacterized. We comprehensively examined the dynamic patterning of WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3), the two key marker genes defining the shoot stem cell niches, during AM formation in Arabidopsis, and we found that a two-step patterning of WUS and CLV3 occurred during AM stem cell niche establishment. Our further work on the wus and clv3 mutants implicates that such two-step patterning is likely critical for the maintenance of AM progenitor cells and the specification of AM stem cell niche. These data provide a cytological frame for how a stem cell niche is established during AM formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  20. Sonic hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Couvé-Privat, Sophie

    2005-07-28

    The development of basal cell carcinoma, the commonest human cancer in fair skinned populations, is clearly associated with constitutive activation of sonic hedgehog signaling. Insight into the genesis of BCC came from the identification of germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, PATCHED, a key regulatory component of hedgehog signaling in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Analysis of sporadic basal cell carcinomas and those from repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients has revealed mutational inactivation of PATCHED and gain of function mutations of the proto-oncogenes, SMOOTHENED and SONIC HEDGEHOG associated with solar UV exposure. The molecular mechanisms involved in alterations of the hedgehog signaling pathway that lead to the formation of basal cell carcinomas are being unraveled and has already allowed the investigation of future therapeutic strategies for treating these skin cancers.

  1. Trichoepithelioma And Multiple Basal Cell Epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey S.K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple trichoepithelioma and basal cell epithelioma is reported. Although malignant degeneration of trichoepithelioma is debated, clinical and histopathological studies, in our case, hint at that. The case is reported for its rarity.

  2. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors. PMID:28954101

  3. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors.

  4. Lateral root initiation and formation within the parental root meristem of Cucurbita pepo: is auxin a key player?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Kiryushkin, Alexey S; Semenova, Victoria A; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2018-04-19

    In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging. The effects of exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on root branching were analysed. The earliest LRI event involved a group of symmetric anticlinal divisions in pericycle cell files at a distance of 250-350 µm from the initial cells. The visualization of the ARMs enabled the precise detection of cells involved in determining the site of LR primordium formation. A local ARM appeared in sister cells of the pericycle and endodermis files before the first division. Cortical cells contributed to LR development after the anticlinal divisions in the pericycle via the formation of an ARM. Exogenous auxins did not increase the total number of LRs and did not affect the LRI index. Although exogenous auxin transport inhibitors acted in different ways, they all reduced the number of LRs formed. Literature data, as well as results obtained in this study, suggest that the formation of a local ARM before the first anticlinal formative divisions is the common mechanism underlying LRI in flowering plants. We propose that the mechanisms of the regulation of root branching are independent of the position of the LRI site relative to the parental root tip.

  5. Cytogenetic effects of commercial formulation of cypermethrin in root meristem cells of Allium sativum: spectroscopic basis of chromosome damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P N; Chauhan, L K S; Gupta, S K

    2005-12-15

    To validate the use of Allium sativum as a sensitive test model for genotoxicity, the cytogenetic effects of a commercial formulation of the pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, were evaluated in the root meristem cells of A. sativum. Ultraviolet (UV) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral measurements were also carried out to understand the interaction of cypermethrin with DNA. In a preliminary toxicity assay, the EC50 for Allium root growth was estimated to be 8 ppm. For the cytogenetic assay, root meristem cells were exposed to 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 ppm of the test compound for 24 h, and either processed immediately for analysis or incubated in water for 24 h of recovery and then processed. Cells analyzed immediately after the exposure had a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of mitotic index (MI) and induction of mitotic and chromosomal aberrations (MAs and CAs). The 24 h recovery period reduced the effect of the test compound on the MI and percent aberrations; however, cells exposed to 8 and 16 ppm showed a significant frequency of aberrations despite the recovery period. One part per million cypermethrin was consistently negative in the assay. The data indicate that higher doses of cypermethrin produce toxicity, CAs and MAs in A. sativum. The present study indicates that A. sativum is a sensitive and reliable test system. A bathochromic shift observed in UV absorption spectra reveals that cypermethrin binds with DNA. Role of vibrational modes of the active site in the recognition and reaction of cypermethrin with DNA has been discussed. Based on spectroscopic data and structural properties, a possible mechanism has been proposed for the interaction of cypermethrin with DNA resulting in chromosomal aberrations.

  6. Relative maxima of diameter and basal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Difei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    It has often been observed that maximum dbh growth occurs at an earlier age than maximum individual tree basal area growth. This can be deduced from the geometry of the tree stem, by observing that a dbh increment at a given radius will be associated with a larger basal area increment than an equal dbh increment occurring at a shorter radius from the stem center. Thus...

  7. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  8. Expression of NAC1 up-stream regulatory region and its relationship to the lateral root initiation induced by gibberellins and auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youhua; Duan, Liusheng; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Zhaohu; Wang, Minjie; Zhai, Zhixi

    2006-10-01

    A 1050 bp up-stream regulatory fragment of the transcription factor gene NAC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. The fragment was used to substitute the 35S promoter of the pBI121 plasmid to construct a beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS) expression system. The construct was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) plants by the Agrobacterium-mediated transferring method. GUS expression pattern was studied by using the transgenic lines. The results showed that the GUS driven by the NAC1 up-stream regulatory region was specifically expressed in the root meristem region, basal areas of the lateral root primordium and the lateral roots. The GUS expression was induced by 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellins (GA3 and GA4+7). The results indicated that the up-stream regulatory fragment of NAC1 responded to plant hormones. The fragment might be involved in both auxins and gibberellins signaling in promoting the development of lateral roots.

  9. [Basal cell carcinoma of unusual site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlika, Rym Benmously; Kerkeni, Nadia; Jebali, Amel; Zghal, Mohamed; Debbiche, Achraf; Ayed, Mohamed Ben; Mokhtar, Insaf; Fenniche, Samy

    2011-02-01

    Labial mucosa is an atypical site of basal cell carcinoma. The involvement of the vermilion lip, devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands, contrasts with the concept of its origin from pilar structures. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developed on the vermilion upper lip. A 49-year-old woman, presented with an asymptomatic, 1-cm-diameter, erythematous, telangiectatic and crusted nodule on the upper lip evolving for 9 months and having once interested the vermilion border. There were no cervical lymph nodes. Diagnosis of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma was made by histological study, which showed a tumoral proliferation of epithelial basal cells infiltrating the dermis with perineural and muscular infiltration. Our report illustrates a rare but not exceptional site of basal cell carcinoma. The nodule, initially confined to the vermilion border, has then developed onto the mucosal and the cutaneous areas. Histopathological study revealed, as previously reported, infiltarative features. Basal cell carcinoma of the lip should be rapidly managed since its invasion to deeper structures occurs early. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellina Aravinda L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG confers stamen and carpel identity and is involved in the regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis ag mutants show complete homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and carpels into sepals as well as indeterminacy of the floral meristem. Gene function analysis in model core eudicots and the monocots rice and maize suggest a conserved function for AG homologs in angiosperms. At the same time gene phylogenies reveal a complex history of gene duplications and repeated subfunctionalization of paralogs. Results EScaAG1 and EScaAG2, duplicate AG homologs in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica show a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression, although EScaAG2 expression is lower than EScaAG1 expression. Functional studies employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS demonstrate that knock down of EScaAG1 and 2 function leads to homeotic conversion of stamens into petaloid structures and defects in floral meristem termination. However, carpels are transformed into petaloid organs rather than sepaloid structures. We also show that a reduction of EScaAG1 and EScaAG2 expression leads to significantly increased expression of a subset of floral homeotic B genes. Conclusions This work presents expression and functional analysis of the two basal eudicot AG homologs. The reduction of EScaAG1 and 2 functions results in the change of stamen to petal identity and a transformation of the central whorl organ identity from carpel into petal identity. Petal identity requires the presence of the floral homeotic B function and our results show that the expression of a subset of B function genes extends into the central whorl when the C function is reduced. We propose a model for the evolution of B function regulation by C function suggesting that the mode of B function gene regulation found in Eschscholzia is ancestral and the C-independent regulation as

  11. Hemodynamics in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shinya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Jun

    1991-01-01

    We examined ten healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) in order to elucidate regional changes and correlations in the cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism. We also studied eight lacunar stroke patients so as to disclose the influences of vascular risk factors and aging on the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. We can conclude from our result as follows: (1) Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was minimum in the basal ganglia and cerebral blood flow (CBF)/CBV ratio was higher than that of cerebral cortex in healthy volunteers; (2) CBF of gray matter in healthy volunteers correlated with CBV and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen where oxygen extraction fraction inversely correlated with CBF, CBV, and CBF/CBV; and (3) the basal ganglia CBF/CBV ratio in lacunar stroke patients was lower than that of healthy volunteers. These findings suggested that the perfusion pressure in the basal ganglia was so high in the normal condition than the angionecrosis or occlusion in the perforating arteries would be induced, especially in the aged and hypertensive patients. (author)

  12. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  13. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du

    2006-01-01

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  14. Topical treatment of Basal cell carcinomas in nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome with a smoothened inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvara, Hans; Kalthoff, Frank; Meingassner, Josef G.; Wolff-Winiski, Barbara; Aschauer, Heinrich; Kelleher, Joseph F.; Wu, Xu; Pan, Shifeng; Mickel, Lesanka; Schuster, Christopher; Stary, Georg; Jalili, Ahmad; David, Olivier J.; Emotte, Corinne; Antunes, Ana Monica Costa; Rose, Kristine; Decker, Jeremy; Carlson, Ilene; Gardner, Humphrey; Stuetz, Anton; Bertolino, Arthur P.; Stingl, Georg; de Rie, Menno A.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a distinctive manifestation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients. Both inherited and acquired mutations of patched 1 (PTCH1), a tumor-suppressor gene controlling the activity of Smoothened (SMO), are the primary cause of the constitutive activation

  15. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So, a field experiment was conducted at Wuxi, China, under non-basal N and basal N fertilizer conditions, to identify the variation of grain yield response to basal fertilizer among 199 rice varieties with different genetic background, and finally choose the suitable rice varieties for us to increase basal N fertilizer efficiency and ...

  16. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won

    1988-01-01

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  17. The effects of low doses of different radiation qualities on Vicia faba bean root meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, I.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of low doses of different radiation qualities have been investigated using the micronuclei induction in Vicia faba bean roots as an indicator. The radiation qualities used were: 60 Co-gamma rays, high energy neutrons (maximum energy 600 MeV), low energy neutrons (mean energy 2.35 MeV), negative pions in the plateau region and negative pions in the stopping region. It was found that the best fit to the gamma ray data was obtained by using a linear+quadratic relationship, while in the case of the other radiation qualities a linear equation, represented the best fit, implying the non-existence of a threshold dose. No dose-rate, fractionation or oxygen effect was found for gamma radiation in the low dose region (below 20cGy) where the linear dependence between effect and dose is dominant. In contrast, in the high dose region these effects were present as normally expected. Fractionation experiments were carried out using high energy neutrons and pion radiation. No recovery was observed after neutron radiation while some recovery was found for the pion radiation. The RBE values found for the two neutron energies were in the high dose region 4.7 +- 0.4 and 11.8 +- 1.3. In the low dose region the RBE value approached a constant value of 25.4 +- 4.4 for the high energy neutrons and 63.7 +- 12.0 for the low energy neutrons. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Constitutive expression of the tzs gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens virG mutant strains is responsible for improved transgenic plant regeneration in cotton meristem transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xudong; Chen, Yurong; Wan, Yuechun; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Ruebelt, Martin C; Gilbertson, Larry A

    2016-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : virG mutant strains of a nopaline type of Agrobacterium tumefaciens increase the transformation frequency in cotton meristem transformation. Constitutive cytokinin expression from the tzs gene in the virG mutant strains is responsible for the improvement. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were tested for their ability to improve cotton meristem transformation frequency. Two disarmed A. tumefaciens nopaline strains with either a virGN54D constitutively active mutation or virGI77V hypersensitive induction mutation significantly increased the transformation frequency in a cotton meristem transformation system. The virG mutant strains resulted in greener explants after three days of co-culture in the presence of light, which could be attributed to a cytokinin effect of the mutants. A tzs knockout strain of virGI77V mutant showed more elongated, less green explants and decreased cotton transformation frequency, as compared to a wild type parental strain, suggesting that expression of the tzs gene is required for transformation frequency improvement in cotton meristem transformation. In vitro cytokinin levels in culture media were tenfold higher in the virGN54D strain, and approximately 30-fold higher in the virGI77V strain, in the absence of acetosyringone induction, compared to the wild type strain. The cytokinin level in the virGN54D strain is further increased upon acetosyringone induction, while the cytokinin level in the virGI77V mutant is decreased by induction, suggesting that different tzs gene expression regulation mechanisms are present in the two virG mutant strains. Based on these data, we suggest that the increased cytokinin levels play a major role in increasing Agrobacterium attachment and stimulating localized division of the attached plant cells.

  19. Basal hyperaemia is the primary abnormality of perfusion in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Bang, Lia Evi

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by acute completely reversible regional left ventricle (LV) akinesia and decreased tracer uptake in the akinetic region on semi-quantitative perfusion imaging. The latter may be due to normoperfusion of the akinetic mid/apical area and basal...... hyperperfusion. Our aim was to examine abnormalities of perfusion in TTC, and we hypothesized that basal hyperperfusion is the primary perfusion abnormality in the acute state. METHOD AND RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with TTC due to (i) acute onset of symptoms, (ii) typical apical ballooning......-on follow-up. Patients initially had severe heart failure, mid/apical oedema but no infarction, and a rise in cardiac biomarkers. On initial perfusion PET imaging, eight patients appeared to have normal, whereas 17 patients had impaired LV perfusion. In the latter, flow in the basal region was increased...

  20. Reproductive failure in Arabidopsis thaliana under transient carbohydrate limitation: flowers and very young siliques are jettisoned and the meristem is maintained to allow successful resumption of reproductive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauxmann, Martin A; Annunziata, Maria G; Brunoud, Géraldine; Wahl, Vanessa; Koczut, Andrzej; Burgos, Asdrubal; Olas, Justyna J; Maximova, Eugenia; Abel, Christin; Schlereth, Armin; Soja, Aleksandra M; Bläsing, Oliver E; Lunn, John E; Vernoux, Teva; Stitt, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The impact of transient carbon depletion on reproductive growth in Arabidopsis was investigated by transferring long-photoperiod-grown plants to continuous darkness and returning them to a light-dark cycle. After 2 days of darkness, carbon reserves were depleted in reproductive sinks, and RNA in situ hybridization of marker transcripts showed that carbon starvation responses had been initiated in the meristem, anthers and ovules. Dark treatments of 2 or more days resulted in a bare-segment phenotype on the floral stem, with 23-27 aborted siliques. These resulted from impaired growth of immature siliques and abortion of mature and immature flowers. Depolarization of PIN1 protein and increased DII-VENUS expression pointed to rapid collapse of auxin gradients in the meristem and inhibition of primordia initiation. After transfer back to a light-dark cycle, flowers appeared and formed viable siliques and seeds. A similar phenotype was seen after transfer to sub-compensation point irradiance or CO2 . It also appeared in a milder form after a moderate decrease in irradiance and developed spontaneously in short photoperiods. We conclude that Arabidopsis inhibits primordia initiation and aborts flowers and very young siliques in C-limited conditions. This curtails demand, safeguarding meristem function and allowing renewal of reproductive growth when carbon becomes available again. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  2. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers

  4. Adhesion molecule expression in basal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, M.; Beljaards, R.; Veraart, J.; Hoekzema, R.; Neumann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are frequently associated with a peritumoral mononuclear infiltrate. Until now, the function of this inflammatory infiltrate and its possible role in the control of tumor growth is unclear. Mechanisms controlling endothelial and target cell adhesiveness for leukocytes

  5. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  6. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  7. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  8. Panoramic study of mandibular basal bone height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviraj Jayam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To provide information regarding the changes of mandibular basal bone height using panoramic radiography, in relation to age, sex, and the state of dentulousness, which could be utilized in clinical practice, especially in implantology and pre-prosthetic surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 subjects, who were categorized according to age, sex, and state of dentulousness, were subjected to vertical measurements of mandibular basal bone in panoramic radiographs. Two measurements were made, D 1 and D 2 . The distance measured between the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 1 . The distance between the lowest point of mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 2 . These measurements were compared between males/females and dentulous/edentulous, which were further subjected to statistical analysis with Student′s t-test. Results: Males had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to females and edentulous groups had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to dentulous subjects. Conclusions: Men have higher values of mandibular basal bone height compared to females and also that there exists some potential for mandibular basal bone to increase in height as the age progresses.

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  10. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an ...

  11. Neglected basal cell carcinoma on scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  12. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs ...

  13. [Parotid basal cell adenoma of membranous type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah-Klibi, Faten; Ferchiou, Malek; Kourda, Jihène; El Amine, Olfa; Ferjaoui, Mohamed; Ben Jilani, Sarrah; Zermani, Rachida

    2009-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign neoplasm characterized by the basaloid appearance of the tumour cells and the lack of myxo-chondroid stromal component present in pleomorphic adenoma. We report a case of basal cell adenoma of membranous type, highly suspected of malignancy because of the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes and pulmonary nodules which finally were related to an associated sarcoidosis. Our patient was an 80-year-old woman who presented a swelling of the right parotid two years ago. The clinical examination revealed a solid, indolent and mobile mass. A chest radiography noted mediastinal lymph nodes. The CT-scan confirmed the presence of mediastinal and tracheal lymph nodes with pulmonary nodules. So the diagnosis of metastatic malignant salivary gland tumor was suspected. Finally, the histological examination concluded to a basal cell adenoma of membranous type with sarcoidosis granulomas in the parotid and in the lymph nodes. The BCA is a benign tumor located generally in the parotid gland. When the malignancy is suspected, like in our case, this tumor must be differentiated from the basal cell adenocarcinoma using histological criteria.

  14. Orbitofacial Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Elysa; Ozgur, Omar; Esmaeli, Bita; Yeatts, R Patrick

    To explore the clinical features, management, and prognosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma originating in the orbitofacial region. Ten cases of orbitofacial metastatic basal cell carcinoma were identified by searching databases at 2 institutions from 1995 to 2015. A retrospective chart review was performed. Main outcome measures included patient demographics, lesion size, location of metastases, histologic subtype, recurrence rate, time between primary tumor diagnosis and metastasis, perineural invasion, treatment modalities, and survival from time of metastasis. The median tumor size at largest dimension was 3.3 cm (range, 1.9-11.5 cm), and 6 of 10 patients had at least 1 local recurrence before metastasis (range, 0-2 recurrences). The most common sites of metastasis included the ipsilateral parotid gland (n = 6) and cervical lymph nodes (n = 5). Histologic subtypes included infiltrative (n = 5), basosquamous (n = 2), nodular (n = 1), and mixed (n = 1). The median time from primary tumor diagnosis to metastasis was 7.5 years (range, 0-13). The median survival time from diagnosis of metastasis to last documented encounter or death was 5.3 years (range, 7 months-22.8 years). Treatment regimens included surgical excision, radiotherapy, and hedgehog inhibitors. Based on our findings, the following features may be markers of high risk orbitofacial basal cell carcinoma: 1) increasing tumor size, 2) local recurrence of the primary tumor, 3) aggressive histologic subtype, and 4) perineural invasion. Screening should include close observation of the primary site and tissues in the distribution of regional lymphatics, particularly the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes.

  15. Genotoxic Effects of Diuron Contaminated Soil on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum: A Possible Mechanism of Chromosome Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P N; Chauhan, L K S; Chandra, Saurabh; Gupta, S K

    2004-01-01

    Diuron, a persistant substituted urea herbicide, was tested in the root meristem cells of Allium sativum for the possible cytogenetic effects and to compare the sensitivity with Allium cepa. Test concentrations of diuron 22.5, 45.0, and 90.0 ppm were mixed in soil and the cloves of A. sativum were placed over diuron-contaminated soils. Root meristematic cells were sampled at 48 h to score Mitotic/Chromosomal aberrations and to analyze the effect on mitotic index (MI). Microscopic analyses revealed significant and dose-dependent induction of mitotic as well as chromosomal breaks. The frequency of mitotic aberrations was every time found much higher than that of chromosomal aberrations. Mild percentage of Micronucleated and Binucleated cells was observed, as MI also declined during the analysis. Based on the data of valence charge densities on the atoms of herbicide molecule and spectroscopic studies, a possible mechanism of interaction of diuron with DNA molecule for chromosomal aberrations has been proposed.

  16. Use of embryogenic cell suspension and meristem-tip cultures for mutation breeding of apomictic Musa species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, F.J.; Afza, R.; Duren, M. van

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Breeding by crossing is difficult for banana and plantain. The plants are heterozygous, therefore mutagenic treatment may uncover a recessive allele by mutating or deleting a corresponding dominant allele. Meristem tips were excised from in vitro growing shoots and used for mutation experiments. Induction was carried out by irradiating shoot tips with γ rays and/or by treatment of explants with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS). Cell suspension was initiated from corm and leaf tissue excised from in vitro grown plantlets. Mutagenised cell suspensions were derived from leaf and corm tissues irradiated with 60 Co γ rays - (10 to 60 Gy, 8 Gy/min). Musa clones exhibited differences in radiosensitivity and post-irradiation recovery. Doses of 20 to 40 Gy seem suitable for mutation induction. The EMS concentration of 25 mM for 4 hours was found effective for isolated shoot tips. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed among plants regenerated from in vitro shoot tips after mutagenic treatment. Leaf and corm explants kept their morphogenic ability in embryogenic cell suspensions after irradiation up to 25 Gy. (author)

  17. AGO6 functions in RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in shoot and root meristems in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Eun

    Full Text Available RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM is a small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated epigenetic modification that contributes to transposon silencing in plants. RdDM requires a complex transcriptional machinery that includes specialized RNA polymerases, named Pol IV and Pol V, as well as chromatin remodelling proteins, transcription factors, RNA binding proteins, and other plant-specific proteins whose functions are not yet clarified. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DICER-LIKE3 and members of the ARGONAUTE4 group of ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins are involved, respectively, in generating and using 24-nt siRNAs that trigger methylation and transcriptional gene silencing of homologous promoter sequences. AGO4 is the main AGO protein implicated in the RdDM pathway. Here we report the identification of the related AGO6 in a forward genetic screen for mutants defective in RdDM and transcriptional gene silencing in shoot and root apical meristems in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identification of AGO6, and not AGO4, in our screen is consistent with the primary expression of AGO6 in shoot and root growing points.

  18. Comparison on different strategies for treatments of hypertensive hemorrhage in the basal ganglia region with a volume of 25 to 35ml Comparação de diferentes estratégias no tratamento da hemorragia hipertensiva da região dos gânglios da base com volume de 25 a 35ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare curative effect of different treatments for hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage of 25 to 35ml. METHODS: In this study, 595 cases were enrolled and grouped regarding treatments including conservative treatment, evacuation with microinvasive craniopuncture technique within 6h and 6-48h after the attack. RESULTS: After follow up for three months after the attack, the assessment based on the Activity of Daily Living (ADL indicated no significant difference among conservative treatment and surgical interventions (p>0.05. However, surgical interventions showed advantages of shorter hospitalization, quick removal of hematoma and obvious reduction of cost. CONCLUSION: The microinvasive craniopuncture technique to drain the hematoma within 6-48h may be a good way in treating hypertensive hemorrhage of basal ganglia region.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito curativo de diferentes tratamentos da hemorragia hipertensiva cerebral de 25 a 35ml. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 595 casos agrupados segundo tratamento conservador e evacuação com técnica de punção transcraniana dentro de 6h ou de 6 às 48h do início do quadro clínico. RESULTADOS: O seguimento após três meses e avaliado pelo Escore de Atividade de Vida Diário, indicou que não houve diferenças significantes entre os tratamentos conservador e cirúrgico (p>0.05 O tratamento cirúrgico mostrou vantagem com hospitalização mais curta e redução de custos. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de punção transcraniana para drenagem de hematoma dos núcleos da base pode ser uma boa alternativa de tratamento.

  19. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  20. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD. In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease.

  1. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A L; Wilcock, Gordon K; Filippini, Nicola; Zamboni, Giovanna; Hu, Michele T M; Mackay, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN) are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease.

  2. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  3. Primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Seyda; Ekin, Meryem Altin; Altinboga, Aysegul Aksoy

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is presented and patients presented in the literature reviewed. Clinical features and outcome of a patient with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is described. Review of 8 other cases identified through literature search with the keywords of "basal cell carcinoma" and "caruncle" is presented.A 67-year-old male patient presented with a 12 months' history of a lesion over the caruncular region. Incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed primary basal cell carcinoma of nodular type. MRI of the orbit identified extension of the lesion into the medial orbit. The tumor was excised, and reconstructive surgery was performed. The patient declined subsequent radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during the follow up of 33 months. The current patient and 8 other patients with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle were reviewed.The main therapeutic approach for primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is complete excision with tumor-free surgical margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be administered when deemed necessary.

  4. Multifocality in "basal-like" breast carcinomas and its influence on lymph node status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, Tibor; Pekár, Gyula

    2011-06-01

    Basal-like breast carcinomas often are regarded for circumscribed solitary lesions having unfavorable prognosis. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of breast carcinomas is multifocal and has increased metastatic potential. In this study, we analyzed the subgross distribution of the lesions in a series of basal-like carcinomas, compared it with that in nonbasal-like tumors and studied the frequency of vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis in relation to focality of the lesions. A total of 511 consecutive cases documented in large-format histologic sections were studied. Tumors expressing at least one of the basal (myoepithelial) markers (CK5/6, CK14, EGFR) in at least one of the invasive tumor foci were categorized as basal-like tumors. Triple-negative (ER/PR/HER-2-negative) basal-like carcinomas also were analyzed. The distribution of lesions and the frequency of vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis were analyzed. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Committee Uppsala-Örebro. In 44% of cases, the invasive component was multifocal or diffuse. Combining the in situ and invasive tumor components resulted in 61% of cases with multifocal/diffuse distribution. The only statistically significant difference observed was that basal-like tumors lacked in situ components more often (21% vs. 9%; P = 0.0075). No significant differences could be demonstrated regarding vascular invasion and lymph node status. Lymph node metastasis appeared significantly more frequently in multifocal cases in both tumor categories. Basal-like breast carcinomas are as frequently multifocal as their non-basal-like counterparts; multifocality is associated with increased risk for vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis in both tumor categories.

  5. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  6. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ichinokawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118–1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124–125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  7. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  8. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  9. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil

    2003-01-01

    mod den posterolaterale del af kraniebasis. I det typiske tilfælde falder offeret øjeblikkeligt bevidstløs sammen, og døden indtræder efter få minutter. Blødningen udgår enten fra arteria vertebralis på halsen eller fra de intrakraniale basale hjernearterier. I en del tilfælde kan blødningskilden ikke...

  10. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source

  11. [PENS (papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, C; Munoz, J; Bessis, D

    2015-01-01

    PENS is a rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome that has been recently described. It involves one or more congenital epidermal hamartomas of the papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer type (PENS) as well as non-specific neurological anomalies. Herein, we describe an original case in which the epidermal hamartomas are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A 6-year-old boy with a previous history of severe ASD was referred to us for asymptomatic pigmented congenital plaques on the forehead and occipital region. Clinical examination revealed a light brown verrucous mediofrontal plaque in the form of an inverted comma with a flat striated surface comprising coalescent polygonal papules, and a clinically similar round occipital plaque. Repeated biopsies revealed the presence of acanthotic epidermis covered with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with occasionally broadened epidermal crests and basal hyperpigmentation, pointing towards an anatomoclinical diagnosis of PENS. A diagnosis of PENS hamartoma was made on the basis of the clinical characteristics and histopathological analysis of the skin lesions. This condition is defined clinically as coalescent polygonal papules with a flat or rough surface, a round or comma-like shape and light brown coloring. Histopathological examination showed the presence of a regular palisade "skyline" arrangement of basal cell epidermal nuclei which, while apparently pathognomonic, is neither a constant feature nor essential for diagnosis. Association of a PENS hamartoma and neurological disorders allows classification of PENS as a new keratinocytic epidermal hamartoma syndrome. The early neurological signs, of varying severity, are non-specific and include psychomotor retardation, learning difficulties, dyslexia, hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder and epilepsy. There have been no reports hitherto of the presence of ASD as observed in the case we present. This new case report of PENS confirms the autonomous nature

  12. Recessive antimorphic alleles overcome functionally redundant loci to reveal TSO1 function in Arabidopsis flowers and meristems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paja Sijacic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis TSO1 encodes a protein with conserved CXC domains known to bind DNA and is homologous to animal proteins that function in chromatin complexes. tso1 mutants fall into two classes due to their distinct phenotypes. Class I, represented by two different missense mutations in the CXC domain, leads to failure in floral organ development, sterility, and fasciated inflorescence meristems. Class II, represented by a nonsense mutation and a T-DNA insertion line, develops wild-type-like flowers and inflorescences but shows severely reduced fertility. The phenotypic variability of tso1 alleles presents challenges in determining the true function of TSO1. In this study, we use artificial microRNA, double mutant analysis, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to investigate the molecular basis underlying these two distinct classes of phenotypes. We show that the class I mutants could be converted into class II by artificial microRNA knockdown of the tso1 mutant transcript, suggesting that class I alleles produce antimorphic mutant proteins that interfere with functionally redundant loci. We identified one such redundant factor coded by the closely related TSO1 homolog SOL2. We show that the class I phenotype can be mimicked by knocking out both TSO1 and its homolog SOL2 in double mutants. Such antimorphic alleles targeting redundant factors are likely prevalent in Arabidopsis and maybe common in organisms with many sets of paralogous genes such as human. Our data challenge the conventional view that recessive alleles are always hypomorphic or null and that antimorphic alleles are always dominant. This study shows that recessive alleles can also be antimorphic and can produce a phenotype more severe than null by interfering with the function of related loci. This finding adds a new paradigm to classical genetic concepts, with important implications for future genetic studies both in basic research as well as in agriculture and medicine.

  13. Auxin-cytokinin synergism in vitro for producing genetically stable plants of Ruta graveolens using shoot tip meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faisal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for Ruta graveolens Linn. using shoot tip meristems derived from a 4-month-old field grown plant. In vitro shoot regeneration and proliferation was accomplished on Murashige and Skoogs (MS semi-solid medium in addition to different doses of cytokinins viz.6- benzyl adenine (BA, Kinetin (Kn or 2-isopetynyl adenine (2iP, singly or in combination with auxins viz. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. Highest regeneration frequency (27.6% was obtained on (MS medium composed of BA (10 µM with maximum number (9.4 of shoots and 4.3 cm shoot length after 4 weeks of incubation. Among various combinations tried best regeneration frequency (71% of multiple shoot formation with highest number (12.6 of shoots per shoot tip explants were achieved in MS medium augmented with a combination BA (10.0 µM and NAA (2.5 µM after 4 weeks of incubation. The optimum frequency (97% of rhizogenesis was achieved on half-strength MS medium having 0.5 µM IBA after 4 weeks of incubation. Tissue culture raised plantlets with 5–7 fully opened leaves with healthy root system were successfully acclimatized off in Soilrite™ with 80% survival rate followed by transportation to normal soil under natural light. Genetic stability among in vitro raised progeny was evaluated by ISSR and RAPD markers. The entire banding pattern revealed from in vitro regenerated plants was monomorphic to the donor. The present protocol provides an alternative option for commercial propagation and fruitful setting up of genetically uniform progeny for sustainable utilization and germplasm preservation.

  14. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  15. Basal cell nevus syndrome - close-up of palm (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skeletal abnormalities. Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas. This ... close-up of the pits found in the palm of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

  16. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmishev, Lyubomir A.; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated. PMID:23439912

  17. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  18. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell ...

  19. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively.

  20. Converging Light, Energy and Hormonal Signaling Control Meristem Activity, Leaf Initiation, and Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Binish; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Dóczi, Róbert; Grove, Elliot; Railo, Saana; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Bögre, László; López-Juez, Enrique

    2018-02-01

    The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development, and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other has yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation also is unclear. Here, we report the discovery that the dark-arrested meristematic region of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) experiences a local energy deprivation state and confirm previous findings that the PIN1 auxin transporter is diffusely localized in the dark. Light triggers a rapid removal of the starvation state and the establishment of PIN1 polar membrane localization consistent with auxin export, both preceding the induction of cell cycle- and cytoplasmic growth-associated genes. We demonstrate that shoot meristematic activity can occur in the dark through the manipulation of auxin and cytokinin activity as well as through the activation of energy signaling, both targets of photomorphogenesis action, but the organ developmental outcomes differ: while TOR-dependent energy signals alone stimulate cell proliferation, the development of a normal leaf lamina requires photomorphogenesis-like hormonal responses. We further show that energy signaling adjusts the extent of cell cycle activity and growth of young leaves non-cellautonomously to available photosynthates and leads to organs constituted of a greater number of cells developing under higher irradiance. This makes energy signaling perhaps the most important biomass growth determinant under natural, unstressed conditions. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Converging Light, Energy and Hormonal Signaling Control Meristem Activity, Leaf Initiation, and Growth1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Binish; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Grove, Elliot; Railo, Saana; Palme, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development, and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other has yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation also is unclear. Here, we report the discovery that the dark-arrested meristematic region of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) experiences a local energy deprivation state and confirm previous findings that the PIN1 auxin transporter is diffusely localized in the dark. Light triggers a rapid removal of the starvation state and the establishment of PIN1 polar membrane localization consistent with auxin export, both preceding the induction of cell cycle- and cytoplasmic growth-associated genes. We demonstrate that shoot meristematic activity can occur in the dark through the manipulation of auxin and cytokinin activity as well as through the activation of energy signaling, both targets of photomorphogenesis action, but the organ developmental outcomes differ: while TOR-dependent energy signals alone stimulate cell proliferation, the development of a normal leaf lamina requires photomorphogenesis-like hormonal responses. We further show that energy signaling adjusts the extent of cell cycle activity and growth of young leaves non-cellautonomously to available photosynthates and leads to organs constituted of a greater number of cells developing under higher irradiance. This makes energy signaling perhaps the most important biomass growth determinant under natural, unstressed conditions. PMID:29284741

  2. Repression of Lateral Organ Boundary Genes by PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH Is Essential for Meristem Maintenance and Flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha; Ragni, Laura; Tabb, Paul; Salasini, Brenda C; Chatfield, Steven; Datla, Raju; Lock, John; Kuai, Xiahezi; Després, Charles; Proveniers, Marcel; Yongguo, Cao; Xiang, Daoquan; Morin, Halima; Rullière, Jean-Pierre; Citerne, Sylvie; Hepworth, Shelley R; Pautot, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), endogenous and environmental signals acting on the shoot apical meristem cause acquisition of inflorescence meristem fate. This results in changed patterns of aerial development seen as the transition from making leaves to the production of flowers separated by elongated internodes. Two related BEL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF), fulfill this transition. Loss of function of these genes impairs stem cell maintenance and blocks internode elongation and flowering. We show here that pny pnf apices misexpress lateral organ boundary genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 (KNAT6) together with ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1). Inactivation of genes in this module fully rescues pny pnf defects. We further show that BOP1 directly activates ATH1, whereas activation of KNAT6 is indirect. The pny pnf restoration correlates with renewed accumulation of transcripts conferring floral meristem identity, including FD, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes, LEAFY, and APETALA1. To gain insight into how this module blocks flowering, we analyzed the transcriptome of BOP1-overexpressing plants. Our data suggest a central role for the microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE-microRNA172 module in integrating stress signals conferred in part by promotion of jasmonic acid biosynthesis. These data reveal a potential mechanism by which repression of lateral organ boundary genes by PNY-PNF is essential for flowering. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigarroa Rieche Alina Katil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  4. Depletion of cellular brassinolide decreases embryo production and disrupts the architecture of the apical meristems in Brassica napus microspore-derived embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Mark; Elhiti, Mohamed; Waldner, Blaine; Stasolla, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Exogenous applications of brassinolide (BL) increased the number and quality of microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) whereas treatments with brassinazole (BrZ), a BL biosynthetic inhibitor, had the opposite effect. At the optimal concentration (4x10(-6) M) BrZ decreased both embryo yield and conversion to less than half the value of control embryos. Metabolic studies revealed that BL levels had profound effects on glutathione and ascorbate metabolism by altering the amounts of their reduced forms (ASC and GSH) and oxidized forms [dehydroascorbate (DHA), ascorbate free radicals (AFRs), and GSSG]. Applications of BL switched the glutathione and ascorbate pools towards the oxidized forms, thereby lowering the ASC/ASC+DHA+AFR and GSH/GSH+GSSG ratios. These changes were ascribed to the ability of BL to increase the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and decrease that of glutathione reductase (GR). This trend was reversed in a BL-depleted environment, effected by BrZ applications. These metabolic alterations were associated with changes in embryo structure and performance. BL-treated MDEs developed zygotic-like shoot apical meristems (SAMs) whereas embryos treated with BrZ developed abnormal meristems. In the presence of BrZ, embryos either lacked a visible SAM, or formed SAMs in which the meristematic cells showed signs of differentiation, such as vacuolation and storage product accumulation. These abnormalities were accompanied by the lack or misexpression of three meristem marker genes isolated from Brassica napus (denoted as BnSTM, BnCLV1, and BnZLL-1) homologous to the Arabidopsis SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), CLAVATA 1 (CLV1), and ZWILLE (ZLL). The expression of BnSTM and BnCLV1 increased after a few days in cultures in embryos treated with BL whereas an opposite tendency was observed with applications of BrZ. Compared with control embryos where these two genes exhibited abnormal localization patterns, BnSTM and BnCLV1 always localized throughout the subapical domains

  5. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Dopaminergic innervation of human basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensa, L; Cossette, M; Parent, A

    2000-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of some of our recent tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical studies of the dopaminergic innervation of the human basal ganglia. It also reports new findings on the presence of TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the striatum. Our data show the existence of nigrostriatal TH-ir axons that provide collaterals arborizing in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the ansa lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson's pencils. We postulate that this extrastriatal innervation, which allows nigral dopaminergic neurons to directly affect the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus, plays a critical role in the functional organisation of human basal ganglia. The TH-ir fibres that reach the striatum arborize according to a highly heterogeneous pattern. At rostral striatal levels, numerous small TH-poor zones embedded in a TH-rich matrix correspond to calbindin-poor striosomes and calbindin-rich extrastriosomal matrix, respectively. At caudal striatal levels, in contrast, striosomes display a TH immunostaining that is more intense than that of the matrix. A significant number of small, oval, aspiny TH-ir neurons scattered throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the caudate nucleus and putamen, together with a few larger, multipolar, spiny TH-ir neurons lying principally within the ventral portion of the putamen, were disclosed in human. This potential source of intrinsic striatal dopamine might play an important role in the functional organisation of the human striatum, particularly in case of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Primary choriocarcinoma of the bilateral basal ganglia presenting in a teenaged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon C. Perry, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma (PICCC, a type of germ-cell tumor, is a very rare primary tumor of the central nervous system that generally arises in the pineal or suprasellar region. We present a case of a teenage boy with PICCC of the bilateral basal ganglia, an anatomic site for which we were unable to find the previous reports. We offer discussion of the differential diagnosis, imaging characteristics, and prognosis of PICCC and germ-cell tumors of the basal ganglia, in the hope that it will increase awareness and allow for early detection.

  8. Basal erosion: barrier to earthquake propagation? Insight from the northern chilean forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Subducted topographic features have often been suspected as barriers to large earthquake propagation. These features would induce basal erosion, leading to a large network of fractures impeding large nucleation or shear localization. Looking for correlation between basal erosion and megathrust ruptures is thus critical nowadays to understand earthquake mechanics and infer rupture scenarios. In this study, we propose to seek possible location of basal erosion from the forearc morphology by applying the critical taper theory. We focus on the North Chile subduction zone that has experienced four major earthquakes during the last two decades and where basal erosion and seamount subduction have already been suspected. Basal erosion should occur when the basal friction approaches the internal friction. We thus seek what part of the forearc is at critical state and select areas for which the two frictions are almost equal. We find a large band, located at 25km depth, from the Mejillones peninsula to the Iquique region at critical state with very high basal friction. The critical areas seem to surround the Tocopilla 2007 Mw 7.7 and the Iquique 2014 Mw 8.1 ruptures. When compared with the interseismic coupling, except for the Tocopilla segment, the critical areas are located in low-coupled zones. More interestingly, the reported normal faults of the forearc do not appear above the erosional areas but rather between them. These normal faults are systematically located above locked patches and seismic asperities. These areas are actually at extensional critical state and characterized by a very low effective friction. We thus suspect the extensional features to be related to earthquakes rather than basal erosion. We then look for similar relationships along the Sumatra subduction zone to see if basal erosion is a common process. The Tocopilla and Iquique earthquakes ruptured only part of the northern Chile seismic gap although the full segment was ready for a new large

  9. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  10. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  11. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...... by immunohistochemistry followed by automated image analysis in facial BCC, peritumoural skin and normal, buttock skin. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for FOXP3 and cytokines involved in T-reg attraction and T-cell activation. T-regs comprised 45% of CD4-cells surrounding BCC. FOXP3 was highly...

  12. Basal cell carcinoma after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Keisuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Ishida, Yasuhisa; Tahara, Shinya; Osaki, Takeo; Nomura, Tadashi; Ejiri, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    We reported two cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that developed after radiation therapy. A 50-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy for the treatment of intracranial germinoma at the age of 22, presented with several tumors around the radiation ulcer. All tumors showed BCC. A 33-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy on the head for the treatment of leukemia at the age of 2, presented with a black nodule within the area of irradiation. The tumor showed BCC. We discuss the occurrence of BCC after radiation therapy. (author)

  13. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  14. The Distribution of Basal Water Beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet from Radio-Echo Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T.; Williams, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Martos, Y. M.; Cooper, M.; Siegert, M. J.; Paden, J. D.; Huybrechts, P.; Bamber, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    There is widespread, but often indirect, evidence that a significant fraction of the Greenland Ice Sheet is thawed at the bed. This includes major outlet glaciers and around the NorthGRIP ice-core in the interior. However, the ice-sheet-wide distribution of basal water is poorly constrained by existing observations, and the spatial relationship between basal water and other ice-sheet and subglacial properties is therefore largely unexplored. In principle, airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) surveys provide the necessary information and spatial coverage to infer the presence of basal water at the ice-sheet scale. However, due to uncertainty and spatial variation in radar signal attenuation, the commonly used water diagnostic, bed-echo reflectivity, is highly ambiguous and prone to spatial bias. Here we introduce a new RES diagnostic for the presence of basal water which incorporates both sharp step-transitions and rapid fluctuations in bed-echo reflectivity. This has the advantage of being (near) independent of attenuation model, and enables a decade of recent Operation Ice Bride RES survey data to be combined in a single map for basal water. The ice-sheet-wide water predictions are compared with: bed topography and drainage network structure, existing knowledge of the thermal state and geothermal heat flux, and ice velocity. In addition to the fast flowing ice-sheet margins, we also demonstrate widespread water routing and storage in parts of the slow-flowing northern interior. Notably, this includes a quasi-linear `corridor' of basal water, extending from NorthGRIP to Petermann glacier, which spatially correlates with a region of locally high (magnetic-derived) geothermal heat flux. The predicted water distribution places a new constraint upon the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and could be used as an input for ice-sheet model simulations.

  15. Locally Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intraocular Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 103 - year - old patient, with duration of complaints of about ten years. The initial complaint had been presented as a small nodule, located on the eyebrow, which subsequently ulcerated and encompassed larger regions of the upper and lower eyelids. For the past three years, the patient also had complaints of a worsening of his vision, without seeking for medical help. Within the dermatological examination, an intraocular and periocular localised tumour was established, characterised by a raised peripheral edge and central ulceration. More careful examination revealed that the bulb was fully consumed. The patient refused further diagnosis and treatment. Advanced basal cell carcinomas with intraocular invasion are rare in general. If the patient refuses surgery, radiotherapy and systemic therapy with modern medications such as Vismodegib or Sonidegib are available as treatment options.

  16. Large ulcerating metastasizing basal cell carcinoma of the back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Banič

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available So far, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used in the detection of basal cell carcinomas (BCC metastases. We have used PET-CT postoperatively to detect any further metastases of BCC not visible by other techniques. BCC of the trunk are reportedly larger than those located in the head and neck region. These tumors also have a higher incidence of metastasizing. Although it has been suggested in the literature that the TNM (Tumor–Nodes-Metastases system is not being used routinely for metastasizing BCC. There have been 19 reports of metastasizing BCC of the trunk. We present a case of a 78-year old male patient with large ulcerating metastasizing BCC of the trunk. The literature is reviewed for similar cases and the TNM system is applied.

  17. Single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT) in basal ganglia disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsch, K.

    1997-01-01

    In the past, SPECT investigations of regional cerebral blood flow have played a minor role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with basal ganglia disorders. More recently, however, interest in nuclear medicine procedures has dramatically increased since with the development of selective receptor ligands diagnostic tools have been provided which address the pathology in basal ganglia disorders more specifically than other diagnostic modalities. Evaluations of the pre- and postsynaptic aspects of the dopaminergic system, for example, deliver not only interesting data from the scientific point of view but also for the daily routine work. This paper summarizes some of the experience reported in the literature on SPECT investigations in basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, parkinsonian syndromes of other etiology, Wilson's and Huntington's disease, focal dystonias, and schizophrenia under treatment with neuroleptics. (orig.) [de

  18. Basal cell carcinoma in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, L A; Woods, L; Mathews, K G

    1997-01-01

    Tumors of the integumentary system are relatively common in companion birds. Dermal tumors in pet birds can be epithelial, mesenchymal, or vascular in origin. Basal cell carcinomas appear to be extremely rare in birds. An adult female blue-fronted Amazon parrot was examined because it exhibited bilateral cervical masses that extended from the base of the skull to the ingluvial region. The tumors were removed by surgical excision. Microscopic examination of the masses revealed neoplastic epithelial cells that extended to all borders of the sections; scattered vessels with neoplastic cells within their lumens were also found. The histopathologic diagnosis was basal cell carcinoma. Six weeks postoperatively, the masses recurred and the bird was euthanatized. This report suggests that basal cell carcinomas should be considered as a differential for avian dermal tumors. This neoplastic condition can be aggressive and has the potential to metastasize.

  19. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma of Mandible: A Rare Case Report with Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Shakya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm that has a strong tendency to local invasion and that can grow to be quite large without metastasizing. Rare examples of distant metastasis of an ameloblastoma in lungs or regional lymph nodes do exist. It has an aggressive and recurrent course and is rarely metastatic. Radiographically it shares common features with other lesions such as the giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, and renal cell carcinoma metastasis; a definitive diagnosis can only be made with histopathology. Basal cell ameloblastoma is believed to be the rarest histologic subtype in which the tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has even fewer features of peripheral palisading. Till date, only few cases of basal cell ameloblastoma have been reported in the literature. Considering the rarity of the lesion, we report here an interesting and unique case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible occurring in a very old patient.

  20. Basal cell ameloblastoma of mandible: a rare case report with review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Hemant; Khare, Vikram; Pardhe, Nilesh; Mathur, Ena; Chouhan, Mansi

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm that has a strong tendency to local invasion and that can grow to be quite large without metastasizing. Rare examples of distant metastasis of an ameloblastoma in lungs or regional lymph nodes do exist. It has an aggressive and recurrent course and is rarely metastatic. Radiographically it shares common features with other lesions such as the giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, and renal cell carcinoma metastasis; a definitive diagnosis can only be made with histopathology. Basal cell ameloblastoma is believed to be the rarest histologic subtype in which the tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has even fewer features of peripheral palisading. Till date, only few cases of basal cell ameloblastoma have been reported in the literature. Considering the rarity of the lesion, we report here an interesting and unique case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible occurring in a very old patient.

  1. Interaction of synchronized dynamics in cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Zauber, S Elizabeth; Worth, Robert M; Witt, Thomas; Rubchinsky, Leonid L

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease pathophysiology is marked by increased oscillatory and synchronous activity in the beta frequency band in cortical and basal ganglia circuits. This study explores the functional connections between synchronized dynamics of cortical areas and synchronized dynamics of subcortical areas in Parkinson's disease. We simultaneously recorded neuronal units (spikes) and local field potentials (LFP) from subthalamic nucleus (STN) and electroencephalograms (EEGs) from the scalp in parkinsonian patients, and analysed the correlation between the time courses of the spike-LFP synchronization and inter-electrode EEG synchronization. We found the (non-invasively obtained) time course of the synchrony strength between EEG electrodes and the (invasively obtained) time course of the synchrony between spiking units and LFP in STN to be weakly, but significantly, correlated with each other. This correlation is largest for the bilateral motor EEG synchronization, followed by bilateral frontal EEG synchronization. Our observations suggest that there may be multiple functional modes by which the cortical and basal ganglia circuits interact with each other in Parkinson's disease: not only may synchronization be observed between some areas in cortex and the basal ganglia, but also synchronization within cortex and within basal ganglia may be related, suggesting potentially a more global functional interaction. More coherent dynamics in one brain region may modulate or activate the dynamics of another brain region in a more powerful way, causing correlations between changes in synchrony strength in the two regions. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Brown, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of the basal ganglia (BG) that leads to movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia still remain unclear. The classic model, based on two distinct pathways and described nearly 20 years ago by Albin and Delong, fails to explain why lesion or stimulation of the globus pallidus interna improves dyskinesias and why lesion or stimulation of the thalamus does not cause prominent bradykinesia. These paradoxes, initially highlighted out by Marsden and Obeso, led to the proposition that the pattern of neuronal discharge determines pathological function. Accordingly, over the past decade, attention has switched from considerations of discharge rate to the characterisation of synchronised activity within BG networks. Here we would like to briefly review current knowledge about synchronised oscillatory activity in the BG and focus on its relationship to abnormal motor function. In particular, we hypothesise that the frequency of synchronisation helps determine the nature of any motor deficit, perhaps as a consequence of the different tuning properties of basal ganglia-cortical sub-circuits.

  3. Transient decreases in methylation at 5'-cCGG-3' sequences in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) meristem DNA during progression of tubers through dormancy precede the resumption of sprout growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, R David; Suttle, Jeffrey C

    2003-02-01

    The 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content in DNA of tuber meristems isolated from field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) was determined during a 7-month storage period at 3 degrees C for three growing/postharvest seasons. No significant changes in 5mC levels were noted genome-wide or within 5'-CG-3' dinucleotide sequences, 5'-CG-3' islands or 5'-CA(T)G-3' trinucleotide sequences during storage. However, a consistent but transient 50-70% decrease in methylation at both cytosines within 5'-CCGG-3' sequences was detected that peaked 112-194 days after harvest. This result was corroborated by methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of meristem DNA. Similar to tuber meristems undergoing progression through natural dormancy, premature chemical termination of dormancy resulted in rapid, transient 5'-CCGG-3' demethylation in meristem DNA. Minimum methylation levels at this sequence preceded initiation of high levels of de novo DNA synthesis by two days. Cytosine methylation status was also followed in in vitro-generated potato microtubers during 7 months of post-harvest storage. As in DNA from tuber bud meristems, no changes in genome-wide 5mC content or methylation at 5'-CA(T)G-3' or 5'-CG-3' island sequences were noted in microtuber DNA. However, there was a transient 46% drop in methylation at 5'-CG-3' dinucleotides concomitant with minimum levels of 5'-CCGG-3' methylation (30-60% below those in dormant microtubers) 57-98 days after harvest. As microtubers exited dormancy, there were sustained three- and seven-fold increases in RNA and DNA synthesis rates, peaking on or after 98 days of storage, respectively. Together, these data demonstrate that demethylation of 5'-CCGG-3' sequences occurs independently of tuber age during dormancy progression and precedes transcriptional activation of genes leading to cell division and meristem growth in potatoes.

  4. Acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemia: diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sup [Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Koyang-City, Gyunggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jong-Ho [Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Koyang (Korea); Ihn, Yon kwon; Kim, Young Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seon Kyu [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We studied four patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure who developed sudden choreic movement disorders. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, MR imaging findings, and clinical outcome in each patient were evaluated. All four patients had long-term diabetes mellitus and severe azotaemia. Brain MR findings consisted of bilateral symmetric basal ganglia lesions, with decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All three patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) showed signal intensities similar to those of the surroundings in regions corresponding to increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with slightly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Two of the patients showed small focal areas of restricted diffusion within the basal ganglia lesions. After haemodialysis, follow-up MR imaging in all patients demonstrated that the basal ganglia lesions had regressed markedly, with some residual changes. The movement disorders also improved in all patients. A syndrome associated with acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemic patients is rare, with reversible changes demonstrated by clinical and imaging findings. DWI showed that the bilateral basal ganglia lesions in this syndrome were primarily vasogenic in origin, although there were small foci of cytotoxic oedema within the lesions. (orig.)

  5. A novel method of basal crevasse height estimation and subsequent rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, L.; Catania, G. A.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.

    2012-12-01

    Basal crevasses may play an important precursory role in the location and propagation of rifts and in ice shelf disintegration. Here we develop a novel method for estimating the locations and heights of basal crevasses formed at the grounding line of ice shelves and ice streams. We assume a thin-elastic beam formulation (TEB) with a tensional plastic yielding criterion to capture the physics of a tidally flexed grounding line. Observations of basal crevasses in the Siple Coast area match well with predictions produced by this method. Areas with large misfit can be delineated by examining the strain rate field; indeed, in our estimations those crevasses which deviate most from the TEB prediction lie directly in a shear margin. We test the method against other areas in the Larsen Ice Shelf, and find again a good match. Thus we suggest the TEB as an alternative to other crevasse estimation methods, as it produces a good fit in predominantly tensile regions, requires no tuning or prior information, and is computationally free to implement into large scale ice models which aim at physically simulating calving and fracture processes. We pursue modeling basal crevasses as they evolve with a thermomechanical finite-difference 3-dimensional model called SNAC. Viscoelastoplastic ice follows Mohr-Coulomb tension failure with Glen's flow law. We examine the conditions necessary for a basal crevasse formed on the downstream side of an ice rise to propagate the full thickness of the ice, developing into a rift.

  6. Orexin A-induced enhancement of attentional processing in rats: role of basal forebrain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajo, Kristin N; Fadel, Jim R; Burk, Joshua A

    2016-02-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides released in multiple brain regions from neurons that originate within the lateral hypothalamus and contiguous perfornical area. The basal forebrain, a structure implicated in attentional processing, receives orexinergic inputs. Our previous work demonstrated that administration of an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, systemically or via infusion directly into the basal forebrain, can disrupt performance in a task that places explicit demands on attentional processing. Given that the orexin-1 receptor binds orexin A with high affinity, we tested whether orexin A could enhance attention in rats. Attentional performance was assessed using a task that required discrimination of variable duration visual signals from trials when no signal was presented. We also tested whether infusions of orexin A into the lateral ventricle could attenuate deficits following lesions of medial prefrontal cortical cholinergic projections that arise from the basal forebrain. Infusions of orexin A into the basal forebrain attenuated distracter-induced decreases in attentional performance. Orexin A attenuated deficits in lesioned animals when a visual distracter was presented. The present results support the view that orexin A can enhance attentional performance via actions in the basal forebrain and may be beneficial for some conditions characterized by attentional dysfunction due to disruption of cortical cholinergic inputs.

  7. Pathways of basal meltwater from Antarctic ice shelves: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Kazuya; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2014-09-01

    We investigate spreading pathways of basal meltwater released from all Antarctic ice shelves using a circumpolar coupled ice shelf-sea ice-ocean model that reproduces major features of the Southern Ocean circulation, including the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Several independent virtual tracers are used to identify detailed pathways of basal meltwaters. The spreading pathways of the meltwater tracers depend on formation sites, because the meltwaters are transported by local ambient ocean circulation. Meltwaters from ice shelves in the Weddell and Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas in surface/subsurface layers are effectively advected to lower latitudes with the ACC. Although a large portion of the basal meltwaters is present in surface and subsurface layers, a part of the basal meltwaters penetrates into the bottom layer through active dense water formation along the Antarctic coastal margins. The signals at the seafloor extend along the topography, showing a horizontal distribution similar to the observed spreading of Antarctic Bottom Water. Meltwaters originating from ice shelves in the Weddell and Ross Seas and in the Indian sector significantly contribute to the bottom signals. A series of numerical experiments in which thermodynamic interaction between the ice shelf and ocean is neglected regionally demonstrates that the basal meltwater of each ice shelf impacts sea ice and/or ocean thermohaline circulation in the Southern Ocean. This article was corrected on 10 OCT 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  8. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were

  9. Altered basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in frontal lobe epilepsy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Pu; Peng, Rui; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were gathered from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to assess the functional connections between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Regions of interest, including the left/right caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus, were selected as the seeds. Two sample t-test was used to determine the difference between patients and controls, while controlling the age, gender and head motions. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FCs between basal ganglia and regions including the right fusiform gyrus, the bilateral cingulate gyrus, the precuneus and anterior cingulate gyrus. Reduced FCs were mainly located in a range of brain regions including the bilateral middle occipital gyrus, the ventral frontal lobe, the right putamen, the left fusiform gyrus and right rolandic operculum. In addition, the relationships between basal ganglia-cingulate connections and durations of epilepsy were also found. The alterations of functional integrity within the basal ganglia, as well as its connections to limbic and ventral frontal areas, indicate the important roles of the basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in FLE, and provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanism of FLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Retalho em ilha de tubarão: uma técnica cirúrgica reconstrutiva de defeitos localizados na área nasal alar/perialar. Um procedimento simples Shark island pedicle flap for repairing of basal cell carcinoma localized in nasal ala-perialar region: a simple procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa C André

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O Carcinoma Basocelular é a neoplasia cutânea mais frequente. Os autores descrevem uma técnica realizada unicamente num tempo operatório para correção de defeitos na asa do nariz após excisão tumoral. Esta técnica simples permite a correção cirúrgica de defeitos nesta localização possibilitando a reconstrução da anatomia local e a preservação das unidades cosméticas, sem a necessidade de enxertoBasal Cell Carcinoma is the most common skin cancer. We describe a single-staged technique for correction of nasal ala defect after the excision of a basal cell carcinoma. This technique allows correction of surgical defects of the ala rebuilding the original anatomy, maintaining cosmetic units, without need for a graft

  11. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeropoulos, E T; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P B; McAllan, B M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; White, C R; Jastroch, M

    2012-01-07

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence.

  12. Zastosowanie peptonu Peptobak-Bacutil tu hodowli merystematycznej tkanki Cymbidium Sw. [Application of the peptone Peptobak-Bacutil medium in the culture of meristem-tissue of Cymbidium Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kukułczanka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In was found that peptone of Peptobak-Bacutil brand (produced in Poland fulfills perfectly the requirements in cultures in vitro of the meristem tissues of Cymbidium in the modified Tsuchiya's medium in a concentration of 2 g per 1. A decrease in the concentration to 1 g per 1. affects the growth intensity of the tissue, but an increase of concentration up to 3 g per 1. retards the transformation of protocorms into the plant-stage. Growth of the meristem tissue of Cymbidium in the medium consolidated with agar is weaker and the number of protocorms produced 2,3 times lower than in liquid media.

  13. Genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) reveals cis- and trans-effects on gene expression in maize hybrid meristem tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mei; Yang, Sean; Rupe, Mary; Hu, Bin; Bickel, David R; Arthur, Lane; Smith, Oscar

    2008-03-01

    Allelic differences in expression are important genetic factors contributing to quantitative trait variation in various organisms. However, the extent of genome-wide allele-specific expression by different modes of gene regulation has not been well characterized in plants. In this study we developed a new methodology for allele-specific expression analysis by applying Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS), an open ended and sequencing based mRNA profiling technology. This methodology enabled a genome-wide evaluation of cis- and trans-effects on allelic expression in six meristem stages of the maize hybrid. Summarization of data from nearly 400 pairs of MPSS allelic signature tags showed that 60% of the genes in the hybrid meristems exhibited differential allelic expression. Because both alleles are subjected to the same trans-acting factors in the hybrid, the data suggest the abundance of cis-regulatory differences in the genome. Comparing the same allele expressed in the hybrid versus its inbred parents showed that 40% of the genes were differentially expressed, suggesting different trans-acting effects present in different genotypes. Such trans-acting effects may result in gene expression in the hybrid different from allelic additive expression. With this approach we quantified gene expression in the hybrid relative to its inbred parents at the allele-specific level. As compared to measuring total transcript levels, this study provides a new level of understanding of different modes of gene regulation in the hybrid and the molecular basis of heterosis.

  14. The concept of the eudicot shoot apical meristem as it applies to four Spiraea (Rosaceae), one Mentha (Lamiaceae) and one Euonymus (Celastraceae) cultivars based on chimeric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    Eversporting eudicots were sought to see if they behave like gymnosperms. Behaviour of eversporting gymnosperm chimeras indicates a single apical cell is present in SAM and it would be of interest to see if eudicot chimeras have the same behaviour. Four eversporting spireas, the pineapple mint and the Silver King euonymus were inspected for the fate of the yellow (mutant)-green (wild type) chimeras. As with gymnosperms, unstable eudicot chimeras in the four spireas, the pineapple mint and the Silver King euonymus became stable yellow about 80 % or more of the time and 20 % or less became stable green. The statistically significant preponderance of chimeric fates becoming all yellow suggests that a single apical cell resides in the yellow tunica. As with gymnosperms, descendent cells of the yellow replacement corpus cell eventually take over the corpus. Here is the first chimeric set of data to support the hypothesis of a one-celled meristem in eudicots rather than the traditional view of a muticellular meristem.

  15. Subregional Basal Forebrain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimann, Ingo; Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopez; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; dos Santos, Gláucia Aparecida Bento; da Silva, Rafael Emídio; Mitchell, Alex J.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Teipel, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest severe and region-specific neurodegeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Here, we studied the between-center reliability and diagnostic accuracy of MRI-based BFCS volumetry in a large multicenter data set, including participants with prodromal (n = 41) or clinically manifest AD (n = 134) and 148 cognitively healthy controls. Atrophy was determined using voxel-based and region-of-interest based analyses of high-dimensionally normalized MRI scans using a newly created map of the BFCS based on postmortem in cranio MRI and histology. The AD group showed significant volume reductions of all subregions of the BFCS, which were most pronounced in the posterior nucleus basalis Meynert (NbM). The mild cognitive impairment-AD group showed pronounced volume reductions in the posterior NbM, but preserved volumes of anterior-medial regions. Diagnostic accuracy of posterior NbM volume was superior to hippocampus volume in both groups, despite higher multicenter variability of the BFCS measurements. The data of our study suggest that BFCS morphometry may provide an emerging biomarker in AD. PMID:24503619

  16. Survey of Basal Stem Rot Disease on Oil Palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Kebun Bukit Kijang,North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisnawita; Hanum, H.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basal stem rot disease caused by Ganoderma sp. is a significant disease on oil palm plantations in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatera. Currently, the pathogen does not only attack the plants that have produced (old plants) but also attacks the plants that have not produced in the first generation yet. A survey of the distribution of the basal stem rot disease in the plantation of the community has been completed in order to illustrate the distribution and the incidence of the basal stem rot disease in 5 locations of the oil palm plantation of the community in Desa Bukit Kijang, Region of Asahan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. From the research, it is revealed that the basal stem rot disease has spread to all of the observed locations with the level of disease incidence between 0.71% in Kebun Bukit Kijang 3 to 50% in the 17 years old oil palm in Kebun Bukit Kijang 4 and Bukit Kijang 5. The observable symptoms of the basal stem rot disease are chlorotic leaves, the appearance of fruiting body, collapsed plants, and the existence of holes on the basal stem. The incidence of basal stem rot disease is higher on land due to a high sand content (>50%).

  17. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  18. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  19. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the face: surgical management and challenges for reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, A; Mijiti, A; Yarbag, A; Moming, A

    2016-02-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma, in which the tumour measures 5 cm or greater in diameter, is a very rare skin malignancy that accounts for less than 1 per cent of all basal cell tumours. Very few studies have reported on the incidence, resection and reconstruction of this lesion worldwide. In total, 17 patients with giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck region underwent surgical excision and reconstruction at our hospital. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed and analysed. The lesion was usually in the forehead, eyelid, lips or nasal-cheek region. The greatest diameter ranged from 5 to 11 cm, with 5-6 cm being the most common size at the time of presentation. All patients had their tumour resected and reconstructed in a single-stage procedure, mostly with a local advancement flap, and with no post-operative flap failure. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck can be successfully treated with a local flap in a single-stage approach.

  1. Motor phenotype and magnetic resonance measures of basal ganglia iron levels in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzeck, Nico; Singh-Curry, Victoria; Eckart, Cindy; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Perry, Richard J; Bain, Peter G; Düzel, Emrah; Husain, Masud

    2013-12-01

    In Parkinson's disease the degree of motor impairment can be classified with respect to tremor dominant and akinetic rigid features. While tremor dominance and akinetic rigidity might represent two ends of a continuum rather than discrete entities, it would be important to have non-invasive markers of any biological differences between them in vivo, to assess disease trajectories and response to treatment, as well as providing insights into the underlying mechanisms contributing to heterogeneity within the Parkinson's disease population. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether Parkinson's disease patients exhibit structural changes within the basal ganglia that might relate to motor phenotype. Specifically, we examined volumes of basal ganglia regions, as well as transverse relaxation rate (a putative marker of iron load) and magnetization transfer saturation (considered to index structural integrity) within these regions in 40 individuals. We found decreased volume and reduced magnetization transfer within the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease patients compared to healthy controls. Importantly, there was a positive correlation between tremulous motor phenotype and transverse relaxation rate (reflecting iron load) within the putamen, caudate and thalamus. Our findings suggest that akinetic rigid and tremor dominant symptoms of Parkinson's disease might be differentiated on the basis of the transverse relaxation rate within specific basal ganglia structures. Moreover, they suggest that iron load within the basal ganglia makes an important contribution to motor phenotype, a key prognostic indicator of disease progression in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Disconnection syndromes of basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebrocerebellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Pandya, Deepak N

    2008-09-01

    Disconnection syndromes were originally conceptualized as a disruption of communication between different cerebral cortical areas. Two developments mandate a re-evaluation of this notion. First, we present a synopsis of our anatomical studies in monkey elucidating principles of organization of cerebral cortex. Efferent fibers emanate from every cortical area, and are directed with topographic precision via association fibers to ipsilateral cortical areas, commissural fibers to contralateral cerebral regions, striatal fibers to basal ganglia, and projection subcortical bundles to thalamus, brainstem and/or pontocerebellar system. We note that cortical areas can be defined by their patterns of subcortical and cortical connections. Second, we consider motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with lesions restricted to basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, and recognize that these lesions mimic deficits resulting from cortical lesions, with qualitative differences between the manifestations of lesions in functionally related areas of cortical and subcortical nodes. We consider these findings on the basis of anatomical observations from tract tracing studies in monkey, viewing them as disconnection syndromes reflecting loss of the contribution of subcortical nodes to the distributed neural circuits. We introduce a new theoretical framework for the distributed neural circuits, based on general, and specific, principles of anatomical organization, and on the architecture of the nodes that comprise these systems. We propose that neural architecture determines function, i.e., each architectonically distinct cortical and subcortical area contributes a unique transform, or computation, to information processing; anatomically precise and segregated connections between nodes define behavior; and association fiber tracts that link cerebral cortical areas with each other enable the cross-modal integration required for evolved complex behaviors. This model

  3. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  4. Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Triple Negative/Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Ebru PALA; Ümit BAYOL; Süheyla CUMURCU; Elif KESKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers.Material and Method: We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytoke...

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  6. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate.......70-105.56) (P basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...... a dysfunctional metabolism contributing to the high-fat-body composition....

  7. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males....... To investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...

  8. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun....... To investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males...

  9. Global dysrhythmia of cerebro-basal ganglia-cerebellar networks underlies motor tics following striatal disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCairn, Kevin W; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2013-01-09

    Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic expression remain unknown. We performed multisite, multielectrode recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials from the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex using a pharmacologic monkey model of motor tics/TS. Following microinjections of bicuculline into the sensorimotor putamen, periodic tics occurred predominantly in the orofacial region, and a sizable number of cerebellar neurons showed phasic changes in activity associated with tic episodes. Specifically, 64% of the recorded cerebellar cortex neurons exhibited increases in activity, and 85% of the dentate nucleus neurons displayed excitatory, inhibitory, or multiphasic responses. Critically, abnormal discharges of cerebellar cortex neurons and excitatory-type dentate neurons mostly preceded behavioral tic onset, indicating their central origins. Latencies of pathological activity in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex substantially overlapped, suggesting that aberrant signals may be traveling along divergent pathways to these structures from the basal ganglia. Furthermore, the occurrence of tic movement was most closely associated with local field potential spikes in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex, implying that these structures may function as a gate to release overt tic movements. These findings indicate that tic-generating networks in basal ganglia mediated tic disorders extend beyond classical cerebro-basal ganglia circuits, leading to global network dysrhythmia including cerebellar circuits.

  10. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  11. Expression of Arabidopsis class 1 phytoglobin (AtPgb1) delays death and degradation of the root apical meristem during severe PEG-induced water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Mohamed M; Huang, Shuanglong; Kapoor, Karuna; Hammond, Cassandra; Hill, Robert D; Stasolla, Claudio

    2017-11-28

    Maintenance of a functional root is fundamental to plant survival in response to some abiotic stresses, such as water deficit. In this study, we found that overexpression of Arabidopsis class 1 phytoglobin (AtPgb1) alleviated the growth retardation of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced water stress by reducing programmed cell death (PCD) associated with protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This was in contrast to PEG-stressed roots down-regulating AtPgb1 that exhibited extensive PCD and reduced expression of several attenuators of ER stress, including BAX Inhibitor-1 (BI-1). The death program experienced by the suppression of AtPgb1 in stressed roots was mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethylene. Suppression of ROS synthesis or ethylene perception reduced PCD and partially restored root growth. The PEG-induced cessation of root growth was preceded by structural changes in the root apical meristem (RAM), including the loss of cell and tissue specification, possibly as a result of alterations in PIN1- and PIN4-mediated auxin accumulation at the root pole. These events were attenuated by the overexpression of AtPgb1 and aggravated when AtPgb1 was suppressed. Specifically, suppression of AtPgb1 compromised the functionality of the WOX5-expressing quiescent cells (QCs), leading to the early and premature differentiation of the adjacent columella stem cells and to a rapid reduction in meristem size. The expression and localization of other root domain markers, such as SCARECROW (SCR), which demarks the endodermis and QCs, and WEREWOLF (WER), which specifies the lateral root cap, were also most affected in PEG-treated roots with suppressed AtPgb1. Collectively, the results demonstrate that AtPgb1 exercises a protective role in roots exposed to lethal levels of PEG, and suggest a novel function of this gene in ensuring meristem functionality through the retention of cell fate specification. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  12. Dose rate, mitotic cycle duration, and sensitivity of cell transitions from G1 → S and G2 → M to protracted gamma radiation in root meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.S.; Hof, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the relative radiosensitivity of the cell transition points of G1 → S and G2 → M in root meristems of several plant species. Label and mitotic indices and microspectrophotometry were used to measure the proportions of cells in each mitotic cycle stage in root meristems after protracted gamma radiation. The criterion of radiosensitivity was the dose rate needed to produce a tissue with less than 1 percent cells in S and none in M after 3 days of continuous exposure. The results show that DNA is the primary radiation target in proliferative root meristems and that the cycle duration stipulates the time interval of vulnerability. In each species, nonrandom reproducible cell proportions were established with 2C:4C:8C amounts of nuclear DNA after 3 days of exposure. Roots of Helianthus annuus, Crepis capillaris, and Tradescantia clone 02 had 80 percent cells with a 2C amount of DNA and 20 percent had a 4C amount of DNA. In these species the transition point of G1 → S was more radiosensitive than G2 → M. Roots of Pisum sativum and Triticum aestivum had cell proportions at 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA in frequencies of 0.10 to 0.20:0.40 to 0.60:0.30 to 0.40. In these two species 0.30 to 0.40 cells underwent radiation-induced endoreduplication that resulted from a rapid inhibition of cell transit from G2 → M and a slower impairment of G1 → S. Cells increased from 2C to 4C and from 4C to 8C amounts of DNA during irradiation. The proportions of nuclei with 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA were dependent in part upon the relative radiosensitivity of the G1 → S and G2 → M control points. The data show the relative radiosensitivity of the transition points from G1 → S and from G2 → M was species specific and unrelated to the cycle duration and mean nuclear DNA content of the plant species

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  14. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition for Locally Advanced Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Omar K; Yin, Vivian; Chou, Eva; Ball, Sharon; Kies, Merrill; William, William N; Migden, Michael; Thuro, Bradley A; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-08-01

    To review our experience treating patients with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, in patients with orbital or periocular locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or basal cell nevus syndrome. Retrospective interventional case series. We reviewed all patients with locally advanced or metastatic orbital or periocular BCC or basal cell nevus syndrome treated with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, at a comprehensive cancer center from 2009 through 2015. Reviewed data included age; sex; American Joint Commission on Cancer tumor, node, metastasis staging system designation; type and grade of drug-related side effects; response to treatment; duration of follow-up, and status at last follow-up. The study included 10 white men and 2 white women; the median age was 64.5 years. Ten patients had locally advanced BCC; 2 had basal cell nevus syndrome. Among the patients with locally advanced BCC, 5 had T3bN0M0 disease at presentation; 1 each had T3aN0M0, T3bN1M0, T2N1M1, T4N1M1, and T4N2cM1 disease. Overall, 3 patients had a complete response, 6 had a partial response, and 3 had stable disease at last follow-up. Two patients developed progressive disease after a complete response for 38 months and stable disease for 16 months, respectively. All patients developed grade I drug-related adverse effects, most commonly muscle spasms (12 patients), weight loss (10), dysgeusia (9), alopecia (9), decreased appetite (5), and fatigue (4). Five patients developed grade II adverse effects. At last follow-up, none of the 5 patients presenting with T3bN0M0, nor the patient with T3bN1M0 disease, had required orbital exenteration. Hedgehog pathway inhibition produces a significant clinical response in most patients with locally advanced or metastatic orbital or periocular BCC or basal cell nevus syndrome and can obviate orbital exenteration in some patients. Drug-related adverse effects are manageable in most patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level.

  17. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  18. Basal cell carcinoma in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jesleen; Hadjicharalambous, Elena; Mehregan, Darius

    2012-04-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease.

  19. Basal insulin and cardiovascular and other outcomes in dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstein, Hertzel C; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested.......The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested....

  20. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... pollution. During the past decades, many investigations have been reported, related to nitrogen efficiency of different plant genotypes (Zhang et al., 1997; .... 274. 411. 548. Gr ai n yi el d wi t hout basal grain yield with basal fertilizer (g/8 plants). I. Ⅱ. (a). -20. -10. 0. 10. 20. -1. 99. 199. Rice variety number. A.

  1. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  2. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  3. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of ameloblastoma.[4] The microscopic features of basal cell ameloblastoma, however, are similar to those of several malignant tumors, including basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC),[5,6] cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and solid‑type adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC).[1] The pathologist may sometimes fail to.

  4. Incorporating crown dimensions into stem height and basal area for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four crown dimensions (crown diameter, crown projection area, crown length and crown ratio) were each incorporated into nonlinear individual tree total height and basal area increment models for African white wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). The basic height/basal area growth model was formulated as a ...

  5. Involving undergraduates in the annotation and analysis of global gene expression studies: creation of a maize shoot apical meristem expression database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Brent; Beck, Jon; Browning, Kate; Fritz, Ashleigh; Grantham, Lisa; Hoxha, Eneda; Kamvar, Zhian; Lough, Ashley; Nikolova, Olga; Schnable, Patrick S; Scanlon, Michael J; Janick-Buckner, Diane

    2007-06-01

    Through a multi-university and interdisciplinary project we have involved undergraduate biology and computer science research students in the functional annotation of maize genes and the analysis of their microarray expression patterns. We have created a database to house the results of our functional annotation of >4400 genes identified as being differentially regulated in the maize shoot apical meristem (SAM). This database is located at http://sam.truman.edu and is now available for public use. The undergraduate students involved in constructing this unique SAM database received hands-on training in an intellectually challenging environment, which has prepared them for graduate and professional careers in biological sciences. We describe our experiences with this project as a model for effective research-based teaching of undergraduate biology and computer science students, as well as for a rich professional development experience for faculty at predominantly undergraduate institutions.

  6. Clastogenic adaption of Vicia faba root tip meristem cells after consecutive treatments with S-phase dependent and S-phase independent agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindorff, K.; Schubert, I.; Rieger, R.; Michaelis, A.

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment of Vicia faba root tip meristems with low doses of S-phase independent clastogens, such as X-rays or bleomycin, prior to a high (challenge) dose of S-phase dependent clastogens, such as alkylating agents (TEM, Trenimon) or the pyridazine derivative MH, led to decreased challenge treatment-induced aberration frequencies, i.e., clastogenic adaptation. Using the inverse treatment sequence bleomycin and MH proved to be able to substitute for each other in provoking clastogenic (cross) adaptation while bleomycin and alkylating agents were unable to do so. The data support the assumption of inducible cellular functions that become triggered by low clastogen doses and additionally describe some particular properties of bleomycin when used for conditioning. Bleomycin proved to be capable to exert protection independent of the agent used for challenge treatment. (author)

  7. Basal ganglia impairments in autism spectrum disorder are related to abnormal signal gating to prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantel S; Stocco, Andrea; Neuhaus, Emily; Kleinhans, Natalia M

    2016-10-01

    Research on the biological basis of autism spectrum disorder has yielded a list of brain abnormalities that are arguably as diverse as the set of behavioral symptoms that characterize the disorder. Among these are patterns of abnormal cortical connectivity and abnormal basal ganglia development. In attempts to integrate the existing literature, the current paper tests the hypothesis that impairments in the basal ganglia's function to flexibly select and route task-relevant neural signals to the prefrontal cortex underpins patterns of abnormal synchronization between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical processing centers observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested this hypothesis using a Dynamic Causal Modeling analysis of neuroimaging data collected from 16 individuals with ASD (mean age=25.3 years; 6 female) and 17 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls (mean age=25.6, 6 female), who performed a Go/No-Go test of executive functioning. Consistent with the hypothesis tested, a random-effects Bayesian model selection procedure determined that a model of network connectivity in which basal ganglia activation modulated connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other key cortical processing centers best fit the data of both neurotypicals and individuals with ASD. Follow-up analyses suggested that the largest group differences were observed for modulation of connectivity between prefrontal cortex and the sensory input region in the occipital lobe [t(31)=2.03, p=0.025]. Specifically, basal ganglia activation was associated with a small decrease in synchronization between the occipital region and prefrontal cortical regions in controls; however, in individuals with ASD, basal ganglia activation resulted in increased synchronization between the occipital region and the prefrontal cortex. We propose that this increased synchronization may reflect a failure in basal ganglia signal gating mechanisms, resulting in a non-selective copying

  8. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  9. Basal encephalocele in an adult patient presenting with minor anomalies: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Basal encephalocele is rare in adults. Congenital and acquired cases have been reported with regard to the developmental mechanism, and the pathology has not been elucidated in detail. Case presentation We encountered an adult with basal encephalocele strongly suggesting congenital development because of the presence of minor anomalies: strabismus and ocular hypertelorism. The disease manifested as persistent spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and repeated meningitis in a 66-year-old Japanese man. On computed tomography, brain tissue protruded through a part of the ethmoid bone of his right anterior skull base, and it was diagnosed as transethmoidal-type basal encephalocele. Regarding his facial form, the distance between his bilateral eyeballs was large compared to his facial width, and his canthal index (defined as inner to outer inter canthal ratio × 100) was calculated as 38.5, based on which it was judged as ocular hypertelorism. In addition, his right eyeball showed strabismus. A right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, and the defective dura mater region was patched with temporal fascia. Conclusions Mild minor anomalies that require no treatment are overlooked in adults, but the presence of several anomalies increases the possibility of congenital disease. Therefore, it may be necessary to examine minor anomalies in cases of adult basal encephalocele when considering the possibility that the disease may be congenital. PMID:24468320

  10. Activity of the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease estimated by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohye, Chihiro

    1995-01-01

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) studies on the local cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolic rate, glucose metabolic rate in the basal ganglia of Parkinson's disease are reviewed. PET has demonstrated that blood flow was decreased in the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal region, of Parkinson's disease and that specific change in blood flow or metabolic rate in the basal ganglia was detected only in patients with hemi-parkinsonism. In authors' study on PET using 18 FDG in patients with tremor type and rigid type Parkinson's disease, changes in blood flow and metabolic rate were minimal at the basal ganglia level in tremor type patients, but cortical blood flow was decreased and metabolic rate was more elevated in the basal ganglia in rigid type patients. These findings were correlated with depth micro-recordings obtained by stereotactic pallidotomy. PET studies have also revealed that activity in the nerve terminal was decreased with decreasing dopamine and that dopamine (mainly D 2 ) activity was remarkably increased. PET studies with specific tracers are promising in providing more accurate information about functional state of living human brain with minimal invasion to patients. (N.K.)

  11. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  12. Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes in virus-free garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Magalí Diana; Yañez-Santos, Anahí Mara; Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Quiroga, Mariana Paola; Marfil, Carlos Federico; Conci, Vilma Cecilia; García-Lampasona, Sandra Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report assessing epigenetic variation in garlic. High genetic and epigenetic polymorphism during in vitro culture was detected.Sequencing of MSAP fragments revealed homology with ESTs. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a worldwide crop of economic importance susceptible to viral infections that can cause significant yield losses. Meristem tissue culture is the most employed method to sanitize elite cultivars.Often the virus-free garlic plants obtained are multiplied in vitro (micro propagation). However, it was reported that micro-propagation frequently produces somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level, which is an undesirable trait when breeders are seeking to maintain varietal stability. We employed amplification fragment length polymorphism and methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) methodologies to assess genetic and epigenetic modifications in two culture systems: virus-free plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro multiplication and field culture. Our results suggest that garlic exhibits genetic and epigenetic polymorphism under field growing conditions. However, during in vitro culture system both kinds of polymorphisms intensify indicating that this system induces somaclonal variation. Furthermore, while genetic changes accumulated along the time of in vitro culture, epigenetic polymorphism reached the major variation at 6 months and then stabilize, being demethylation and CG methylation the principal conversions.Cloning and sequencing differentially methylated MSAP fragments allowed us to identify coding and unknown sequences of A. sativum, including sequences belonging to LTR Gypsy retrotransposons. Together, our results highlight that main changes occur in the initial 6 months of micro propagation. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epigenetic assessment in garlic.

  13. [What is new in basal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, M; von Braunmühl, T; Berking, C

    2016-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in fair-skinned individuals. Although lymph node or visceral metastases are observed in less than 0.5 % of all cases, BCC can have a fatal course due to its highly invasive growth pattern. To provide a comprehensive update on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of BCC. We review the current literature and recommendations of the German guidelines on treatment and prevention of skin cancer. The most pertinent developments are summarized in this review article. The use of optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy can significantly improve the diagnosis of BCC compared with clinical assessment and dermoscopy alone. Mohs micrographic surgery remains the therapeutic gold standard for tumors in the head and facial area and tumors with high-risk features. The application of imiquimod, 5‑fluorouracil, or photodynamic therapy should be restricted to low-risk superficial tumors. Topical inhibitors of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway are currently being evaluated in early clinical trials. In contrast, vismodegib and sonidegib have been approved for the systemic treatment of locally advanced and metastatic BCC with good response rates. The most common adverse events of both agents are muscle cramps, dysgeusia, diffuse alopecia, weight loss, and fatigue. In an Australian phase III trial, oral nicotinamide (vitamin B3) reduced the occurrence of new BCC by 20 % in skin cancer patients. Targeted therapy with SHH inhibitors has improved the prognosis of locally advanced and metastatic BCC, albeit at the cost of a significant number of adverse events.

  14. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  15. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-08-17

    Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas. To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. Pubmed was used to search the following terms: axillary basal cell carcinoma and basal cell nevus syndrome. The papers and their citations were evaluated. Basal cell nevus syndrome patients with basal cell carcinoma of the axilla were observed in two women; this represents 2.5% (2 of 79) of the patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma. Both women had pigmented tumors that were histologically nonaggressive. The cancers did not recur after curettage or excision. Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla has only been described in 79 individuals; two of the patients were women with pigmented tumors who had basal cell nevus syndrome. Similar to other patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma, the tumors were histologically nonaggressive and did not recur following treatment. Whether PTCH1 gene mutation predisposes basal cell nevus patients to develop axillary basal cell carcinomas remains to be determined.

  16. RUNX3 protein is overexpressed in human basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salto-Tellez, M; Peh, B K; Ito, K; Tan, S H; Chong, P Y; Han, H C; Tada, K; Ong, W Y; Soong, R; Voon, D C; Ito, Y

    2006-12-07

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCC), which are the most common form of skin malignancy, are invariably associated with the deregulation of the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway. As such, BCC represent a unique model for the study of interactions of the Shh pathway with other genes and pathways. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) of 75 paired BCC and normal skin and analysed the expression of beta-catenin and RUNX3, nuclear effectors of the wingless-Int (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta pathways, respectively. In line with previous reports, we observed varying subcellular expression pattern of beta-catenin in BCC, with 31 cases (41%) showing nuclear accumulation. In contrast, all the BCC cases tested by the TMA showed RUNX3 protein uniformly overexpressed in the nuclei of the cancer cells. Analysis by Western blotting and DNA sequencing indicates that the overexpressed protein is normal and full-length, containing no mutation in the coding region, implicating RUNX3 as an oncogene in certain human cancers. Our results indicate that although the deregulation of Wnt signalling could contribute to the pathogenesis of a subset of BCC, RUNX3 appears to be a universal downstream mediator of a constitutively active Shh pathway in BCC.

  17. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  18. Crystallization of a compositionally stratified basal magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneuville, Matthieu; Hernlund, John; Labrosse, Stéphane; Guttenberg, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Earth's ∼3.45 billion year old magnetic field is regenerated by dynamo action in its convecting liquid metal outer core. However, convection induces an isentropic thermal gradient which, coupled with a high core thermal conductivity, results in rapid conducted heat loss. In the absence of implausibly high radioactivity or alternate sources of motion to drive the geodynamo, the Earth's early core had to be significantly hotter than the melting point of the lower mantle. While the existence of a dense convecting basal magma ocean (BMO) has been proposed to account for high early core temperatures, the requisite physical and chemical properties for a BMO remain controversial. Here we relax the assumption of a well-mixed convecting BMO and instead consider a BMO that is initially gravitationally stratified owing to processes such as mixing between metals and silicates at high temperatures in the core-mantle boundary region during Earth's accretion. Using coupled models of crystallization and heat transfer through a stratified BMO, we show that very high temperatures could have been trapped inside the early core, sequestering enough heat energy to run an ancient geodynamo on cooling power alone.

  19. Ameloblastoma vs basal cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Salam N; Abdullah, Bashar H

    2016-12-01

    Despite behavioral mimicry of ameloblastoma (AB) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), they are classified at 2 extremes within pertinent WHO classifications with respect to benign and malignant designation. This study aims to appraise the current allocation of AB in the classification through an immunohistochemical comparison of some aspects of behavior with BCC. Sections from retrospectively retrieved formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of AB (n = 37) and BCC (n = 34) were comparatively examined for the immunohistochemical expression for Ki-67, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, CD31, and D2-40 monoclonal antibodies. No statistically significant differences between the tumors were found regarding the immunoexpressions of Bcl-2 (P = .252), CD31 microvessel density (P = .895), lymphatic vessel density (P = .642), and MMP-9 stromal expression (P = .083). MMP-2 expression was significantly higher in epithelial and stromal regions of AB (P = .009 and P = .001, respectively), whereas Ki-67 and MMP-9 epithelial expressions were significantly higher in BCC (P < .000 and P = .026, respectively). Within the studied immunohistochemical attributes for tumor behavior, the study accentuated the overall behavioral mimicry of the tumors and indicated that BCCs surmount ABs by the proliferative rate only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the bone and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghissassi, Ibrahim; Mikou, Asmaa; Inrhaoun, Hanane; Ennouhi, Amine; Gamra, Lamiae; Errihani, Hassan

    2009-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common carcinoma in the community, but the incidence of metastatic events is exceedingly low. The few reported cases most often appear in regional nodes or the lungs, and patients usually exhibit multiple concurrent organs of spread at the time of diagnosis. We report a case of primary BCC located on the left forehead of a 48-year-old man, which metastasized exclusively to the bone and bone marrow, associated with hematologic disorders. A short review of the literature is included. Pathologic examination of the tumor located on the left forehead showed BCC. The patient underwent two surgical excisions because of local recurrence. Three years later, the patient developed a bicytopenia (anemia and thrombocytopenia). The bone marrow biopsy revealed metastasis of BCC. There were no abnormal findings in the other routine laboratory tests and radiologic investigations, except for the bone scan which showed multifocal skeletal metastases. The patient received two cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) before he died as a result of hemorrhagic complications and progressive disease. Metastasis of BCC is a very rare condition that should not be overlooked. The prognosis remains very poor. We emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up of such patients.

  1. Decreased basal ganglia activation in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome: association with symptoms of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Miller

    Full Text Available Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p = 0.01 and right globus pallidus (p = 0.02. Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2 = 0.49, p = 0.001, general fatigue (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.01 and reduced activity (r2 = 0.29, p = 0.02 as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks.

  2. A rare case of metastatic basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Wee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is relatively uncommon in Malaysia with non-melanomatous skin cancer being the 12th most common malignancy in Malaysia.Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC is extremely rare and the incidence is estimated to be 0.0028% to 0.55% among all BCC. We report a case of MBCC with a summary of clinical and histopathology findings; and the management. Case presentation: A 69-year-old Chinese man, presented with a left wrist mass for 4 years. The mass was on the dorsal surface of the wrist, ulcerated, and measured 15 x 10cm. The tumour size was 2.5 × 8.6 × 10cm on MRI, extending into the extensor digitorum tendons and possible invasion into the lumbricals. He underwent wide excision of the mass, decorticotomy of left 3rd to 5th metacarpal bones and amputation of 2nd metacarpal bone. Histopathological examination showed BCC involving whole skin thickness invading the subcutaneous fat but sparing the underlying tissues, resections margins were clear, maximal diameter was 11.5 cm. The tumour was staged as pT2N0M0. After 18 months, he developed an 8 × 10cm left axillary mass which was fungating and bleeding. CT scan also showed multiple lung metastases. Repeat biopsy of the left axillary mass showed BCC with similar appearance as the previous histopathology examination. Radiotherapy to the left axilla was given (65 Gray in 30 fractions for local control as the tumour was bleeding profusely. Discussion: A review by Wysong et al. for 194 cases of MBCC suggests that its prognosis remains poor over the past 30 years, with the median overall survival of 10 months from diagnosis despite the introduction of systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Most common metastatic sites are the regional lymph nodes, lungs and bone. Large lesions (particularly those over 10 cm2 and tumours that invade deep structures, such as cartilage, skeletal muscle, or bone, are most likely to metastasize. Perineural invasion, aggressive histologic

  3. Basal forebrain cholinergic system: a functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olton, D; Markowska, A; Voytko, M L; Givens, B; Gorman, L; Wenk, G

    1991-01-01

    This chapter has been organized empirically, focusing on the types of approaches that have been taken to understand BFCS function. This approach reflects the state of our knowledge about the behavioral and psychological functions of the BFCS. Considerable information has been gathered in the very short time that the BFCS has been the object of intense investigation. The results from the neurotoxic lesions and from the HACU studies provide some points of consistency and some puzzling differences. Both approaches to the study of basal forebrain function suggest that the MSA is involved in tasks that require spatial working memory; MSA lesions impaired choice accuracy, and HACU in the HIP was increased after performance. The pattern of results in simpler tasks is more difficult to interpret. In a left-right reference memory discrimination in a T-maze, MSA lesions did not impair acquisition or performance, whereas HACU in the HIP was activated during performance. This pattern of results suggests that although the MSA is engaged during this type of task, its activity is not necessary for normal performance. These, and other comparisons indicate the need for a systematic analysis of task demand (Olton, 1989b). Parametric manipulations of different task demands in a systematic fashion can indicate the extent to which the BFCS is involved in the function associated with each parametric manipulation. Ultimately, of course, the organization of this material should focus on particular psychological functions, rather than the techniques and procedures used to gather the information. Achieving this goal is going to require careful attention to the design of behavioral experiments so that definitive conclusions can be made about the extent to which the BFCS is involved in a given psychological function. A systematic application of task analysis can achieve this goal (Olton, 1986, 1989a, 1989b). For example, BFCS lesions in rats impair choice accuracy in spatial working memory

  4. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  5. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...... that is higher than that previously reported. The basal cell carcinoma material was further studied regarding the amount of amyloid, mitotic rate, degree of apoptosis and the age of the patients. There was no correlation between the amount of amyloid and the mitotic rate, or the degree of apoptosis...

  6. Evidence for altered basal ganglia-brainstem connections in cervical dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Blood

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia.In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients.These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

  7. The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Insight from Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that memory is not a single process. Rather, there are different kinds of memory that are supported by distinct neural systems. This idea stemmed from early findings of dissociable patterns of memory impairments in patients with selective damage to different brain regions. These studies highlighted the role of the basal ganglia in non-declarative memory, such as procedural or habit learning, contrasting it with the known role of the medial temporal lobes in declarative memory. In recent years, major advances across multiple areas of neuroscience have revealed an important role for the basal ganglia in motivation and decision making. These findings have led to new discoveries about the role of the basal ganglia in learning and highlighted the essential role of dopamine in specific forms of learning. Here we review these recent advances with an emphasis on novel discoveries from studies of learning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We discuss how these findings promote the development of current theories away from accounts that emphasize the verbalizability of the contents of memory and towards a focus on the specific computations carried out by distinct brain regions. Finally, we discuss new challenges that arise in the face of accumulating evidence for dynamic and interconnected memory systems that jointly contribute to learning. PMID:21945835

  8. Targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Vivian T; Pfeiffer, Margaret L; Esmaeli, Bita

    2013-01-01

    To review the literature on targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and provide examples of patients recently treated with such therapy. The authors reviewed the literature on clinical results of targeted therapy and the molecular basis for targeted therapy in orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC. The authors also present representative cases from their practice. Mutation in the patched 1 gene (PTCH1) has been implicated in BCC, and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown in SCC. Vismodegib, an inhibitor of smoothened, which is activated upon binding of hedgehog to Ptc, has been shown to significantly decrease BCC tumor size or even produce complete resolution, especially in cases of basal cell nevus syndrome. Similarly, EGFR inhibitors have been shown to significantly decrease SCC tumor size in cases of locally advanced and metastatic disease. The authors describe successful outcomes after vismodegib treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome with numerous bulky lesions of the eyelid and periocular region and erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor) treatment in a patient with SCC who was deemed not to be a good surgical candidate because of advanced SCC of the orbit with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes, advanced age, and multiple medical comorbidities. Targeted therapy using hedgehog pathway and EGFR inhibitors shows significant promise in treatment of orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC, respectively. Such targeted therapy may be appropriate for patients who are not good candidates for surgery.

  9. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caligiore, D.; Pezzulo, G.; Baldassarre, G.; Bostan, A.C.; Strick, P.L.; Doya, K.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Dirkx, M.F.M.; Houk, J.; Jorntell, H.; Lago-Rodriguez, A.; Galea, J.M.; Miall, R.C.; Popa, T.; Kishore, A.; Verschure, P.F.; Zucca, R.; Herreros, I.

    2017-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the

  10. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P

    1995-01-01

    have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes...

  11. Leaf-like sepals induced by ectopic expression of a SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP-like MADS-box gene from the basal eudicot Epimedium sagittatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhineng Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales, a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68%, 54% and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24 and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1 in Arabidopsis, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR indicated that EsSVP transcripts were principally found in petiole and leaf tissues, with little expression in roots and flowers and no in fruits. The highest EsSVP expression was observed in leaves. The flowering time of 35S::EsSVP in most Arabidopsis thaliana and in all petunia plants was not affected in both photoperiod conditions, but 35S::EsSVP 5# and 35S::EsSVP 1# Arabidopsis lines induced late and early flowering under long day (LD, 14 hr light/10 hr dark and short day (SD, 10 hr light/14 hr dark conditions, respectively. The 35S::EsSVP Arabidopsis produced extra secondary inflorescence or floral meristems in the axils of the leaf-like sepals with excrescent trichomes, and leaf-like sepals not able to enclose the inner three whorls completely. Moreover, almost all transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed persistent sepals around the completely matured fruits. Upon ectopic expression of 35S::EsSVP in Petunia W115, sepals were enlarged, sometimes to the size of leaves; corollas were greenish and did not fully open. These results suggest that EsSVP is involved in inflorescence meristem identity and flowering time regulation in some conditions. Although the SVP homologs might have suffered functional diversification among diverse species between core and basal eudicots, the protein functions are conserved between Arabidopsis

  12. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis

  13. Facial skin follllicular hyperkeratosis of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zhuchkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a clinical observation of paraneoplastic syndrome of a patient with basal cell carcinoma of skin. Authors present clinical features of the described for the first time, paraneoplastic retentional follicular hyperkeratosis of facial area.

  14. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  15. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2003-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  16. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  17. Computed tomography of calcification of the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Churl Min; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Soon Yong

    1981-01-01

    Calcifications of the basal ganglia are rarely found at routine autopsies and in skull radiographs. CT is superior to the plain skull radiographs in detecting intracranial attenuation differences and may be stated to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of intracranial calcifications. Of 5985 brain CT scans performed in Kyung Hee University Hospital during past 3 years, 36 cases were found to have high attenuation lesions suggesting calcifications within basal ganglia. 1. The incidence of basal ganglia calcification on CT scan was about 0.6%. 2. Of these 36 cases, 34 cases were bilateral and the remainder was unilateral. 3. The plain skull films of 23 cases showed visible calcification of basal ganglia in 3 cases (13%). 4. No specific metabolic disease was noted in the cases

  18. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome and Hairy Skin Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Manisha; Kamangar, Faranak; Awasthi, Smita; Fazel, Nasim

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of an increasing number of discrete patches of darkly pigmented terminal hair in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This case adds to a small case series of three patients which have previously reported this observation. We report this case to highlight hairy patches as an important clinical feature associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Treatment of basal cell epithelioma with high energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y. (Hyogo-ken Cancer Center, Kobe (Japan)); Kumano, M.; Kumano, K.

    1981-11-01

    Thirty patients with basal cell epithelioma received high energy electron beam therapy. They were irradiated with a dose ranging from 4,800 rad (24 fractions, 35 days) to 12,000 rad (40 fractions, 57 days). Tumors disappeared in all cases. These were no disease-related deaths; in one patient there was recurrence after 2 years. We conclude that radiotherapy with high energy electron beam is very effective in the treatment of basal cell epithelioma.

  1. Bilateral basal ganglia calcifications visualised on CT scan.

    OpenAIRE

    Brannan, T S; Burger, A A; Chaudhary, M Y

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-eight cases of basal ganglia calcification imaged on computed axial tomography were reviewed. Most cases were felt to represent senescent calcification. The possibility of a vascular aetiology in this group is discussed. A less common group of patients was identified with calcification secondary to abnormalities in calcium metabolism or radiation therapy. Three cases of basal ganglia calcifications were detected in juvenile epileptic patients receiving chronic anticonvulsants. These ca...

  2. Enigmatic basal archosauromorph from the Late Triassic of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Toljagic, Olja

    2012-01-01

    Choristodera, a lineage of basal archosauromorphs (Reptilia: Diapsida), first appeared in Early/Middle Jurassic (possibly Late Triassic; approximately 201 million years ago) and extended all the way into early Miocene (approximately 23 million years ago). Choristoderans are the only group of more basal archosauromorphs that survived after the Jurassic period, along with Archosauriformes (a more derived group of Archosauromorphs). The time of origin of the lineage is still speculative and prec...

  3. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Scheyer, Torsten; Sander, P. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys que...

  4. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  5. [Basal cell carcinoma. Molecular genetics and unusual clinical features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, J

    2007-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common human cancer. Its incidence is steadily increasing. The development of basal cell carcinoma is linked to genetic factors, including the individual skin phototype, as well as the cumulative exposure to UVB. The vast majority of basal cell carcinomas are sporadic tumors, while familial cases associated with certain hereditary syndromes are less common. At the molecular level, basal cell carcinomas are characterized by aberrant activation of sonic hedgehog signaling, usually due to mutations either in the ptch or smoh genes. In addition, about half of the cases carry mutations in the tp53 tumor suppressor gene, which are often UVB-associated C-->T transition mutations. Clinically, basal cell carcinomas may show a high degree of phenotypical variability. In particular, tumors occurring in atypical locations, showing an unusual clinical appearance, or imitating other skin diseases may cause diagnostic problems. This review article summarizes the current state of the art concerning the etiology, predisposition and molecular genetics of basal cell carcinoma. In addition, examples of unusual clinical manifestations are illustrated.

  6. CT and MRI diagnosis of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shike; Zhang Yalin; Xu Derong; Zou Gaowei; Chen Dan; He Sujun; Zhou Lichao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI features of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and investigate the diagnostic value. Methods: 21 cases with traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage diagnosed by clinic, CT and MRI in our hospital were collected in this study Plain CT scan were immediately performed in 21 cases after injury, plain MR scan were performed in 1 to 3 days. 12 cases of them underwent diffusion weighted imagine (DWI). The CT and MRI findings were retrospectively summarized. Results: 8 cases were found with simple traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage. Complexity of basal ganglia hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases, 6 cases combined with subdural hemorrhage, 3 cases with epidural hematoma, 2 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6 cases with brain contusion and laceration in other locations, 4 cases with skull fracture. 26 lesions of basal ganglia hematoma were showed in 21 cases, 14 lesions of pallidum hemorrhage in 11 cases confirmed by MR could not be distinguished from calcification at the fast CT scan. 5 more lesions of brain contusion and laceration and 4 more lesions of brain white matter laceration were found by MR. Conclusion: CT in combination with MRI can diagnose traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and its complications early, comprehensively and accurately, which plays an important role in the clinical therapy selection and prognosis evaluation. (authors)

  7. Multiple metastatic basal cell carcinoma with concurrent metastatic pleomorphic sarcoma in chronic lymphedema area--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giuliano da Paz; Girão, Régio José Santiago; Soares, Cléverson Teixeira; Mello Junior, Edgard Jose Franco

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphedema presents as interstitial fluid retention due to a failure in the lymphatic system drainage. The affected region becomes more vulnerable immunologically and predisposed to the onset of neoplasms. Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common sort of neoplasm, nevertheless it rarely metastisizes. Sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, locally aggressive, which can spread. Here is reported an infrequent case of multiple basal cell carcinoma, synchronous to a poorly differentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, both spreading to lymph nodes and arising from tissue compromised by chronic lymphedema.

  8. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas.Purpose: To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome.Methods: Pubmed w...

  9. Dopamine transporter density of basal ganglia assessed with [123I]IPT SPET in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan-Hyung; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Lee, Hong-Shick; Koo, Min-Seong; Ryu, Young-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Doo

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine, as well as serotonin, is associated with the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, many studies have been performed on brain regions associated with dopamine in patients with OCD. In the present study, we investigated the DAT density of the basal ganglia using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane ([ 123 I]IPT) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and evaluated the activity of the presynaptic dopamine function in patients with OCD. Fifteen patients with OCD and 19 normal control adults were included in the study. We performed brain SPET 2 h after the intravenous administration of [ 123 I]IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPET data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific dopamine transporter (DAT) binding ratio in the basal ganglia. We then investigated the correlation between the severity scores of OCD symptoms assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. Compared with normal control adults, patients with OCD showed a significantly increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the right basal ganglia and a tendency towards an increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the left basal ganglia. No significant correlation was found between the total scores on the Y-BOCS and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. These findings suggest that the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system of the basal ganglia in patients with OCD could be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. (orig.)

  10. Dopamine Transporter Density of the Basal Ganglia Assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, W. K.; Ryu, Y. H.; Yoon, M. J.; Kim, C. H.; Chun, K. A.; Lee, J. D.; Jee, D. Y.; Choi, T. H.

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine as well as serotonin is associated with the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, many studies about brain regions associated with dopamine in OCD have been performed. In the present study, we investigated the DAT density of the basal ganglia using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl) - 2beta - carbomethoxy - 3beta - (4 - chloropheny1) tropane (I-123 IPT) single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) in patients with OCD and evaluated the activity of the presynaptic dopamine function in patients with OCD. Fifteen patients with OCD and nineteen normal control adults were included in the study. We performed brain SPET 2 hours after the intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPET data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. We then investigated the correlation between the severity scores of OCD symptoms assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. Patients with OCD showed a significantly increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in right basal ganglia compared with normal control adults and an increased tendency in the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in left basal ganglia. No significant correlation was found between the total scores of the Y-BOCS and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. Our findings suggest that the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system of the basal ganglia in patients with OCD plays an important role in fronto-subcortical circuit well-known as the pathophysiological mechanism of OCD

  11. Floral Initiation in Response to Planting Date Reveals the Key Role of Floral Meristem Differentiation Prior to Budding in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaofeng; Zhang, Dongqing; Yu, Huasheng; Lin, Baogang; Fu, Ying; Hua, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus, floral development is a decisive factor in silique formation, and it is influenced by many cultivation practices including planting date. However, the effect of planting date on floral initiation in canola is poorly understood at present. A field experiment was conducted using a split plot design, in which three planting dates (early, 15 September, middle, 1 October, and late, 15 October) served as main plot and five varieties differing in maturity (1358, J22, Zhongshuang 11, Zheshuang 8, and Zheyou 50) employed as subplot. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the process of floral meristem (FM) differentiation, the influence of planting date on growth period (GP) and floral initiation, and silique formation. The main stages of FM developments can be divided into four stages: first, the transition from shoot apical meristem to FM; second, flower initiation; third, gynoecium and androecium differentiation; and fourth, bud formation. Our results showed that all genotypes had increased GPs from sowing to FM differentiation as planting date was delayed while the GPs from FM differentiation to budding varied year by year except the very early variety, 1358. Based on the number of flowers present at the different reproductive stages, the flowers produced from FM differentiation to budding closely approximated the final silique even though the FM differentiated continuously after budding and peaked generally at the middle flowering stage. The ratio of siliques to maximum flower number ranged from 48 to 80%. These results suggest that (1) the period from FM differentiation to budding is vital for effective flower and silique formation although there was no significant correlation between the length of the period and effective flowers and siliques, and (2) the increased number of flowers from budding were generally ineffective. Therefore, maximizing flower numbers prior to budding will improve silique numbers, and reducing FM degeneration should

  12. GABA-to-ACh ratio in basal forebrain and cerebral cortex varies significantly during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2012-10-01

    GABAergic and cholinergic transmission within the basal forebrain and cerebral cortex contribute to the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In contrast to levels of acetylcholine (ACh), levels of endogenous GABA in basal forebrain and cortex during sleep and wakefulness have not previously been quantified. This study (1) tested the hypothesis that there are differential, state-specific changes in GABA levels within the substantia innominata (SI) region of the basal forebrain and somatosensory cortex; and (2) quantified the ratio of GABAergic to cholinergic transmission in the SI, cortex, and pontine reticular formation during rapid eye movement sleep (REM), non-REM sleep (NREM), and wakefulness. Within/between subjects. University of Michigan. Adult, male, purpose bred cats (n = 5). In vivo microdialysis, high performance liquid chromatography, electrophysiological recordings. In the SI, GABA levels were significantly greater during NREM (17%) than during REM. In the cortex, GABA levels were significantly greater during NREM than during wakefulness (39%) and REM (63%). During prolonged wakefulness, there was a linear increase in cortical GABA levels, and the amount of time spent awake accounted for 87% of the variance in GABA. The GABA-to-ACh ratio was largest during NREM for all brain regions. REM was characterized by a 68% decrease in the GABA-to-ACh ratio across brain regions, always due to a decrease in GABA levels. Three of the brain regions that comprise the anatomically distributed, sleep-generating network have in common a GABA-mediated, sleep-dependent decrease in the GABA-to-ACh ratio.

  13. Association Between Smoking and Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Volume in Healthy Aging and Prodromal and Dementia Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Grothe, Michel J

    2016-04-12

    Smoking has been found associated with decreased cerebral volumes in healthy adults and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. We aimed to determine whether chronic nicotine exposure through smoking is associated with reduced volume of cortically projecting cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We retrieved cross-sectional data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database including 179 cognitively normal elderly subjects, 270 subjects with early stage MCI, 136 subjects in later, more advanced, stage of MCI, and 86 subjects in dementia stages of AD. We determined the association between past or current smoking versus lifetime non-smoker status on the volumes of the basal forebrain determined from volumetric MRI scans. Hippocampus volume was used as a control region. Significant effects were controlled for mediating or moderating effects of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity. In cognitively healthy individuals and early MCI, past or current smoking was significantly associated with smaller basal forebrain volume. This effect was independent from age, sex, or cardiovascular or respiratory morbidity. Hippocampus volume was not associated with smoking. In late MCI and AD dementia, smoking was not associated with basal forebrain or hippocampus volumes. Our findings suggest that chronic nicotine exposure through smoking may lead to atrophy of cholinergic input areas of the basal forebrain. This effect may account for an increased risk of AD dementia onset with smoking by exhausting the cholinergic system reserve capacity.

  14. Maintenance of the corneal epithelium is carried out by germinative cells of its basal stratum and not by presumed stem cells of the limbus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the proliferative behavior of rabbit corneal epithelium and establish if any particular region was preferentially involved in epithelial maintenance. [3H]-thymidine was injected intravitreally into both normal eyes and eyes with partially scraped corneal epithelium. Semithin sections of the anterior segment were evaluated by quantitative autoradiography. Segments with active replication (on and those with no cell division (off were intermingled in all regions of the tissue, suggesting that the renewal of the epithelial surface of the cornea followed an on/off alternating pattern. In the limbus, heavy labeling of the outermost layers was observed, coupled with a few or no labeled nuclei in the basal stratum. This suggests that this region is a site of rapid cell differentiation and does not contain many slow-cycling cells. The conspicuous and protracted labeling of the basal layer of the corneal epithelium suggests that its cells undergo repeated cycles of replication before being sent to the suprabasal strata. This replication model is prone to generate label-retaining cells. Thus, if these are adult stem cells, one must conclude that they reside in the corneal basal layer and not the limbal basal layer. One may also infer that the basal cells of the cornea and not of the limbus are the ones with the main burden of renewing the corneal epithelium. No particular role in this process could be assigned to the cells of the basal layer of the limbal epithelium.

  15. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  16. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  17. CT findings in apical versus basal involvement of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, In Jae; Im, Hyoung June; Lee, Kwanseop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare clinical features and computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in lower lobe basal segments and upper lobe apical or apicoposterior segments. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and chest CT scans of 986 adults who were diagnosed with active pulmonary TB. Active pulmonary TB confined to the basal segments was found in 21 patients. Sixty patients had disease localized to the apical or apicoposterior segments only. Clinical features and CT abnormalities of the lung parenchyma, airways, mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes, and pleura were compared between these two groups. A significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of underlying disease prevalence associated with an immunocompromised state (basal, 6/21, 28.6%; apical or apico- posterior, 3/60, 5%; P = 0.008). Chest CT findings, including consolidation (P = 0.0016), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.0297), and pleural effusion (P = 0.008), were more common in basal segment TB than in apical or apicoposterior segment TB. Small nodules were less common in basal segment TB than in apical or apicoposterior segment TB (P = 0.0299). The tree-in-bud sign was the most common CT finding in both basal segment TB (17/21, 81%) and apical or apicoposterior segment TB groups (53/60, 88.3%) (P = 0.4633). Lower lobe basal segment TB was more commonly present with common CT findings of primary pulmonary TB including consolidation, mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion than apical or apicoposterior segment TB.

  18. Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Spies, Thomas A; Pabst, Robert

    2017-07-01

    While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of neighboring old-growth forests to assess the magnitude and scale of harvest edge influence in a forest landscape of western Oregon, USA. We used lidar data and forest plot measurements to construct 30-m resolution live tree basal area maps in lower and middle elevation mature and old-growth forests. We assessed how edge influence on total, upper canopy, and lower canopy basal area varied across this forest landscape as a function of harvest characteristics (i.e., harvest size and age) and topographic conditions in the unharvested area. Upper canopy, lower canopy, and total basal area increased with distance from harvest edge and elevation. Forests within 75 m of harvest edges (20% of unharvested forests) had 4% to 6% less live tree basal area compared with forest interiors. An interaction between distance from harvest edge and elevation indicated that elevation altered edge influence in this landscape. We observed a positive edge influence at low elevations (800 m). Surprisingly, we found no or weak effects of harvest age (13-60 yr) and harvest area (0.2-110 ha) on surrounding unharvested forest basal area, implying that edge influence was relatively insensitive to the scale of disturbance and multi-decadal recovery processes. Our study indicates that the edge influence of past clearcutting on the structure of neighboring uncut old-growth forests is widespread and persistent. These indirect and diffuse legacies of historical timber harvests complicate forest management decision-making in old-growth forest landscapes by broadening the traditional view of stand boundaries. Furthermore, the consequences

  19. Injury to apical meristem of cranberry by Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) reduces production of floral-units in the next growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S; Buonaccorsi, J P; Averill, A L

    2012-08-01

    Cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (a gall-making fly), disrupts normal growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) by injuring the apical meristem of shoots or uprights. The impact of larval feeding injury on reproductive parameters of cranberry was determined, from one growing season to next, at upright (Maine and Massachusetts, 2008-2009) and plot levels (Massachusetts, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011). We also estimated the proportions of uprights injured because of tipworm feeding at several cranberry production sites (Massachusetts and Maine) and the proportions of uprights that produced flowers and fruits in the next growing season. Tipworm-injured uprights tagged at the end of the growing season did not produce floral-units (following year) across sites in both Massachusetts and Maine. There was significant variation among the sampled sites in the proportions of tipworm-injured uprights and also in the proportions of uprights with flowers in the next growing season (Massachusetts and Maine). A trend was apparent wherein sites with higher tipworm injury levels had relatively lower flowering proportions in the next growing season. However, sites in Massachusetts did not differ in the proportions of uprights that set fruit and in a replicated study, significant reduction in tipworm injury at plot level (using insecticide) did not impact flower and fruit production in the next growing season.

  20. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  1. Aberrant cell divisions in root meristeme of maize following exposure to X-rays low doses compared to similar effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchian T.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of maize to radiation exposure was investigated by two cytogenetic methods considering the importance of the geno-toxic effect for environmental and agricultural purposes. Uniform genophond seeds, freshly germinated, were exposed to relatively low radiation doses using a radiotherapy X-ray applicator from a hospital irradiation device and to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field with about 10 mT magnetic induction (generated within laboratory assembled electromagnetic coils. Radicular meristeme tissue aliquots were prevailed for cytogenetic investigation based on microscopic observations and cell counting. Microscope slides were prepared following a specific procedure (squash technique and Feulgen method based on modified Carr reactive coloration. Mitotic index as well as chromosomal aberration percentage were calculated for more than 30,000 cells taken into account. From a qualitative viewpoint, chromosomal aberrations such as interchromatidian bridges, lagging and expelled chromosomes and multipolar divisions were evidenced - no distinct situation for either ionizing radiation or electromagnetic field being identified. The main quantitative difference consisted in the increased mitotic index for electromagnetic exposure increased times compared with the diminished mitotic index in the case of low X-ray doses.

  2. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingfang [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Wenjie [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian, E-mail: wjli@impcas.ac.cn [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China)

    2013-06-15

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  3. Low- and High-Temperature Tolerance and Acclimation for Chlorenchyma versus Meristem of the Cultivated Cacti Nopalea cochenillifera, Opuntia robusta, and Selenicereus megalanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Zutta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dividing meristematic cells are thought to be more sensitive to extreme temperatures compared to other tissues, such as chlorenchyma. This was examined for low and high temperatures for three widely cultivated cacti: Nopalea cochenillifera, Opuntia robusta, and Selenicereus megalanthus. Temperature tolerances of chlorenchyma and meristem were based on the cellular uptake of the vital stain neutral red for plants at mean day/night air temperatures of 25/20°C and plants maintained at 10/5°C or 45/40°C to examine temperature acclimation. Meristematic cells tolerated 1.8°C lower low temperatures and 4.0°C higher high temperatures than chlorenchyma cells for the three species at 25/20°C. Both tissue types showed acclimation, with a decrease or increase in temperature tolerated at 10/5°C or 45/40°C, respectively. Meristematic cells were more tolerant of extreme temperatures compared to chlorenchyma, contrary to the prevailing belief, and may reflect an additional strategy for cacti to survive extreme temperatures.

  4. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong; Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan; Jin, Wenjie; Li, Wenjian

    2013-06-01

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of 12C6+ beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of 12C6+ beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  5. Sustained High Basal Motion of the Greenland Ice Sheet Revealed by Borehole Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luthi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Hoffman, Matthew, J.; Catania, Ginny A.; Hawley, Robert L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Kristensen, Steen S.

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high amount of basal motion contribution to surface velocity of 44-73 percent in winter, and up to 90 percent in summer. Measured ice deformation rates show an unexpected variation with depth that can be explained with the help of an ice-flow model as a consequence of stress transfer from slippery to sticky areas. This effect necessitates the use of high-order ice-flow models, not only in regions of fast-flowing ice streams but in all temperate-based areas of the GrIS. The agreement between modeled and measured deformation rates confirms that the recommended values of the temperature-dependent flow rate factor A are a good choice for ice-sheet models.

  6. Signaling mechanisms and behavioral function of the mouse basal vomeronasal neuroepithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel ePérez-Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO is a sensory organ that is found in most terrestrial vertebrates and that is principally implicated in the detection of pheromones. The VNO contains specialized sensory neurons organized in a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that recognize chemical signals involved in initiating innate behavioral responses. In rodents, the VNO neuroepithelium is segregated into two distinct zones, apical and basal. The molecular mechanisms involved in ligand detection by apical and basal VNO sensory neurons differ extensively. These two VNO subsystems express different subfamilies of vomeronasal receptors and signaling molecules, detect distinct chemosignals, and project to separate regions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. The roles that these olfactory subdivisions play in the control of specific olfactory-mediated behaviors are largely unclear. However, analysis of mutant mouse lines for signal transduction components together with identification of defined chemosensory ligands has revealed a fundamental role of the basal part of the mouse VNO in mediating a wide range of instinctive behaviors, such as aggression, predator avoidance, and sexual attraction. Here we will compare the divergent functions and synergies between the olfactory subsystems and consider new insights in how higher neural circuits are defined for the initiation of instinctive behaviors.

  7. Analysis and diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) via infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sahagun, J. H.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Mulinari-Brenner, F. A.

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a structured methodology is proposed and tested through infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges and of basal cell carcinoma patients (a type of skin cancer) previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. A method of conjugated gradients is proposed to compare measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ) between two symmetric regions of the patient's body, that takes into account the skin, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures and doing so, the limitation of the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and nonsubjective. The range of normal temperatures in different regions of the body for seven healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the human skin exhibits a unimodal normal distribution, the normal range for each region was considered to be the mean dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements (Δθ±2σ) in order to represent 95% of the population. Eleven patients with previously diagnosed basal cell carcinoma through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting skin abnormalities in all cases. Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective in the identification of the basal cell carcinoma through infrared imaging even with the use of a low optical resolution camera (160 × 120 pixels) and a thermal resolution of 0.1 °C. The method could also be used to scan a larger area around the lesion in order to detect the presence of other lesions still not perceptible in the clinical exam. However, it is necessary that a temperature differences mesh-like mapping of the healthy human body skin is produced, so that the comparison of the patient Δ θ could be made with the exact region of such mapping in order to possibly make a more effective diagnosis. Finally, the infrared image analyzed through the

  8. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakvis, Patricia; Spinhoven, Philip; Giltay, Erik J; Kuyk, Jarl; Edelbroek, Peter M; Zitman, Frans G; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol. We tested several relevant HPA-axis functions in patients with PNES and related them to trauma history. Cortisol awakening curve, basal diurnal cortisol, and negative cortisol feedback (using a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) were examined in 18 patients with PNES and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs) using saliva cortisol sampling on two consecutive days at 19 time points. Concomitant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed by analyzing saliva alpha-amylase (sAA). Patients with PNES showed significantly increased basal diurnal cortisol levels compared to HCs. This effect was driven mainly by patients reporting sexual trauma who showed a trend toward higher cortisol levels as compared to patients without a sexual trauma report. Importantly, the increased basal diurnal cortisol levels in patients were not explained by depression, medication, or smoking, or by current seizures or group differences in SNS activity. This is the first study showing that basal hypercortisolism in patients with PNES is independent of the acute occurrence of seizures. In addition, basal hypercortisolism was more pronounced in traumatized patients with PNES as compared to nontraumatized patients with PNES. These findings suggest that HPA-axis activity provides a significant neurobiologic marker for PNES.

  9. Basal ganglia circuits changes in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Chaodong; Hallett, Mark; Zang, Yufeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Chan, Piu

    2012-08-22

    Functional changes in basal ganglia circuitry are responsible for the major clinical features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Current models of basal ganglia circuitry can only partially explain the cardinal symptoms in PD. We used functional MRI to investigate the causal connectivity of basal ganglia networks from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in PD in the movement and resting state. In controls, SNc activity predicted increased activity in the supplementary motor area, the default mode network, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but, in patients, activity predicted decreases in the same structures. The SNc had decreased connectivity with the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus, supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, default mode network, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and pons in patients compared to controls. Levodopa administration partially normalized the pattern of connectivity. Our findings show how the dopaminergic system exerts influences on widespread brain networks, including motor and cognitive networks. The pattern of basal ganglia network connectivity is abnormal in PD secondary to dopamine depletion, and is more deviant in more severe disease. Use of functional MRI with network analysis appears to be a useful method to demonstrate basal ganglia pathways in vivo in human subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Mareike; Hillen, Uwe; Leiter, Ulrike; Sachse, Michael; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma represents is most common tumor in fair-skinned individuals. In Germany, age-standardized incidence rates are 63 (women) and 80 (men) per 100,000 population per year. Early lesions may be difficult to diagnose merely on clinical grounds. Here, noninvasive diagnostic tools such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy may be helpful. The clinical diagnosis is usually confirmed by histology. Standard therapy consists of complete excision with thorough histological examination, either by means of micrographic surgery or, depending on tumor size and location as well as infiltration, using surgical margins of 3-5 mm or more. In particular, multiple basal cell carcinomas (such as in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) and locally advanced as well as rarely also metastatic basal cell carcinoma may pose a therapeutic challenge. In superficial basal cell carcinoma, nonsurgical therapies such as photodynamic therapy or topical agents may be considered. In case of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, an interdisciplinary tumor board should issue therapeutic recommendations. These include radiation therapy as well as systemic therapy with a hedgehog inhibitor. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  12. TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain and hypothalamus of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Takei, Hidehiro; Schulz, Paul E; Appel, Stanley H; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2014-12-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by motor symptoms including limb weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia, and respiratory compromise, and pathologically by inclusions of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43). Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also may demonstrate non-motor symptoms and signs of autonomic and energy dysfunction as hypermetabolism and weight loss that suggest the possibility of pathology in the forebrain, including hypothalamus. However, this region has received little investigation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, the frequency, topography, and clinical associations of TDP-43 inclusion pathology in the basal forebrain and hypothalamus were examined in 33 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: 25 men and 8 women; mean age at death of 62.7 years, median disease duration of 3.1 years (range of 1.3 to 9.8 years). TDP-43 pathology was present in 11 patients (33.3%), including components in both basal forebrain (n=10) and hypothalamus (n=7). This pathology was associated with non-motor system TDP-43 pathology (Χ2=17.5, p=0.00003) and bulbar symptoms at onset (Χ2=4.04, p=0.044), but not age or disease duration. Furthermore, TDP-43 pathology in the lateral hypothalamic area was associated with reduced body mass index (W=11, p=0.023). This is the first systematic demonstration of pathologic involvement of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, the findings suggest that involvement of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus has significant phenotypic associations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including site of symptom onset, as well as deficits in energy metabolism with loss of body mass index.

  13. Basal Dendritic Morphology of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons in Williams Syndrome: Prefrontal Cortex and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Hrvoj-Mihic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific behavioral and cognitive profile, which includes hyperaffiliative behavior, poor social judgment, and lack of social inhibition. Here we examined the morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons in the cortex of two rare adult subjects with WS. Specifically, we examined two areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC—the frontal pole (Brodmann area 10 and the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11—and three areas in the motor, sensory, and visual cortex (BA 4, BA 3-1-2, BA 18. The findings suggest that the morphology of basal dendrites on the pyramidal neurons is altered in the cortex of WS, with differences that were layer-specific, more prominent in PFC areas, and displayed an overall pattern of dendritic organization that differentiates WS from other disorders. In particular, and unlike what was expected based on typically developing brains, basal dendrites in the two PFC areas did not display longer and more branched dendrites compared to motor, sensory and visual areas. Moreover, dendritic branching, dendritic length, and the number of dendritic spines differed little within PFC and between the central executive region (BA 10 and BA 11 that is part of the orbitofrontal region involved into emotional processing. In contrast, the relationship between the degree of neuronal branching in supra- versus infra-granular layers was spared in WS. Although this study utilized tissue held in formalin for a prolonged period of time and the number of neurons available for analysis was limited, our findings indicate that WS cortex, similar to that in other neurodevelopmental disorders such as Down syndrome, Rett syndrome, Fragile X, and idiopathic autism, has altered morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons, which appears more prominent in selected areas of the PFC. Results were examined from developmental perspectives and discussed in the context of other

  14. Basal Dendritic Morphology of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons in Williams Syndrome: Prefrontal Cortex and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Hanson, Kari L; Lew, Caroline H; Stefanacci, Lisa; Jacobs, Bob; Bellugi, Ursula; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific behavioral and cognitive profile, which includes hyperaffiliative behavior, poor social judgment, and lack of social inhibition. Here we examined the morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons in the cortex of two rare adult subjects with WS. Specifically, we examined two areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-the frontal pole (Brodmann area 10) and the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11)-and three areas in the motor, sensory, and visual cortex (BA 4, BA 3-1-2, BA 18). The findings suggest that the morphology of basal dendrites on the pyramidal neurons is altered in the cortex of WS, with differences that were layer-specific, more prominent in PFC areas, and displayed an overall pattern of dendritic organization that differentiates WS from other disorders. In particular, and unlike what was expected based on typically developing brains, basal dendrites in the two PFC areas did not display longer and more branched dendrites compared to motor, sensory and visual areas. Moreover, dendritic branching, dendritic length, and the number of dendritic spines differed little within PFC and between the central executive region (BA 10) and BA 11 that is part of the orbitofrontal region involved into emotional processing. In contrast, the relationship between the degree of neuronal branching in supra- versus infra-granular layers was spared in WS. Although this study utilized tissue held in formalin for a prolonged period of time and the number of neurons available for analysis was limited, our findings indicate that WS cortex, similar to that in other neurodevelopmental disorders such as Down syndrome, Rett syndrome, Fragile X, and idiopathic autism, has altered morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons, which appears more prominent in selected areas of the PFC. Results were examined from developmental perspectives and discussed in the context of other neurodevelopmental disorders

  15. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  16. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  17. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between reinforcement learning models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both reinforcement learning and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired.

  18. The Middle Cenomanian basal series of Planinica, Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabrenović Dragoman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary rocks of the Upper Cretaceous basal series found at the village of Planinica, Western Serbia, are composed of thick coarse clastics and beds and intercalations of medium- to fine-grained clastics. The series lies transgressively over Jurassic serpentinite and peridotite, and under Upper Miocene marlstone and marly limestone. Sedimentary, petrographic, paleontological, and biostratigraphic characteristics of the basal series are described and its lithological members and their structural features are identified. From medium-grained sandy matrix in thick coarse clastics, two ammonite taxa, four brachiopod taxa (including the new taxa Orbirhynchia oweni and "Terebratula" n. gen. et sp., and eleven echinoid taxa are described. The brachiopod species Kingena concinna Owen is used in dating the basal series as Middle Cenomanian, whereas limestone fragments in coarse clastics correspond to the Late Albian and Early Cenomanian.

  19. Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Mahlon R; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders. To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example. A summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders. The signs and symptoms of movement disorders appear to result largely from signature abnormalities in one of several parallel and largely segregated basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits (ie, the motor circuit). The available evidence suggests that the varied movement disorders resulting from dysfunction of this circuit result from propagated disruption of downstream network activity in the thalamus, cortex, and brainstem. Ablation and DBS act to free downstream networks to function more normally. The basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit may play a key role in the expression of disordered movement, and the basal ganglia-brainstem projections may play roles in akinesia and disturbances of gait. Efforts are under way to target circuit dysfunction in brain areas outside of the traditionally implicated basal ganglia thalamocortical system, in particular, the pedunculopontine nucleus, to address gait disorders that respond poorly to levodopa and conventional DBS targets. Deep brain stimulation is now the treatment of choice for many patients with advanced PD and other movement disorders. The success of DBS and other forms of neuromodulation for neuropsychiatric disorders is the result of the ability to modulate circuit activity in discrete functional domains within the basal ganglia circuitry with highly focused interventions, which spare uninvolved areas that are often disrupted with

  20. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  1. Relevance of detail in basal topography for basal slipperiness inversions: a case study on Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrke-Smith, Teresa M.; Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar; Farrell, Patrick E.

    2018-04-01

    Given high-resolution satellite-derived surface elevation and velocity data, ice-sheet models generally estimate mechanical basal boundary conditions using surface-to-bed inversion methods. In this work, we address the sensitivity of results from inversion methods to the accuracy of the bed elevation data on Pine Island Glacier. We show that misfit between observations and model output is reduced when high-resolution bed topography is used in the inverse model. By looking at results with a range of detail included in the bed elevation, we consider the separation of basal drag due to the bed topography (form drag) and that due to inherent bed properties (skin drag). The mean value of basal shear stress is reduced when more detailed topography is included in the model. This suggests that without a fully resolved bed a significant amount of the basal shear stress recovered from inversion methods may be due to the unresolved bed topography. However, the spatial structure of the retrieved fields is robust as the bed accuracy is varied; the fields are instead sensitive to the degree of regularisation applied to the inversion. While the implications for the future temporal evolution of PIG are not quantified here directly, our work raises the possibility that skin drag may be overestimated in the current generation of numerical ice-sheet models of this area. These shortcomings could be overcome by inverting simultaneously for both bed topography and basal slipperiness.

  2. Structural differences in basal ganglia of elite running versus martial arts athletes: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jack Han-Chao; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Erik Chihhung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize and compare microscopic differences in white matter integrity in the basal ganglia between elite professional athletes specializing in running and martial arts. Thirty-three young adults with sport-related skills as elite professional runners (n = 11) or elite professional martial artists (n = 11) were recruited and compared with non-athletic and healthy controls (n = 11). All participants underwent health- and skill-related physical fitness assessments. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), the primary indices derived from DTI, were computed for five regions of interest in the bilateral basal ganglia, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), globus pallidus external segment (GPe), and subthalamic nucleus. Results revealed that both athletic groups demonstrated better physical fitness indices compared with their control counterparts, with the running group exhibiting the highest cardiovascular fitness and the martial arts group exhibiting the highest muscular endurance and flexibility. With respect to the basal ganglia, both athletic groups showed significantly lower FA and marginally higher MD values in the GPi compared with the healthy control group. These findings suggest that professional sport or motor skill training is associated with changes in white matter integrity in specific regions of the basal ganglia, although these positive changes did not appear to depend on the type of sport-related motor skill being practiced.

  3. Mechanism of melting in submonolayer films of nitrogen molecules adsorbed on the basal planes of graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, Ludwig Walter; Taub, H.

    1995-01-01

    The melting mechanism in submonolayer films of N-2 molecules adsorbed on the basal planes of graphite is studied using molecular-dynamics simulations. The melting is strongly correlated with the formation of vacancies in the films. As the temperature increases, the edges of the submonolayer patch...... become atomically rough and vacancies are first created there. Then there is an onset temperature at which the vacancies penetrate into the patch. At an intermediate region of coverages similar to 0.3-0.8 commensurate layers, there is sufficient free volume for the film to melt at that temperature...

  4. Cervical in-transit metastasis from a truncal basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Kamaal; Powell, Steven; Cox, Neil; Robson, Andrew; Murrant, Nick

    2010-07-21

    The authors describe a rare case in which a cervical metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) occurred from a small, non-ulcerated primary lesion on the trunk of a female patient. The metastasis had the same immunohistochemical staining pattern as several biopsies from the primary site. It was immediately adjacent to the left neck regional nodes and we view this as an in-transit metastasis. There is often debate about the validity of BCC metastases to lymph nodes but an in-transit lesion strengthens the argument that this does rarely occur.

  5. Cervical in-transit metastasis from a truncal basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Kamaal; Powell, Steven; Cox, Neil; Robson, Andrew; Murrant, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a rare case in which a cervical metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) occurred from a small, non-ulcerated primary lesion on the trunk of a female patient. The metastasis had the same immunohistochemical staining pattern as several biopsies from the primary site. It was immediately adjacent to the left neck regional nodes and we view this as an in-transit metastasis. There is often debate about the validity of BCC metastases to lymph nodes but an in-transit lesion strengt...

  6. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  7. Review and analysis of management guidelines of basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Nunez, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    International guidelines for management of basal cell carcinoma are reviewed and analyzed for decision-making in the appropriate therapeutic behavior for patients. The different therapies for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma are described. Different therapies are evaluated according to the risk (low or high) of recurrence to determine the appropriate treatment. According to the evidence, low-risk tumors have responded to topical therapy, curettage and electrodesiccation, cryotherapy or simple resection, and high-risk tumors are managed with surgery, radiotherapy or Mohs' micrographic surgery [es

  8. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, J Scott; Flam, Marshall S; Tashjian, David N; Tschang, Tai-Po

    2006-10-31

    Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) of the skin is rare in occurrence and may initially elude proper diagnosis and management. We describe a case of MBCC to cervical lymph nodes, originally evaluated and treated surgically as metastatic thyroid carcinoma. After definitive diagnosis of MBCC was made, chemotherapy and concomitant radiation treatment were initiated; however, despite these measures, the patient then developed MBCC to the lung. Risk factors and current therapeutic modalities for MBCC are also discussed. In addition to the more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma primary tumor should be considered when evaluating cervical lymph node metastases of an uncertain head and neck primary.

  9. Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Gillian; Cheng, Jed-Sian; Shapiro, Oleg; Nsouli, Imad

    2012-06-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with gross hematuria and irritative urinary symptoms. He underwent transurethral resection of his prostate. The prostate chips revealed 70% poorly differentiated carcinoma with neuroendocrine features, initially read as small cell carcinoma, later as basal cell carcinoma. PSA at this time was 0.3. He received 4 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin. After which, rebiopsy of the prostate showed tumor consistent with poorly differentiated basal cell carcinoma. Given progression on chemotherapy, decision was made to proceed with radical prostatectomy. Metastatic workup was negative. Gross extraprostatic invasion was noted but lymph nodes were free of metastatic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Going beyond the green: senesced vegetation material predicts basal area and biomass in remote sensing of tree cover conditions in an African tropical dry forest (miombo woodland) landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Marc; Mustard, John; Melillo, Jerry; Neill, Christopher; Nyadzi, Gerson

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), tropical dry forests and savannas cover over 2.5 million km2 and support livelihoods for millions in fast-growing nations. Intensifying land use pressures have driven rapid changes in tree cover structure (basal area, biomass) that remain poorly characterized at regional scales. Here, we posed the hypothesis that tree cover structure related strongly to senesced and non-photosynthetic (NPV) vegetation features in a SSA tropical dry forest landscape, offering improved means for satellite remote sensing of tree cover structure compared to vegetation greenness-based methods. Across regrowth miombo woodland sites in Tanzania, we analyzed relationships among field data on tree structure, land cover, and satellite indices of green and NPV features based on spectral mixture analyses and normalized difference vegetation index calculated from Landsat 8 data. From satellite-field data relationships, we mapped regional basal area and biomass using NPV and greenness-based metrics, and compared map performances at landscape scales. Total canopy cover related significantly to stem basal area (r 2 = 0.815, p  60%) at all sites. From these two conditions emerged a key inverse relationship: skyward exposure of NPV ground cover was high at sites with low tree basal area and biomass, and decreased with increasing stem basal area and biomass. This pattern scaled to Landsat NPV metrics, which showed strong inverse correlations to basal area (Pearson r = -0.85, p forests.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Nipple: An Uncommon but Ever-Increasing Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Oram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignancy of the skin. It is most frequently seen on the sun-exposed areas of the head and neck region. Occurrence of BCC on the nipple is extremely rare, though the number of the reported cases has been increasing steadily. It has metastatic potential to regional lymph nodes; therefore a more aggressive course can be expected when compared to BCCs located at other sites. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment of BCCs located on this region is of importance. There are 39 reported cases of BCC of nipple-areola complex (NAC in the English literature. We present an additional case of BCC located on the nipple, presenting with enlargement of the nipple as a sole clinical finding in a 60-year-old man.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  13. Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical Variant, Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    K., Deepadarshan; M., Mallikarjun; N. Abdu, Noshin

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of skin, comprising 80% of non-melanoma cancers. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits increased pigmentation. It is a very rare variant, although its frequency can reach upto 6% of total basal cell carcinomas in Hispanics. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  14. Compilation of basal metabolic and blood perfusion rates in various multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    The assignments of basal metabolic rates (BMR), basal cardiac output (BCO), and basal blood perfusion rates (BBPR) were compared in nine multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models. The data are presented at three levels of detail: total body, specific body regions, and regional body tissue layers. Differences in the assignment of these quantities among the compared models increased with the level of detail, in the above order. The ranges of variability in the total body BMR was 6.5 % relative to the lowest value, with a mean of 84.3 ± 2 W, and in the BCO, it was 8 % with a mean of 4.70 ± 0.13 l/min. The least variability among the body regions is seen in the combined torso (shoulders, thorax, and abdomen: ±7.8 % BMR and ±5.9 % BBPR) and in the combined head (head, face, and neck ±9.9 % BMR and ±10.9 % BBPR), determined by the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Much more variability is apparent in the extremities with the most showing in the BMR of the feet (±117 %), followed by the BBPR in the arms (±61.3 %). In the tissue layers, most of the bone layers were assigned zero BMR and BBPR, except in the shoulders and in the extremities that were assigned non-zero values in a number of models. The next lowest values were assigned to the fat layers, with occasional zero values. Skin basal values were invariably non-zero but involved very low values in certain models, e.g., BBPR in the feet and the hands. Muscle layers were invariably assigned high values with the highest found in the thorax, abdomen, and legs. The brain, lung, and viscera layers were assigned the highest of all values of both basal quantities with those of the brain layers showing rather tight ranges of variability in both basal quantities. Average basal values of the "time-seasoned" models presented in this study could be useful as a first step in future modeling efforts subject to appropriate adjustment of values to conform to most recently available and reliable data.

  15. Myogenesis in the basal bilaterian Symsagittifera roscoffensis (Acoela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninger Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to increase the weak database concerning the organogenesis of Acoela – a clade regarded by many as the earliest extant offshoot of Bilateria and thus of particular interest for studies concerning the evolution of animal bodyplans – we analyzed the development of the musculature of Symsagittifera roscoffensis using F-actin labelling, confocal laserscanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. Results At 40% of development between egg deposition and hatching short subepidermal fibres form. Muscle fibre development in the anterior body half precedes myogenesis in the posterior half. At 42% of development a grid of outer circular and inner longitudinal muscles is present in the bodywall. New circular muscles either branch off from present fibres or form adjacent to existing ones. The number of circular muscles is higher than that of the longitudinal muscles throughout all life cycle stages. Diagonal, circular and longitudinal muscles are initially rare but their number increases with time. The ventral side bears U-shaped muscles around the mouth, which in addition is surrounded by a sphincter muscle. With the exception of the region of the statocyst, dorsoventral muscles are present along the entire body of juveniles and adults, while adults additionally exhibit radially oriented internal muscles in the anterior tip. Outer diagonal muscles are present at the dorsal anterior tip of the adult. In adult animals, the male gonopore with its associated sexual organs expresses distinct muscles. No specific statocyst muscles were found. The muscle mantles of the needle-shaped sagittocysts are situated along the lateral edges of the animal and in the posterior end close to the male gonopore. In both juveniles and adults, non-muscular filaments, which stain positively for F-actin, are associated with certain sensory cells outside the bodywall musculature. Conclusion Compared to the myoanatomy of other acoel taxa

  16. The relationship between basal blood pressure and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In contrast to the situation in developed countries, very few studies have been done on blood pressure (BP) determinants among Nigerian adolescents. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between basal BP and body mass index (BMI) in a group of healthy Nigerian secondary school students. Methods: This was ...

  17. Do gap junctions regulate synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) typically suffer severely from different types of symptoms. Motor symptoms, restricting the patients’ ability to perform controlled movements in daily life, are of special clinical interest and have been related to neural activity in the basal ganglia.

  18. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  19. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal Metabolic rate and household activities were measured by indirect calorimetry, using the Douglas bag technique. Physical activity Level was measured by twenty-four hour activity diary and TEE calculated as a product of BMR and PAL. Men's BMR was 4.7 MJ/day while that of women was 4.3 MJ/day. Farmers mean ...

  20. Prevalence of Basal-like Breast Cancer among Indigenous Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer comprises a group of very diverse diseases, which can be demonstrated at the molecular, histopathological and clinical levels. Gene expression studies using RNA microarray studies have categorised breast carcinomas into several classes. Of these basal-like tumour class has showed poor ...

  1. Morphology of Myoepithelium and Basal Surface of the Glandular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broad Objective: To study the morphology of the myoepithelial cells and the basal surfaces of the glandular cells in the small and large lobes of the Harderian gland. Study Setting and Methodology: The study used the scanning electron and lesser confocal microscopes to observe the Harderian gland of the golden hamster.

  2. Basal metabolic regulatory responses and rhythmic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rattus sp. Low concentrations of kola nut extract stimulated the heart by increasing rate and force of contraction as well as metabolic rate. Higher concentrations reduced rate and amplitude of beat resulting, at still higher concentrations in heart failure. Keywords: Kolanut, extract, basal metabolic rate, mammalian heart ...

  3. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...

  4. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Alia Arif; Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in dermatology in the late 1990s optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to study many skin diseases, in particular non-melanoma skin cancer and it s precursors. Special attention has been paid to superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and a number of smaller...

  5. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...

  6. Seasonal variation of grassland basal cover | JW | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction of a portable bridge for establishing 1100 relocatable points is described. Basal cover, measured by wheel-point and bridge-point methods, showed a statistically significant seasonal increase through summer and a decrease again after the rainfall began decreasing with the onset of winter. An initial small ...

  7. Effects of basal media, salt concentrations, antioxidant supplements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants than MS, LS and D basal media. Five different levels of N6 medium salts (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100%) were tested, and the highest transformation efficiency was 15.9% under a 50% salt concentration, followed by 6.4% transformation efficiency with 70 and 3.2% under 100% salt conditions. More than 95% of ...

  8. Hyperkinetic mutism: bilateral ballism and basal ganglia calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbody, S; Jankovic, J

    1986-06-01

    We studied a 70-year-old woman with a unique combination of hyperkinesia and mutism. These findings differed from akinetic mutism because there was continuous bilateral ballism and dystonia--hence the term "hyperkinetic mutism." CT demonstrated bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia, and MRI indicated bilateral watershed infarcts. Different dopaminergic mechanisms may underlie the hyperkinesia and mutism.

  9. Bilateral hyperintense basal ganglia on T1-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral high signal intensity in basal ganglia on T1-weighted images is unusual, the purpose of this study is to describe the pattern of high signal intensity and underlying disease. During the last three years, 8 patients showed bilateral high signal intensity in basal ganglia on T1-weighted image, as compared with cerebral white matter. Authors analyzed the images and underlying causes retrospectively. Of 8 patients, 5 were male and 3 were female. The age ranged from 15 days to 79 years. All patient were examined by a 0.5T superconductive MRI. Images were obtained by spin echo multislice technique. Underlying causes were 4 cases of hepatopathy, 2 cases of calcium metabolism disorder, and one case each of neurofibromatosis and hypoxic brain injury. These process were bilateral in all cases and usually symmetric. In all cases the hyperintense areas were generally homogenous without mass effect or edema, although somewhat nodular appearance was seen in neurofibromatosis. Lesions were located in the globus pallidus and internal capsule in hepatopathy and neurofibromatosis, head of the caudate nucleus in disorder of calcum metabolism, and the globus pallidus in hypoxic brain injury. Although this study is limited by its patient population, bilateral hyperintense basal ganglia is associated with various disease entities. On analysis of hyperintense basal ganglia lesion, the knowledge of clinical information improved diagnostic accuracy

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  11. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  12. Facies characteristics of the basal part of the Talchir Formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facies characteristics of the basal part of the Talchir. Formation, Talchir Basin, India – depositional history revisited. Prabir Dasgupta∗ and Rishiraj Sahoo. Department of Geology ... end of a long period of non-deposition that pre- vailed in peninsular India ... the 'glacial tillite' and cited the work of Blanford et al (1856) in sup-.

  13. Neuroradiology of basal ganglia diseases in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoiardo, M.; Passerini, A.; D'Incerti, L.

    1987-01-01

    Computerized tomography and NMR imaging findings observed in the diseases affecting the basal ganglia in childhood and adolescence are discussed. First the dystonic syndromes associated with hereditary neurologic disorders of probable metabolic degenerative origin are considered; then the non-hereditary dystonias caused by various intoxications or acute insults are briefly discussed. 26 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Yuan, W.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still

  15. In vitro basal and nodal microtuberization in yam shoot cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro basal and nodal microtuberization in yam shoot cultures ( Discorea rotundata poir, cv. Obiaoturugo) under nutritional stress conditions. ... The shoot cultures began to produce excessive roots at the nodes apart from the shoot tip. Subsequently microtubers developed at the position of the axiliary buds subtended by ...

  16. aqueous leaf extract of rothmannia longiflora improves basal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    E-mail: ikpidanielewa@yahoo.com. Summary: This study evaluated the action of aqueous leaf extract of Rothmannia longiflora on basal metabolic .... Animals and Induction of Diabetes. Fifteen male rats of Wistar strain weighing .... lipids have a higher concentration of energy than do carbohydrates. Therefore in their ...

  17. 1H MR spectroscopy of the basal ganglia in childhood: a semiquantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, W.W.M.; Zhao, H.; Berry, G.T.; Kaplan, P.; Gibson, J.; Kaplan, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Proton MR spectra of the basal ganglia were obtained from 28 patients, 24 male and 14 female, median age 16.3 months (5 weeks to 31 years). They included 17 patients with normal MRI of the basal ganglia without metabolic disturbance (control group) and 11 patients with various metabolic diseases: one case each of high serum sodium and high serum osmolarity, cobalamin C deficiency, Leigh disease, Galloway-Mowat syndrome, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and Wilson disease and two cases of Alagille syndrome and methylmalonic acidemia with abnormal MRI of the basal ganglia or blood or urine analysis (abnormal group). The MR spectrum was measured by using STEAM. The MR-visible water content of the region of interest was obtained. Levels of myoinositol, choline, creatine and N -acetylaspartate were measured using a semiquantitative approach, with absolute reference calibration. In the control group, there was a gradual drop of water content over the first year of life; N -acetylaspartate, creatine and myoinositol levels showed no significant change with age, in contrast to the occipital, parietal and cerebellar regions. Choline showed a gradual decrease for the first 2 years of life and then remained fairly constant. In the abnormal group the water content was not significantly different. N -Acetylaspartate was decreased in patients with high serum sodium and high serum osmolarity, cobalamin C deficiency, Leigh disease and one case of methylmalonic acidemia. Decreased creatine was also found in Leigh disease, and decreased choline in Galloway-Mowat syndrome and Wilson disease. Myoinositol was elevated in the patient with abnormally high serum sodium, and decreased in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. (orig.)

  18. Selective Vulnerability of the Cochlear Basal Turn to Acrylonitrile and Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouyatos, B.; Gearhart, C.A.; Miller, A.N.; Fulton, S.; Fechter, L.D.; Pouyatos, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to acrylonitrile, a high-production industrial chemical, can promote noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in the rat even though this agent does not itself produce permanent hearing loss. The mechanism by which acrylonitrile promotes NIHL includes oxidative stress as antioxidant drugs can partially protect the cochlea from acrylonitrile + noise. Acrylonitrile depletes glutathione levels while noise can increase the formation of reactive oxygen species. It was previously noted that the high-frequency or basal turn of the cochlea was particularly vulnerable to the combined effects of acrylonitrile and noise when the octave band noise (OBN) was centered at 8 k Hz. Normally, such a noise would be expected to yield damage at a more apical region of the cochlea. The present study was designed to determine whether the basal cochlea is selectively sensitive to acrylonitrile or whether, by adjusting the frequency of the noise band, it would be possible to control the region of the auditory impairment. Rats were exposed to one of three different OBNs centered at different frequencies (4 k Hz, 110 dB and 8 or 16 k Hz at 97 dB) for 5 days, with and without administration of acrylonitrile (50 mg/kg/day). The noise was set to cause limited NIHL by itself. Auditory function was monitored by recording distortion products, by compound action potentials, and by performing cochlear histology. While the ACN-only and noise-only exposures induced no or little permanent auditory loss, the three exposures to acrylonitrile + noise produced similar auditory and cochlear impairments above 16 k Hz, despite the fact that the noise exposures covered 2 octaves. These observations show that the basal cochlea is much more sensitive to acrylonitrile + noise than the apical partition. They provide an initial basis for distinguishing the pattern of cochlear injury that results from noise exposure from that which occurs due to the combined effects of noise and a chemical contaminant.

  19. Serial dynamic CT scan in patients with acute basal ganglia infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Node, Yoji; Nakazawa, Shozo; Tsuji, Yukihide.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic computed tomography (CT) was performed on 15 patients (37 to 93 years of age) with acute basal ganglia infarctions, and the perfusion patterns of the infarcted regions on CT were evaluated. The initial dynamic CT was performed within 12 hours after onset, while the serial studies of the dynamic CT were performed on the 3rd and 7th days. The left-over-right ratio in the peak value in the basal ganglia in 15 normal subjects was 1.01 ± 0.03 (mean ± SD), so there were no differences in the peak values of the bilateral basal ganglia. We also examined the left-over-right ratio in the peak value and in the rapid-washout ratio in the basal ganglia in the 15 normal subjects. There was no difference in the peak values of the bilateral basal ganglia. The mean rapid-washout ratio was 0.62 ± 0.11 (mean ± SD). The prognoses of these patients three months after onset were as follows: 8 showed a good recovery, 5 had a moderate disability, and 2 had a severe disability. The perfusions on admission were as follows. 10 were hypoperfusions, 3 were hypo + late perfusions, one was a normoperfusion, and one was a late perfusion. There was a tendency for the rapid-washout ratio decrease more in the hypo + late perfusion group than in the other groups. Twelve patients showed an iso-density, while 3 showed a low density, on admission. The ''low-density'' group showed a decrease in the A/N ratio of the peak value. We performed serial dynamic CT in 11 cases. The group with severe disabilities (2 cases) showed a hypo + late perfusion in the initial CT, one case kept a hypo + late perfusion, and another case changed to a hypoperfusion; also, there was a tendency for there to be a poor improvement in the A/N ratio of the peak value in these two ''severe-disability'' patients. (J.P.N.)

  20. Multi-Decadal Averages of Basal Melt for Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Airborne Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Frearson, N.; Kingslake, J.; Padman, L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Fricker, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    strain-driven thickness changes over four decades. Combining maps of basal melt rate with radar derived basal reflectivity, we identify regions that are undergoing melting and freezing and provide a comprehensive understanding of how ocean processes may be changing the base of Ross Ice Shelf in recent decades.

  1. A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-Yong; Chen, Guan-Bao; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-22

    The incompleteness of the fossil record obscures the origin of many of the more derived clades of vertebrates. One such group is the Ichthyopterygia, a clade of obligatory marine reptiles that appeared in the Early Triassic epoch, without any known intermediates. Here we describe a basal ichthyosauriform from the upper Lower Triassic (about 248 million years ago) of China, whose primitive skeleton indicates possible amphibious habits. It is smaller than ichthyopterygians and had unusually large flippers that probably allowed limited terrestrial locomotion. It also retained characteristics of terrestrial diapsid reptiles, including a short snout and body trunk. Unlike more-derived ichthyosauriforms, it was probably a suction feeder. The new species supports the sister-group relationships between ichthyosauriforms and Hupehsuchia, the two forming the Ichthyosauromorpha. Basal ichthyosauromorphs are known exclusively from south China, suggesting that the clade originated in the region, which formed a warm and humid tropical archipelago in the Early Triassic. The oldest unequivocal record of a sauropterygian is also from the same stratigraphic unit of the region.

  2. Basal Ganglia Activity Mirrors a Benefit of Action and Reward on Long-Lasting Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Raphael; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-12-01

    The expectation of reward is known to enhance a consolidation of long-term memory for events. We tested whether this effect is driven by positive valence or action requirements tied to expected reward. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm in young adults, novel images predicted gain or loss outcomes, which in turn were either obtained or avoided by action or inaction. After 24 h, memory for these images reflected a benefit of action as well as a congruence of action requirements and valence, namely, action for reward and inaction for avoidance. fMRI responses in the hippocampus, a region known to be critical for long-term memory function, reflected the anticipation of inaction. In contrast, activity in the putamen mirrored the congruence of action requirement and valence, whereas other basal ganglia regions mirrored overall action benefits on long-lasting memory. The findings indicate a novel type of functional division between the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the motivational regulation of long-term memory consolidation, which favors remembering events that are worth acting for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. High fat diet promotes prostatic basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate epithelial hyperplasia originated from basal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Zhang, Boyu; Zhang, Li; Xin, Li

    2016-05-01

    Recent lineage tracing studies showed that the prostate basal and luminal cells in adult mice are two independent lineages under the physiological condition, but basal cells are capable of generating luminal progenies during bacterial infection-induced prostatitis. Because acute bacterial infection in human prostate tissues is relatively rare, the disease relevance of the bacterial infection-induced basal-to-luminal differentiation is uncertain. Herein we employ a high fat diet-induced sterile prostate inflammation model to determine whether basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by inflammation irrespective of the underlying etiologies. A K14-CreER model and a fluorescent report line are utilized to specifically label basal cells with the green fluorescent protein. We show that high fat diet promotes immune cell infiltration into the prostate tissues and basal-to-luminal differentiation. Increased cell proliferation accompanies basal-to-luminal differentiation, suggesting a concurrent regulation of basal cell proliferation and differentiation. This study demonstrates that basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by different types of prostate inflammation evolved with distinct etiologies. Finally, high fat diet also accelerates initiation and progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia that are originated from basal cells with loss-of-function of the tumor suppressor Pten. Because prostate cancer originated from basal cells tends to be invasive, our study also provides an alternative explanation for the association between obesity and aggressive prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A patient with Moyamoya-like vessels after radiation therapy for a tumor in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Koichi; Tomura, Noriaki; Kato, Koki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Watarai, Jiro; Sasajima, Toshio; Mizoi, Kazuo [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-10-01

    A patient with Moyamoya-like vessels after radiation therapy for treatment of a tumor in the basal ganglia is reported. He was diagnosed as Down syndrome at birth. He had a tumor in the left basal ganglionic region at 12 years of the age. The tumor increased in size at age 14. He underwent cerebral angiography, which did not show a stenosis nor occlusion of the internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery, nor the middle cerebral artery. He received radiation therapy with a total dose of 56 Gy. He presented a dressing apraxia at age 19. MRI showed cerebral infarction in the left temporo-occipital region. Right internal carotid angiography revealed a severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery as well as a severe stenosis of the middle cerebral artery on the right side. Moyamoya-like vessels were seen in the basal ganglionic region. Left internal carotid angiography also showed a stenosis of the internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery as well as a severe stenosis of the middle cerebral artery on the left side. Moyamoya-like vessels were seen in the basal ganglionic region. Leptomeningeal anastomose and transdural anastomose were bilaterally seen. These arterial occlusion and stenotic phenomenon corresponded to a previous radiation field. These Moyamoya-like vessels with arterial stenosis and occlusion were thought to be due to radiation-induced vasculopathy, because a previous cerebral angiography showed a normal caliber of cerebral arteries. This patient showed that patients with radiation therapy in their early childhood should be carefully observed considering the possibility of the phenomenon. (author)

  5. The mystery of a missing bone: revealing the orbitosphenoid in basal Epicynodontia (Cynodontia, Therapsida) through computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Jasinoski, Sandra C.; Fernandez, Vincent; Abdala, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts. These paired bones, which are positioned relatively dorsally in the skull, contribute to the wall of the anterior part of the braincase and form the floor for the olfactory lobes. Unlike procynosuchids and the more basal therapsids in which the orbitosphenoids are well developed, dense, and bear a ventral keel, the basal epicynodonts Cynosaurus, Galesaurus, and Thrinaxodon display cancellous, reduced, and loosely articulated orbitosphenoids, a condition shared with many eucynodonts. The hemi-cylindrical orbitosphenoid from which the mammalian condition is derived re-evolved convergently in traversodontid and some probainognathian cynodonts.

  6. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused by cholinergic deficits. We lesioned basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats using 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin. After 3 weeks, lesioned animals underwent water maze testing or were analyzed by ¹⁸F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. During water maze probe testing, performance of the lesioned group decreased with respect to time spent in the target quadrant and platform zone. Cingulate cortex glucose metabolism in the lesioned group decreased, compared with the normal group. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity and glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 expression declined in the cingulate cortex. Our results reveal that spatial memory impairment in animals with selective basal forebrain cholinergic neuron damage is associated with a functional decline in the GABAergic and cholinergic system associated with cingulate cortex glucose hypometabolism.

  7. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); Efecto de la radiacion gamma en la actividad metabolica del meristemo apical de esparrago (Asparagus officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, A.P. 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Melendrez A, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. e-mail: aestrada@cascabel.ciad.mx

    2007-07-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene

  8. Basal transcription of APOBEC3G is regulated by USF1 gene in hepatocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yanli [Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China); Li, Hui [The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College Huazhong University of Science Technology, Wuhan, 430000 (China); Zhang, Xiaoju [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China); Shang, Jia [Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China); Kang, Yi, E-mail: kykangyi@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) exert antiviral defense as an important factor of innate immunity. A variety of cytokines such as IFN-γ,IL2,IL15,IL7 could induce the transcription of A3G. However, the regulation of other nuclear factor on the transcription of A3G have not been reported at the present. To gain new insights into the transcriptional regulation of this restriction factor, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of A3G and investigate the modulation of USF1 gene on the transcription of A3G. We identified a 232 bp region that was sufficient to regulate the activity of full promoter. Transcriptional start sites (TSS) were identified by the luciferase reporter assays of plasmids containing full or shorter fragments of the A3G promoter. The results demonstrated that the core promoter of A3G is located within the region -159/-84 relative to the TSS. Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position -91/-86 relative to the major TSS) and was abolished after mutation of this DNA element. USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte, and the identified E-box represented a binding site for the USF1. - Highlights: • The core promoter of A3G is located within the region −159/−84 relative to the TSS. • Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position −91/−86 relative to the major TSS). • USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte.

  9. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  11. Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in basal ganglia function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eBonsi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction.Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

  12. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  13. Emerging concepts and recent advances in basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchy, Mariam; Leffell, David

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy worldwide, arising from non-keratinizing cells within the basal layer of the epidermis. The incidence of BCC continues to rise annually, increasing the burden of management of these carcinomas and the morbidity associated with their treatment. While surgical interventions such as Mohs micrographic surgery and surgical excision are the standard of care and yield the highest cure rates, the number of non-surgical interventions approved for the treatment of BCC continues to expand. We review various surgical and non-surgical approaches to the treatment of BCC, focusing on targeted molecular therapies that are approved for locally advanced or recurrent disease. PMID:29259776

  14. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF EYELID MASQUERADING AS BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main malignant tumors affecting the eyelid are Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC, Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and Malignant melanoma (MM in that order of frequency in Asia. SGC and BCC forms majority of tumors in India. SC C is rare in Indian population and generally occurs in predisposed individuals like in patients with Xeroderma pigmentosa. BCC may present as pigmented or non - pigmented, nodular or noduloulcerative lesion. Usually SGC and BCC are not confused because of va ried clinical appearance and morphology. However non pigmented noduloulcerative BCC can be confused with SCC. We report a case of histopathologically proven squamous cell carcinoma presenting as basal cell carcinoma in a 90 year old patient and its managem ent.

  15. Paradoxes of functional neurosurgery: clues from basal ganglia recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter; Eusebio, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be remarkably effective in treating movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Yet these effects remain essentially unexplained, even paradoxical. Equally challenging is the fact that DBS of motor targets in the basal ganglia appears to reverse abnormalities of movement without any obvious deleterious effects on remaining aspects of movement. Here, we explore the extent to which the noisy signal hypothesis might help solve some of these apparent paradoxes. Essentially the hypothesis, first tentatively advanced by Marsden and Obeso (1994), suggests that disease leads to a pattern of basal ganglia activity that disrupts local and distant function and that surgery acts to suppress or override this noisy signal. Critical to the success this theory is that different disease phenotypes are associated with different patterns of noisy signal, and we survey the evidence to support this contention, with specific emphasis on different types of pathological synchronization. However, just as DBS may suppress or override noisy signals in the basal ganglia, it must equally antagonize any remaining physiological functioning in these key motor structures. We argue that the latter effect of DBS becomes manifest when baseline motor performance is relatively preserved, i.e., when pathological activity is limited. Under these circumstances, the deleterious effects of DBS are no longer obscured by its therapeutic actions in suppressing noisy signals. Whether true, oversimplified or simply incorrect, the noisy signal hypothesis has served to focus attention on the detailed character of basal ganglia discharge and its variation with disease and therapy. 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnhaber, Jonathon M

    2012-07-15

    Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years.

  17. Basal organic phosphorus mineralization in soils under different farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oehl, F.; Frossard, E.; Fliessbach, A.; Dubois, D.; Oberson, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic P (Po) mineralization plays an important role in soil P cycling. Quantitative information on the release of available inorganic P (Pi) by this process is difficult to obtain because any mineralized Pi gets rapidly sorbed. We applied a new approach to quantify basal soil Po mineralization, based on 33PO4 isotopic dilution during 10 days of incubation, in soils differing in microbiological activity. The soils originated from a 20 years old field experiment, including a conventional...

  18. Risk Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Dubravka; Prohić, Asja; Šitum, Mirna; Zeljko Penavić, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent malignant skin tumor, which is associated with both genetic factors and environmental influences. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with the occurrence of BCC in the inhabitants of the Western Herzegovina area. The study took place during 1997 – 2003. We examined the risk factors which are presumably associated with the occurrence of BCC: skin type, exposure to UV rays and family occurrence of BCC, supple...

  19. Deep cerebral invasion by basal cell carcinoma of the scalp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizel, P.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Antwerp, Universitair Ziekenhuis, Edegem (Belgium); Dirix, L. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. of Antwerp, Universitair Ziekenhuis, Edegem (Belgium); Weyngaert, D. van den [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Antwerp, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim (Belgium); Lambert, J.R. [Dept. of Dermatology, Univ. of Antwerp, Universitair Ziekenhuis, Edegem (Belgium); Scalliet, P. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. of Antwerp, Universitair Ziekenhuis, Edegem (Belgium); Oosterom, A.T. van [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. of Antwerp, Universitair Ziekenhuis, Edegem (Belgium); Schepper, A.M. de [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Antwerp, Universitair Ziekenhuis, Edegem (Belgium)

    1996-08-01

    We report recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the scalp with deep cerebral invasion in a 82-year-old man. Plain films and CT showed extensive, full thickness, skull destruction at the vertex. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed neoplastic invasion of the meninges and left cerebral hemisphere, down to the lateral ventricle. We postulate that tumour extended into the brain along perivascular spaces of transcerebral vessels. This hypothesis is supported by the cleft-like contrast enhancement on MRI. (orig.)

  20. the Brandenburg asthma and allergy study – BASAL

    OpenAIRE

    Aurich, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to their continual rise over the last decades, allergies and asthma developed into common diseases worldwide. Despite international studies such as ISAAC and ECRHS, there are still gaps in our knowledge concerning allergic diseases in certain populations. The aim of the Brandenburg Asthma and Allergy Study (BASAL) was to assess the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, urticaria and chronic sinusitis in adults from rural, Eastern Germany. Poss...

  1. Exercise Mode Moderates the Relationship Between Mobility and Basal Ganglia Volume in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Weinstein, Andrea M; Erickson, Kirk I; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether 12 months of aerobic training (AT) moderated the relationship between change in mobility and change in basal ganglia volume than balance and toning (BAT) exercises in older adults. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. Community-dwelling older adults (N=101; mean age 66.4). Twelve-month exercise trial with two groups: AT and BAT. Mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go test. Basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus, pallidum) was segmented from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images using the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Software Library Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool. Measurements were obtained at baseline and trial completion. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine whether exercise mode moderates the relationship between change in mobility and change in basal ganglia volume over 12 months. Age, sex, and education were included as covariates. Exercise significantly moderated the relationship between change in mobility and change in left putamen volume. Specifically, for the AT group, volume of the left putamen did not change, regardless of change in mobility. Similarly, in the BAT group, those who improved their mobility most over 12 months had no change in left putamen volume, although left putamen volume of those who declined in mobility levels decreased significantly. The primary finding that older adults who engaged in 12 months of BAT training and improved mobility exhibited maintenance of brain volume in an important region responsible for motor control provides compelling evidence that such exercises can contribute to the promotion of functional independence and healthy aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  3. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  4. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  5. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  6. Will the next generation of basal insulins offer clinical advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, A J

    2014-06-01

    The 21st century has seen the arrival of several insulin analogue products and the refinement of insulin regimens, with widespread advocacy of continuous titration algorithms and earlier initiation of supplementary insulin therapy (predominantly using basal insulins) in type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, many insulin-treated diabetes patients remain in poor glycaemic control. This might reflect insufficient titration effort or lax adherence, but these issues could in some cases result from concerns about hypoglycaemia. Certainly there is scope for improving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of basal insulin, and three new products offer this prospect. Insulin degludec, now in clinical use, and PEGylated insulin lispro, in development, have greatly extended action profiles that result from two very different, but unique, mechanisms. With once-daily dosing, these insulins produce stable PK/PD profiles at steady state, associated with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. The feasibility of varied daily dose timing has also been confirmed with insulin degludec. High strength formulations of insulin glargine and insulin degludec offer the prospect of a reduced injection number/volume in high dose users, and in the case of glargine, the PK/PD profile might also be favourably modified. This review considers critically the clinical evidence and expectations we should have for these new basal insulins. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  9. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.......6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se......Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2...

  10. Interregional correlations of glucose metabolism between the basal ganglia and different cortical areas: an ultra-high resolution PET/MRI fusion study using 18F-FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Son, Y D; Kim, J M; Kim, H K; Kim, Y B; Lee, C; Oh, C H

    2017-11-13

    Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using 18F-FDG. For detailed interregional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the interregional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using 18F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders.

  11. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  12. Prefrontal Activity and Connectivity with the Basal Ganglia during Performance of Complex Cognitive Tasks Is Associated with Apathy in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Leonardo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Taurisano, Paolo; Amico, Graziella; Quarto, Tiziana; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Mancini, Marina; Gelao, Barbara; Ferranti, Laura; Popolizio, Teresa; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence indicates that apathy affects cognitive behavior in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. Studies of clinical populations have also suggested the primary involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia in apathy. These brain regions are interconnected at both the structural and functional levels and are deeply involved in cognitive processes, such as working memory and attention. However, it is unclear how apathy modulates brain processing during cognition and whether such a modulation occurs in healthy young subjects. To address this issue, we investigated the link between apathy and prefrontal and basal ganglia function in healthy young individuals. We hypothesized that apathy may be related to sub-optimal activity and connectivity in these brain regions. Three hundred eleven healthy subjects completed an apathy assessment using the Starkstein's Apathy Scale and underwent fMRI during working memory and attentional performance tasks. Using an ROI approach, we investigated the association of apathy with activity and connectivity in the DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Apathy scores correlated positively with prefrontal activity and negatively with prefrontal-basal ganglia connectivity during both working memory and attention tasks. Furthermore, prefrontal activity was inversely related to attentional behavior. These results suggest that in healthy young subjects, apathy is a trait associated with inefficient cognitive-related prefrontal activity, i.e., it increases the need for prefrontal resources to process cognitive stimuli. Furthermore, apathy may alter the functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia during cognition.

  13. Prefrontal Activity and Connectivity with the Basal Ganglia during Performance of Complex Cognitive Tasks Is Associated with Apathy in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fazio

    Full Text Available Convergent evidence indicates that apathy affects cognitive behavior in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. Studies of clinical populations have also suggested the primary involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia in apathy. These brain regions are interconnected at both the structural and functional levels and are deeply involved in cognitive processes, such as working memory and attention. However, it is unclear how apathy modulates brain processing during cognition and whether such a modulation occurs in healthy young subjects. To address this issue, we investigated the link between apathy and prefrontal and basal ganglia function in healthy young individuals. We hypothesized that apathy may be related to sub-optimal activity and connectivity in these brain regions.Three hundred eleven healthy subjects completed an apathy assessment using the Starkstein's Apathy Scale and underwent fMRI during working memory and attentional performance tasks. Using an ROI approach, we investigated the association of apathy with activity and connectivity in the DLPFC and the basal ganglia.Apathy scores correlated positively with prefrontal activity and negatively with prefrontal-basal ganglia connectivity during both working memory and attention tasks. Furthermore, prefrontal activity was inversely related to attentional behavior.These results suggest that in healthy young subjects, apathy is a trait associated with inefficient cognitive-related prefrontal activity, i.e., it increases the need for prefrontal resources to process cognitive stimuli. Furthermore, apathy may alter the functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia during cognition.

  14. Primary Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma of the Basal Cell Subtype Should Be Treated as a High-Risk Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Emilie; Alain, Jimmy; Gagné, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare primary tumor of the skin, characterized by biphasic epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Due to the limited number of cases reported, there is no consensus regarding treatment and prognosis. Some authors suggest that cutaneous carcinosarcomas should be viewed as aggressive tumors, with ancillary imaging used to evaluate potential metastatic disease. Other reports demonstrate an indolent disease course, especially with epidermal-type cutaneous carcinosarcomas. We report a case of cutaneous carcinosarcoma, which we treated with electrodessication and curettage following a shave biopsy. The tumor had an epithelial component resembling a basal cell carcinoma and a fibrosarcomatous stroma. At 1-year follow-up, our patient did not show evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Our case suggests that a cutaneous carcinosarcoma with an epithelial component composed of basal cell carcinoma can be regarded as a high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Comparative histochemical study of Bowen’s disease and actinic keratosis: preserved normal basal cells in Bowen’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ishida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of DNA-instability as revealed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-cytidine antibody after acid hydrolysis (DNA-instability test has been recently used as a marker of malignancy. This technique was applied to examine 17 skin tissue samples of Bowen’s disease, 47 of actinic keratosis, 15 of squamous cell carcinoma, 5 of seborrheic keratosis, and 10 of normal skin. All benign neoplastic cells of seborrheic keratosis and normal epidermal cells were negative. On the other hand, all cancer cells were positive with the DNA-instability test, indicating their malignancy, but all basal cells in Bowen’s disease were completely negative. Compatible with this result, the basal cells in Bowen’s disease were characteristically normal as evident in other histochemical examinations. Thus, they were negative with p53 immunohistochemistry, with normal signals of chromosome 17 in situ hybridisation and argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region, and showed slightly enhanced proliferative activity as revealed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining with 34 ß E12 (monoclonal antibody against cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14, which stains all normal epidermal keratinocytes including basal cells, showed that only the basal cells of Bowen’s disease stained strongly and homogeneously, while all cancer cells in the upper layers of Bowen’s disease and all layers of actinic keratosis were only sporadically or weakly stained. Staining with 34 ß B4 (monoclonal antibody against cytokeratin 1, which recognises the whole epidermis except for the basal layer in the normal epidermis, showed that the basal cells in the Bowen’s disease were completely negative, and lower layer cells in the actinic keratosis and upper layer cells in Bowen’s disease were only sporadically stained positive, although the superficial layer cells in actinic keratosis stained strongly and homogeneously. Our findings clearly

  16. Likely Basal Thermal State of the Greenland Ice Sheet V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Likely Basal Thermal State of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) product contains key data sets that show how the likely basal thermal state was inferred from...

  17. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  18. Mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L.; Lemos, Roberta R.; Quintáns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Adair, John C.; Berner, Jon E.; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobricić, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L.; García-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L.; Hopfer, Suellen; Janković, Milena; Jaumà, Serge; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kostić, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E.; Linglart, Agnès; Maisenbacher, Melissa K.; Manyam, Bala V.; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mueller, Jennifer; Novaković, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A.; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R.; de Oliveira, João R. M.; Sobrido, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr’s disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient’s disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41 % of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463

  19. Basal Cell Epithelioma (A Clinico-pathological Study of 172 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Solanki

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a clinico-pathological analysis of 172 cases of basal cell epithelioma representing 28% of the total skin cancer case. 1.44% of the total malignant tumours, 1% of the total tumours and 0.24% of the hospital admissions. M:F ratio was 1.26:1. The mean age was 54.06 years with the maximum number of cases in the fifth decade., Most (94% of the lesions were seen on the head and neck region. Histopathologically it showed solid (60.5%, adenoid cystic (15,7%, keratotic (9.3%, pigmented (6.4%, basi-squamous (3.5% and morphoea patterns (2.3%. Perineural lymphatic invasion was seen in 52% of the adenoid cystic basal call epithelioma. Amyloid (12.8% and amyloid like deposits (29.65% were seen in 42% of the case. Amyloid deposits were seen as lichen amyloidosis in 10.46% cases and in or around the tumour cell masses in 16.8% cases. It appeared as structureless homogeneous eosinophilic material and showed congophilia with apple green birefringence on polarising microscopy. It was found to be KMN04 sensitive (AA type protein- secondary amyloidosis. Amyloid like deposits appeared as less homogeneous,, basophilic, fractured material which showed non-specific congophilia with apple- green birefringence and stained with acid orcein stain indicating degenerated collagen (elastoid-degeneration.

  20. Basal cell carcinoma and breast carcinoma following repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myskowski, P.L.; Gumpertz, E.; Safai, B.

    1985-03-01

    A 69-year-old white Italian woman was first seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 1981 concerning several skin growths on her back. The patient had had several basal cell carcinomas surgically removed from her back during the preceding 5 years. There was no history of arsenic ingestion or prolonged sun exposure and her family history was negative for skin cancer. The patient had developed pulmonary tuberculosis in 1938 and was treated with pneumothorax therapy. She had had more than 50 fluoroscopic examinations of the chest following this therapy, as well as multiple diagnostic x-ray films since that time. On the back, clustered in the interscapular region, were multiple scars and nine erythematous nodules with pearly borders, telangiectasia, and translucent surfaces. Within several nodules there were areas of light and dark brown pigmentation. Biopsy of all lesions revealed basal cell carcinoma, some of which were pigmented, without evidence of chronic radiodermatitis. All lesions were treated with curettage and electrodesiccation three times with good cosmetic results.

  1. Case of metastatic basal cell carcinoma to bone marrow, resulting in myelophthisic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Catherine M; Syed, Almas A; Siddiqui, Huma A; Keller, Richard A; Kowalewski, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    While basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common skin cancer, the incidence of metastasis is rare. Most cases of metastatic BCC have been to regional lymph nodes. Metastasis to bone marrow with myelophthisic anemia is especially rare. To our knowledge, there have been only 5 reported cases in literature. We report a sixth case. A 46-year-old male patient presented with an 8 × 7-cm ulcerated plaque on his chest, found to be morpheaform basal cell on pathology. Laboratory findings were notable for normocytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated LDH. Further work up with bone marrow biopsy revealed tumor cells staining positive for CK AE1/AE3, BerEP4, CK7, CD56, and PIN-4. This confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic BCC (MBCC) to bone marrow. Although the rate of metastasis for BCC is rare, once it occurs, prognosis is poor. MBCC remains a challenge to treat. Therefore, it is critical to resolve the primary BCC and obtain vigilant follow-up, especially in patients with multiple risk factors for MBCC.

  2. Basal cell carcinoma and breast carcinoma following repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myskowski, P.L.; Gumpertz, E.; Safai, B.

    1985-01-01

    A 69-year-old white Italian woman was first seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 1981 concerning several skin growths on her back. The patient had had several basal cell carcinomas surgically removed from her back during the preceding 5 years. There was no history of arsenic ingestion or prolonged sun exposure and her family history was negative for skin cancer. The patient had developed pulmonary tuberculosis in 1938 and was treated with pneumothorax therapy. She had had more than 50 fluoroscopic examinations of the chest following this therapy, as well as multiple diagnostic x-ray films since that time. On the back, clustered in the interscapular region, were multiple scars and nine erythematous nodules with pearly borders, telangiectasia, and translucent surfaces. Within several nodules there were areas of light and dark brown pigmentation. Biopsy of all lesions revealed basal cell carcinoma, some of which were pigmented, without evidence of chronic radiodermatitis. All lesions were treated with curettage and electrodesiccation three times with good cosmetic results

  3. Melatonin Distribution Reveals Clues to Its Biological Significance in Basal Metazoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Although nearly ubiquitous in nature, the precise biological significance of endogenous melatonin is poorly understood in phylogenetically basal taxa. In the present work, we describe insights into the functional role of melatonin at the most “basal” level of metazoan evolution. Hitherto unknown morphological determinants of melatonin distribution were evaluated in Nematostella vectensis by detecting melatonin immunoreactivity and examining the spatial gene expression patterns of putative melatonin biosynthetic and receptor elements that are located at opposing ends of the melatonin signaling pathway. Immuno-melatonin profiling indicated an elaborate interaction with reproductive tissues, reinforcing previous conjectures of a melatonin-responsive component in anthozoan reproduction. In situ hybridization (ISH) to putative melatonin receptor elements highlighted the possibility that the bioregulatory effects of melatonin in anthozoan reproduction may be mediated by interactions with membrane receptors, as in higher vertebrates. Another intriguing finding of the present study pertains to the prevalence of melatonin in centralized nervous structures. This pattern may be of great significance given that it 1) identifies an ancestral association between melatonin and key neuronal components and 2) potentially implies that certain effects of melatonin in basal species may be spread widely by regionalized nerve centers. PMID:23300630

  4. Basal insulin analogues in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: What progress have we made?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, continuous progress has been made in the development of insulin therapy. Basal insulins were developed around 60 years ago. However, existing basal insulins were found to have limitations. An ideal basal insulin should have the following properties viz. longer duration of action, a flat time-action profile, low day-to-day glycaemic variability, and the potential for flexible dosing. Basal insulins have advanced over the years, from lectin and neutral protamine Haged...

  5. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was als...

  6. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  7. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance.

  8. New Basal Insulins: a Clinical Perspective of Their Use in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Novel Treatment Options Beyond Basal Insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Patrick F; Frias, Juan Pablo

    2017-08-18

    The purpose of this review was to review advances in basal insulin formulations and new treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving glycemic targets despite optimized basal insulin therapy. Advances in basal insulin formulations have resulted in products with increasingly favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, including flatter, peakless action profiles, less inter- and intra-patient variability, and longer duration of activity. These properties have translated to significantly reduced risk of hypoglycemia (particularly during the night) compared with previous generation basal insulins. When optimized basal insulin therapy is not sufficient to obtain or maintain glycemic goals, various options exist to improve glycemic control, including intensification of insulin therapy with the addition of prandial insulin or changing to pre-mixed insulin and, more recently, the addition of a GLP-1 receptor agonist, either as a separate injection or as a component of one of the new fixed-ratio combinations of a basal insulin and GLP-1 RA. New safer and often more convenient basal insulins and fixed ratio combinations containing basal insulin (and GLP-1 receptor agonist) are available today for patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving glycemic goals. Head-to-head studies comparing the latest generation basal insulins are underway, and future studies assessing the fixed-ratio combinations will be important to better understand their differentiating features.

  9. Proton MR spectroscopic imaging of basal ganglia and thalamus in neurofibromatosis type 1: correlation with T2 hyperintensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, Charlotte; Barantin, Laurent [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tours (France); Chabernaud, Camille [CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Tours (France); Bertrand, Philippe [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Radiology, Tours (France); Sembely, Catherine; Sirinelli, Dominique [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Tours (France); Castelnau, Pierre [CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Tours (France); CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Tours (France); Neurologie Pediatrique and INSERM U930, Hopital d' Enfants Gatien de Clocheville, Tours cedex 09 (France); Cottier, Jean-Philippe [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tours (France); CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Tours (France)

    2011-02-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is frequently associated with hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images called ''unidentified bright objects'' (UBO). To better characterize the functional significance of UBO, we investigate the basal ganglia and thalamus using spectroscopic imaging in children with NF1 and compare the results to anomalies observed on T2-weighted images. Magnetic resonance (MR) data of 25 children with NF1 were analyzed. On the basis of T2-weighted images analysis, two groups were identified: one with normal MR imaging (UBO- group; n = 10) and one with UBO (UBO+ group; n = 15). Within the UBO+ group, a subpopulation of patients (n = 5) only had lesions of the basal ganglia. We analyzed herein seven regions of interest (ROIs) for each side: caudate nucleus, capsulo-lenticular region, lateral and posterior thalamus, thalamus (lateral and posterior voxels combined), putamen, and striatum. For each ROI, a spectrum of the metabolites and their ratio was obtained. Patients with abnormalities on T2-weighted images had significantly lower NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and NAA/mI ratios in the lateral right thalamus compared with patients with normal T2. These abnormal spectroscopic findings were not observed in capsulo-lenticular regions that had UBO but in the thalamus region that was devoid of UBO. Multivoxel spectroscopic imaging using short-time echo showed spectroscopic abnormalities in the right thalamus of NF1 patients harboring UBO, which were mainly located in the basal ganglia. This finding could reflect the anatomical and functional interactions of these regions. (orig.)

  10. Sensitivity of grounding line dynamics to basal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardini, O.; Brondex, J.; Chauveau, G.; Gillet-chaulet, F.; Durand, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a warming climate, the dynamical contribution of Antarctica to future sea level rise is still tainted by high uncertainties. Among the processes entering these uncertainties is the link between basal hydrology, friction and grounding line dynamics. Recent works have shown how sensitive is the response of the grounding line retreat to the choice of the form of the friction law. Indeed, starting from the same initial state, grounding line retreat rates can range over almost two orders of magnitude depending on the friction law formulation.Here, we use a phenomenological law that depends on the water pressure and allows a continuous transition from a Weertman-type friction at low water pressure to a Coulomb-type friction at high water pressure. This friction law depends on two main parameters that control the Weertman and Coulomb regimes. The range of values for these two parameters is only weakly physically constrained, and it can be shown that, for a given basal shear stress, different couples of parameters can conduct to the same sliding velocity. In addition, we show that close to the grounding line where basal water pressure is high, determining these two parameters might conduct to an ill-posed inverse problem with no solution.The aim of this presentation is to discuss a methodology to guide the choice of the two friction parameters and explore the sensitivity of the grounding line dynamics to this initial choice. We present results obtained both on a synthetic configuration used by the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison exercise and for the Amundsen sea sector using the experiments proposed by InitMIP-Antarctica, the first exercise in a series of ISMIP6 ice-sheet model intercomparison activities.

  11. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [ 18 F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([ 18 F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [ 18 F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [ 18 F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [ 18 F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [ 18 F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [ 18 F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [ 18 F]dopa uptake overlap. D 1 and D 2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [ 18 F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D 2 receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D 2 receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [ 18 F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D 2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [ 18 F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. These PET findings are useful in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs

  12. Cis-platinum chemotherapy for ocular basal cell carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, M.; Finger, P. T.; Perlin, M.; Weiselberg, L. R.; DeBlasio, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    We have used intravenous cis-platinum chemotherapy in the treatment of three patients with basal cell carcinoma of the lid extending into the orbit. Cis-platinum chemotherapy caused a reduction in tumour size and thereby delayed surgery in all cases. It allowed for local resection in one case, appeared to delay a patient's exenteration in a second case, and was used prior to radiotherapy in a third case. While not curative, cis-platinum may be useful as an adjuvant to decrease tumour mass pri...

  13. Cognitive improvement following repair of a basal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Isabel; Palmer, Siobhan; Scott, Richard; Lozsadi, Dora; Martin, Andrew J

    2017-12-17

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with progressive memory impairment secondary to a transsphenoidal encephalocele involving her dominant medial temporal lobe. Her clinical deterioration was accompanied by radiological progression in the encephalocele's size and associated encephalomalacia. Through a temporal craniotomy, her encephalocele was resected and the defect closed. Baseline neuropsychological assessment indicated global cognitive impairment, but post-operatively, she reported improved memory and concentration. Standardized assessment reflected an improvement in perceptual skills and an associated improved recall of a complex figure. This is the first case report to date of a patient's memory improving following treatment of a basal encephalocele.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma in two Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Ducatelle, Richard; Bosseler, Leslie; Van Caelenberg, Annemie; Versnaeyen, Han; Chiers, Koen; Martel, An

    2016-11-01

    Neoplastic disorders are frequently encountered in the practice of reptile medicine. Herein we report the clinical behavior, antemortem diagnosis, and histopathologic characteristics of a recurrent intraoral keratinizing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and a metastatic BCC of the carapace in 2 Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Although squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in tortoises show similar predilection sites and gross pathologic features, the BCCs described in our report were characterized by a remarkably fast and highly infiltrative growth in comparison to SCCs. Accordingly, early diagnosis including reliable discrimination from SCC is essential toward the management of this neoplastic entity in tortoises. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Region in Ethnic Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velda Ling Yu Chow

    2011-01-01

    HNBCC commonly presented as pigmented ulcers over the nose of elderly female patients in our locality. Adequate tumour excision ± reconstruction offered the best chance of cure. Reexcision of those with inadequate skin margins improved local tumour control.

  17. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Basal Cell Adenoma of Parotid Simulating Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Subrata; Mondal, Palash Kr; Sharma, Abhishek; Sikder, Mrinal

    2018-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of monomorphic salivary adenoma most commonly involving the parotid gland. Cytology of basal cell adenoma closely mimics many other benign and malignant basaloid neoplasms. Cytological features of membranous basal cell adenoma simulate adenoid cystic carcinoma in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. Here, we are presenting a rare case of cytodiagnosis of membranous basal cell adenoma of parotid gland in an elderly lady, which mimicked adenoid cystic carcinoma on FNAC. We discuss the cytomorphology of this rare case with an emphasis on cytological difference between membranous basal cell carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma as well as other basaloid neoplasms.

  18. Basal cell carcinoma with halo phenomenon in a young female: Significance of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yuksel Basak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo phenomenon of nevus may be observed as a circular reaction, although it is unusual around tumors. A 29-year-old woman presented with a pigmented lesion on the cheek since three years. She noted whitening of the skin around the lesion almost after a year following its appearance. Dermatologic examination revealed a pigmented nodular lesion with a hypopigmented halo on the left infraorbital region. The clinical impression was halo nevus, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC was considered in dermatoscopic differential diagnosis. The diagnosis was infiltrative-type BCC histopathologically. The persistence of a perilesional halo around an enlarging pigmented lesion should be carefully examined with accompanying dermatoscopic findings even in young patients for early diagnosis of tumoral lesions.

  19. Origin of discontinuities in coal-bearing strata at roaring creek (basal Pennsylvanian of Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W.J.; Eggert, D.L.; DiMichele, W.A.; Stecyk, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Basal Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata exposed along Roaring Creek, west-central Indiana, exhibit extreme lateral discontinuity. Coal seams abruptly change in thickness and elevation; they split, grade into shale, are cut out by channels and disrupted by soft-sediment deformational structures. Initial sediments were laid down by a network of southwest-flowing streams that traversed a deeply channelized upland surface of Mississippian carbonate rocks. Channels aggraded rapidly as uplands were worn down, so the region changed through time from uplands to upper deltaic plain. Local environments included channels, localized point bars, small natural levees and crevasse splays, overbank deposits, and swamps. Differential compaction and subsidence, slumping stream banks, and possibly collapsing sinkholes influenced sedimentation. As a consequence, coals are too discontinuous for economical mining, although they are locally thick and high in quality. ?? 1985.

  20. Selective Vulnerability of the Cochlear Basal Turn to Acrylonitrile and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pouyatos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to acrylonitrile, a high-production industrial chemical, can promote noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in the rat even though this agent does not itself produce permanent hearing loss. The mechanism by which acrylonitrile promotes NIHL includes oxidative stress as antioxidant drugs can partially protect the cochlea from acrylonitrile+noise. Acrylonitrile depletes glutathione levels while noise can increase the formation of reactive oxygen species. It was previously noted that the high-frequency or basal turn of the cochlea was particularly vulnerable to the combined effects of acrylonitrile and noise when the octave band noise (OBN was centered at 8 kHz. Normally, such a noise would be expected to yield damage at a more apical region of the cochlea. The present study was designed to determine whether the basal cochlea is selectively sensitive to acrylonitrile or whether, by adjusting the frequency of the noise band, it would be possible to control the region of the auditory impairment. Rats were exposed to one of three different OBNs centered at different frequencies (4 kHz, 110 dB and 8 or 16 kHz at 97 dB for 5 days, with and without administration of acrylonitrile (50 mg/kg/day. The noise was set to cause limited NIHL by itself. Auditory function was monitored by recording distortion products, by compound action potentials, and by performing cochlear histology. While the ACN-only and noise-only exposures induced no or little permanent auditory loss, the three exposures to acrylonitrile+noise produced similar auditory and cochlear impairments above 16 kHz, despite the fact that the noise exposures covered 2 octaves. These observations show that the basal cochlea is much more sensitive to acrylonitrile+noise than the apical partition. They provide an initial basis for distinguishing the pattern of cochlear injury that results from noise exposure from that which occurs due to the combined effects of noise and a chemical