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Sample records for basal late weichselian

  1. Lithostratigraphy of Late Weichselian tills on the West Estonian Islands

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    Kadastik, E.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Glacial stratigraphy of the West Estonian Islands comprises three different diamicton units which are correlated event-stratigraphically to the Pandivere and Palivere ice advances of the most recent (Late Weichselian glaciation and included into the Vörtsjärve Subformation according to Estonian stratigraphic nomenclature. A large number of till samples (1136 and drillcore sections (2500 were analysed in order to determine the genesis and composition of sediments from which the lithostratigraphical conclusions are derived. The two topmost diamictons are interpreted as genetic varieties of the Palivere Till - waterline melt-out and basal till. The Pandivere Till is the lowermost widespread till layer on the islands, which lies unconformably between the Palivere Till and carbonaceous bedrock. Lacustrine Köpu Sands separate the Palivere and Pandivere Tills in a few boreholes on the Köpu and Sörve Peninsulas. In deeply buried valleys on the Sörve Peninsula the Pandivere Till is underlain by lacustrine Viieristi Sands and greenish-grey compact till of unknown age. The correlatives of the Palivere and Pandivere Tills in southern Finland, south of Salpausselkä I (SSI, are thought to be the Espoo and Siuntio Tills, respectively.

  2. Late Weichselian and Holocene paleoceanography of Storfjordrenna, southern Svalbard

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    M. Łącka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiproxy analyses (incl. benthic and planktonic foraminifera, δ18O and δ13C records, grain-size distribution, ice-rafted debris, XRF geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility were performed on a 14C dated marine sediment core from Storfjordrenna, off southern Svalbard. The sediments in the core cover the termination of Bølling–Allerød, the Younger Dryas and the Holocene, and they reflect general changes in the hydrology/climate of the European Arctic after the last glaciation. Grounded ice of the last Svalbard- Barents Sea Ice Sheet retreated from the coring site ca. 13 850 cal yr BP. During the transition from the sub-glacial to glacimarine setting, Arctic Waters dominated the hydrography in Storfjordrenna. However, the waters were not uniformly cold and experienced several warmer spells. A progressive warming and marked change in the nature of hydrology occurred during the early Holocene. Relatively warm and saline Atlantic Water started to dominate the hydrography from approx. 9500 cal yr BP. Even though the climate in eastern Svalbard was milder at that time than at present (smaller glaciers, there were two slight coolings observed in the periods of 9000–8000 cal yr BP and 6000–5500 cal yr BP. A change of the Storfjordrenna hydrology occurred at the beginning of late Holocene synchronously with glacier growth on land and enhanced bottom current velocities. Although cooling was observed in the surface water, Atlantic Water remained present in the deeper part of water column of Storfjordrenna.

  3. Depositional features of a late Weichselian outwash fan; central East Jylland, Denmark

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    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael

    1983-10-01

    Four major sedimentary facies are present in coarse-grained, ice-marginal deposits from central East Jylland, Denmark. Facies A and B are matrix-supported gravels deposited by subaerial sediment gravity flows as mudflows (facies A) and debris flows (facies B). Facies C consists of clast-supported, water-laid gravels and facies D are cross-bedded sand and granules. The facies can be grouped into three facies associations related to the supraglacial and proglacial environments: (1) the flow-till association is made up of alternating beds of remobilized glacial mixton (facies A) and well-sorted cross-bedded sand (facies D); (2) the outwash apron association resembles the sediments of alluvial fans in containing coarse-grained debris-flow deposits (facies B), water-laid gravel deposited by sheet floods (facies C) and cross-bedded sand and granules (facies D) from braided distributaries; (3) the valley sandur association comprises water-laid gravel (facies C) interpreted as sheet bars and longitudinal bars interbedded with cross-bedded sand and granules (facies D) deposited in channels between bars in a braided environment. The general coarsening-upward trend of the sedimentary sequences caused by the transition of bars and channel-dominated facies to debris-flow-dominated facies indicate an increasing proximality of the outwash deposits, picturing the advance and still stand of a large continental lowland ice-sheet. The depositional properties suggest that sedimentation was caused by melting along a relatively steep, active glacier margin as a first step towards the final vanishing of the Late Weichselian icesheet (the East Jylland ice) covering eastern Denmark.

  4. Late Weichselian and Holocene relative sea-level history of Bräggerhalväya, Spitsbergen

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    Forman, Steven L.; Mann, Daniel H.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1987-01-01

    Radiocarbon-dated whalebones from raised beaches record a relative sea-level history for Bröggerhalvöya, western Spitsbergen that suggest a two-step deglaciation on Svalbard at the end of the late Weichselian glaciation. The late Weichselian marine limit was reached at about 13,000 yr B.P. and was followed by relatively slow emergence until about 10,000 yr B.P. either in response to ice unloading in the Barents Sea, initial retreat of local fjord glaciers, or some combination of the two. Rare whale skeletons dating between 13,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. indicate that the Norwegian Sea was at least seasonally ice free during that interval. Deglaciation of Spitsbergen is recorded by the rapid emergence of Bröggerhalvöya after 10,000 yr B.P. This was followed by a transgression during the mid-Holocene, here named the Talavera Transgression, and another in modern times. Raised beach morphologies suggest striking differences in nearshore depositional processes before and after 10,000 yr B.P. that are probably related to changes in the rate of uplift and in sea-ice conditions.

  5. Chronology of Late Saalian and Middle Weichselian episodes of ice-free lacustrine sedimentation recorded in the Arumetsa section, southwestern Estonia

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    Maris Rattas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The information obtained from a 21 m thick open-pit section of silty-clayey sediments in the Arumetsa bedrock valley, southwestern Estonia, revealed that lacustrine to glaciolacustrine sedimentation at the site started prior to 151 ka ago and lasted to about the end of marine isotope stage 6 (MIS6 at 130 ka. Further down from the 151 ka age-level to the bottom of the buried valley there are ca 60 m of lacustrine fine-grained sediments, the age of which remains still unclear. The Late Saalian sediments at Arumetsa are discordantly overlain by Middle Weichselian clay, silt and sand, deposited between ca 44 and 37 ka ago. As testified by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL ages, and pollen and diatom record, the Middle Weichselian fine-grained sediments contain redeposited Holsteinian but no Eemian pollen, and have not been fully bleached during deposition. Chronological, microfossil and sedimentological data show two hiatuses in the Arumetsa section. The first hiatus has left no sedimentary evidence for the period between ca 130 ka and 44 ka ago (MIS5 to older half of MIS3. The younger hiatus from ca 37 to 22 ka occurs between the Middle Weichselian lacustrine silt and the Late Weichselian till layer on top of the section.

  6. Ice marginal fluctuations during the Weichselian glaciation in Fennoscandia, a literature review

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    Lokrantz, Hanna; Sohlenius, Gustav [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    This report presents an overview regarding ice marginal fluctuations during the last glacial, the Weichselian. It is focusing on marginal positions in Sweden with surroundings. The results are used to calibrate a computer simulation of the Weichselian ice sheet. The report also contains some information regarding basal conditions beneath the Swedish part of the Weichselian ice sheet. This information will be used to validate the results of the simulation of the Weichselian ice sheet. The Weichselian glaciation started 115 ka BP (thousands of years before present) and ended at the transition to the Holocene 11.5 ka BP. Terrestrial and marine records show that ice volumes fluctuated drastically during the Weichselian. The marine isotope record shows the global variations in climate and ice volume during the last ice age and has been divided into Marine Isotope Stages (MIS), which are well dated (MIS5d to MIS 2). Dating of terrestrial records is, however, problematic due to stratigraphical gaps and deposits, which are difficult to date. In many areas the timing of local and regional ice marginal fluctuations, prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), is therefore poorly understood. Age attribution of terrestrial deposits is often interpreted from bio- and litostratigraphical information, which has been correlated to other records, e.g. marine stratigraphies. The marine record from Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-5a) shows that two relatively warm periods, interstadials (MIS 5c and 5a), prevailed 105-9 ka BP and 85-74 ka BP. After MIS 5a global ice volume increased and remained large throughout Middle Weichselian (74-24 ka BP). During the LGM (c 21 ka BP), before the onset of the deglaciation, the ice volume was at its largest. Stratigraphical data indicate at least two periods with ice-free conditions in northern Fennoscandia, which have been correlated with the two early Weichselian interstadials Broerup and Odderade (MIS 5c and 5a). Few absolute dates have, however, been

  7. The build-up, configuration, and dynamical sensitivity of the Eurasian ice-sheet complex to Late Weichselian climatic and oceanic forcing

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    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Stroeven, Arjen P.

    2016-12-01

    The Eurasian ice-sheet complex (EISC) was the third largest ice mass during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), after the Antarctic and North American ice sheets. Despite its global significance, a comprehensive account of its evolution from independent nucleation centres to its maximum extent is conspicuously lacking. Here, a first-order, thermomechanical model, robustly constrained by empirical evidence, is used to investigate the dynamics of the EISC throughout its build-up to its maximum configuration. The ice flow model is coupled to a reference climate and applied at 10 km spatial resolution across a domain that includes the three main spreading centres of the Celtic, Fennoscandian and Barents Sea ice sheets. The model is forced with the NGRIP palaeo-isotope curve from 37 ka BP onwards and model skill is assessed against collated flowsets, marginal moraines, exposure ages and relative sea-level history. The evolution of the EISC to its LGM configuration was complex and asynchronous; the western, maritime margins of the Fennoscandian and Celtic ice sheets responded rapidly and advanced across their continental shelves by 29 ka BP, yet the maximum aerial extent (5.48 × 106 km2) and volume (7.18 × 106 km3) of the ice complex was attained some 6 ka later at c. 22.7 ka BP. This maximum stand was short-lived as the North Sea and Atlantic margins were already in retreat whilst eastern margins were still advancing up until c. 20 ka BP. High rates of basal erosion are modelled beneath ice streams and outlet glaciers draining the Celtic and Fennoscandian ice sheets with extensive preservation elsewhere due to frozen subglacial conditions, including much of the Barents and Kara seas. Here, and elsewhere across the Norwegian shelf and North Sea, high pressure subglacial conditions would have promoted localised gas hydrate formation.

  8. The SE sector of the Middle Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheet was much smaller than assumed

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    Räsänen, Matti E.; Huitti, Janne V.; Bhattarai, Saroj; Harvey, Jerry; Huttunen, Sanna

    2015-08-01

    Quaternary climatic and glacial history must be known in order to understand future environments. Reconstructions of the last Weichselian glacial cycle 117,000-11,700 years (kyr) ago propose that S Finland, adjacent Russia and the Baltic countries in the SE sector of the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS), were glaciated during the Middle Weichselian time [marine isotope stage (MIS) 4, 71-57 kyr ago] and that this glaciation was preceded in S Finland by an Early Weichselian interstadial (MIS 5c, 105-93 kyr ago) with pine forest. We apply glacial sequence stratigraphy to isolated Late Pleistocene onshore outcrop sections and show, that these events did not take place. The one Late Weichselian glaciation (MIS 2, 29-11 kyr ago) was preceded in S Finland by a nearly 90 kyr non-glacial period, featuring tundra with permafrost and probably birch forest. Our new Middle Weichselian paleoenvironmental scenario revises the configuration and hydrology of the S part of EIS and gives new setting for the evolution of Scandinavian biota. If future development during the coming glacial cycle proves to be similar, the high-level nuclear waste stored in the bedrock of SW Finland should be located deeper than currently planned, i.e. below any possible future permafrost.

  9. ATG12-ATG3 connects basal autophagy and late endosome function.

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    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    In addition to supporting cell survival in response to starvation or stress, autophagy promotes basal protein and organelle turnover. Compared to our understanding of stress-induced autophagy, little is known about how basal autophagy is regulated and how its activity is coordinated with other cellular processes. We recently identified a novel interaction between the ATG12-ATG3 conjugate and the ESCRT-associated protein PDCD6IP/Alix that promotes basal autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Moreover, ATG12-ATG3 is required for diverse PDCD6IP-mediated functions including late endosome distribution, exosome secretion, and viral budding. Our results highlight the importance of late endosomes for basal autophagic flux and reveal distinct roles for the core autophagy proteins ATG12 and ATG3 in controlling late endosome function.

  10. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

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    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  11. Unravelling the complex nature of the Upper Weichselian till section at Gdynia Babie Doły, northern Poland

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    Woźniak, Piotr Paweł; Czubla, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The complexity of glacial sequences may increase when these formed underneath ice sheets despite subsequent changes in their extent that are accompanied by alterations in the direction of the ice flow. Our aim was to determine whether or not changes in ice sheet dynamics during the Late Weichselian are also recorded in sediments formed north of the area of its fluctuating margin (i.e., where the ice sheet prevailed independent of such fluctuations). It is shown that in these areas such a record could have occurred, as documented by results of till studies at Babie Doły. The examination was carried out using several analyses: lithofacies properties of sediments, petrographic till composition (fine gravel fraction, indicator erratics), till matrix CaCO3 content, till fabric, as well as orientation of striae on the top surfaces of large clasts. In parallel, datings of sub- and supra-till sediments using the TL method were carried out. The basal till at Babie Doły represents almost the entire Upper Weichselian, but it can be divided into subunits whose features indicate different ice flow directions and debris supply. The lower subunit developed as a result of the palaeo-ice stream along the main axis of the Baltic Sea (from the north), expanding to areas adjacent to the depression of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The upper subunit developed when the influence of the palaeo-ice stream in the study area decreased, the main role having been taken over by the ice flowing from the northwest. The till analysed also shows considerable lateral variation, indicative of the mosaic nature of subglacial sedimentation. We consider the diversity of permeability of deposits over which the ice sheet extended to be the prime factor that determined such a situation.

  12. Unravelling the complex nature of the Upper Weichselian till section at Gdynia Babie Doły, northern Poland

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    Woźniak Piotr Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of glacial sequences may increase when these formed underneath ice sheets despite subsequent changes in their extent that are accompanied by alterations in the direction of the ice flow. Our aim was to determine whether or not changes in ice sheet dynamics during the Late Weichselian are also recorded in sediments formed north of the area of its fluctuating margin (i.e., where the ice sheet prevailed independent of such fluctuations. It is shown that in these areas such a record could have occurred, as documented by results of till studies at Babie Doły. The examination was carried out using several analyses: lithofacies properties of sediments, petrographic till composition (fine gravel fraction, indicator erratics, till matrix CaCO3 content, till fabric, as well as orientation of striae on the top surfaces of large clasts. In parallel, datings of sub- and supra-till sediments using the TL method were carried out. The basal till at Babie Doły represents almost the entire Upper Weichselian, but it can be divided into subunits whose features indicate different ice flow directions and debris supply. The lower subunit developed as a result of the palaeo-ice stream along the main axis of the Baltic Sea (from the north, expanding to areas adjacent to the depression of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The upper subunit developed when the influence of the palaeo-ice stream in the study area decreased, the main role having been taken over by the ice flowing from the northwest. The till analysed also shows considerable lateral variation, indicative of the mosaic nature of subglacial sedimentation. We consider the diversity of permeability of deposits over which the ice sheet extended to be the prime factor that determined such a situation.

  13. Interaction of basal foliage removal and late season fungicide applications in management of Hop powdery mildew

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    Experiments were conducted over three years to evaluate whether fungicide applications could be ceased after the most susceptible stages of cone development (late July) without unduly affecting crop yield and quality when disease pressure was moderated with varying levels of basal foliage removal. I...

  14. A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China.

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    Choiniere, Jonah N; Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Guo, Yu; Han, Fenglu

    2010-01-29

    The fossil record of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs closely related to birds remains poor. A new theropod from the earliest Late Jurassic of western China represents the earliest diverging member of the enigmatic theropod group Alvarezsauroidea and confirms that this group is a basal member of Maniraptora, the clade containing birds and their closest theropod relatives. It extends the fossil record of Alvarezsauroidea by 63 million years and provides evidence for maniraptorans earlier in the fossil record than Archaeopteryx. The new taxon confirms extreme morphological convergence between birds and derived alvarezsauroids and illuminates incipient stages of the highly modified alvarezsaurid forelimb.

  15. Glacial sequence stratigraphy reveal the Weichselian glacial history of the SE sector of the Eurasian Ice Sheet

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    Räsänen, Matti

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructions of the last Weichselian glacial cycle 117,000-11,700 years (kyr) ago propose that S Finland, adjacent Russia and the Baltic countries in the SE sector of the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS), were glaciated during the Middle Weichselian time [marine isotope stage (MIS) 4, 71-57 kyr ago] and that this glaciation was preceded in S Finland by an Early Weichselian interstadial (MIS 5c, 105-93 kyr ago) with pine forest. Here glacial sequence stratigraphy (Powell and Cooper 2002) is applied to isolated Late Pleistocene onshore outcrop sections in S Finland. The analysed sedimentary records have traditionally been investigated, interpreted and published separately by different authors without an attempt to a methodologically more systematic survey. By putting new field data and old observations into a regional sequence stratigraphic framework it is shown how previously unnoticed regularities can be found in the lithofacies and fossil successions. It is shown that the proposed Middle Weichselian glaciation or the pine dominated interstadial did not take place at all (Räsänen et al. 2015). The one Late Weichselian glaciation (MIS 2, 29-11 kyr ago) at the SE sector of EIS was preceded in S Finland by a nearly 90 kyr long still poorly known non-glacial period, featuring tundra with permafrost and probably birch forest. The new Middle Weichselian paleoenvironmental scenario revises the configuration and hydrology of the S part of EIS and gives new setting for the evolution of Scandinavian biota. References Powell, R. D., and Cooper, J. M., 2002, A glacial sequence stratigraphic model for temperate, glaciated continental shelves, in Dowdeswell, J. A., and Cofaig, C. Ó. eds., Glacier-Influenced Sedimentation on High-Latitude Continental Margins: The Geological Society of London, London, Geological Society London, Special Publication v. 203, p. 215-244. Räsänen, M.E., Huitti, J.V., Bhattarai, S. Harvey, J. and Huttunen, S. 2015, The SE sector of the Middle

  16. Weichselian Aeolian Geoheritage Top 20 of the Netherlands

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    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Platform Aardkundige Waarden, members

    2016-04-01

    The Netherlands are known world-wide for its engineered landscapes, its deep polders and bulb fields. The deep polders, up to more than 5 meters below sea level, originated by reclaiming peat lakes and peat quarries made for fuel. Its bulb fields are situated on levelled permeable dunes on which the precise water management is possible that growing bulbs requires. The Waddensea and -islands are less widely known (except by German bathers), although they are a World Heritage. The Waddensea is a highly pristine tidal landscape that already occurs along the Dutch coast for over 10,000 years and an important Natura 2000 area. The Wadden islands have an interesting history of erosion and re-growth and old cultural landscapes that show the interaction of land use and small-scale differences in geology and geomorphology during different cultural periods. Therefore, it is time to change the international perception of foreign visitors to The Netherlands and add the high variety of its historical landscapes, partly pristine and partly old cultural landscapes, to its tourism qualities. The poster presents a Top 20 of a less spectacular but another internationally important Dutch landscape: the coversand sites of the Netherlands. The Top 20 is selected by Geoheritage NL's Platform Aardkundige Waarden. The coversands evolved during the Late Weichselian, when the Netherlands was not covered by land ice and for a long period of time was part of a polar desert. The coversand landscape with dunes of 0,5 m up to 15 metres is not spectacular, but very characteristic. The coversands comprise of more than half a kilometre broad and 40 kilometre long dunes, series of river dunes as well as isolated dunes. The coversands and related Holocene drift sands make up about a quarter of the Dutch landscape. Over a century ago more than half of this landscape still had its pristine topography. Now less than a few percent is remaining. Especially the few remaining heathlands on coversand are an

  17. A new phylogeny for basal Trechnotheria and Cladotheria and affinities of South American endemic Late Cretaceous mammals

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    Averianov, Alexander O.; Martin, Thomas; Lopatin, Alexey V.

    2013-04-01

    The endemic South American mammals Meridiolestida, considered previously as dryolestoid cladotherians, are found to be non-cladotherian trechnotherians related to spalacotheriid symmetrodontans based on a parsimony analysis of 137 morphological characters among 44 taxa. Spalacotheriidae is the sister taxon to Meridiolestida, and the latter clade is derived from a primitive spalacolestine that migrated to South America from North America at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. Meridiolestida survived until the early Paleocene ( Peligrotherium) and early Miocene ( Necrolestes) in South America, and their extinction is probably linked to the increasing competition with metatherian and eutherian tribosphenic mammals. The clade Meridiolestida plus Spalacotheriidae is the sister taxon to Cladotheria and forms a new clade Alethinotheria. Alethinotheria and its sister taxon Zhangheotheria, new clade (Zhangheotheriidae plus basal taxa), comprise Trechnotheria. Cladotheria is divided into Zatheria (plus stem taxa, including Amphitherium) and Dryolestida, including Dryolestidae and a paraphyletic array of basal dryolestidans (formerly classified as "Paurodontidae"). The South American Vincelestes and Groebertherium are basal dryolestidans.

  18. Late-Onset Mania in a Patient with Movement Disorder and Basal Ganglia Calcifications: A Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment

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    Roiter, Beatrice; Pigato, Giorgio; Perugi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as “secondary” forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms. Taking into account movement disturbances, the presence of basal ganglia calcification, and worsening of cortical atrophy, we performed a differential diagnosis between Fahr disease, Fahr's syndrome, calcifications due to ageing, supersensitivity psychosis, and dementia. Valproate, quetiapine, and tetrabenazine were sequentially administered and yielded a good therapeutic response as regards manic and movement symptoms. Relationship between medications and course of specific symptoms was observed. PMID:27213069

  19. Mandibular and dental characteristics of Late Triassic mammaliaform Haramiyavia and their ramifications for basal mammal evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhe-Xi Luo; Stephen M. Gatesy; Farish A. Jenkins Jr; William W. Amaral; Neil H. Shubin

    2015-01-01

    ... of the predecessors to crown Mammalia. Our tests of competing phylogenetic hypotheses with these new data show that Late Triassic haramiyids are a separate clade from multituberculate mammals and are excluded from the Mammalia...

  20. Mandibular and dental characteristics of Late Triassic mammaliaform Haramiyavia and their ramifications for basal mammal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe-Xi; Gatesy, Stephen M; Jenkins, Farish A; Amaral, William W; Shubin, Neil H

    2015-12-22

    As one of the earliest-known mammaliaforms, Haramiyavia clemmenseni from the Rhaetic (Late Triassic) of East Greenland has held an important place in understanding the timing of the earliest radiation of the group. Reanalysis of the type specimen using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) has revealed new details, such as the presence of the dentary condyle of the mammalian jaw hinge and the postdentary trough for mandibular attachment of the middle ear-a transitional condition of the predecessors to crown Mammalia. Our tests of competing phylogenetic hypotheses with these new data show that Late Triassic haramiyids are a separate clade from multituberculate mammals and are excluded from the Mammalia. Consequently, hypotheses of a Late Triassic diversification of the Mammalia that depend on multituberculate affinities of haramiyidans are rejected. Scanning electron microscopy study of tooth-wear facets and kinematic functional simulation of occlusion with virtual 3D models from CT scans confirm that Haramiyavia had a major orthal occlusion with the tallest lingual cusp of the lower molars occluding into the lingual embrasure of the upper molars, followed by a short palinal movement along the cusp rows alternating between upper and lower molars. This movement differs from the minimal orthal but extensive palinal occlusal movement of multituberculate mammals, which previously were regarded as relatives of haramiyidans. The disparity of tooth morphology and the diversity of dental functions of haramiyids and their contemporary mammaliaforms suggest that dietary diversification is a major factor in the earliest mammaliaform evolution.

  1. Late-Onset Mania in a Patient with Movement Disorder and Basal Ganglia Calcifications: A Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Roiter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as “secondary” forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms. Taking into account movement disturbances, the presence of basal ganglia calcification, and worsening of cortical atrophy, we performed a differential diagnosis between Fahr disease, Fahr’s syndrome, calcifications due to ageing, supersensitivity psychosis, and dementia. Valproate, quetiapine, and tetrabenazine were sequentially administered and yielded a good therapeutic response as regards manic and movement symptoms. Relationship between medications and course of specific symptoms was observed.

  2. A late-surviving basal theropod dinosaur from the latest Triassic of North America.

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    Sues, Hans-Dieter; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Berman, David S; Henrici, Amy C

    2011-11-22

    The oldest theropod dinosaurs are known from the Carnian of Argentina and Brazil. However, the evolutionary diversification of this group after its initial radiation but prior to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is still poorly understood because of a sparse fossil record near that boundary. Here, we report on a new basal theropod, Daemonosaurus chauliodus gen. et sp. nov., from the latest Triassic 'siltstone member' of the Chinle Formation of the Coelophysis Quarry at Ghost Ranch, New Mexico. Based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis, Daemonosaurus is more closely related to coeval neotheropods (e.g. Coelophysis bauri) than to Herrerasauridae and Eoraptor. The skeletal structure of Daemonosaurus and the recently discovered Tawa bridge a morphological gap between Eoraptor and Herrerasauridae on one hand and neotheropods on the other, providing additional support for the theropod affinities of both Eoraptor and Herrerasauridae and demonstrating that lineages from the initial radiation of Dinosauria persisted until the end of the Triassic. Various features of the skull of Daemonosaurus, including the procumbent dentary and premaxillary teeth and greatly enlarged premaxillary and anterior maxillary teeth, clearly set this taxon apart from coeval neotheropods and demonstrate unexpected disparity in cranial shape among theropod dinosaurs just prior to the end of the Triassic.

  3. Quantitative reconstruction of climate variability during the Eemian (Merkinė) and Weichselian (Nemunas) in Lithuania

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    Šeirienė, Vaida; Kühl, Norbert; Kisielienė, Dalia

    2014-07-01

    Little is known concerning climate changes in the Eastern Baltic region during the last interglacial-glacial cycle and in particular, climate changes during the Weichselian. In this study, a quantitative reconstruction of the mean January and July temperature for the Medininkai-117 site in Lithuania is presented. The reconstruction is based on pollen and plant macrofossils from this site, which reveal that the vegetation was characteristic of many northern Europe sites during the Eemian and Early Weichselian. Gradual evolution of the vegetation suggests that relatively uniform climate conditions existed during the Eemian. Our reconstructions support the view of a relatively stable Eemian, with short cooling phases of low amplitude. A strong increase in temperature was apparent during the beginning of the interglacial and decrease during the transition to the Weichselian. Reconstructed July temperatures of the Eemian interglacial were approximately 2 °C higher than today (18.5 °C; today: 16.2 °C) and were similar to today for January (- 5.2 °C; today: - 5.1 °C). July temperatures during the Early Weichselian were only ~ 2°C lower than during the Eemian, whereas the January temperatures gradually decreased. Winter temperatures were relatively high (above - 10 °C) during the Early Weichselian.

  4. The Aucellaelv stade at Aucellaelv, the first Weichselian glacier advance in Scoresby Sund, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelson, Carsten; Funder, Svend Visby; Kelly, Michael

    1994-01-01

    The first major Weichselian ice advance in Scoresby Sund, during the Aucellaelv stage, deposited thick till beds along the coast of Jameson Land between > 107 ka and 140 ka. and is correlated with isotope substage 5d in the marine record. This is shown by stream-cut sections at the mouth of the A......The first major Weichselian ice advance in Scoresby Sund, during the Aucellaelv stage, deposited thick till beds along the coast of Jameson Land between > 107 ka and 140 ka. and is correlated with isotope substage 5d in the marine record. This is shown by stream-cut sections at the mouth...

  5. Depositional conditions on an alluvial fan at the turn of the Weichselian to the Holocene – a case study in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieliński Paweł

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented are the results of research into the fluvio-aeolian sedimentary succession at the site of Postolin in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland. Based on lithofacies analysis, textural analysis, Thermoluminescence and Infrared-Optical Stimulated Luminescence dating and GIS analysis, three lithofacies units were recognised and their stratigraphic succession identified: 1 the lower unit was deposited during the Pleni-Weichselian within a sand-bed braided river functioning under permafrost conditions within the central part of the alluvial fan; 2 the middle unit is the result of aeolian deposition and fluvial redeposition on the surface of the fan during long-term permafrost and progressive decrease of humidity of the climate at the turn of the Pleni- to the Late Weichselian; 3 the upper unit accumulated following the development of longitudinal dunes at the turn of the Late Weichselian to the Holocene; the development of dunes was interrupted twice by the form being stabilised by vegetation and soil development.

  6. GRACE gravity observations constrain Weichselian ice thickness in the Barents Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, B.C.; Tarasov, L.; Van der Wal, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Barents Sea is subject to ongoing postglacial uplift since the melting of the Weichselian ice sheet that covered it. The regional ice sheet thickness history is not well known because there is only data at the periphery due to the locations of Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya surro

  7. GRACE gravity observations constrain Weichselian ice thickness in the Barents Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, B.C.; Tarasov, L.; Van der Wal, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Barents Sea is subject to ongoing postglacial uplift since the melting of the Weichselian ice sheet that covered it. The regional ice sheet thickness history is not well known because there is only data at the periphery due to the locations of Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya surro

  8. Vegetation and climate in the Early- and Pleni-Weichselian in northern Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Gerfried; Freund, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of numerous pollen diagrams from north and central Germany and from the adjacent lowlands of The Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Belarus have facilitated a regional comparison of the vegetation and climatic evolution from the beginning of the Early Weichselian glaciation to the Weichselian pleniglacial. Data from geological studies and analysis of fossil beetles and plant macroremains have been used to supplement the palaeoclimatic reconstruction.Up to the end of the Oerel Interstadial the palaeoclimate was characterised by increasing continentality. The winter temperatures in particular tended to fall continuously during the stadials and the interstadials of the Early Weichselian and early Pleniglacial. In the Brörup and Odderade Interstadials summer temperatures where sufficiently high to enable boreal forests to grow, whereas in the Oerel Interstadial summer temperatures were such that tree growth was inhibited. It is probable that falling sea-level and the consequent extension northwards of the North Sea coast were the main causes of increasing continentality.In the latter part of the Pleniglacial, peat accumulation frequently took place and humic silts were deposited under lacustrine conditions. Correlation between various sites is extraordinarily difficult. Pollen diagrams from the so-called interstadials of the Glinde, Moershoofd Complex, Hengelo and Denekamp are similar to those of the known Early Weichselian stadials. It is proposed therefore that these interstadials should be called intervals, and that the term interstadial be reserved for climatic variations that result in distinctive pollen assemblages and which, in turn, reflect distinctive vegetation dynamics. Interstadials should be capable of being characterised on a biostratigraphical basis and it should be possible to establish correlations over considerable distances. According to this definition, the first three warm oscillations of the Weichselian glaciation in the central European

  9. Palaeoenvironmental dynamics inferred from late Quaternary permafrost deposits on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Andreev, Andrei A.; Kienast, Frank; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Sierralta, Melanie

    2008-08-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The record mirrors the environmental history of Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island reflects the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  10. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation. 

  11. Stress evolution and fault stability during the Weichselian glacial cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Bjoern; Schmidt, Peter; Hieronymus, Christoph (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    In this report we examine how the waxing and waning of an ice sheet during a glacial cycle affects the state of stress in the Earth, and how those changes in stress influence the stability of faults. We focus on the stresses at repository depth in Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and on the stability field at seismogenic depth at the proposed repository sites and at the Paervie endglacial fault in northern Sweden. This study is a modelling study, where we use 3-dimensional ice and earth models to calculate the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), i.e. the response of the Earth to an ice load, examining both displacements and stresses. We use a flat-earth finite element approach, based on Wu with some modifications. The result presented here is a continuation of previous studies in 2 dimensions and complement those studies in assessing how the 3-dimensionality of the problem affects the conclusions. We use the Fennoscandian ice model of Naeslund, which is a dynamic ice sheet model based on climate reconstructions with constraints from geological observations. The ice model spans the entire Weichselian glaciation but we only use the last 68 kyr, which includes the 2 major periods of ice cover as depicted in this ice sheet reconstruction. For the GIA calculation we use a number of different earth models, both with flat horizontal layers and with various 3D structures of lithosphere thickness. We don't include lateral variations in the viscosity of the mantle. Comparing the current day rebound velocities predicted by our models with GPS observations from the BIFROST project, we note that in general, we can obtain a reasonable fit to the observations with our models, and that the results are rather sensitive to the assumed viscosity of the mantle. We find that the differences between data and model results, for all earth models, have common features which we interpret as due to the ice model. These observations are in agreement with numerous other GIA studies. Our flat

  12. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  13. Weichselian permafrost depth in the Netherlands: a comprehensive uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Joan; Beerten, Koen; ten Veen, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The Rupelian clay in the Netherlands is currently the subject of a feasibility study with respect to the storage of radioactive waste in the Netherlands (OPERA-project). Many features need to be considered in the assessment of the long-term evolution of the natural environment surrounding a geological waste disposal facility. One of these is permafrost development as it may have an impact on various components of the disposal system, including the natural environment (hydrogeology), the natural barrier (clay) and the engineered barrier. Determining how deep permafrost might develop in the future is desirable in order to properly address the possible impact on the various components. It is expected that periglacial conditions will reappear at some point during the next several hundred thousands of years, a typical time frame considered in geological waste disposal feasibility studies. In this study, the Weichselian glaciation is used as an analogue for future permafrost development. Permafrost depth modelling using a best estimate temperature curve of the Weichselian indicates that permafrost would reach depths between 155 and 195 m. Without imposing a climatic gradient over the country, deepest permafrost is expected in the south due to the lower geothermal heat flux and higher average sand content of the post-Rupelian overburden. Accounting for various sources of uncertainty, such as type and impact of vegetation, snow cover, surface temperature gradients across the country, possible errors in palaeoclimate reconstructions, porosity, lithology and geothermal heat flux, stochastic calculations point out that permafrost depth during the coldest stages of a glacial cycle such as the Weichselian, for any location in the Netherlands, would be 130-210 m at the 2σ level. In any case, permafrost would not reach depths greater than 270 m. The most sensitive parameters in permafrost development are the mean annual air temperatures and porosity, while the geothermal heat

  14. The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is required for basal resistance against the late blight pathogen phytophthora infestans in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chaparro-Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The filamentous oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans causes late blight, an economically important disease, on members of the nightshade family (Solanaceae, such as the crop plants potato and tomato. The related plant Nicotiana benthamiana is a model system to study plant-pathogen interactions, and the susceptibility of N. benthamiana to Phytophthora species varies from susceptible to resistant. Little is known about the extent to which plant basal immunity, mediated by membrane receptors that recognise conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, contributes to P. infestans resistance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that different species of Phytophthora have varying degrees of virulence on N. benthamiana ranging from avirulence (incompatible interaction to moderate virulence through to full aggressiveness. The leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK BAK1/SERK3 is a major modulator of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in Arabidopsis thaliana and N. benthamiana. We cloned two NbSerk3 homologs, NbSerk3A and NbSerk3B, from N. benthamiana based on sequence similarity to the A. thaliana gene. N. benthamiana plants silenced for NbSerk3 showed markedly enhanced susceptibility to P. infestans infection but were not altered in resistance to Phytophthora mirabilis, a sister species of P. infestans that specializes on a different host plant. Furthermore, silencing of NbSerk3 reduced the cell death response triggered by the INF1, a secreted P. infestans protein with features of PAMPs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that N. benthamiana NbSERK3 significantly contributes to resistance to P. infestans and regulates the immune responses triggered by the P. infestans PAMP protein INF1. In the future, the identification of novel surface receptors that associate with NbSERK3A and/or NbSERK3B should lead to the identification of new receptors that mediate recognition of oomycete PAMPs, such as INF1.

  15. Compilation of information on the climate and evaluation of the hydrochemical and isotopic composition during Late Pleistocene and Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cecilia [Intera KB (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    This report summarises and evaluates some of the existing information on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene climates, i.e. the last 130 000 years. An estimation of the conditions at the Aespoe island (southeast Sweden) has also been made during this time span. The knowledge about Late Pleistocene (Eemian Interglacial and Weichselian glacial) is not yet fully understood. There are still a lot of assumptions concerning this period and more information is needed to be able to establish the climatic conditions. This is not the case for the Weichselian deglaciation and the present interglacial, Holocene, for which the environmental conditions are quite certain. It has been concluded, however, that the Eemian climatic development probably was similar to the Holocene but perhaps somewhat warmer and more humid. The Eemian Baltic Sea level was probably also higher than the present Baltic Sea level and there was a connection between it and the White Sea in the northeast. Aespoe was probably situated below sea level during the greater part of Eemian. Not much is known about the last glacial period, the Weichselian glaciation, until the final deglaciation. The ice sheet during Early Weichselian was probably mostly concentrated to the Scandinavian mountain area and in northern Scandinavia. At least two intervals with higher temperatures have been recorded, the Broerup and Odderade interstadials. The Middle Weichselian substage is characterised by fluctuations, melting and re-advances. Aespoe was probably not glaciated until the middle or latter part of Middle Weichselian. The maximum extension of the Weichselian ice sheet occurred in Late Weichselian, around 20 to 18 ka BP, which was succeeded by the final deglaciation. The retreat of the Weichselian ice sheet is described by for example end moraines and glacial varved clay. The Aespoe area was glaciated until 12 500 BP. Huge quantities of glacial meltwater was released into the Baltic basin as the ice receded. Due to different

  16. Paleoclimate in continental northwestern Europe during the Eemian and early Weichselian (125-97 ka): insights from a Belgian speleothem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, Stef; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Keppens, Eddy; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The last interglacial serves as an excellent time interval for studying climate dynamics during past warm periods. Speleothems have been successfully used for reconstructing the paleoclimate of last interglacial continental Europe. However, all previously investigated speleothems are restricted to southern Europe or the Alps, leaving large parts of northwestern Europe undocumented. To better understand regional climate changes over the past, a larger spatial coverage of European last interglacial continental records is essential, and speleothems, because of their ability to obtain excellent chronologies, can provide a major contribution. Here, we present new, high-resolution data from a stalagmite (Han-9) obtained from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in Belgium. Han-9 formed between 125.3 and ˜ 97 ka, with interruptions of growth occurring at 117.3-112.9 and 106.6-103.6 ka. The speleothem was investigated for its growth, morphology and stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) composition. The speleothem started growing relatively late within the last interglacial, at 125.3 ka, as other European continental archives suggest that Eemian optimum conditions were already present during that time. It appears that the initiation of Han-9 growth is caused by an increase in moisture availability, linked to wetter conditions around 125.3 ka. The δ13C and δ18O proxies indicate a period of relatively stable conditions after 125.3 ka; however, at 120 ka the speleothem δ18O registered the first signs of regionally changing climate conditions, being a modification of ocean source δ18O linked to an increase in ice volume towards the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e-5d transition. At 117.5 ka, drastic vegetation changes are recorded by Han-9 δ13C immediately followed by a cessation of speleothem growth at 117.3 ka, suggesting a transition to significantly dryer conditions. The Han-9 record covering the early Weichselian displays larger amplitudes in both isotope proxies and changes in stalagmite

  17. [The action of émoksipin on the basal activity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and on the late receptor potential of the isolated retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedova, A A; Polianskiĭ, N B; Akopian, G Kh; Dzhafarov, A I

    1989-09-01

    The influence of emoxypin (derivate of 3-hydroxypyridine) upon the late receptor potential (LRP) and activity of the cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) have been investigated. The inhibition of PDE and increase of the amplitude of LPR have been shown. The curve (RP as a function of the stimulus light intensity) was moved towards the lesser lighting and the time of the achievement of the maximum was increased. Thus, emoxypin produces an effect on the LRP like classical inhibitors of PDE. It is suggested that increase of the functional activity of the retinae upon the influence of emoxypin in caused by the influence of the one towards the system of the cyclic nucleotides.

  18. Pilgrimstad revisited - a multi-proxy reconstruction of Early/Middle Weichselian climate and environment at a key site in central Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, B.; Alexanderson, H.; Ampel, L.; Bennike, O.; Engels, S.; Johnsen, T.; Lundqvist, J.; Martins, M.; Reimer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The site Pilgrimstad in central Sweden has often been cited as a key locality for discussions of ice-free/ice-covered intervals during the Early and Middle Weichselian. Multi-proxy investigations of a recently excavated section at Pilgrimstad now provide a revised picture of the climatic and environ

  19. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  20. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal

  1. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  2. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  3. Unexpected spontaneous ignition of Late Glacial sediments from the palaeolake Wukenfurche (NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräger, Nadine; Brademann, Brian; Theuerkauf, Martin; Wulf, Sabine; Tjallingii, Rik; Słowiński, Michał; Schlaak, Norbert; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    A new finely laminated sediment archive has been recovered from the palaeolake Wukenfurche, NE Germany, comprising the last Glacial to Interglacial transition. The site is located within the Eberswalde ice-marginal valley and south of the terminal moraine that was formed during the Pomeranian phase of the Weichselian glaciation. Two sediment cores were obtained from the presently swampy area in July 2014. From these individual profiles a 14.7 m long continuous composite profile has been compiled by correlation of distinct marker layers. Glacial sand deposits covered by basal peat are found at the base of the cores. A visible volcanic ash layer 6 cm above the transition from basal peat into the overlaying finely laminated lake sediments corresponds most likely to the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra (LST). Preliminary counting on core photographs of the 3.5 m thick package of reddish and black alternating laminae above the LST yields a total of ca. 2500 layer couplets. Further micro-facies analyses on large-scale thin sections will be applied to test if these couplets are of annual origin (i.e. varves). Standard preparation for large-scale thin sections involves freeze-drying (for 48 hours) of 10 cm-long sediment slabs stored in aluminum boxes. Immediately after releasing the vacuum of the freeze-dryer chamber we observed an unexpected spontaneous combustion of the sediment from a particular interval of the profile. The exothermic combustion process lasted for approximately 10 to 20 minutes during which temperatures of up to 350°C have been measured with an infrared camera. Preliminary results suggest that oxidation of iron sulfides contributes to the observed reaction. To our knowledge this is the first time that such spontaneous combustion of lake sediments after freeze-drying has been observed. Details of the combustion process and sediment characteristics will be provided. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape

  4. Late Weichselian sediment geochemistry of the western Barents Sea margin - an empirical inter-instrumental comparison of core scanning and conventional XRF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Martin; Knies, Jochen; Forwick, Matthias; Haflidason, Haflidi

    2014-05-01

    During the last years an increasing number of studies in geosciences made use of the fast and non-destructive XRF scanning method. To create robust and reproducible data and to interpret geochemical variations across records of different origin and from different instrumentations inter-instrumental comparison becomes a necessary, inevitable and decisive procedure. In this study we present results from an empirical approach of an inter-instrumental XRF comparison including the Avaatech (University of Tromsø), Itrax (University of Bergen) and InnovX-GeoTek (The Geological Survey of Norway) core scanners. In addition single samples were measured with the PANalytical AXIOS XRF spectrometer and the Perkin Elmer 4300 Dual View ICP-AES measurements (both at the Geological Survey of Norway). We analysed the split-surface of a 300 cm long marine sediment core from the continental slope of the western Barents Sea (71°30'N, 16°10' E). The sediment core sections were logged near-continuously with the core scanners along the centre of the core axis, followed by measurements of discrete samples. All devices were standardized and calibrated prior measurements according to the individual, requisite standardisation routines. Results presented here were harmonized to common sampling midpoints. We tested element ratios commonly used in geosciences. Most of the down-core variations of element ratios from the core scans occur in general synchronously and match the variability of single sample measurements from the stand-alone XRF-analyzer indicating a convenient XRF technique implementation in the scanning instruments. However, in certain cases, element ratios appear to show very low variations, likely an indication of detection-limit problems or larger uncertainties associated with the determination of low element concentrations. Apart from good relative fit, absolute variations occur at different levels and instrumental deviation varies for particular element ratios. This likely indicates variations of instrumental sensitivity for individual elements, e.g. the X-ray tubes used and/or can be the result of different internal mathematical models used for the conversion of raw data. To overcome inherent scanner-result variations due to different instrumental sensitivity and conversion models, and to minimize under or overestimation of elemental concentrations, we recommend not only to rely on individual calibration and standardization routines but also to introduce inter laboratory testing, especially when comparing absolute variations of XRF core scanning results acquired with different instruments.

  5. Seismic architecture and sedimentology of a major grounding zone system deposited by the Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream during Late Weichselian deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, Denise Christina; Mattingsdal, Rune; Andreassen, Karin; Forwick, Matthias; Husum, Katrine

    2011-09-01

    A 280 km wide sediment wedge in outer Bjørnøyrenna (Bear Island Trough), south-western Barents Sea, has been investigated using 2D and 3D seismic data, sediment gravity cores, as well as regional swath and large scale bathymetry data. The bathymetry data indicate a division into an up to 35 m high frontal wedge with large depressions, and an upstream part characterized by mega scale glacial lineations (MSGL). From seismic sections increasing erosion is demonstrated for the upstream part, coinciding with the location of MSGL. Whether the latter are depositional features postdating an extensive erosional event or formed by erosion remains inconclusive. Based on the distinct morphology and internal structures, we infer that the system was deposited during a rapid readvance whereby the ice front pushed and bulldozed predominantly soft, diluted proglacial sediments. Analyses in the eastern part of the sediment system reveal the existence of imbricated thrust sheets in the frontal part of the wedge. This is suggested to imply upstream erosion of sedimentary rock and incorporation of thrusted blocks into the moraine, forming a composite ridge locally. We argue that observed large scale depressions are dead-ice features in the marine environment. It is envisioned that intense englacial thrusting may have developed into a decollement as the cold glacier snout got overrun by ice masses from the interior, thereby enabling the inclusion of slabs of ice in the push moraine mass. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the sediment wedge was deposited around 17,090 cal yrs BP (14,530 14C yrs BP) and that the ice front probably remained stable until 16,580 cal yrs BP (13,835 14C yrs BP).

  6. Vegetation development in south-east Denmark during the Weichselian Late Glacial: palaeoenvironmental studies close to the Palaeolithic site of Hasselø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Henriksen, Peter Steen; Christensen, Charlie;

    2015-01-01

    analysis also shows the classical Younger Dryas cold separated into an early dry phase (until c. 12,100 cal. BP) and a later wetter phase. This was most likely due to a change in atmospheric circulation and variation in the extent of sea ice in the North Atlantic. The combined analysis of both pollen...... limit for pine woodland. The low-lying region separating Denmark and Germany was periodically covered by the Baltic Ice Lake and this may have delayed the dispersal of plants from south to north. Areas lying between different habitats are known to have a high biodiversity and this may be why a high...

  7. Impact of the German Harz Mountain Weichselian ice-shield and valley glacier development onto Palaeolithic and megafauna disappearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, C.

    2013-12-01

    Three Pleistocene stages are recorded by 3D Google-Earth geomorphology, cave sediments, river terraces, megafauna, archaeological sites of the Harz Mountain Range and its forelands of northern Germany (central Europe, peak 1141 a.s.l.). Late Pleistocene glaciation stages are modeled preliminary in valley elevations between 407 and 760 a.s.l., starting all southeast below the Brocken Ice Field (above 750 a.s.l.). The 14-11 km long Oder and Bode Valley glaciers left typical moraines, kames, or dead ice depressions, such as fluvial cave relic sediments. The Bode River glacier passed during the LGM the Rübeland Caves, where it deposited reworked kames/lateral moraines in the Baumann's Cave, which floods mixed a Neanderthal camp, leopard lair and cave bear den area. 60 km downstream, fluvial to aeolian deposits were trapped in the gypsum karst doline Westeregeln (Neanderthal camp/hyena den). Late Aurignacians replaced in the region Neanderthals, but a gap of Late Palaeolithic (Gravettian-Magdalenian - 26,000-16,000 BP) settlement, and latest starting speleothem genesis (around 24,260 ± 568 BP) correlate to the LGM, when an "arctic reindeer fauna" with alpine elements (ibex, chamois) accumulated in bone assemblages of a wolverine, polar fox, mustelid, such as European eagle owl dens, which allow landscape reconstructions.

  8. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, H.; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are import...

  9. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at approx50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmens, Karin F. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at approx 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last approx130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to approx50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results

  10. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  11. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  12. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  13. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  14. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  15. Basal Organelles of Bacterial Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Bazire, Germaine; London, Jack

    1967-01-01

    Liberated by enzymatic lysis of the cells, the flagella of Rhodospirillum rubrum, R. molischianum, and R. fulvum all have a similar structure. The hook at the base of the flagellum is connected by a short, narrow collar to a paired disc in the basal organelle. This paired disc is in turn connected to a second paired disc. The disposition of flagella to which fragments of the cell membrane still adhere suggests that the narrow collar at the base of the hook traverses both the wall and the membrane, and that the upper pair of discs in the basal organelle lies just beneath the surface of the membrane. Images PMID:6039362

  16. Phylogeny of basal iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia: an update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional "Camptosaurus" and "Iguanodon". The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees.

  17. Phylogeny of basal iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T

    2012-01-01

    The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional "Camptosaurus" and "Iguanodon". The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees.

  18. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  19. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  20. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  1. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  2. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  3. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  4. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Alia Arif; Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in dermatology in the late 1990s optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to study many skin diseases, in particular non-melanoma skin cancer and it s precursors. Special attention has been paid to superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and a number of smaller...... observational studies have been published. The diagnostic criteria for BCC of these studies are systematically reviewed. A systemic review of English language studies was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and Royal Danish Library, to search for primary papers on OCT and BCC. The references of retrieved...

  5. Basal-cell carcinoma resulting from radiation therapy for hypertrophic tonsils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, C.W.; O' Brian, J.J.; Shidnia, H.; Becker, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Benign dermatologic conditions are no longer treated with therapeutic radiation because of the late complications that can result. One of the most serious complications that may occur is the development of skin cancer of various types. In this report, a patient received radiation for hypertrophic tonsils and later developed basal-cell carcinomas in the irradiated areas.

  6. A Case Report of Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum Mimicking Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sezer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is clinically characterized by verrucous nodules or plaques, mainly observed on the scalp during childhood. Histopathologically, epidermal invagination showing luminal epithelial cells with decapitation secretion is diagnostic. Herein, we describe an unusual late-onset case of syringocystadenoma papilliferum mimicking basal cell carcinoma on the face.

  7. The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, Henk J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia and their relationships with the thalamocortical system. The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits. These circuits support a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional-motivational brain functions. A main role of the basal ganglia is the learning and selection of the mos...

  8. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  9. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-07

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record.

  10. Organizational changes of the daughter basal complex during the parasite replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Hu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, many of which are important human and animal pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. These parasites cause disease only when they replicate, and their replication is critically dependent on the proper assembly of the parasite cytoskeletons during cell division. In addition to their importance in pathogenesis, the apicomplexan parasite cytoskeletons are spectacular structures. Therefore, understanding the cytoskeletal biogenesis of these parasites is important not only for parasitology but also of general interest to broader cell biology. Previously, we found that the basal end of T. gondii contains a novel cytoskeletal assembly, the basal complex, a cytoskeletal compartment constructed in concert with the daughter cortical cytoskeleton during cell division. This study focuses on key events during the biogenesis of the basal complex using high resolution light microscopy, and reveals that daughter basal complexes are established around the duplicated centrioles independently of the structural integrity of the daughter cortical cytoskeleton, and that they are dynamic "caps" at the growing ends of the daughters. Compartmentation and polarization of the basal complex is first revealed at a late stage of cell division upon the recruitment of an EF-hand containing calcium binding protein, TgCentrin2. This correlates with the constriction of the basal complex, a process that can be artificially induced by increasing cellular calcium concentration. The basal complex is therefore likely to be a new kind of centrin-based contractile apparatus.

  11. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  12. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  13. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at approx50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmens, Karin F. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at approx 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last approx130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to approx50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results

  14. Climate-Induced Dynamics of Periglacial Landscapes in NE Siberia: The Western Edge of Beringia During the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Schirrmeister, L.; Siegert, C.; Meyer, H.; Andreev, A. A.; Kunitsky, V. V.; Derevyagin, A. Y.; Hubberten, H.

    2006-12-01

    Periglacial landscape dynamics have direct impacts on energy and matter cycles as well as ecosystems in large parts of the Arctic. Over the last decade, modern processes and past environments of periglacial landscapes in the Laptev Sea coastal lowlands were intensively studied within Russian and joint German- Russian research projects. A variety of palaeo-environmental records exists now for assessing the Late Quaternary dynamics of permafrost-dominated landscapes of this westernmost edge of Beringia. The main focus of this presentation is on the spatial and temporal dimensions of regional landscape changes in the Laptev Sea region induced by climatic change, especially by Holocene climate warming. For this purpose, we combine a variety of palaeo-environmental studies with remote sensing, terrain modelling, and GIS-based analyses of the modern landscape composition. We assess the landscape dynamics at the study site level and then draw conclusions for the whole region. Due to the low global sea level during the Late Weichselian cold stage, the Laptev Sea lowlands extended far on the shelf forming part of the unique continental environment of Western Beringia. The special periglacial environmental conditions of this period are recorded in frozen sediment sequences with palaeo-proxies ranging from lithology, ground ice, plant and animal fossils, to geomorphology. The Late Weichselian depositional environment there was characterized by ice-rich permafrost deposits (so-called Yedoma or Ice Complex formation) with up to 75 wt% absolute ice content. The Yedoma accumulated in lowland plains with polygonal tundra surrounding bedrock hills and mountain ridges. Additionally, the tundra plains were segmented by large river systems depositing fluvial sandy sediments. Major environmental changes affecting hydrology, geocryology, accumulation, and ecosystems in the region took place during the climate warming at the Late-Glacial Holocene transition. Within a short period in the

  15. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  16. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  17. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  18. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  19. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  20. A basal dinosaur from the dawn of the dinosaur era in southwestern Pangaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricardo N; Sereno, Paul C; Alcober, Oscar A; Colombi, Carina E; Renne, Paul R; Montañez, Isabel P; Currie, Brian S

    2011-01-14

    Upper Triassic rocks in northwestern Argentina preserve the most complete record of dinosaurs before their rise to dominance in the Early Jurassic. Here, we describe a previously unidentified basal theropod, reassess its contemporary Eoraptor as a basal sauropodomorph, divide the faunal record of the Ischigualasto Formation with biozones, and bracket the formation with (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages. Some 230 million years ago in the Late Triassic (mid Carnian), the earliest dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial carnivores and small herbivores in southwestern Pangaea. The extinction of nondinosaurian herbivores is sequential and is not linked to an increase in dinosaurian diversity, which weakens the predominant scenario for dinosaurian ascendancy as opportunistic replacement.

  1. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  2. Insulin pumps: Beyond basal-bolus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millstein, Richard; Becerra, Nancy Mora; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-01-01

    Insulin pumps are a major advance in diabetes management, making insulin dosing easier and more accurate and providing great flexibility, safety, and efficacy for people who need basal-bolus insulin therapy...

  3. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  4. Biomarkers for Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Jennifer R.; Torsten O. Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification of breast cancer through identification of subtype-specific biomarkers. This review aims to present an in depth summary and analysis of the current status of basal...

  5. West Antarctic Mantle Plume Hypothesis and Basal Water Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Erik; Seroussi, Helene; Wiens, Doug; Bondzio, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of a deep mantle plume that manifests Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism and present-day seismicity in West Antarctica has been speculated for more than 30 years. Recent seismic images support the plume hypothesis as the cause of Marie Byrd Land (MBL) volcanism and geophysical structure [ Lloyd et al., 2015; Ramirez et al., 2016]. Mantle plumes can more that double the geothermal heat flux, qGHF, above nominal continental values at their axial peak position and raise qGHF in the surrounding plume head to 60 mW/m2 or higher. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of in-situ basal ice sheet data that sample the heat flux. Consequently, we examine a realistic distribution of heat flux associated with a late-Cenozoic mantle plume in West Antarctica and explore its impact on thermal and melt conditions near the ice sheet base. The solid Earth model assumes a parameterized deep mantle plume and head. The 3-D ice flow model includes an enthalpy framework and full-Stokes stress balance. Both the putative plume location and extent are uncertain. Therefore, we perform broadly scoped experiments to characterize plume related basal conditions. The experiments show that mantle plumes have an important local impact on the ice sheet, with basal melting rates reaching several centimeters per year directly above the hotspot. The downstream active lake system of Whillans Ice Stream suggests a rift-related source of anomalous mantle heat. However, the lack of lake and stream activity in MBL suggests a relatively weak plume: one that delivers less flux by 35% below the heat flux to the crustal surface at the site of the Yellowstone hotspot [e.g., DeNosaquo et al., 2009], with peak value no higher than about 145 mW/m2.

  6. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to motivate a program of research on late globalization, a program that could eventually lead to one or more significant theories of late globalization. The paper explores the phenomenon of late globalization as well as the idea of “late” by drawing on sparse...... literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...... the range of constructs around the core idea of late globalization, generating questions for future work in a late globalization research program....

  7. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Ray; Anusuya Chinsamy

    2002-06-01

    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal theropod and shows some features similar to the allosauroids. This tooth is of significance, as dinosaur remains except for some footprints and trackways, are poorly known in the Late Triassic horizons of southern Africa.

  8. 3D-seismic observations of Late Pleistocene glacial dynamics on the central West Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia; Knutz, Paul; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers exert a major control on glacial discharge from contemporary and palaeo ice sheets. Improving our understanding of the extent and dynamic behaviour of these palaeo-ice streams is therefore crucial for predictions of the response of ice sheets to present and future climate warming and the associated implications for global sea level. This poster presents results from two 3D-seismic surveys located on the shelf adjoining the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan (TMF), one of the largest glacial outlet systems in Greenland. Located at the seaward terminus of the c. 370 km long cross-shelf Disko Trough, the Disko Bay TMF was generated by highly efficient subglacial sediment delivery onto the continental slopes during repeated ice-stream advances. A variety of submarine glacial landform assemblages are recognised on the seabed reflecting past ice-stream activity presumably related to glacial-interglacial cycles. The 3D-seismic volumes cover the shallow banks located north and south of the Disko Trough. The focus of this study is the seabed and the uppermost stratigraphic interval associated with the Late Stage of TMF development, presumably covering the late Pleistocene (Hofmann et al., submitted). Seabed morphologies include multiple sets of ridges up to 20 m high that extend in NW-SE direction for c. 30 km, and cross-cutting curvilinear furrows with maximum lengths of c. 9 km and average depths of c. 4.5 m. Back-stepping, arcuate scarps facing NW define the shelf break on the northern survey, comprising average widths of c. 4.5 km and incision depths of c. 27.5 m. The large transverse ridge features on the southern survey are likely ice-marginal and are interpreted as terminal moraine ridges recording the existence of a shelf-edge terminating, grounded Late Weichselian ice sheet. The furrows, most prominent on the outer shelf adjoining the shallow banks and partly incising the moraine ridges, are interpreted as iceberg ploughmarks

  9. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  10. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  11. Callibrachion and Datheosaurus, two historical and previously mistaken basal caseasaurian synapsids from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Spindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a re-investigation of two historical fossil discoveries, Callibrachion gaudryi (Artinskian of France and Datheosaurus macrourus (Gzhelian of Poland, that were originally classified as haptodontine-grade sphenacodontians and have been lately treated as nomina dubia. Both taxa are here identified as basal caseasaurs based on their overall proportions as well as dental and osteological characteristics that differentiate them from any other major synapsid subclade. As a result of poor preservation, no distinct autapomorphies can be recognized. However, our detailed investigations of the virtually complete skeletons in the light of recent progress in basal synapsid research allow a novel interpretation of their phylogenetic positions. Datheosaurus might represent an eothyridid or basal caseid. Callibrachion shares some similarities with the more derived North American genus Casea. These new observations on Datheosaurus and Callibrachion provide new insights into the early diversification of caseasaurs, reflecting an evolutionary stage that lacks spatulate teeth and broadened phalanges that are typical for other caseid species. Along with Eocasea, the former ghost lineage to the Late Pennsylvanian origin of Caseasauria is further closed. For the first time, the presence of basal caseasaurs in Europe is documented.

  12. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of an ice-contact glacial lake succession: an example from the late Devensian of southwest Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, James L.; Jansson, Krister N.; Glasser, Neil F.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Davies, Jeremy R.; Waters, Richard A.; Maltman, Alex J.; Wilby, Philip R.

    2006-04-01

    During the late Devensian (late Weichselian) glaciation, a number of large proglacial lakes developed in dammed river valleys along the southwest coast of Wales, U.K. This paper presents sedimentological data, together with a Digital Terrain Model, to establish the sedimentation history, dynamics and evolution of the largest lake, glacial Llyn (Lake) Teifi. Buried valley-fill sequences within the margins of the former lake basin reveal a thick succession of glaciolacustrine muds which coarsen upward into, or are locally abruptly overlain by, proximal deltaic, subglacial and glaciofluvial deposits. Sediment delivery pathways represented in the lacustrine succession include gravity flows, suspension settling, deltaic aggradation and iceberg rafting, the latter indicating ice-contact conditions. The lacustrine muds are variably deformed, with a range of syn- and post-depositional structures, some of which indicate subglacial deformation associated with overriding of the lacustrine succession. Syn-depositional structures indicate high sedimentation rates, which may explain an absence of bioturbation structures. The overall coarsening-upward succession and cap of subglacial and/or glaciofluvial deposits support recent theories suggesting that glacial Llyn Teifi formed during glacial advance. There is no evidence to support glaciomarine conditions of sedimentation in this area of the Irish Sea basin.

  13. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  14. The sedimentary sequence recovered from the Voka outcrops, northeastern Estonia: implications for late Pleistocene stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miidel, Avo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available New palaeoenvironmental and geological data, which may be integrated with the results from the neighbouring regions, were collected from two well-exposed continuous outcrops in the vicinity of Voka village, northeastern Estonia. These outcrops, situated in a klint depression – klint bay –, show an about 22 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to clayey subaqueous deposits. This succession of water-lain sediments documents the response to climate change during the late Pleistocene. On the basis of grain size characteristics, sedimentological structures, and luminescence chronostratigraphical data, the sequence is subdivided into two main units – A and B. Optical dating of 18 samples from the upper unit A shows that the unit is of middle Järva (= middle Weichselian age (marine isotope stage (MIS 3. Representative pollen spectra derived from 45 samples from the pollen-bearing part of unit A provide convincing evidence of noticeable changes in vegetation and climate in NE Estonia during the time period from 39 to 33 kyr BP, within which two intervals of severe climate and two relatively milder ones have been recognized. Preliminary data from the underlying unit B indicate that deposits of the last interglacial sensu lato and those of early pleniglacial age correlating with MIS 5 and MIS 4, respectively, occur here as well. Thus, the data obtained during the present study show unambiguously that in contrast with the expectations, the greater part of the late Pleistocene sequence is represented in the Voka section. No evidence was found for glacial activity during the late Pleistocene period predating the last glacial maximum. The use of the Voka event stratigraphy as a template facilitates search for correlative horizons in the neighbouring regions.

  15. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  16. LATE TRIASSIC (LATE NORIAN-RHAETIAN RADIOLARIANS FROM THE ANTALYA NAPPES, CENTRAL TAURIDES, SOUTHERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UGUR KAGAN TEKIN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hocaköy section measured from the Alakirçay Nappe (middle nappe of the Antalya Nappes contain rich radiolarian fauna ranging from late Norian (Late Triassic to middle-late Cenomanian (mid Cretaceous. At the basal part of the section, the Late Triassic (late Norian-Rhaetian Gökdere Formation is characterized by gray to beige cherty limestone at the base and pinkish red chert- gray to beige limestone alternation at the top, with moderately to well-preserved radiolarians in the red chert beds. The overlying Jurassic - Middle Cretaceous Hocaköy Radiolarite is mainly represented by chert-mudstone alternations with some limestone interlayers. Radiolarians of the Gökdere Formation can be well correlated with that of the fauna from the Mino Terrane, central Japan and the fauna from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Four radiolarian zones from central Japan are recognized in the fauna obtained from Gökdere Formation such as “Praemesosaturnalis multidentatus Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8A” (late Norian, “Praemesosaturnalis pseudokahleri Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8B” (late Norian, ? “ Skirt F lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8C” (late Norian-Rhaetian and partly “Haeckelicyrtium breviora Taxon Range Zone (TR8D” (Rhaetian. In comparison with the Queen Charlotte fauna, the two zones “Betraccium deweveri Zone” (late Norian and “Proparvicingula moniliformis Zone” (early Rhaetian are also encountered in the Gökdere Formation. Radiolarians of the uppermost part of the Gökdere Formation indicate that “Globolaxtorum tozeri Zone” defined in Queen Charlotte Islands corresponding to the late Rhaetian, is not present in the section. Five new taxa, Capnuchosphaera okayi, Bistarkum rhaeticum, Praemesosaturnalis heilongjiangensis aksekiensis, P. nobleae, Veghicyclia sanfilippoae were determined within the late Norian-Rhaetian radiolarian fauna of the Gökdere Formation in Hocaköy section.   

  17. Multiethnic Literature; Supplements for Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez-Tighe, Viola; And Others

    Children's literature can be used effectively to enrich the reading content of basal reading materials with stories and information by and about ethnic minorities. Developing an ethnic cultural web for a literary selection can stimulate language and enhance the thought processes of students. Using the webbing process, elementary school students…

  18. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil

    2003-01-01

    lokaliseres. Skadesmekanismen er omdiskuteret. Karrupturen kan opstå i forbindelse med brud af processus transversus atlantis eller subluksationer i halscolumna og kan indtræffe i både normale og abnorme kar. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidalblødning kan tilsyneladende opstå ved ret lette traumer, hvilket...

  19. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  20. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje H; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R;

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  2. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  3. Carbon dioxide laser surgery of basal meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, A D; Heilbronn, Y D; Avram, J; Razon, N

    1982-02-01

    This preliminary report summarizes our results with laser surgery in patients with basal meningiomas (8 basilar and 1 intraventricular extending also into the third ventricle). Illustrative preoperative and postoperative CT scans are included. The advantages and limitations of this surgical technique are discussed briefly.

  4. Late Accretion and the Late Veneer

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The concept of Late Veneer has been introduced by the geochemical community to explain the abundance of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle and their chondritic proportions relative to each other. However, in the complex scenario of Earth accretion, involving both planetesimal bombardment and giant impacts from chondritic and differentiated projectiles, it is not obvious what the "Late Veneer" actually corresponds to. In fact, the process of differentiation of the Earth was probably intermittent and there was presumably no well-defined transition between an earlier phase where all metal sunk into the core and a later phase in which the core was a closed entity separated from the mantle. In addition, the modellers of Earth accretion have introduced the concept of "Late Accretion", which refers to the material accreted by our planet after the Moon-forming event. Characterising Late Veneer, Late Accretion and the relationship between the two is the major goal of this chapter.

  5. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Takahashi, N.; Furusawa, T.; Sakai, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Dentistry (Japan); Morii, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan); Yamada, M. [Department of Pathology, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  6. Neurochemical oscillations in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid Reza; Jäger, Willi

    2010-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to elucidate the neurochemical processes in the basal ganglia by mathematical modelling. The correlation between neurochemistry and electrophysiology has been used to construct a dynamical system based on the basal ganglia's network structure. Mathematical models were constructed for different physical scales to reformulate the neurochemical and electrophysiological behaviour from synapses up to multi-compartment systems. Transformation functions have been developed to transit between the different scales. We show through numerical simulations that this network produces oscillations in the electrical potentials as well as in neurotransmitter concentrations. In agreement with pharmacological experiments, a parameter sensitivity analysis reveals temporary changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological systems after single exposure to antipsychotic drugs. This behaviour states the structural stability of the system. The correlation between the neurochemical dynamics and drug-induced behaviour provides the perspective for novel neurobiological hypotheses.

  7. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  8. Late Quaternary Stratigraphy, Glacial Limits, and Paleoenvironments of the Marresale Area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Gataullin, Valery; Manley, William; Lokrantz, Hanna

    2002-05-01

    Stratigraphic records from coastal cliff sections near the Marresale Station on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, yield new insight on ice-sheet dynamics and paleoenvironments for northern Eurasia. Field studies identify nine informal stratigraphic units from oldest to youngest (the Marresale formation, Labsuyakha sand, Kara diamicton, Varjakha peat and silt, Oleny sand, Baidarata sand, Betula horizon, Nenets peat, and Chum sand) that show a single glaciation and a varied terrestrial environment during the late Pleistocene. The Kara diamicton reflects regional glaciation and is associated with glaciotectonic deformation from the southwest of the underlying Labsuyakha sand and Marresale formation. Finite radiocarbon and luminescence ages of ca. 35,000 to 45,000 yr from Varjakha peat and silt that immediately overlies Kara diamicton place the glaciation >40,000 yr ago. Eolian and fluvial deposition ensued with concomitant cryogenesis between ca. 35,000 and 12,000 cal yr B.P. associated with the Oleny and the Baidarata sands. There is no geomorphic or stratigraphic evidence of coverage or proximity of the Yamal Peninsula to a Late Weichselian ice sheet. The Nenets peat accumulated over the Baidarata sand during much of the past 10,000 yr, with local additions of the eolian Chum sand starting ca. 1000 yr ago. A prominent Betula horizon at the base of the Nenets peat contains rooted birch trees ca. 10,000 to 9000 cal yr old and indicates a >200-km shift northward of the treeline from the present limits, corresponding to a 2° to 4°C summer warming across northern Eurasia.

  9. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  10. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  11. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  13. A new Basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Navajo sandstone of Southern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J W Sertich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal sauropodomorphs, or 'prosauropods,' are a globally widespread paraphyletic assemblage of terrestrial herbivorous dinosaurs from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. In contrast to several other landmasses, the North American record of sauropodomorphs during this time interval remains sparse, limited to Early Jurassic occurrences of a single well-known taxon from eastern North America and several fragmentary specimens from western North America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the basis of a partial skeleton, we describe here a new basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah, Seitaad ruessi gen. et sp. nov. The partially articulated skeleton of Seitaad was likely buried post-mortem in the base of a collapsed dune foreset. The new taxon is characterized by a plate-like medial process of the scapula, a prominent proximal expansion of the deltopectoral crest of the humerus, a strongly inclined distal articular surface of the radius, and a proximally and laterally hypertrophied proximal metacarpal I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Phylogenetic analysis recovers Seitaad as a derived basal sauropodomorph closely related to plateosaurid or massospondylid 'prosauropods' and its presence in western North America is not unexpected for a member of this highly cosmopolitan clade. This occurrence represents one of the most complete vertebrate body fossil specimens yet recovered from the Navajo Sandstone and one of the few basal sauropodomorph taxa currently known from North America.

  14. Ezh2 represses the basal cell lineage during lung endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitow, Melinda E; Li, Shanru; Morley, Michael P; Rathi, Komal; Lu, Min Min; Kadzik, Rachel S; Stewart, Kathleen M; Morrisey, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The development of the lung epithelium is regulated in a stepwise fashion to generate numerous differentiated and stem cell lineages in the adult lung. How these different lineages are generated in a spatially and temporally restricted fashion remains poorly understood, although epigenetic regulation probably plays an important role. We show that the Polycomb repressive complex 2 component Ezh2 is highly expressed in early lung development but is gradually downregulated by late gestation. Deletion of Ezh2 in early lung endoderm progenitors leads to the ectopic and premature appearance of Trp63+ basal cells that extend the entire length of the airway. Loss of Ezh2 also leads to reduced secretory cell differentiation. In their place, morphologically similar cells develop that express a subset of basal cell genes, including keratin 5, but no longer express high levels of either Trp63 or of standard secretory cell markers. This suggests that Ezh2 regulates the phenotypic switch between basal cells and secretory cells. Together, these findings show that Ezh2 restricts the basal cell lineage during normal lung endoderm development to allow the proper patterning of epithelial lineages during lung formation.

  15. Basal paravian functional anatomy illuminated by high-detail body outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Pittman, Michael; Zheng, Xiaoting; Kaye, Thomas G.; Falk, Amanda R.; Hartman, Scott A.; Xu, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Body shape is a fundamental expression of organismal biology, but its quantitative reconstruction in fossil vertebrates is rare. Due to the absence of fossilized soft tissue evidence, the functional consequences of basal paravian body shape and its implications for the origins of avians and flight are not yet fully understood. Here we reconstruct the quantitative body outline of a fossil paravian Anchiornis based on high-definition images of soft tissues revealed by laser-stimulated fluorescence. This body outline confirms patagia-bearing arms, drumstick-shaped legs and a slender tail, features that were probably widespread among paravians. Finely preserved details also reveal similarities in propatagial and footpad form between basal paravians and modern birds, extending their record to the Late Jurassic. The body outline and soft tissue details suggest significant functional decoupling between the legs and tail in at least some basal paravians. The number of seemingly modern propatagial traits hint that feathering was a significant factor in how basal paravians utilized arm, leg and tail function for aerodynamic benefit. PMID:28248287

  16. Basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Schacht, R.A.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1982-11-01

    Four cases of basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging are presented. Bilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two patients were probably related to methanol intoxication and meningoencephalitis, and unilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two other patients were presumably due to cerebral atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Various causes and mechanisms of basal ganglia infarction as well as positive findings of radionuclide brain imaging are briefly reviewed.

  17. BRCA1 dysfunction in sporadic basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N C; Reis-Filho, J S; Russell, A M; Springall, R J; Ryder, K; Steele, D; Savage, K; Gillett, C E; Schmitt, F C; Ashworth, A; Tutt, A N

    2007-03-29

    Basal-like breast cancers form a distinct subtype of breast cancer characterized by the expression of markers expressed in normal basal/myoepithelial cells. Breast cancers arising in carriers of germline BRCA1 mutations are predominately of basal-like type, suggesting that BRCA1 dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic basal-like cancers. We analysed 37 sporadic breast cancers expressing the basal marker cytokeratin 5/6, and age- and grade-matched controls, for downregulation of BRCA1. Although BRCA1 promoter methylation was no more common in basal-like cancers (basal 14% vs controls 11%, P=0.72), BRCA1 messenger RNA expression was twofold lower in basal-like breast cancers compared to matched controls (P=0.008). ID4, a negative regulator of BRCA1, was expressed at 9.1-fold higher levels in basal-like breast cancer (Prevealing heterogeneity in the basal-like phenotype. Finally, we found that 63% of metaplastic breast cancers, a rare type of basal-like cancers, had BRCA1 methylation, in comparison to 12% of controls (P<0.0001). The high prevalence of BRCA1 dysfunction identified in this study could be exploited in the development of novel approaches to targeted treatment of basal-like breast cancer.

  18. Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelaide, J.; Finetti, P.; Bekhouche, I.; Repellini, L.; Geneix, J.; Sircoulomb, F.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Cervera, N.; Desplans, J.; Parzy, D.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Viens, P.; Jacquemier, J.; Birnbaum, D.; Bertucci, F.; Chaffanet, M.

    2007-01-01

    Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal

  19. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  20. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  1. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma and its mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80% is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

  2. Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Ji, Qiang; Dilcher, David L; Zheng, Shaolin; Nixon, Kevin C; Wang, Xinfu

    2002-05-03

    Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their characters are included in a combined three-gene molecular and morphological analysis. Their reproductive axes lack petals and sepals and bear stamens in pairs below conduplicate carpels.

  3. Late recurrence of medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brittney; Razzaqi, Faisal; Yu, Lolie; Craver, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with a cerebellar medulloblastoma, diagnosed at age three, treated with near total surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, that recurred 13 years after the initial diagnosis. This late recurrence exceeds the typical 10-year survival statistics that are in common use, and exceeds the Collins rule. Continued follow-up of these children is justified to increase the likelihood of detecting these late recurrences early and to learn more about these late recurrences.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Young Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Horoz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common type of skin cancer and has a direct relationship with chronic sun exposure. Other risk factors include fair skin and eyes, freckling, family history, genetic disorders, immunosuppression, ionizing radiation, arsenic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. BCC usually progresses slowly. Lesions are usually seen over sun-exposed areas, which are most commonly on the face and neck. Local invasion may occur, but it rarely metastasizes. The incidence of BCC peaks in the seventh decade of life. BCC is an uncommon lesion during childhood, youth, and pregnancy. It has rarely been reported during childhood. BCC seen during childhood can be inherited with diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism, Bazex syndrome, and basal cell nevus syndrome or after high-dose radiotherapy. In this study, we present the cases of a 14-year-old girl with BCC on the right popliteal region and a 23-year-old pregnant woman with BCC on the nasal tip. Both patients underwent total excision, and there were neither recurrence nor any complication during the follow-up

  5. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  6. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  7. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  8. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H

    1976-01-01

    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  9. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  10. Late Pleistocene to early Holocene environmental changes on Store Koldewey, coastal north-east Greenland

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    Martin Klug

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A lake sediment sequence from southern Store Koldewey, north-east Greenland, has been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach, including geophysical, geochemical, biogeochemical, biological and sedimentological methods. Chronological constraints are provided by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C dating of bulk sediment and complemented with published water moss ages. The record consists of three major sediment units. Their individual structural, textural, geophysical and geochemical characteristics indicate variable input of sediment and meltwater due to variable proximity of the ice margin and therefore reflect the growth and decay of a local glacier during the late Weichselian. Radiocarbon dating of bulk sediment samples from the lowermost unit gave ages of 42 to 34 calibrated thousand years (cal Ky B.P. and indicates that this material is redeposited in the lake basin during or after the ice advance at the end of the Pleistocene. Increased meltwater and sediment input from a retreating ice margin following the Younger Dryas is indicated by the occurrence of a sandy to gravely section. Fine-grained and laminated sediments were deposited during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition and indicate calm sedimentation conditions with an ice margin outside of the lake catchment. The reoccurrence of coarse sediments during the early Holocene may indicate increased meltwater input in response to the cold spell at about 9.3 Kya with increased snow accumulation rather than fluctuations of local glaciers. The dating results furthermore show that AMS 14C dating of bulk sediment samples deposited during glacier decay in High Arctic environments can give problematic ages.

  11. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  12. A Toxoplasma MORN1 null mutant undergoes repeated divisions but is defective in basal assembly, apicoplast division and cytokinesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lorestani

    Full Text Available The membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein 1 (MORN1 is highly conserved among apicomplexan parasites and is associated with several structures that have a role in cell division. Here we dissected the role of MORN1 using the relatively simple budding process of Toxoplasma gondii as a model. Ablation of MORN1 in a conditional null mutant resulted in pronounced defects suggesting a central role for MORN1 in apicoplast segregation and in daughter cell budding. Lack of MORN1 resulted in double-headed parasites. These Janus-headed parasites form two complete apical complexes but fail to assemble a basal complex. Moreover, these parasites were capable of undergoing several more budding rounds resulting in the formation of up to 16-headed parasites conjoined at the basal end. Despite this segregation defect, the mother's cytoskeleton was completely disassembled in every budding round. Overall this argues that successful completion of the budding is not required for cell cycle progression. None of the known basal complex components, including a set of recently identified inner membrane complex (IMC proteins, localized correctly in these multi-headed parasites. These data suggest that MORN1 is essential for assembly of the basal complex, and that lack of the basal complex abolishes the contractile capacity assigned to the basal complex late in daughter formation. Consistent with this hypothesis we observe that MORN1 mutants fail to efficiently constrict and divide the apicoplast. We used the null background provided by the mutant to dissect the function of subdomains of the MORN1 protein. This demonstrated that deletion of a single MORN domain already prevented the function of MORN1 whereas a critical role for the short linker between MORN domains 6 and 7 was identified. In conclusion, MORN1 is required for basal complex assembly and loss of MORN1 results in defects in apicoplast division and daughter segregation.

  13. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources, care and ways to engage in meaningful connections. During the late stages, your role as a ... drinks. This will help you track the person's natural routine, and then you can plan a schedule. ...

  14. Suicides in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  15. Association of basal forebrain volumes and cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D; Grothe, M; Fischer, F U; Heinsen, H; Kilimann, I; Teipel, S; Fellgiebel, A

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) is known to undergo moderate neurodegenerative alterations during normal aging and severe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that functional and structural alterations of the BFCS mediate cognitive performance in normal aging and AD. But, it is still unclear to what extend age-associated cognitive decline can be related to BFCS in normal aging. We analyzed the relationship between BFCS volume and cognition using MRI and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery in a cohort of 43 healthy elderly subjects spanning the age range from 60 to 85 years. Most notably, we found significant associations between general intelligence and BFCS volumes, specifically within areas corresponding to posterior nuclei of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (Ch4p) and the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Associations between specific cognitive domains and BFCS volumes were less pronounced. Supplementary analyses demonstrated that especially the volume of NSP but also the volume of Ch4p was related to the volume of widespread temporal, frontal, and parietal gray and white matter regions. Volumes of these gray and white matter regions were also related to general intelligence. Higher volumes of Ch4p and NSP may enhance the effectiveness of acetylcholine supply in related gray and white matter regions underlying general intelligence and hence explain the observed association between the volume of Ch4p as well as NSP and general intelligence. Since general intelligence is known to attenuate the degree of age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of developing late-onset AD, the BFCS might, besides the specific contribution to the pathophysiology in AD, constitute a mechanism of brain resilience in normal aging.

  16. Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Cagri T; Pare, Denis; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2015-01-14

    In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. Light-induced stimulation of BFc axons produced different effects depending on the BLA cell type. In late-firing interneurons, BFc inputs elicited fast nicotinic EPSPs. In contrast, no response could be detected in fast-spiking interneurons. In principal BLA neurons, two different effects were elicited depending on their activity level. When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. In contrast, with stronger depolarizing currents, eliciting firing above ∼ 6-8 Hz, these muscarinic IPSPs lost their efficacy because stimulation of BFc inputs prolonged current-evoked afterdepolarizations. All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity.

  17. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  19. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  20. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  1. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason.

  2. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  3. Basal insulin and cardiovascular and other outcomes in dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstein, Hertzel C; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested.......The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested....

  4. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  5. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  6. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-09

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity.

  7. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  8. Pine Island Glacier - local flow mechanisms and basal sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, N. M.; Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier is a fast moving outlet glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Several tributaries feeding the central ice stream characterise the flow field structure of this glacier. In the past decades the glacier has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modelling studies. One major challenge encountered when modelling the flow field of Pine Island Glacier is to reproduce the locally varying flow pattern, with its many tributaries. Commonly this difficulty is overcome by inversion for parameters controlling basal sliding. Our study is aimed at connecting basal sliding again to physical parameters. To achieve this we conduct experiments of Pine Island Glacier with the diagnostic 3D full-Stokes model COMice. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. In a first step, the model is used to identify dominant local mechanisms that drive the flow of the different tributaries. We identify connections between the basal topography, the basal temperature, the driving stress and the basal roughness distribution. The thus gained information is used to confine basal sliding. Areas with similar qualitative characteristics are identified, and constant-sliding assumptions made for those. Additionally, the basal roughness distribution is matched onto a basal sliding parameter. This way the sliding law is again brought closer to its original meaning. Our results are important for prognostic model experiments, as we connect basal sliding to locally varying basal properties, which might lead to

  9. Uranium/thorium dating of late Pleistocene peat deposits in N.W. Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnis, Hendrik

    1992-01-01

    Dating of peat by means of uranium series disequilibrium (230-Th/234-U, also known as UTD) with special emphasis on dating the early Weichselian interstadial and last interglacial peats in north western Europe, is the subject of this study. ... Zie: Introduction

  10. Late Sovereign Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    the promotion of national interests with those of the Union. In this late sovereign phase of diplomacy, political and legal authorities overlap, territorial exclusivity is replaced with functional boundaries, and states begin to speak with one voice. The article explores three interlinked aspects of late...... sovereign diplomacy: the teleological interpretation of the EC and EU treaties; the intense socialization of state representatives; and the negotiation process, which promotes national positions as part of a European cause, thereby delocalizing the national interest. While the EU has not rendered national...... diplomacy obsolete, it has profoundly changed its meaning and consequences....

  11. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...... pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion. Quite the opposite pattern is disclosed for late motherhood....

  12. Relationship of basal-septal fibrosis with LV outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: insights from cardiac magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Masakazu; Kawamura, Takayuki; Miyaji, Yuki; Morooka, Hanako; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is frequently observed and may be associated with the prognosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the clinical pathophysiological features, particularly in terms of fibrosis, of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) remain unclear. This study aimed to determine a role of local fibrosis in HOCM using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). 108 consecutive HCM patients underwent CMR. HOCM was defined as a left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) pressure gradient ≥30 mmHg at rest. Myocardial mass and fibrosis mass by late gadolinium-enhancement CMR (LGE-CMR) were calculated and the distribution/pattern was analyzed using the AHA 17-segment model. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly higher in patients with HOCM (n = 19) than in those with nonobstructive HCM (n = 89) (P < 0.05). Both total myocardial and fibrosis masses in LV were similar in the two groups (P = 0.385 and P = 0.859, respectively). However, fibrosis in the basal septum was significantly less frequent in the HOCM group than in the nonobstructive HCM group (P < 0.01). The LVOT pressure gradient was significantly higher in the basal-septal non-fibrosis group than in the fibrosis group (23.6 ± 37.3 vs. 4.8 ± 11.4 mmHg, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that basal-septal fibrosis was an independent negative predictor of LVOT obstruction in addition to the local wall thickness and LVEF as positive predictors in HCM patients. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between LVOT obstruction and basal septal fibrosis by LGE-CMR in HCM patients. In addition to negative impact of basal-septal fibrosis, basal-septal hypertrophy and preserved global LV contractility may be associated with the pathophysiological features of LVOT obstruction.

  13. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a bro

  14. Never Too Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A historical issue is being raised on Capitol Hill.In late May,members of the U.S.Congress introduced bipartisan resolutions in both chambers,calling on the federal legislature to acknowledge formally and express regret for discriminatory legislation and how the country accordingly treated Chinese immigrants more than a century ago.

  15. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  16. Was I Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶历来; 罗琪芳

    2011-01-01

    “Get up, Jane!” “Oh... Mom, let me sleep five more minutes. I'm so Ured ( 困的 ).” “It's 7:50. It's too late. ” “OK, three minutes then... Wait! What did you say? What time is it? It's 7:50.”

  17. The mystery of a missing bone: revealing the orbitosphenoid in basal Epicynodontia (Cynodontia, Therapsida) through computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Jasinoski, Sandra C.; Fernandez, Vincent; Abdala, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts. These paired bones, which are positioned relatively dorsally in the skull, contribute to the wall of the anterior part of the braincase and form the floor for the olfactory lobes. Unlike procynosuchids and the more basal therapsids in which the orbitosphenoids are well developed, dense, and bear a ventral keel, the basal epicynodonts Cynosaurus, Galesaurus, and Thrinaxodon display cancellous, reduced, and loosely articulated orbitosphenoids, a condition shared with many eucynodonts. The hemi-cylindrical orbitosphenoid from which the mammalian condition is derived re-evolved convergently in traversodontid and some probainognathian cynodonts.

  18. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA IN AN UNUSUAL SITE - VULVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumangala G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignancy of the skin, but BCC of the vulva is a rare entity. BCC of vulva accounts for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma has a low propensity for metastatic spread but has a high chance of local recurrence after simple excision. We report a 50- year-old woman presenting with pruritus vulva. Physical examination revealed a 2.5 x 1.5 cm hyperpigmented plaque on the left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with superficially invasive basal cell carcinoma. The patient underwent radical local excision including the clitoris and remained disease free at postsurgical follow-up after eight months.

  19. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  20. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  1. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  2. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly t...

  3. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  4. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  5. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, T.; I. Fernandes; Costa, V.; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  6. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsych...

  7. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  8. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry eLeisman; Orit eBraun-Benjamin; Robert eMelillo

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-bas...

  9. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases.

  10. A long-bodied centriscoid fish from the basal Eocene of Kabardino-Balkaria, northern Caucasus, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, Alexandre F.; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2012-05-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene transition is of crucial interest for interpreting the Cenozoic evolutionary radiation of vertebrates. A substantial increase of the number of vertebrate families occurred between the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, with the appearance of most of the representatives of extant lineages. Basal Eocene marine fish diversity is currently poorly known, exclusively restricted to two assemblages from Denmark and Turkmenistan, respectively. Exceptionally well-preserved articulated skeletal remains of fishes have recently been discovered from a basal Eocene sapropelitic layer exposed along the Kheu River in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, northern Caucasus, Russia. Here, we report on Gerpegezhus paviai gen. et sp. nov., a new peculiar syngnathoid fish from this new Ciscaucasian locality. The morphological structure of the single available specimen suggests that it is the first long-bodied member of the superfamily Centriscoidea, representing the sole member of the new family Gerpegezhidae, which forms a sister pair with the extant family Centriscidae.

  11. An MRI atlas of the mouse basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Paxinos, George; Reutens, David C

    2014-07-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subpallial nuclei that play an important role in motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Morphological changes and disrupted afferent/efferent connections in the basal ganglia have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders including psychiatric and movement disorders. While high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize changes in brain structure in mouse models of these disorders, no systematic method for segmentation of the C57BL/6 J mouse basal ganglia exists. In this study we have used high-resolution MR images of ex vivo C57BL/6 J mouse brain to create a detailed protocol for segmenting the basal ganglia. We created a three-dimensional minimum deformation atlas, which includes the segmentation of 35 striatal, pallidal, and basal ganglia-related structures. In addition, we provide mean volumes, mean T2 contrast intensities and mean FA and ADC values for each structure. This MR atlas is available for download, and enables researchers to perform automated segmentation in genetic models of basal ganglia disorders.

  12. The ABC Model and its Applicability to Basal Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Douglas E.; Chanderbali, André S.; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Scope and Conclusions Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer ‘fading borders’ as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms. PMID:17616563

  13. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  14. Unusual endosteally formed bone tissue in a patagonian basal sauropodomorph dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Ignacio A; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Pol, Diego

    2014-08-01

    Mussaurus patagonicus (Dinosauria: Sauropodomorpha) is a basal sauropodomorph from the Late Triassic of southern Argentina that is known from a large number of individuals, including juveniles, subadults, and adults. Here, we report on the occurrence of an unusual bone tissue in an individual of M. patagonicus. The rather atypical bone tissue is located within the femoral medullary cavity and also occurs within several erosion cavities of the midinner part of the cortex. This tissue is well vascularized and is composed of a matrix that consists of abundant and densely packed osteocyte lacunae. Although some features of this tissue resembles avian medullary bone, the histological features are distinctive and share more features with the pathological, reactive bone produced in extant birds in response to a retrovirus-induced disease (avian osteopetrosis). Here, we also discuss and provide histological features to effectively differentiate endosteally formed medullary bone from pathological avian osteopetrosis.

  15. AN UNUSUAL LOCATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: THE CLITORIS AND THE VULVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuman, Cömert; Özlem, Akin; Burçak, Tümerdem; Önder, Peker

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all BCCs. Vulvar BCCs are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They may be invasive and destructive if neglected or improperly treated. Nevertheless, they have a very low propensity for metastatic spread, but frequently recur after simple excision. We report a 78 year-old woman presenting with the complaint of painful vulvar ulceration and vaginal bleeding. The physical examination revealed a 3 × 2 cm indurated nodulo-ulcerative lesion involving the clitoris, both labia minora and left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with the “solid type BCC” that invaded the subcutaneous tissue without lymph node metastasis. The patient underwent wide local excision with clitoral amputation and remained disease free at post-surgical follow-up after 18 months. PMID:19882033

  16. An unusual location of basal cell carcinoma: The clitoris and the vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Comert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all BCCs. Vulvar BCCs are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They may be invasive and destructive if neglected or improperly treated. Nevertheless, they have a very low propensity for metastatic spread, but frequently recur after simple excision. We report a 78 year-old woman presenting with the complaint of painful vulvar ulceration and vaginal bleeding. The physical examination revealed a 3 x 2 cm indurated nodulo-ulcerative lesion involving the clitoris, both labia minora and left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with the "solid type BCC" that invaded the subcutaneous tissue without lymph node metastasis. The patient underwent wide local excision with clitoral amputation and remained disease free at post-surgical follow-up after 18 months.

  17. Re-evaluation of the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia in normal and Parkinsonian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R; Hazrati, L N; Herrero, M T; Vila, M; Hassani, O K; Mouroux, M; Ruberg, M; Asensi, H; Agid, Y; Féger, J; Obeso, J A; Parent, A; Hirsch, E C

    1997-01-01

    In the late 1980s, a functional and anatomical model of basal ganglia organization was proposed in order to explain the clinical syndrome of Parkinson's disease. According to this model, the pathological overactivity observed in the subthalamic nucleus and the output station of the basal ganglia plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the motor signs of Parkinson's disease. The hyperactivity of subthalamic neurons in Parkinsonism is viewed as a direct consequence of a pathological hypoactivity of the external segment of the pallidum. This article reviews recent data from different experimental approaches that challenge the established model of basal ganglia organization by reinterpreting the functional interaction between the external segment of the pallidum and the subthalamic nucleus in both the normal and pathological state. Indeed, recent neurobiochemical studies have rather unexpectedly shown that the GABAergic and metabolic activities of the external pallidum are not decreased in human and non-human primates with Parkinsonism. This absence of any decrease in activity might be explained by the functionally antagonistic influences of the striatal and subthalamic afferences within the external pallidum, as suggested by several anatomical studies. In addition, there are clues from electrophysiological studies to suggest that the hyperactivity found in the subthalamic neurons in Parkinsonism may not depend solely on the level of activity in the external pallidum. In such a framework, the hyperactivity of the subthalamic neurons would have to be explained, at least in part, by other sources of excitation or disinhibition. However, any explanation for the origin of the subthalamic overactivity in Parkinsonism remains speculative.

  18. Report of an external basal annuloplasty device for mitral regurgitation (basal annuloplasty of the cardia externally device implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Hote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful implant of an external basal annuloplasty device (basal annuloplasty of the cardia externally, which is a dimethyl silicone band, slipped around the base of the heart at the atrioventricular groove and the sub-annular myocardium to provide external myocardial support and mitral annuloplasty. The patient had ischemic heart disease with moderate functional mitral regurgitation which was reduced to mild regurgitation. The patient underwent coronary artery bypass during the same surgery.

  19. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Vidovic, Steven U; Howells, Cindy; Nudds, John R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago). Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian) makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  20. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Martill

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago. Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  1. Basal forebrain neurons suppress amygdala kindling via cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic projections in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, I; Leanza, G; Nanobashvili, A; Kokaia, M; Lindvall, O

    2000-06-01

    Intraventricular administration of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in rats has been shown to cause a selective loss of cholinergic afferents to the hippocampus and cortical areas, and to facilitate seizure development in hippocampal kindling. Here we demonstrate that this lesion also accelerates seizure progression when kindling is induced by electrical stimulations in the amygdala. However, whereas intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin facilitated the development of the initial stages of hippocampal kindling, the same lesion promoted the late stages of amygdala kindling. To explore the role of various parts of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in amygdala kindling, selective lesions of the cholinergic projections to either hippocampus or cortex were produced by intraparenchymal injections of 192 IgG-saporin into medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band or nucleus basalis, respectively. Cholinergic denervation of the cortical regions caused acceleration of amygdala kindling closely resembling that observed after the more widespread lesion induced by intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin. In contrast, removal of the cholinergic input to the hippocampus had no effect on the development of amygdala kindling. These data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons suppress kindling elicited from amygdala, and that this dampening effect is mediated via cortical but not hippocampal projections.

  2. New material and revision of Melanorosaurus thabanensis, a basal sauropodomorph from the Upper Triassic of Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Melanorosaurus is a genus of basal sauropodomorph that currently includes two species from Southern Africa. In this paper, we redescribe the holotype femur of Melanorosaurus thabanensis from the Elliot Formation of Lesotho, as well as associated remains. The stratigraphic position of this taxon is reviewed, and it is clear that it comes from the Lower Elliot Formation being, therefore, Late Triassic in age, and not Early Jurassic as originally described. The knowledge of the anatomy of the basal sauropodomorph of Thabana Morena is enhanced by the description of six new skeletal elements from the type locality. The femur and the ilium from Thabana Morena are diagnostic and characterized by unusual proportions. The first phylogenetic analysis including both this specimen and Melanorosaurus is conducted. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the femur described in the original publication of Melanorosaurus thabanensis can no longer be referred to Melanorosaurus. For these reasons, we hereby create Meroktenos gen. nov. to encompass Meroktenos thabanensis comb. nov. PMID:26855874

  3. New material and revision of Melanorosaurus thabanensis, a basal sauropodomorph from the Upper Triassic of Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Peyre de Fabrègues

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanorosaurus is a genus of basal sauropodomorph that currently includes two species from Southern Africa. In this paper, we redescribe the holotype femur of Melanorosaurus thabanensis from the Elliot Formation of Lesotho, as well as associated remains. The stratigraphic position of this taxon is reviewed, and it is clear that it comes from the Lower Elliot Formation being, therefore, Late Triassic in age, and not Early Jurassic as originally described. The knowledge of the anatomy of the basal sauropodomorph of Thabana Morena is enhanced by the description of six new skeletal elements from the type locality. The femur and the ilium from Thabana Morena are diagnostic and characterized by unusual proportions. The first phylogenetic analysis including both this specimen and Melanorosaurus is conducted. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the femur described in the original publication of Melanorosaurus thabanensis can no longer be referred to Melanorosaurus. For these reasons, we hereby create Meroktenos gen. nov. to encompass Meroktenos thabanensis comb. nov.

  4. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  5. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  6. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in broa...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  7. Late-onset hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dudek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, the number of men over the age of 50 years exceeds 6 million. It is estimated that about 2-6% of this population develops symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. In men, testosterone deficiency increases slightly with age. LOH is a clinically and biochemically defined disease of older men with serum testosterone level below the reference parameters of younger healthy men and with symptoms of testosterone deficiency, manifested by pronounced disturbances of quality of life and harmful effects on multiple organ systems. Testosterone replacement therapy may give several benefits regarding body composition, metabolic control, and psychological and sexual parameters.

  8. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  9. Basal ganglia plus insula damage yields stronger disruption of smoking addiction than basal ganglia damage alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaznick, Natassia; Tranel, Daniel; McNutt, Ashton; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of the basal ganglia (BG) and insula (INS) for nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. We used a lesion study examining the effects of BG and INS damage on changes in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time in a prospective manner. We studied whether combined BG and INS damage yields more substantial disruption of smoking and nicotine dependence than damage to the BG alone and compared with damage to other brain regions outside the BG and INS (brain-damaged comparison [BDC] group). We obtained neuroanatomical and behavioral data for 63 neurological patients with stroke at 1 month after onset and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. All patients were smokers at lesion onset. The BG and BG + INS groups had significantly higher and more sustained rates of smoking cessation than patients with damage elsewhere. By 12 months after onset, only 14.3% of the patients in the BDC group were classified as nonsmokers. In the BG group, 37% were not smoking by the 12-month follow-up, and in the BG + INS group, smoking cessation was even more pronounced, as 75% of this group was not smoking at the 12-month epoch. The findings show that damage to the BG alone can cause disruption of smoking addiction, and when BG damage is combined with INS damage, the disruption increases. The latter finding is consistent with the proposal that the INS has a key role in smoking addiction.

  10. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  11. A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhlich, Ursula B; Chiappe, Luis M

    2006-03-16

    Small Late Jurassic theropod dinosaurs are rare worldwide. In Europe these carnivorous dinosaurs are represented primarily by only two skeletons of Compsognathus, neither of which is well preserved. Here we describe a small new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Schamhaupten in southern Germany. Being exquisitely preserved and complete from the snout to the distal third of the tail, the new fossil is the best-preserved predatory, non-avian dinosaur in Europe. It possesses a suite of characters that support its identification as a basal coelurosaur. A cladistic analysis indicates that the new taxon is closer to maniraptorans than to tyrannosauroids, grouping it with taxa often considered to be compsognathids. Large portions of integument are preserved along its tail. The absence of feathers or feather-like structures in a fossil phylogenetically nested within feathered theropods indicates that the evolution of these integumentary structures might be more complex than previously thought.

  12. Exceptionally preserved juvenile megalosauroid theropod dinosaur with filamentous integument from the Late Jurassic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Foth, Christian; Tischlinger, Helmut; Norell, Mark A

    2012-07-17

    Recent discoveries in Asia have greatly increased our understanding of the evolution of dinosaurs' integumentary structures, revealing a previously unexpected diversity of "protofeathers" and feathers. However, all theropod dinosaurs with preserved feathers reported so far are coelurosaurs. Evidence for filaments or feathers in noncoelurosaurian theropods is circumstantial and debated. Here we report an exceptionally preserved skeleton of a juvenile megalosauroid, Sciurumimus albersdoerferi n. gen., n. sp., from the Late Jurassic of Germany, which preserves a filamentous plumage at the tail base and on parts of the body. These structures are identical to the type 1 feathers that have been reported in some ornithischians, the basal tyrannosaur Dilong, the basal therizinosauroid Beipiaosaurus, and, probably, in the basal coelurosaur Sinosauropteryx. Sciurumimus albersdoerferi represents the phylogenetically most basal theropod that preserves direct evidence for feathers and helps close the gap between feathers reported in coelurosaurian theropods and filaments in ornithischian dinosaurs, further supporting the homology of these structures. The specimen of Sciurumimus is the most complete megalosauroid yet discovered and helps clarify significant anatomical details of this important basal theropod clade, such as the complete absence of the fourth digit of the manus. The dentition of this probably early-posthatchling individual is markedly similar to that of basal coelurosaurian theropods, indicating that coelurosaur occurrences based on isolated teeth should be used with caution.

  13. Exceptionally preserved juvenile megalosauroid theropod dinosaur with filamentous integument from the Late Jurassic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Foth, Christian; Tischlinger, Helmut; Norell, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries in Asia have greatly increased our understanding of the evolution of dinosaurs’ integumentary structures, revealing a previously unexpected diversity of “protofeathers” and feathers. However, all theropod dinosaurs with preserved feathers reported so far are coelurosaurs. Evidence for filaments or feathers in noncoelurosaurian theropods is circumstantial and debated. Here we report an exceptionally preserved skeleton of a juvenile megalosauroid, Sciurumimus albersdoerferi n. gen., n. sp., from the Late Jurassic of Germany, which preserves a filamentous plumage at the tail base and on parts of the body. These structures are identical to the type 1 feathers that have been reported in some ornithischians, the basal tyrannosaur Dilong, the basal therizinosauroid Beipiaosaurus, and, probably, in the basal coelurosaur Sinosauropteryx. Sciurumimus albersdoerferi represents the phylogenetically most basal theropod that preserves direct evidence for feathers and helps close the gap between feathers reported in coelurosaurian theropods and filaments in ornithischian dinosaurs, further supporting the homology of these structures. The specimen of Sciurumimus is the most complete megalosauroid yet discovered and helps clarify significant anatomical details of this important basal theropod clade, such as the complete absence of the fourth digit of the manus. The dentition of this probably early-posthatchling individual is markedly similar to that of basal coelurosaurian theropods, indicating that coelurosaur occurrences based on isolated teeth should be used with caution. PMID:22753486

  14. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between reinforcement learning models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both reinforcement learning and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, H; Abiko, Y; Hashimoto, S; Inoue, T; Shimono, M; Takagi, T; Noma, H

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was studied with immunohistochemical methods. We observed cells in the tumor with positive reaction to polyclonal keratin, prekeratin, monoclonal PKK-1, polyclonal S-100 protein, monoclonal S-100 protein (alpha), secretory component, actin and laminin. However, no cells which stained positively with monoclonal KL-1, amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or epithelial membrane antigen were recognized. From these immunohistochemical results and our ultrastructural observations reported previously, we conclude that the cells constituting the basal cell adenoma are ductal, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not secretory ones. It is also suggested that the origins of basal cell ademona as well as those of pleomorphic and clear cell adenoma are undifferentiated cells of intercalated duct.

  16. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain can be applied and resolve such cases. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, cryotherapy

  17. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  18. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  19. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Makoto; Takahashi, Shinichiro (Mito National Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Ohara, Kazuo

    1983-07-01

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan.

  20. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  1. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  2. Molecular characterization of Italian nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, L; Cusano, R; Nasti, S; Faravelli, F; Forzano, F; Baldo, C; Barile, M; Gliori, S; Muggianu, M; Ghigliotti, G; Lacaita, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Bianchi-Scarra, G

    2005-03-01

    Mutations in the PTCH gene, the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene, have been found to lead to the autosomal dominant disorder termed Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS, also called Gorlin Syndrome). Patients display an array of developmental anomalies and are prone to develop a variety of tumors, with multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas occurring frequently. We provide here the results of molecular testing of a set of Italian Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients. Twelve familial patients belonging to 7 kindreds and 5 unaffected family members, 6 non-familial patients and an additional set of 7 patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the disease were examined for mutations in the PTCH gene. All of the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients were found to carry variants of the PTCH gene. We detected nine novel mutations (1 of which occurring twice): 1 missense mutation (c.1436T>G [p.L479R]), 1 nonsense mutation (c.1138G>T [p.E380X]), 6 frameshift mutations (c.323_324ins2, c.2011_2012dup, c.2535_2536dup, c.2577_2583del, c.3000_3005del, c.3050_3051del), 1 novel splicing variant (c.6552A>T) and 3 mutations that have been previously reported (c.3168+5G>A, c.1526G>T [p.G509V], and c.3499G>A [p.G1167R]). None of the patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the syndrome, carried germline coding region mutations.

  3. Never too late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  4. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  5. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  6. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  7. Differential subsidence within a coastal prism : late-Glacial - Holocene tectonics In The Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhine-Meuse river system has been studied extensively over the past few decades. The Netherlands' coastal prism formed in response to Holocene sea level rise and buried the Weichselian (OIS-2) Rhine-Meuse valley. Although the geological-geomorphological evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system since

  8. T-wave inversions related to left ventricular basal hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiuyu, E-mail: cxy0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, Shihua, E-mail: zhaoshihua0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, Tao, E-mail: taozhao0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Lu, Minjie, E-mail: lmjkan@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Yin, Gang, E-mail: gangyin0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Jiang, Shiliang, E-mail: jiangsl-2011@163.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Prasad, Sanjay, E-mail: s.prasad@rbht.nhs.uk [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital Sydney Street, London, SW3 6NP (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between T-wave inversions and left ventricular (LV) segmental hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: 196 consecutive patients with non-apical HCM underwent late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The distribution and magnitude of LV segmental hypertrophy and LGE were assessed according to the AHA 17-segment model and analyzed in relation to T-wave inversions. Results: Of 196 HCM patients, 144 (73%) exhibited T-wave inversions. 144 (73%) patients had evidence of myocardial fibrosis as defined by LGE, and the prevalence of LGE was significantly higher in patients with T-wave inversions compared with those without T-wave inversions (78% vs. 59%, P = 0.008). T-wave inversions were related to basal anterior and basal anteroseptal LGE (20% vs. 10%, P = 0.04 and 68% vs. 46%, P = 0.005, respectively). In addition, T-wave inversions were associated with greater basal anteroseptal and basal inferior wall thickness (19.5 ± 4.7 mm vs. 16.7 ± 4.5 mm, P < 0.001 and 10.9 ± 3.3 mm vs. 9.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.01, respectively). By logistic regression analysis, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE were independent determinants of T-wave inversions (P = 0.005, P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: T-wave inversions in HCM are associated with LGE and wall thickness of the left ventricular basal segments. Moreover, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE are independent determinants of T-wave inversions.

  9. The chromatin remodeler Mi-2beta is required for establishment of the basal epidermis and normal differentiation of its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mariko; Morgan, Bruce A; Georgopoulos, Katia

    2007-04-01

    Using conditional gene targeting in mice, we show that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2beta is crucial for different aspects of skin development. Early (E10.5) depletion of Mi-2beta in the developing ventral epidermis results in the delayed reduction of its suprabasal layers in late embryogenesis and to the ultimate depletion of its basal layer. Later (E13.5) loss of Mi-2beta in the dorsal epidermis does not interfere with suprabasal layer differentiation or maintenance of the basal layer, but induction of hair follicles is blocked. After initiation of the follicle, some subsequent morphogenesis of the hair peg may proceed in the absence of Mi-2beta, but production of the progenitors that give rise to the inner layers of the hair follicle and hair shaft is impaired. These results suggest that the extended self-renewal capacity of epidermal precursors arises early during embryogenesis by a process that is critically dependent on Mi-2beta. Once this process is complete, Mi-2beta is apparently dispensable for the maintenance of established repopulating epidermal stem cells and for the differentiation of their progeny into interfollicular epidermis for the remainder of gestation. Mi-2beta is however essential for the reprogramming of basal cells to the follicular and, subsequently, hair matrix fates.

  10. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    In the Eemian to Early/Middle Weichselian (Late Pleistocene), when the Scandinavian and Alpine Glaciers were still small, and northern Germany under mammoth steppe to taiga palaoenvironment conditions, Late Quaternary steppe lions were well distributed in northern to central Germany, whereas generally all over Central Europe bones and rarely articulated skeletons were found less at open air but mainly at cave sites (Diedrich 2007a, 2008a-b, 2009a-b, 2010a-c, k, in review a-b; Diedrich and Rathgeber in review). A similar distribution, but more dense, is reported for the Late Quaternary Ice Age spotted hyenas (Diedrich 2005, 2006, 2007b-c, 2008a, c, 2010f-j, in review c-d, Diedrich and Žák 2006). The last lions of northern Europe were thought to have reached into the final Magdalénan (cf. Musil 1980). This can be not concluded with a restudy of the bone material from the Late Magdalenian (V-VI) Teufelsbrücke stone arch site near Saalfeld (Thuringia, Central Germany) and many other Magdalenian stations (open air and caves) in northern to central Germany (Münsterland Bay, Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Thuringian Karst). None of those sites yield remains of final Upper Pleistocene spotted hyenas or steppe lion bones anymore, nor in the few preserved Late Magdalenian mobile art can those be recognized in those regions. The last lion remains seem to reach into the Aurignacian or possibly into the Early Gravettian (early Late Weichselian) documented especially at the cave bear den, hyena den and overlapping Neandertalian to Modern human camp site Balve Cave (Sauerland Karst, cf. archaeology in Günther 1964) where still a mammoth fauna is documented for that time (Diedrich 2010a). The last and by archaeological layers dated hyena remains were also found in the Balve Cave and are from the Late Middle Palaeolithic cave site reaching a maximum Aurignacian age documenting an overlapping of hyena den and human camp site use (Diedrich 2010a, b). In northern Germany

  11. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg a...

  12. PERIANTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASAL MONOCOT TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA (JUNCAGINACEAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.;

    2006-01-01

    Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflores- cence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie...

  13. Manufacturing Descent: Basal Readers and the Creation of Reading Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patrick; Crawford, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Describes how basal readers manufacture reading failures among students from less-privileged economic and social backgrounds. Reviews the history of reading instruction in the United States. Calls for educators to speak out against reading practices that protect the privilege of the upper and upper-middle classes by encoding their values and…

  14. Basal ganglia play a crucial role in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the striatum, located at the interface of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit, consists of separate circuits that serve distinct functions It plays an important role in motor planning, value processing, and decision making.

  15. Metacomprehension during Basal Reader Instruction: Do Teachers Promote It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Baumann, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes elementary teachers' interactions with students during guided reading of basal reader selections to determine the extent to which the interactions promote students' metacomprehension abilities. Finds that teachers assumed most of the responsibility for students' comprehension themselves rather than conducting the lessons in a manner that…

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  17. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  18. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  20. Do gap junctions regulate synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) typically suffer severely from different types of symptoms. Motor symptoms, restricting the patients’ ability to perform controlled movements in daily life, are of special clinical interest and have been related to neural activity in the basal ganglia. Low-freq

  1. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  2. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing ...

  3. Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared

  4. Normal sexual dimorphism in the human basal ganglia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Everaerd, D.S.; Pol, C.; Franke, B.; Tendolkar, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Male and female brains differ in both structure and function. Investigating this sexual dimorphism in healthy subjects is an important first step to ultimately gain insight into sex-specific differences in behavior and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The basal ganglia are among the main regions

  5. [Successful therapy of metastatic basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutt, M; Mazur, F; Bergmann, M; Lemke, A J; Kaune, K M

    2014-11-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with giant basal cell carcinoma on the abdomen which had metastasized. He was treated with oral vismodegib. Both the primary ulcerated tumor on the abdomen and the metastases responded. Vismodegib was well tolerated without significant side effects. The tumor recurred promptly after vismodegib was discontinued, and then was resistant to therapy when vismodegib was re-administered.

  6. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  7. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  8. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-03

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  9. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  10. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e...

  11. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e.g., wi...

  12. Studies on the Mechanism of Single Basal Application of Controlled-Release Fertilizers for Increasing Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shuan-hu; YANG Shao-hai; CHEN Jian-sheng; XU Pei-zhi; ZHANG Fa-bao; AI Shao-ying; HUANG Xu

    2007-01-01

    This paper was to explore the mechanism of single basal application of controlled-release fertilizers for increasing yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pot trials and cylinder trials were carried out from 2002 to 2005 to study the influences of single basal application of 3 controlled-release fertilizers on the changes of soil available N, root development, senescence and lodging resistance at late growth stages. Results showed that at 30 days after fertilization, single basal application of controlled-release fertilizers coated with vegetal-substance (CRF1) and polymer materials (CRF3) increased soil available N to 12.0 and 147.9%, respectively, in comparison to split fertilization of rice-specific fertilizer (RSF1). Treatments of the two CRFs obviously benefited the development of root system, resulting in greater rice root weights with extensive distribution and higher root activity. In addition, the two CRF treatments, in comparison to RSF1, enhanced chlorophyll consents of the flag leaves to 9.5 and 15.5%, and soluble protein up to 89.7 and 108.0% respectively. Application of the two CRFs also made the base of rice stems strong and large, declined the proportion of shoot and root, increased root depth index. Though relatively low K rate, single basal application of the CRF3 coated with NH4MgPO4 could also promote the development of root system, enhance root activity and some physiological functions of flag leaves. Based on these results, it was concluded that major mechanisms for increasing rice yield by single basal application of the CRFs should be attributed to grater soil available N supply, superior development of root systems, better nutrient absorption capacity, slower senescence and enhancement of lodging resistance at late stages.

  13. High fat diet promotes prostatic basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate epithelial hyperplasia originated from basal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Joon Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent lineage tracing studies showed that the prostate basal and luminal cells in adult mice are two independent lineages under the physiological condition, but basal cells are capable of generating luminal progenies during bacterial infection-induced prostatitis. Because acute bacterial infection in human prostate tissues is relatively rare, the disease relevance of the bacterial infection-induced basal-to-luminal differentiation is uncertain. Herein we employ a high fat diet-induced sterile prostate inflammation model to determine whether basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by inflammation irrespective of the underlying etiologies. A K14-CreER model and a fluorescent report line are utilized to specifically label basal cells with the green fluorescent protein. We show that high fat diet promotes immune cell infiltration into the prostate tissues and basal-to-luminal differentiation. Increased cell proliferation accompanies basal-to-luminal differentiation, suggesting a concurrent regulation of basal cell proliferation and differentiation. This study demonstrates that basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by different types of prostate inflammation evolved with distinct etiologies. Finally, high fat diet also accelerates initiation and progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia that are originated from basal cells with loss-of-function of the tumor suppressor Pten. Because prostate cancer originated from basal cells tends to be invasive, our study also provides an alternative explanation for the association between obesity and aggressive prostate cancer.

  14. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  15. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  16. Centrosomes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio: a review including the related basal body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessman Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to

  17. Basal autophagy is required for the efficient catabolism of sialyloligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2013-09-13

    Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5(-/-) cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans.

  18. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  19. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  20. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  1. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  2. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.I.; Yoon, P.H.; Ryu, Y.H.; Jeon, P.; Hwang, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  3. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  4. Depth perception in cerebellar and basal ganglia disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschke, Matthias; Gomez, Christopher M; Tuite, Paul J; Pickett, Kristen; Konczak, Jürgen

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia serve not only a role in motor control but also in visual perception. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as patients with cerebellar lesions exhibit impairments of vision that are not fully explained by ocular motor deficits. It is less clear to which extent these visual deficits contribute to an impaired control of visually guided movements. This study examined whether a dysfunction of the cerebellum or the basal ganglia induces impairments in depth perception, which affect action. We employed an illusionary display, the Ames trapezoidal window, to determine the ability of PD patients (n=10) and patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) (n=6) to process depth cues when estimating object slant. Participants either pointed to the edges of the window (motor judgement) or verbally indicated the perceived orientation of the display (verbal judgement). To control for ocular and limb motor deficits, participants judged the slant of a non-illusionary display in a second task. Slant estimation of the non-illusionary window was not impaired in either patient group when compared to control subjects (all P>0.2). In contrast, SCA as well as PD patients exhibited significantly greater slant estimation errors than controls when pointing to the illusionary window (P=0.005). In addition, both patient groups made larger errors than controls in their verbal judgements during binocular viewing of the illusion (P=0.005), but not during monocular viewing (P>0.2). In sum, the present findings point towards a role for both the basal ganglia and cerebellum for the processing of visual information about depth. Since the deficits were seen both in the context of action and perception and were only partially reconciled by the availability of binocular depth cues, we conclude that basal ganglia as well as cerebellar disease may affect the visual perception of depth.

  5. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  6. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxid...

  7. The proprioception and neuromuscular stability of the basal thumb joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mobargha, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The basal thumb joint, or the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) is an enigmatic construction. The concavo-convex shape of the CMC1 and wide range of movement, allows for both precision and power grips and is particularly susceptible to the development of osteoarthritis. Previous theories regarding the development of CMC1 osteoarthritis have focused on the role of gender, excessive joint load and ligament laxity as causative factors. An emerging theory is the role o...

  8. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body.......70-105.56) (P Hidradenitis Suppurativa is associated with a high fat percentage, high visceral fat, and low muscle percentage adding to the morbidity of HS. The higher predicted estimate of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...

  9. Translating structure to clinical properties of an ideal basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, A G; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Sahay, R K

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for ideal basal insulin which can overcome the unmet need of a truly once daily insulin, with a flat peakless profile. Useful for all types of patients Insulin degludec is next generation insulin with a unique mode of protraction of forming soluble multi-hexamers and slow continuous absorption giving it a flat profile compared to the existing basal insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes, at steady-state, the mean terminal half-life of insulin degludec was 25 hours, i.e., approximately twice as long as for insulin glargine (half-life of 12.1 hours). In once-daily dosing regimen it reaches steady state after approximately 3 days. The duration of action of insulin degludec was estimated to be beyond 42 hours in euglycaemic clamp studies and this gives the unique opportunity of flexible time dosing which is not an available option with the existing basal insulin. The glucose-lowering effect is evenly distributed across a 24-hour dosing interval with insulin degludec having 4 times lower variability than insulin glargine. This is an important attribute given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin and the goal of achieving night time and inter-prandial glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia, a goal that is challenging given the variability of absorption and lower PK half-lives of current basal insulin products. The combination of the ultra-long, flat and stable profile with an improved hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability could present an improved risk-benefit trade-off with the lower risk of hypoglycaemia, allowing for targeting improved levels of glycaemic control.

  10. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  11. A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kudoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence.

  12. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  13. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  14. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  15. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  16. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  17. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest.

  18. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2......)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P...... = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44...

  19. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  20. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  1. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing features ... the blood from soaking your clothes. What Causes Bleeding Later in Pregnancy? When labor begins, the cervix ...

  2. Evolutionary transition of dental formula in Late Cretaceous eutherian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianov, Alexander O.; Archibald, J. David

    2015-10-01

    Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT scanning of one juvenile specimen, the development of dp3 started in a late ontogenetic stage and was confined to the pulp cavity of the developing p2. This dp3 would have been resorbed in a later ontogenetic stage, as the roots of p2 formed. The initial stage of reduction of the third premolar can be traced to stem therians ( Juramaia and Eomaia), which have both dP3 and P3 present in the adult dentition. Further delay in the development of dP3/dp3 led to the loss of the permanent P3/p3 (a possible synapomorphy for Eutheria). The dP3/dp3 was present during most of the adult stages in the Late Cretaceous stem placentals Zhelestidae and Gypsonictops. This tooth is totally absent in basal taxa of Placentalia, which normally have at most four premolars.

  3. Climate-driven fluvial development and valley abandonment at the last glacial-interglacial transition (Oude IJssel-Rhine, Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, M.M.; Kasse, C.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Greaves, H.; Cohen, K.M.; Wallinga, J.; Hoek, W.Z.

    2012-01-01

    In the Weichselian, the Lower Rhine in the Dutch-German border region has used three courses, dissecting ice-marginal topography inherited from the Saalian. In the Late Weichselian, the three courses functioned simultaneously, with the central one gaining importance and the outer ones abandoning. Th

  4. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  6. Late prematurity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Júnior, Luís Carlos; Passini Júnior, Renato; Rodrigues Machado Rosa, Izilda

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation) in its several aspects. the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  8. Late effects from hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Eleanor A; Chang, Polly Y

    2004-12-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  9. The Portrayal of Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans in Recent Basal Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesus; Florez-Tighe, Viola

    1986-01-01

    Basal readers should portray minorities both accurately and idealistically. While publishers seem to have established acceptable percentage levels of minority content in basal series, the overall treatment of minorities remains unbalanced. (LHW)

  10. Reconstructing the temperature regime of the Weichselian ice sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmlund, P. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography

    1997-04-01

    Areas in Sweden are described, where the ice could have been at the pressure melting point during the last ice age. In order to calculate probable degrees of glacial erosion, estimates on the time of ice coverage and the temperature distribution in time are combined data on erosion rates from present day glaciers. An estimate of the extent of ice cover can be made using the proxy temperature record from the Greenland ice cores and a model of the ice sheet. Adding the estimations on climate and ice sheet shape outlined in this contribution, to erosion figures we may conclude that the crucial areas for glaciation erosion are within the mountains and where the present Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia are situated. At these sites erosion rates of some tens of meters may have occurred. In inland northern Sweden and inland southern Sweden the potential for glacial erosion seems to be small. 14 refs.

  11. Mid‐Weichselian interstadial in Kolari, western Finnish Lapland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Moreau, Julien; Hyttinen, Outi

    2014-01-01

    -divide zone. Here, a large, previously unstudied section from a former Hannukainen iron mine was investigated sedimentologically and dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Ten sedimentary units were identified displaying a variety of depositional environments (glacial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial...

  12. Microsporidia-nematode associations in methane seeps reveal basal fungal parasitism in the deep sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eSapir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea is Earth’s largest habitat but little is known about the nature of deep-sea parasitism. In contrast to a few characterized cases of bacterial and protistan parasites, the existence and biological significance of deep-sea parasitic fungi is yet to be understood. Here we report the discovery of a fungus-related parasitic microsporidium, Nematocenator marisprofundi n. gen. n. sp. that infects benthic nematodes at Pacific Ocean methane seeps on the Pacific Ocean floor. This infection is species-specific and has been temporally and spatially stable over two years of sampling, indicating an ecologically consistent host-parasite interaction. A high distribution of spores in the reproductive tracts of infected males and females and their absence from host nematodes’ intestines suggests a sexual transmission strategy in contrast to the fecal-oral transmission of most microsporidia. N. marisprofundi targets the host’s body wall muscles causing cell lysis, and in severe infection even muscle filament degradation. Phylogenetic analyses placed N. marisprofundi in a novel and basal clade not closely related to any described microsporidia clade, suggesting either that microsporidia-nematode parasitism occurred early in microsporidia evolution or that host specialization occurred late in an ancient deep-sea microsporidian lineage. Our findings reveal that methane seeps support complex ecosystems involving interkingdom interactions between bacteria, nematodes, and parasitic fungi and that microsporidia parasitism exists also in the deep sea biosphere.

  13. Microsporidia-nematode associations in methane seeps reveal basal fungal parasitism in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Amir; Dillman, Adler R.; Connon, Stephanie A.; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Ingels, Jeroen; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Levin, Lisa A.; Baldwin, James G.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The deep sea is Earth's largest habitat but little is known about the nature of deep-sea parasitism. In contrast to a few characterized cases of bacterial and protistan parasites, the existence and biological significance of deep-sea parasitic fungi is yet to be understood. Here we report the discovery of a fungus-related parasitic microsporidium, Nematocenator marisprofundi n. gen. n. sp. that infects benthic nematodes at methane seeps on the Pacific Ocean floor. This infection is species-specific and has been temporally and spatially stable over 2 years of sampling, indicating an ecologically consistent host-parasite interaction. A high distribution of spores in the reproductive tracts of infected males and females and their absence from host nematodes' intestines suggests a sexual transmission strategy in contrast to the fecal-oral transmission of most microsporidia. N. marisprofundi targets the host's body wall muscles causing cell lysis, and in severe infection even muscle filament degradation. Phylogenetic analyses placed N. marisprofundi in a novel and basal clade not closely related to any described microsporidia clade, suggesting either that microsporidia-nematode parasitism occurred early in microsporidia evolution or that host specialization occurred late in an ancient deep-sea microsporidian lineage. Our findings reveal that methane seeps support complex ecosystems involving interkingdom interactions between bacteria, nematodes, and parasitic fungi and that microsporidia parasitism exists also in the deep-sea biosphere. PMID:24575084

  14. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.

  15. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  16. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  17. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  18. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Pamela; Doiron, Brent; Rubin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  19. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  20. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  1. The basal ganglia: an overview of circuits and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Amy A; Basso, Michele A

    2008-01-01

    The technique of electrical stimulation of brain tissue-known clinically as deep brain stimulation (DBS)-is at the fore of treatment of human neurological disease. Here we provide a general overview highlighting the anatomy and circuitry of the basal ganglia (BG). We introduce common disease states associated with BG dysfunction and current hypotheses of BG function. Throughout this introductory review we direct the reader to other reviews in this special issue of Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews highlighting the interaction between basic science and clinical investigation to more fully understand the BG in both health and disease.

  2. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  3. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  4. Volumetric changes in the Basal Ganglia after antipsychotic monotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, B H; Nørbak, H; Borgwardt, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to antipsychotic medication has been extensively associated with structural brain changes in the basal ganglia (BG). Traditionally antipsychotics have been divided into first and second generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs) however, the validity of this classification has...... monotherapy. Material and Methods: We systematically searched PubMed for longitudinal MRI studies of patients with schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis who had undergone a period of antipsychotic monotherapy. We used specific, predefined search terms and extracted studies were hand searched for additional...

  5. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Mihaila D.; Foia L; Solovan C

    2013-01-01

    Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in ...

  6. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Monda, Vincenzo; Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity. PMID:28197081

  7. Late sequelae of superficial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, I.C.; Young, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    Superficial irradiation results in well recognized late sequelae including not only sclerosis and atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but also the development of benign and malignant tumors of skin and adjacent structures. The long latency between irradiation and its late effects allowed the early uncontrolled use of radiation treatment for benign conditions. The subsequent recognition of the causal relationship between tumors and previous irradiation has restricted its use to more appropriate purposes, although it is possible that it is still overused in some areas of dermatologic practice. Clinicians need to be aware of the time interval between irradiation and the development of its late sequelae, and the incidence of these sequelae. Appropriate irradiation exposure history should be a part of the evaluation of every patient.

  8. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Malaki, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  9. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  10. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  11. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  12. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  13. Carcinogenesis of basal cell carcinomas: genetics and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J P

    2002-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer in humans. Like squamous cell carcinomas, they are also believed to be ultraviolet (UV)-induced, but several data suggest that some differences might exist in the mechanisms of their UV induction. The originating cells may arise from interfollicular basal cells, hair follicles or sebaceous glands, thus from a deeper zone than the SCC ones, which probably means exposure to different doses or wavelengths of UV. The p53 gene and the patched gene (PTCH) are major targets of UV for BCC induction. Mutations in p53 are present in about 56% of human BCC, even small early lesions. The "UV signature" is observed in 65% of them. Mutations in the PTCH play also a major role in BCC development, being responsible for hereditary BCCs in Gorlin's syndrome, sporadic BCC, and BCCs isolated from xeroderma pigmentosum, although with a lower incidence of "UV signature". Smoothened-activating mutations and PTCH2 mutations are also involved in BCC formation. Transgenic mice overexpressing Smoothened or Sonic hedgehog in the skin spontaneously produce skin lesions resembling human BCCs, but contrary to findings in the hairless albino mouse and with SCC, no data on experimental UV induction of BCCs are available.

  14. Immunohistochemical characterization of basal cell adenomas of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Okabe, H; Tsuda, N; Tezuka, F

    1991-03-01

    Seven cases of basal cell adenomas of the salivary gland were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods with a broad panel of routinely used antibodies. Histologically the epithelial elements were classified as tubuloglandular, trabecular and solid patterns. The authors' results indicated the following: 1) The duct lining cells of tubuloglandular and trabecular patterns have distinct epithelial features with cytokeratins (KL 1, PKK 1, *PKK 2 and PKK 3), alpha-one-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and S-100 alpha subunit positivity. 2) The basaloid cells in the trabecular and solid patterns expressed two immunophenotypes: one had actin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S-100 protein and S-100 beta subunit patterns typical of myoepithelial cells in normal glands. The other basaloid cells had vimentin and S-100 protein patterns. The former cell type could be found in 4 of 7 cases and the latter was found in 7 cases. This represents a minor participation of the myoepithelial cells in the basal cell adenoma. 3) The basement membrane and stromal connective tissue around the neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-one-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT). This antibody is a good marker in identifying the basement membrane-like material.

  15. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  17. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  18. Treatment of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is characterized by various embryological deformities and carcinoma formation. It is caused by PTCHI gene mutations and is autosomal dominantly inherited. Some of the main symptoms of NBCCS are multiple basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) of the mandible, hyperkeratosis of the palmar and plantar, skeletal deformity, calcification of the falx cerebri, and facial defomity. Recurrent KCOT is the main symptom of NBCCS and is present in approximately 90% of patients. In NBCCS, KCOTs typically occur in multiples. KCOTs can be detected in patients under the age of 10, and new and recurring cysts develop until approximately the age of 30. The postoperation recurrence rate is approximately 60%. This case report presents a 14-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of a cyst found in the maxilla and mandible. The patient was diagnosed with NBCCS, and following treatment of marsupialization and enucleation, the clinical results were satisfactory. PMID:27847737

  19. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  20. Basal autophagy protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Marcela; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Martínez, Gonzalo J; Chiong, Mario; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-08-31

    Doxorubicin (Doxo) is one of the most effective anti-neoplastic agents but its cardiotoxicity has been an important clinical limitation. The major mechanism of Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity is associated to its oxidative capacity. However, other processes are also involved with significant consequences for the cardiomyocyte. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity but to date it is not clear how Doxo alters that process and its consequence on cardiomyocytes viability. Here we investigated the effect of Doxo 1uM for 24h of stimulation on cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We showed that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy. This inhibition is due to both Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation and Beclin 1 level decrease. To assess the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death, we evaluated the effects 3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 (BafA), siRNA Beclin 1 (siBeclin 1) and rapamycin (Rapa) on cell viability. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA, BafA and siBeclin 1 increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release but, when autophagy was induced by Rapa, Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death was decreased. These results suggest that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy and contributes to cardiomyocyte death. Activation of autophagy could be used as a strategy to protect the heart against Doxo toxicity.

  1. The basal ganglia: a substrate for fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, N.; Rio, J.; Tintore, M.; Nos, C.; Montalban, X. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unitat de Neuroimmunologia Clinica, Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, J.; Rovira, A. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Ressonancia Magnetica (IDI), Servei de Radiologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    The origin of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains uncertain. However, the use of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques has increased our understanding of this problem. We aimed to study the relationship between fatigue in MS and the presence of focal dysfunction in the basal ganglia and frontal white matter. Included in the study were 41 patients with relapsing-remitting MS with mild disability and 20 healthy controls. Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Patients were classified as ''fatigued'' when they expressed a subjective feeling of fatigue, and the FSS score was {>=}5.0 and/or the MFIS score was >38. Patients with no subjective fatigue were classified as ''nonfatigued'' when the FSS score was <4.0. Proton magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from two different regions: the frontal white matter and the lentiform nucleus. The relationships between fatigue and NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were analysed. A significant decrease in NAA/Cr in the lentiform nucleus region in patients with fatigue was observed. No differences between the groups were found in the frontal white matter. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our results would support the idea that a specific dysfunction or involvement of the basal ganglia might partly contribute to the development of MS-related fatigue. (orig.)

  2. [Late-onset dysthymic states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siranchiev, M A

    2002-01-01

    Sixty patients with dysthymic states which had emerged in later age of 60-80 years were examined. Two clinical types of dysthymic states were described: anergic (20 patients) and hypothymic (40 patients). Different comorbid mental disorders--obsessive-phobic (14 cases), somatoform (10), personality deviations (20) and psycho-organic (7)--were found to be characteristic of late-onset dysthymic states. According to developmental features, late dysthymia was primary (first manifested in the elderly) and secondary (develops after several depressive episodes). In diagnostic terms, the former is considered as "dysthymia" (F34.1 ICD-10) and the latter--as "recurrent depressive disorder" (F33).

  3. The effects of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement on late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhisa Komori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17 and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal

  4. Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Niwińska (Anna); W. Olszewski (Wojciech); M. Murawska (Magdalena); K. Pogoda (Katarzyna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive t

  5. Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Niwińska (Anna); W. Olszewski (Wojciech); M. Murawska (Magdalena); K. Pogoda (Katarzyna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive

  6. Marine ice sheet model performance depends on basal sliding physics and sub-shelf melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at

  7. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive

  8. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-11-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  9. Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This volume results from the international research project ‘The Migration of Faith: Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity (325‒c.600)’. The project is a collaboration between the Department of History at the University of Sheffield, the Seminar für Kirchengeschichte at the University of Halle, and th...

  10. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive patient

  11. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in

  12. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  13. Late detection of cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanny, K H; de Vries, I A C; Haverkamp, S J; Oomen, K P Q; Penris, W M; Eijkemans, M J C; Kon, M; Mink van der Molen, A B; Breugem, C C

    2016-01-01

    Cleft palate only (CPO) is a common congenital malformation, and most patients are diagnosed within the first weeks after birth. Late diagnosis of the cleft palate (CP) could initially result in feeding and growth impairment, and subsequently speech and hearing problems later in life. The purpose of

  14. Genomic analysis of smoothened inhibitor resistance in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Hayley J; Pau, Gregoire; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Modrusan, Zora; Januario, Thomas; Tsui, Vickie; Durham, Alison B; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Haverty, Peter M; Bourgon, Richard; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y; Dirix, Luc; Fisher, David C; Rudin, Charles M; Sofen, Howard; Migden, Michael R; Yauch, Robert L; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2015-03-09

    Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors are under clinical investigation for the treatment of several cancers. Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Most BCC patients experience significant clinical benefit on vismodegib, but some develop resistance. Genomic analysis of tumor biopsies revealed that vismodegib resistance is associated with Hedgehog (Hh) pathway reactivation, predominantly through mutation of the drug target SMO and to a lesser extent through concurrent copy number changes in SUFU and GLI2. SMO mutations either directly impaired drug binding or activated SMO to varying levels. Furthermore, we found evidence for intra-tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that a combination of therapies targeting components at multiple levels of the Hh pathway is required to overcome resistance.

  15. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  16. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan;

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still...... use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data...... use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration...

  17. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...... of BCC (2) . Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are observed in approximately 10% of Northern Europeans and are strongly associated with AD (3) . FLG mutations lead to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein and metabolite levels, including the chromophore trans-urocanic acid (UCA) (4......) . Mice with knockdown of filaggrin, or lack of functional histidase, show decreased epidermal trans-UCA levels and increased UVB-induced skin damage (5) . FLG mutation carriers also have 10% increased serum vitamin D levels suggesting increased penetration of UVB (6) . We evaluated the prevalence of FLG...

  18. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  19. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  1. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    was 66.1 years. The most common localisations were the forehead (31.3%), the nose (31.0%) and the cheek (14.7%). Primary BCC comprised 54.0%; the remaining cases were relapses, most frequently after curettage (36.9%), radiotherapy (18.9%) and photodynamic therapy (11.7%). MMS leads to 40% smaller skin......INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... of the surrounding healthy skin, and it also offers higher cure rates than standard tumour excision with a predefined margin of healthy skin. The superiority of MMS relies on the fact that the entire (100%) margin of the excised tissue is examined microscopically for residual tumour in contrast to the traditional...

  2. Basal Secretion of Lysozyme from Human Airways in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Roger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the basal release of lysozyme from isolated human lung tissues. Measurements of lysozyme in the fluids derived from lung preparations were performed using a rate-of-lysis assay subsequent to acidification of the biological samples. Lysozyme released from bronchial preparations into fluids was greater than that observed for parenchymal tissues. The lysozyme quantities detected in bronchial fluids were not modified by removal of the surface epithelium. Furthermore, the quantities of lysozyme in bronchial fluids was correlated with the size of the bronchial preparations. These results suggest that the lysozyme was principally secreted by the human bronchi (submucosal layer rather than by parenchyma tissues and that a greater release was observed in the proximal airways.

  3. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR. However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as to how selection acts on BMR. Here, we examine this variation in BMR in a broad sample of mammals and we test the hypothesis that, across mammals, body composition explains differences in BMR at a given body mass. Variation in BMR is strongly correlated with variation in muscle mass, and both of these variables are correlated with latitude and ambient temperature. These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation.

  4. Auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear responses in chinchillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex León

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cochlear microphonics (CM, auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments. We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the

  5. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  6. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  7. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  8. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cotrufo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal lamina (BL is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation.We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens.We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study.We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RTPCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin a2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type

  9. Geochemical and H-O-Sr-Nd isotope evidence for magmatic processes and meteoric-water interactions in the basal complex of La Gomera, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demény, A.; Casillas, R.; Hegner, E.; Vennemann, T. W.; Nagy, G.; Sipos, P.

    2010-03-01

    The plutonic rocks of the Basal Complex of La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain, were studied by means of major and trace element contents and by H-O-Sr-Nd isotope compositions in order to distinguish primary magmatic characteristics and late-stage alteration products. Deciphering the effects of alteration allowed us to determine primary, plume-related compositions that indicated D- and 18O-depletion relative to normal upper mantle, supporting the conclusions of earlier studies on the plutonic rocks of Fuerteventura and La Palma. Late-stage alteration took place during the formation of the intrusive series induced by interaction with meteoric water. Inferred isotopic compositions of the meteoric water indicate that the water infiltrated into the rock edifice at a height of about 1500 m above sea level, suggesting the existence of a subaerial volcano which was active during the intrusive activity and that it has been either distroyed or remain buried by later volcanic and landslide events.

  10. Late Devonian conodonts and event stratigraphy in northwestern Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Abdessamed; Gatovsky, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Conodonts recovered from the Late Devonian South Marhouma section comprise 5 genera with 31 species (3 undetermined). The fauna establishes the presence of MN Zones 5, undifferentiated 6/7, 8/10 for the Middle Frasnian, the MN Zones 11, 12, 13 for the Upper Frasnian as well as the Early through Late triangularis Zones in the basal Famennian. The outcropping lithological succession is one of mostly nodular calcilutites alternating with numerous marly and shaly deposits, which, in the lower and upper part, comprise several dysoxic dark shale intervals. Among these the Upper Kellwasser horizon can be precisely dated and as such the presence of the terminal Frasnian Kellwasser Event is recognized for the first time in Algeria. Both the Middlesex and Rhinestreet Events cannot yet be precisely located, but supposedly occur among the dark shale horizons in the lower part of the section. However, their assignment to a precise level has so far not been established. Though poor in conodont abundance the South Marhouma section provides first evidence of the presence of several Montagne Noire conodont zones within the so far widely unstudied Frasnian of the Ougarta Chain. As such it is considered representative for the northwestern Algerian Saoura region.

  11. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpandev Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216 switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6% to week 24 (1.0% in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001, while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort.

  12. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpandev; Shetty, Raman; Rajkumar, C; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216) switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6%) to week 24 (1.0%) in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001), while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort. PMID:25143902

  13. Changes in basal rates and bolus calculator settings in insulin pumps during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jonathan M; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    and HbA1c were recorded. Results were compared with 96 women with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injection therapy. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio decreased at all three main meals. The most pronounced decrease was observed at breakfast, where the carbohydrate......-to-insulin ratio was reduced, from median 12 (range 4-20) in early pregnancy to 3 (2-10) g carbohydrate per unit insulin in late pregnancy. Basal insulin delivery increased by ∼50%, i.e. from 0.8 (0.5-2.2) to 1.2 (0.6-2.5) IU/h at 5 a.m. and from 1.0 (0.6-1.5) to 1.3 (0.2-2.3) IU/h at 5 p.m. during pregnancy. HbA1......c levels during pregnancy, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio declined 4-fold from early to late pregnancy, whereas...

  14. Histological observation of some primitive euconodonts of Late Cambrian from Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; DONG Xiping; ZENG Xiaochun; ZHAO Le

    2005-01-01

    The histology of some euconodonts of Late Cambrian from Benxi and Fuxian County, Liaoning Province is studied by the oil-immersion technique. The histological characteristics of six primitive species of euconodonts - Proconodontus muelleri, Proconodontus tenuiserratus, Granatodontus ani, Rotundoconus tricarinatus, Teridontus nakamurai and Cordylodus proavus are describedin detail. Tubular dentine and atubular (parallel- and wavy-lamellar) dentine are found in the basal bodies of the primitive euconodonts Proconodontus tenuiserratus and Proconodontus muelleri, respectively. The tubular dentine and spherulitic dentine are also recognized from the basal bodies of Granatodontus ani and Rotundoconus tricarinatus. Since the histological characteristics of the studied six species of euconodonts belonging to Proconodontus lineage and Teridontus lineage Sensu Miller (Univ Kansas Paleontol Contr, 1980, 99: 1-39)seems to be almost the same, euconodonts are proposed as possibly monophyletic herein.

  15. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry; basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue<0.021 and Huang et al. (Pvalue≤0.005 equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al’s. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  16. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree......Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated...... of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required...

  17. Late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm 3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported.

  18. Monomelic amyotrophy with late progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowin, J; Meriggioli, M N; Cochran, E J

    2001-04-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a sporadic juvenile-onset disease that presents with gradual onset of weakness and atrophy in the hand muscles unilaterally. Generally, this disease is considered a 'benign' and non-progressive motor neuron disease, which stabilizes within five years of onset. We discuss a case that illustrates that monomelic amyotrophy may rarely exhibit late clinical progression to the lower extremities after a prolonged period of disease stability.

  19. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  20. Chorea due to basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ilik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Syndromes associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients are uncommon. Uremic encephalopathy is typical of patients showing cortical involvement, with symptoms including confusion, seizures, tremors, or myoclonus. Whenever basal ganglia are anatomically involved, movement disorders arise, including chorea. In this article we present a case with basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient causes chorea because of rare presentation. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 353-356

  1. Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T.; Malinow, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, ac...

  2. Basal forebrain degeneration precedes and predicts the cortical spread of Alzheimer's pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Taylor W.; Nathan Spreng, R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Leslie M Shaw; Khachaturian, Zaven

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received ne...

  3. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  5. An Unexpected Early Rhabdodontid from Europe (Lower Cretaceous of Salas de los Infantes, Burgos Province, Spain) and a Re-Examination of Basal Iguanodontian Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudonné, Paul-Emile; Tortosa, Thierry; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel; Canudo, José Ignacio; Díaz-Martínez, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Disarticulated and incomplete remains from a new diminutive ornithopod are described. They come from the Cameros Basin in the north of Spain and were collected from the red clays of the Castrillo de la Reina Formation, ranging from Upper Barremian to Lower Aptian. The new ornithopod described here is slender and one of the smallest ever reported. An up-to-date phylogenetic analysis recovers this taxon as a basal iguanodontian. Its unique combination of characters makes it more derived than slender ornithopods like Hyphilophodon and Gasparinisaura, and bring very interesting insights into the basal iguanodontian phylogeny. Though possessing a minimum of three premaxillary teeth, this taxon also bears an extensor ilio-tibialis groove on the distal part of its femur. Moreover, its dentary and maxillary teeth are unique, remarkably similar to those regarded as having a “rhabdomorphan” affinity. This unknown taxon is suggested to be a stem taxon within Rhabdodontidae, a successful clade of basal iguanodonts from the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The Gondwanan ornithopods share the strongest affinities with this family, and we confirm Muttaburrasaurus as a sister taxon of the Rhabdodontidae within a newly defined clade, the Rhabdodontomorpha. PMID:27333279

  6. A hyper-robust sauropodomorph dinosaur ilium from the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa: Implications for the functional diversity of basal Sauropodomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Blair W.; Choiniere, Jonah N.

    2016-11-01

    It has generally been held that the locomotory habits of sauropodomorph dinosaurs moved in a relatively linear evolutionary progression from bipedal through "semi-bipedal" to the fully quadrupedal gait of Sauropoda. However, there is now a growing appreciation of the range of locomotory strategies practiced amongst contemporaneous taxa of the latest Triassic and earliest Jurassic. Here we present on the anatomy of a hyper-robust basal sauropodomorph ilium from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. This element, in addition to highlighting the unexpected range of bauplan diversity throughout basal Sauropodomorpha, also has implications for our understanding of the relevance of "robusticity" to sauropodomorph evolution beyond generalized limb scaling relationships. Possibly representing a unique form of hindlimb stabilization during phases of bipedal locomotion, the autapomorphic morphology of this newly rediscovered ilium provides additional insight into the myriad ways in which basal Sauropodomorpha managed the inherited behavioural and biomechanical challenges of increasing body-size, hyper-herbivory, and a forelimb primarily adapted for use in a bipedal context.

  7. An Unexpected Early Rhabdodontid from Europe (Lower Cretaceous of Salas de los Infantes, Burgos Province, Spain and a Re-Examination of Basal Iguanodontian Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Emile Dieudonné

    Full Text Available Disarticulated and incomplete remains from a new diminutive ornithopod are described. They come from the Cameros Basin in the north of Spain and were collected from the red clays of the Castrillo de la Reina Formation, ranging from Upper Barremian to Lower Aptian. The new ornithopod described here is slender and one of the smallest ever reported. An up-to-date phylogenetic analysis recovers this taxon as a basal iguanodontian. Its unique combination of characters makes it more derived than slender ornithopods like Hyphilophodon and Gasparinisaura, and bring very interesting insights into the basal iguanodontian phylogeny. Though possessing a minimum of three premaxillary teeth, this taxon also bears an extensor ilio-tibialis groove on the distal part of its femur. Moreover, its dentary and maxillary teeth are unique, remarkably similar to those regarded as having a "rhabdomorphan" affinity. This unknown taxon is suggested to be a stem taxon within Rhabdodontidae, a successful clade of basal iguanodonts from the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The Gondwanan ornithopods share the strongest affinities with this family, and we confirm Muttaburrasaurus as a sister taxon of the Rhabdodontidae within a newly defined clade, the Rhabdodontomorpha.

  8. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eHelie; Srinivasa eChakravarthy; Ahmed A. Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  9. The nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome. Simultaneous extirpation of numerous basal-cell carcinomas on the face by curettage and electrodesiccation under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisa, C

    1981-11-01

    The case of a young, mentally retarded woman with the nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome is presented in whom about 150 basal-cell carcinomas on the face were treated simultaneously be curettage and electrodesiccation with the patient under general anesthesia. Such a method is excellent for eradicating numerous carcinomas rapidly, effectively, and at once, especially when cooperation of the patient is not optimal.

  10. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  11. Ameloblastoma vs basal cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Salam N; Abdullah, Bashar H

    2016-12-01

    Despite behavioral mimicry of ameloblastoma (AB) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), they are classified at 2 extremes within pertinent WHO classifications with respect to benign and malignant designation. This study aims to appraise the current allocation of AB in the classification through an immunohistochemical comparison of some aspects of behavior with BCC. Sections from retrospectively retrieved formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of AB (n = 37) and BCC (n = 34) were comparatively examined for the immunohistochemical expression for Ki-67, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, CD31, and D2-40 monoclonal antibodies. No statistically significant differences between the tumors were found regarding the immunoexpressions of Bcl-2 (P = .252), CD31 microvessel density (P = .895), lymphatic vessel density (P = .642), and MMP-9 stromal expression (P = .083). MMP-2 expression was significantly higher in epithelial and stromal regions of AB (P = .009 and P = .001, respectively), whereas Ki-67 and MMP-9 epithelial expressions were significantly higher in BCC (P < .000 and P = .026, respectively). Within the studied immunohistochemical attributes for tumor behavior, the study accentuated the overall behavioral mimicry of the tumors and indicated that BCCs surmount ABs by the proliferative rate only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Everolimus for Compassionate Use in Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eibenschutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Everolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and has been shown to have antineoplastic activity in addition to its use as an immunosuppressive agent for the prevention of organ transplant rejection. We report the use of everolimus for the compassionate treatment of four elderly, nontransplant patients presenting with multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC. All patients had a long history of BCC, had refused surgery as a current treatment option, and did not respond to alternative treatments (including topical 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod. Patients were treated with oral everolimus (1.5–3.0 mg daily for 12 months or longer: a complete and sustained response was seen in one case, and partial responses were seen in two other cases. Everolimus was well tolerated in these elderly patients. These promising preliminary data suggest that further dose-finding, controlled clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of everolimus in patients affected by BCC who cannot or will not undergo surgery.

  13. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas.

  14. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  15. Corneal confocal sub-basal nerve plexus evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, Joanna; Wylęgała, Adam; Wowra, Bogumił; Wójcik, Łukasz; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Wylęgała, Edward

    2017-07-25

    The aim of this study was to review the most recent data about corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) evaluated with the use of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). For this purpose, an electronic search was conducted based on PubMed and Google Scholar and Web of Science databases from 2008 up to the end of 2016. Ninety-eight articles in English were cited, as well as abstracts in other languages, concerning the morphology and function of corneal SNP in various diseases. Changes in corneal SNP as a result of local treatment were also introduced. Figures with scans from confocal microscopy from our Department were included. The main conclusion of this review was that both corneal SNP diminishment and high tortuosity as well as low sensitivity are in principle related to the presence or level of pathology. In addition, increased nerve tortuosity may represent a morphological determinant of nerve regeneration. However, the presented literature shows that SNP changes are not characteristic for one unified corneal pathology; rather, they reflect the non-specific pathological process present in many diseases. Future studies should use automatized biometric software and also examine the effects of new treatments on SNP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Basal ganglia necrosis: a 'best-fit' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Mihaela; Lloyd, Katie; Likeman, Marcus; Jardine, Philip; Whone, Alan

    2016-12-01

    A previously well 16-year-old boy developed a rapid-onset hypokinetic syndrome, coupled with a radiological appearance of extensive and highly symmetrical basal ganglia and white matter change. The diagnostic process was challenging and we systematically considered potential causes. After excluding common causes of this clinico-radiological picture, we considered common disorders with this unusual radiological picture and vice versa, before finally concluding that this was a rare presentation of a rare disease. We considered the broad categories of: metabolic; toxic; infective; inflammatory, postinfective and immune-mediated; neoplastic; paraneoplastic and heredodegenerative. Long-term follow-up gave insight into the nature of the insult, confirming the monophasic course. During recovery, and following presumed secondary aberrant reinnervation, his disorder evolved from predominantly hypokinetic to hyperkinetic. Here, we explore the process of finding a 'best-fit' diagnosis: in this case, acute necrotising encephalopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  18. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  19. Basal magnetic flux and the local solar dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Stenflo, J O

    2012-01-01

    The average unsigned magnetic flux density in magnetograms of the quiet Sun is generally dominated by instrumental noise. Due to the entirely different scaling behavior of the noise and the solar magnetic pattern it has been possible to determine the standard deviation of the Gaussian noise distribution and remove the noise contribution from the average unsigned flux density for the whole 15-yr SOHO/MDI data set and for a selection of SDO/HMI magnetograms. There is a very close correlation between the MDI disk-averaged unsigned vertical flux density and the sunspot number, and regression analysis gives a residual level of 2.7 G when the sunspot number is zero. The selected set of HMI magnetograms, which spans the most quiet phase of solar activity, has a lower limit of 3.0 G to the noise-corrected average flux density. These apparently cycle-independent levels may be identified as a basal flux density, which represents an upper limit to the possible flux contribution from a local dynamo, but not evidence for ...

  20. Thresholds in the sliding resistance of simulated basal ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Emerson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We report laboratory determinations of the shear resistance to sliding melting ice with entrained particles over a hard, impermeable surface. With higher particle concentrations and larger particle sizes, Coulomb friction at particle-bed contacts dominates and the shear stress increases linearly with normal load. We term this the sandy regime. When either particle concentration or particle size is reduced below a threshold, the dependence of shear resistance on normal load is no longer statistically significant. We term this regime slippery. We use force and mass balance considerations to examine the flow of melt water beneath the simulated basal ice. At high particle concentrations, the transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle size is comparable to the thickness of the melt film that separates the sliding ice from its bed. For larger particle sizes, a transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle concentration drops sufficiently that the normal load is no longer transferred completely to the particle-bed contacts. We estimate that the melt films separating the particles from the ice are approximately 0.1 µm thick at this transition. Our laboratory results suggest the potential for abrupt transitions in the shear resistance beneath hard-bedded glaciers with changes in either the thickness of melt layers or the particle loading.

  1. Vismodegib: in locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-07-30

    Vismodegib is the first Hedgehog pathway inhibitor to be approved in the US, where it is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC), or with locally advanced BCC that has recurred following surgery or who are not candidates for surgery, and who are not candidates for radiation. Vismodegib selectively and potently inhibits the Hedgehog signalling pathway by binding to Smoothened, thereby inhibiting the activation of Hedgehog target genes. Oral vismodegib was effective in the treatment of patients with locally advanced (n = 63) or metastatic (n = 33) BCC, according to the results of an ongoing, noncomparative, multinational, pivotal, phase II trial (ERIVANCE BCC). In this trial (using a clinical cutoff date of 26 November 2010), the independent review facility overall response rate was 42.9% in patients with locally advanced BCC and 30.3% in patients with metastatic BCC. In both patients with locally advanced BCC and those with metastatic BCC, the median duration of response was 7.6 months and median progression-free survival was 9.5 months. Oral vismodegib had an acceptable tolerability profile in patients with advanced BCC.

  2. Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura A; Behn, Mark D; McGuire, Jeffrey J; Das, Sarah B; Joughin, Ian; Herring, Thomas; Shean, David E; King, Matt A

    2015-06-04

    Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited.

  3. Late evolution of planetary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, A [CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, B P 4299, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Levison, H F [SWRI, 1050 Walnut St, Suite 300 Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)], E-mail: morby@obs-nice.fr, E-mail: hal@boulder.swri.edu

    2008-08-15

    This chapter discusses some of the main effects of the interaction of planets with remnant planetesimal disks, after the disappearance of the gas. It focuses on planet migration and its possible outcomes. In particular, we discuss the possibility that the migration of the planets leads them into an unstable configuration which changes drastically the structure of the system. The late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the terrestrial planets, occurring 650 Myr after planet formation, is a strong indication that this kind of evolution occurred in our solar system. Other stars show evidence of intense comet showers, which may indicate that LHB-analogs are ongoing in those systems at the current time.

  4. Regulation of basal and reserve cardiac pacemaker function by interactions of cAMP mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling with surface membrane channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Tatiana M.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Decades of intensive research of primary cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, have established potential roles of specific membrane channels in the generation of the diastolic depolarization, the major mechanism allowing sinoatrial node cells generate spontaneous beating. During the last three decades, multiple studies made either in the isolated sinoatrial node or sinoatrial node cells have demonstrated a pivotal role of Ca2+ and, specifically Ca2+-release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, for spontaneous beating of cardiac pacemaker. Recently, spontaneous, rhythmic local subsarcolemmal Ca2+ releases from ryanodine receptors during late half of the diastolic depolarization have been implicated as a vital factor in the generation of sinoatrial node cells spontaneous firing. Local Ca2+ releases are driven by a unique combination of high basal cAMP production by adenylyl cyclases, high basal cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterases and a high level of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent phosphorylation. These local Ca2+ releases activate an inward Na+-Ca2+ exchange current which accelerates the terminal diastolic depolarization rate and, thus, controls the spontaneous pacemaker firing. Both the basal primary pacemaker beating rate and its modulation via β-adrenergic receptor stimulation appear to be critically dependent upon intact RyR function and local subsarcolemmal sarcoplasmic reticulum generated Ca2+ releases. This review aspires to integrate the traditional viewpoint that has emphasized the supremacy of the ensemble of surface membrane ion channels in spontaneous firing of the primary cardiac pacemaker, and these novel perspectives of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling in regulation of the heart pacemaker clock, both in the basal state and during β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. PMID:19573534

  5. Fissura palatina reparada: fechamento velofaríngeo antes e durante o som basal Cleft palate repair: velopharyngeal closure before and during the basal tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseane Conterno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de fissura palatina apresentam inadequado fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF, com consequente hipernasalidade vocal que pode ser diminuída com o som basal. OBJETIVO: Comparar o FVF durante a realização do som basal com a emissão em registro modal, em pacientes com fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de Casos com quatro homens adultos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. Imagens do FVF por nasofaringoscopia, durante a emissão da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal. Julgamento das imagens realizado por quatro otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: Em três sujeitos, não houve mudança no tipo de FVF entre os registros analisados; as modificações que ocorreram na maioria dos sujeitos referem-se apenas ao grau de movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, pois, em registro basal, o movimento das paredes laterais da faringe se manteve, o movimento da parede posterior da faringe estabilizou, o movimento do véu palatino diminuiu discretamente, e a Prega de Passavant se evidenciou. CONCLUSÕES: O tipo de FVF se manteve em três dos quatro sujeitos analisados, quando comparado o registro modal com o basal, havendo modificações no grau da movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, evidenciando a Prega de Passavant.Patients with palatine fissure have inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC, with consequent vocal hypernasality which can be reduced by a basal tone. AIM: to compare VPC during a basal tone with the emission of a modal recording, in patients with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: case study with four adult men, all with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. VPC images through nasal-pharyngoscopy during the emission o f the [a] vowel in a modal and basal recording. The images were studied by four ENTs. RESULTS: in three subjects there was no change in the type of VPC considering the recordings analyzed; the changes which happened to most of the subjects

  6. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles membrana granulosa.

  7. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  8. Expression of basal cell keratins in human prostate cancer metastases and cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Aalders, M.W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Ruiter, D.J.; Schalken, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Within normal human prostate epithelium, basal and luminal cells can be discriminated by their expression of keratins (K). While basal cells express K5/14, luminal cells show expression of K8/18 and an intermediate cell population can be identified by co-expression of K5/18. Prostate cancer is predo

  9. Metacognitive Theory Applied: Strategic Reading Instruction in the Current Generation of Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Hopkins, Carol J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the content of eight basal reading series (published in 1989) to determine how and the extent to which lessons and activities that promote metacomprehension behaviors necessary for independent reading were included. Finds that basal authors made considerable efforts to incorporate activities and lessons that promote or foster strategic…

  10. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required for luminal-basal fusions, and we identified EN1, TBX18, and TCF4 as candidate transcriptional regulators of the luminal-to-basal switch. Our findings highlight the remarkable epigenetic plasticity of breast cancer cells.

  11. Age and basal follicle stimulating hormone as predictors of in vitro fertilisation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Elgendy, M; Lashen, H; Afnan, M

    1998-01-01

    To examine the relative effect of basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration and the woman's age on predicting the ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation, normal fertilisation rate and pregnancy rate in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment following pituitary desensitisation. Descriptive cohort study. Three hundred and forty-four women undergoing their first IVF cycle. Basal (menstrual-day 3) FSH concentration was measured and the woman's age calculated before she underwent pituitary desensitisation followed by gonadotrophin ovarian stimulation and IVF treatment. Cancellation rate due to poor ovarian response, total dose of gonadotrophin required to achieve follicular maturity, number of oocytes collected, normal fertilisation rate and pregnancy rate were compared between banded values of the variables studied. Increasing basal FSH concentration was associated significantly with increased cancellation rate, but increasing age was not. Both increasing basal FSH and age were associated significantly with increased total gonadotrophin dose, and reduced number of oocytes collected and pregnancy rate. Analysis of variance showed that the association for basal FSH with the number of oocytes was significant, independent of, and stronger than the effects of age. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, but not basal FSH, was independently associated with pregnancy rate. Neither basal FSH, nor age had significant association with normal fertilisation rate. Basal FSH concentration is a better predictor of cancellation rate and of the number of oocytes collected in IVF treatment than age, but age is a stronger predictor of pregnancy rate.

  12. [Neurobiology of parkinsonism. I. Neural substrates an neurochemistry of the basal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, S; Garcia-Cairasco, N

    1995-09-01

    Movement disorders, in general, are characterized by a breakdown in the integrated coordination of posture and motion by multiple brain and muscular systems. In the expression of parkinsonism, in particular, critical and altered structures such as substantia nigra, appear to be related to the cortex-basal ganglia and thalamus-basal ganglia sub-circuits.

  13. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.;

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  14. Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Cheng, Yen-Po; Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2015-05-01

    Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery.

  15. The effect of basal channels on oceanic ice-shelf melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millgate, Thomas; Holland, Paul R.; Jenkins, Adrian; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of ice-shelf basal channels has been noted in a number of Antarctic and Greenland ice shelves, but their impact on basal melting is not fully understood. Here we use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model to investigate the effect of ice-shelf basal channels on oceanic melt rate for an idealized ice shelf resembling the floating tongue of Petermann Glacier in Greenland. The introduction of basal channels prevents the formation of a single geostrophically balanced boundary current; instead the flow is diverted up the right-hand (Coriolis-favored) side of each channel, with a return flow in the opposite direction on the left-hand side. As the prescribed number of basal channels is increased the mean basal melt rate decreases, in agreement with previous studies. For a small number of relatively wide channels the subice flow is found to be a largely geostrophic horizontal circulation. The reduction in melt rate is then caused by an increase in the relative contribution of weakly melting channel crests and keels. For a larger number of relatively narrow channels, the subice flow changes to a vertical overturning circulation. This change in circulation results in a weaker sensitivity of melt rates to channel size. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Rossby radius of deformation. Our results explain why basal channels play an important role in regulating basal melting, increasing the stability of ice shelves.

  16. [Left pulmonary agenesis diagnosed late].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleanu, Oana; Pătraşcu, Natalia; Nebunoiu, Ana-Maria; Vintilă, V; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, F D

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 51 years old female-patient, with severe dextroscoliosis, having like unique symptom progressive dyspnea. The blood samples reveals polycythemia, the radiological exam shows the opacification of 2/3 of the left thorax, the absence of the lung structure in the other 1/3, the deviation of the mediastinum, and dextroscoliosis; the computed tomography reveals the absence of the left lung artery and the left airways, compensatory hyperinflation of the right lung and dilatation of the trunk and right pulmonary artery; the bronchoscopy does not visualize the carina or the left main bronchus, typical for pulmonary agenesis. Echocardiography confirmed the absence of left pulmonary artery and shows mild pulmonary hypertension (systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery of 33 mmHg) with dilatation of the right cavities, but good cinetics. We face a case of pulmonary agenesis lately diagnosed, with modest functional cardiologic implications, limited therapeutic options and good survival, justified by the late appearance of the pulmonary hypertension of low severity and without worsening in time.

  17. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Tang, Dean G

    2016-02-29

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features.

  18. Erosion and basal forces in granular flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extreme mass wasting avalanche events such as rock, snow and ice avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows are among the most hazardous geological phenomena. These events driven by gravity, can travel for long distance and high speed, increasing their volumes as they can entertain material along their path. The erosion of material and its entrainment can greatly affect the overall dynamics of transportation, either enhancing or impeding the avalanche mobility depending on flow dynamics and characteristics of the substrate. However, the mechanisms and processes acting at the base as they travel over deformable or erodible substrates are still poor understood. Experiments, simulations and field measurements indicate that large fluctuations can occur in basal forces and stresses, which may be the result of non-uniform load transfer within the mass, and rolling, bouncing and sliding of the particles along the bed. In dense granular materials, force distributions can propagate through filamentary chain structures that carry a large fraction of the forces within the system. Photoelastic experiments on two-dimensional, monodisperse, gravity-driven flows have shown that force chains can transmit high localized forces to the boundary of dense granular flows. Here we describe the preliminary setup and results of 2D experiments on polydisperse granular flows of photoelastic disks down a small flume designed to acquire the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow and to analyze their effects on an erodible bed. The intended outcome of this research is to provide better information on the complex mechanism of erosion and its effects on avalanche behaviour.

  19. Two years results of electronic brachytherapy for basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ballester-Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The use of radiation therapy (RT for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC has been changing throughout the last century. Over the last decades, the use of radiotherapy has surged with the development of new techniques, applicators, and devices. In recent years, electronic brachytherapy (eBT devices that use small x-ray sources have been introduced as alternative to radionuclide dependence. Nowadays, several devices have been incorporated, with a few series reported, and with a short follow-up, due to the recent introduction of these systems. The purpose of this work is to describe the clinical results of our series after two years follow-up with a specific eBT system. Material and methods: This is a prospective single-center, non-randomized pilot study, to assess clinical results of electronic brachytherapy in basal cell carcinoma using the Esteya® system. In 2014, 40 patients with 60 lesions were treated. Patient follow-up on a regular basis was performed for a period of two years. Results: Twenty-six patients with 44 lesions achieved two years follow-up. A complete response was documented in 95.5% of cases. Toxicity was mild (G1 or G2 in all cases, caused by erythema, erosion, or alopecia. Cosmesis was excellent in 88.6% of cases, and good in the rest. Change in pigmentation was the most frequent cosmetic alteration. Conclusions : This work is special, since the equipment’s treatment voltage was 69.5 kV, and this is the first prospective study with long term follow-up with Esteya®. These preliminary report show excellent results with less toxicity and excellent cosmesis. While surgery has been the treatment of choice, certain patients might benefit from eBT treatment. These are elderly patients with comorbidities or undergoing anticoagulant treatment as well as those who simply refuse surgery or might have other contraindications.

  20. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  1. Vestigial prototroch in a basal nemertean, Carinoma tremaphoros (Nemertea; Palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslakova, S A; Martindale, M Q; Norenburg, J L

    2004-01-01

    Nemerteans have been alleged to belong to a protostome clade called the Trochozoa that includes mollusks, annelids, sipunculids, echiurids, and kamptozoans and is characterized by, among other things, the trochophore larva. The trochophore possesses a prototroch, a preoral belt of specialized ciliary cells, derived from the trochoblast cells. Nemertea is the only trochozoan phylum for which presence of the trochophore larva possessing a prototroch had never been shown. However, so little is known about nemertean larval development that comparing it with development of other trochozoans is difficult. Development in the nemertean clade Pilidiophora is via a highly specialized planktonic larva, the pilidium, and most of the larval body is lost during a drastic metamorphosis. Other nemerteans (hoplonemerteans and palaeonemerteans) lack a pilidium, and their development is direct, forming either an encapsulated or planktonic "planuliform" larva, producing a juvenile without a dramatic change in body plan. We show that early in the development of a member of a basal nemertean assemblage, the palaeonemertean Carinoma tremaphoros, large squamous cells cover the entire larval surface except for the apical and posterior regions. Although apical and posterior cells continue to divide, the large surface cells cleavage arrest and form a contorted preoral belt. Based on its position, cell lineage, and fate, we suggest that this belt corresponds to the prototroch of other trochozoans. Lack of differential ciliation obscures the presence of the prototroch in Carinoma, but differentiation of the trochoblasts is clearly manifested in their permanent cleavage arrest and ultimate degenerative fate. Our results allow a meaningful comparison between the development of nemerteans and other trochozoans. We review previous hypotheses of the evolution of nemertean development and suggest that a trochophore-like larva is plesiomorphic for nemerteans while a pilidium type of development with

  2. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabe, Emily C; Sanford, Rachel S; Kohn, Andrea B; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Basal lamella relaxing incision improves endoscopic middle meatal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Anne E; Hwang, Peter H

    2013-03-01

    Lateralization of the middle turbinate is a commonly cited factor leading to failure of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Inadequate medialization during FESS may require repeat intraoperative attempts, and may lead to destabilization and mucosal trauma. A novel technique is described that increases middle meatal area and provides more definitive medialization at the outset of FESS. Twenty-nine middle turbinate medializations were prospectively evaluated in 18 consecutive patients undergoing primary ESS. Three intraoperative images of the middle meatus were obtained in the native position, after Freer medialization, and after basal lamella relaxing incision (BLRI). Measurements of middle meatal area were then calculated in a blinded and randomized fashion. Distances measured from the middle turbinate to the lateral nasal wall for each position ranged from 0 to 8 mm (median = 3.00 mm) for the native position, 0.5 to 10 mm (median = 5.00 mm) for standard Freer medialization, and 3 to 21 mm (median = 10.00 mm) for BLRI. Friedman's analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference between the 3 measurements, and the post hoc Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed that BLRI distance (median = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7-11.2) was significantly larger than both standard Freer (median = 5; 95% CI, 4-6.2) and native (median = 3; 95% CI, 2-3) and that standard Freer was significantly larger than native (all p values BLRI is a safe, controlled technique that provides significantly greater medialization of the middle turbinate compared to standard medialization techniques. BLRI significantly enhances the operative space within the middle meatus. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  4. Basal cell carcinoma characteristics as predictors of depth of invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Michael Jude; Troiani, Blake M; Hale, Lauren; DelTondo, Joe; Helm, Klaus F; Clarke, Loren E

    2012-07-01

    Pretreatment risk stratification of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely based on histologic subtype reported from biopsy specimens. We sought to determine the degree of concordance between characteristics identified on biopsy specimen and excision and to determine if histologic characteristics other than subtype correlated with depth of invasion. Histologic specimens of 100 BCC biopsy specimens and corresponding excisions were reviewed. Anatomic site, histologic subtype, maximum depth of extension, contour of the lobules at the leading edge, elastosis characteristics, presence of necrosis, calcification, and ulceration were recorded. Concordance between biopsy specimens and their excisions with relation to depth of tumor lobules was analyzed. The concordance between the subtype of biopsy specimen and excision was 62%. Micronodular tumors had the greatest mean depth, followed by infiltrative, nodular, and superficial subtypes. Subtype reported from biopsy specimen (P = .0002) and excision (P < .0001) correlated to depth and was superior to age, contours of excision specimens, the presence of necrosis, and the extent of excisional solar elastosis. Gender, anatomic site, contours of biopsy specimens, elastosis color, elastosis type, the presence of ulceration, and calcification did not correlate with depth. Selection bias is present as only standard excisions were included; BCCs treated by other methods were not examined. BCC subtype identified on biopsy specimen may not correlate with subtype identified on excision. Morphologic subtype has the highest correlation with depth and reporting should reflect the highest risk growth pattern if a biopsy specimen contains more than one pattern. Consideration should be given to reporting necrosis and degree of solar elastosis. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser ablation of basal cell carcinomas guided by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Heidy; Cordova, Miguel; Nehal, Kishwer; Rossi, Anthony; Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Laser ablation offers precise and fast removal of superficial and early nodular types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Nevertheless, the lack of histological confirmation has been a limitation. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging combined with a contrast agent can offer cellular-level histology-like feedback to detect the presence (or absence) of residual BCC directly on the patient. We conducted an ex vivo bench-top study to provide a set of effective ablation parameters (fluence, number of passes) to remove superficial BCCs while also controlling thermal coagulation post-ablation to allow uptake of contrast agent. The results for an Er:YAG laser (2.9 um and pulse duration 250us) show that with 6 passes of 25 J/cm2, thermal coagulation can be effectively controlled, to allow both the uptake of acetic acid (contrast agent) and detection of residual (or absence) BCCs. Confirmation was provided with histological examination. An initial in vivo study on 35 patients shows that the uptake of contrast agent aluminum chloride) and imaging quality is similar to that observed in the ex vivo study. The detection of the presence of residual tumor or complete clearance was confirmed in 10 wounds with (additional) histology and in 25 lesions with follow-up imaging. Our results indicate that resolution is sufficient but further development and use of appropriate contrast agent are necessary to improve sensitivity and specificity. Advances in RCM technology for imaging of lateral and deep margins directly on the patient may provide less invasive, faster and less expensive image-guided approaches for treatment of BCCs.

  6. Cholinergic Neurons Excite Cortically Projecting Basal Forebrain GABAergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; McKenna, James T.; Zant, Janneke C.; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in the control of cortical activation and attention. Understanding the modulation of BF neuronal activity is a prerequisite to treat disorders of cortical activation involving BF dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we reveal the interaction between cholinergic neurons and cortically projecting BF GABAergic neurons using immunohistochemistry and whole-cell recordings in vitro. In GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, BF cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase-positive) neurons were intermingled with GABAergic (GFP+) neurons. Immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter showed that cholinergic fibers apposed putative cortically projecting GABAergic neurons containing parvalbumin (PV). In coronal BF slices from GAD67-GFP knock-in or PV-tdTomato mice, pharmacological activation of cholinergic receptors with bath application of carbachol increased the firing rate of large (>20 μm diameter) BF GFP+ and PV (tdTomato+) neurons, which exhibited the intrinsic membrane properties of cortically projecting neurons. The excitatory effect of carbachol was blocked by antagonists of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors in two subpopulations of BF GABAergic neurons [large hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) and small Ih, respectively]. Ion substitution experiments and reversal potential measurements suggested that the carbachol-induced inward current was mediated mainly by sodium-permeable cation channels. Carbachol also increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons/fibers caused a mecamylamine- and atropine-sensitive inward current in putative GABAergic neurons. Thus, cortically projecting, BF GABAergic/PV neurons are excited by neighboring BF and/or brainstem cholinergic neurons. Loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease may impair cortical activation, in part, through disfacilitation of BF cortically

  7. Processing of Baculovirus Late and Very Late mRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda A. Guarino

    2007-01-01

    Baculoviruses encode a DNA-directed RNA polymerase that is evolutionarily divergent from cellular polymerases. This RNA polymerase is a multifunctional complex that has the ability to recognize late promoters, transcribe linked genes, and process transcripts at both the 5' and 3' ends. The LEF-4 subunit of the viral RNA polymerase is the mRNA capping enzyme, with both RNA triphosphatase and guanylyltransferase activities. Conversion to cap 1 structures is mediated by the viral enzyme MTase1 and another as yet unidentified methyltransferase. Termination is an intrinsic property of the viral RNA polymerase and occurs at oligoU rich sequences. Polyadenylation of the released transcripts is also a function of the viral RNA polymerase. Thus, although viral mRNAs resemble host messages with respect to their 5' and 3' end structures, the processing is mediated by viral enzymes and, in the case of the 3' ends, by mechanisms that differ from the host cell.

  8. Complete forelimb myology of the basal theropod dinosaur Tawa hallae based on a novel robust muscle reconstruction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sara H

    2014-09-01

    The forelimbs of nonavian theropod dinosaurs have been the subject of considerable study and speculation due to their varied morphology and role in the evolution of flight. Although many studies on the functional morphology of a limb require an understanding of its musculature, comparatively little is known about the forelimb myology of theropods and other bipedal dinosaurs. Previous phylogenetically based myological reconstructions have been limited to the shoulder, restricting their utility in analyses of whole-limb function. The antebrachial and manual musculature in particular have remained largely unstudied due to uncertain muscular homologies in archosaurs. Through analysis of the musculature of extant taxa in a robust statistical framework, this study presents new hypotheses of homology for the distal limb musculature of archosaurs and provides the first complete reconstruction of dinosaurian forelimb musculature, including the antebrachial and intrinsic manual muscles. Data on the forelimb myology of a broad sample of extant birds, crocodylians, lizards, and turtles were analyzed using maximum likelihood ancestral state reconstruction and examined together with the osteology of the early theropod Tawa hallae from the Late Triassic of New Mexico to formulate a complete plesiomorphic myology for the theropod forelimb. Comparisons with previous reconstructions show that the shoulder musculature of basal theropods is more similar to that of basal ornithischians and sauropodomorphs than to that of dromaeosaurids. Greater development of the supracoracoideus and deltoideus musculature in theropods over other bipedal dinosaurs correlates with stronger movements of the forelimb at the shoulder and an emphasis on apprehension of relatively large prey. This emphasis is further supported by the morphology of the antebrachium and the intrinsic manual musculature, which exhibit a high degree of excursion and a robust morphology well-suited for powerful digital flexion

  9. Electronic brachytherapy for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma: a report of two prospective pilot trials using different doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ballester-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very common cancer in the Caucasian population. Treatment aims to eradicate the tumor with the lowest possible functional and aesthetic impact. Electronic brachytherapy (EBT is a treatment technique currently emerging. This study aims to show the outcomes of two consecutive prospective pilot clinical trials using different radiation doses of EBT with Esteya® EB system for the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma. Material and methods : Two prospective, single-center, non-randomized, pilot studies were conducted. Twenty patients were treated in each study with different doses. The first group (1 was treated with 36.6 Gy in 6 fractions of 6.1 Gy, and the second group (2 with 42 Gy in 6 fractions of 7 Gy. Cure rate, acute toxicity, and late toxicity related to cosmesis were analyzed in the two treatment groups. Results: In group 1, a complete response in 90% of cases was observed at the first year of follow-up, whereas in group 2, the complete response was 95%. The differences with reference to acute toxicity and the cosmetic results between the two treatment groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions : Our initial experience with Esteya® EB system to treat superficial and nodular BCC shows that a dose of 36.6 Gy and 42 Gy delivered in 6 fraction of 7 Gy achieves a 90% and 95% clinical cure rate at 1 year, respectively. Both groups had a tolerable toxicity and a very good cosmesis. The role of EBT in the treatment of BCC is still to be defined. It will probably become an established option for selected patients in the near future.

  10. A basal sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia from the Ischigualasto Formation (Triassic, Carnian and the early evolution of Sauropodomorpha.

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    Ricardo N Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The earliest dinosaurs are from the early Late Triassic (Carnian of South America. By the Carnian the main clades Saurischia and Ornithischia were already established, and the presence of the most primitive known sauropodomorph Saturnalia suggests also that Saurischia had already diverged into Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha. Knowledge of Carnian sauropodomorphs has been restricted to this single species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new small sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Ischigualsto Formation (Carnian in northwest Argentina, Panphagia protos gen. et sp. nov., on the basis of a partial skeleton. The genus and species are characterized by an anteroposteriorly elongated fossa on the base of the anteroventral process of the nasal; wide lateral flange on the quadrate with a large foramen; deep groove on the lateral surface of the lower jaw surrounded by prominent dorsal and ventral ridges; bifurcated posteroventral process of the dentary; long retroarticular process transversally wider than the articular area for the quadrate; oval scars on the lateral surface of the posterior border of the centra of cervical vertebrae; distinct prominences on the neural arc of the anterior cervical vertebra; distal end of the scapular blade nearly three times wider than the neck; scapular blade with an expanded posterodistal corner; and medial lamina of brevis fossa twice as wide as the iliac spine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We regard Panphagia as the most basal sauropodomorph, which shares the following apomorphies with Saturnalia and more derived sauropodomorphs: basally constricted crowns; lanceolate crowns; teeth of the anterior quarter of the dentary higher than the others; and short posterolateral flange of distal tibia. The presence of Panphagia at the base of the early Carnian Ischigualasto Formation suggests an earlier origin of Sauropodomorpha during the Middle Triassic.

  11. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.

    2016-12-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  12. A novel adaptive basal therapy based on the value and rate of change of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youqing; Percival, Matthew W; Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard C; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J

    2009-09-01

    Modern insulin pump therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus offers the freedom to program several basal profiles that may accommodate diurnal ariability in insulin sensitivity and activity level. However, these basal profiles do not change even if a pending hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic event is foreseen. New insulin pumps could receive a direct feed of glucose values from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system and could enable dynamic basal adaptation to improve glycemic control. The proposed method is a two-step procedure. After the design of an initial basal profile, an adaptation of the basal rate is suggested as a gain multiplier based on the current CGM glucose value and its rate of change (ROC). Taking the glucose value and its ROC as axes, a two-dimensional plane is divided into a nine-zone mosaic, where each zone is given a predefined basal multiplier; for example, a basal multiplier of zero indicates a recommendation to shut off the pump. The proposed therapy was evaluated on 20 in silico subjects (ten adults and ten adolescents) in the Food and Drug Administration-approved UVa/Padova simulator. Compared with conventional basal therapy, the proposed basal adjustment improved the percentage of glucose levels that stayed in the range of 60-180 mg/dl for all 20 subjects. In addition, the adaptive basal therapy reduced the average blood glucose index values. The proposed therapy provides the flexibility to account for insulin sensitivity variations that may result from stress and/or physical activities. Because of its simplicity, the proposed method could be embedded in a chip in a future artificial pancreatic beta cell or used in a "smart" insulin pump. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Bed Conditions Inferred from Basal Earthquakes Beneath the Whillans Ice Plain, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Boucher, C.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismicity near the bed of fast-moving ice streams informs our understanding of basal controls on fast ice flow and the nature of small scale sources of basal resistance to sliding (sticky spots). Small basal earthquakes (BEQs) occurring at or near the base of ice streams express the current dominant basal stress state and allow observation of bed heterogeneities on spatial scales of 10s to 100s m that are difficult to observe otherwise. Temporal changes in the source mechanisms of these BEQs indicate changing basal conditions, and comparison of basal seismicity with GPS-determined ice velocity allows insight into the interplay between seismically active small basal sticky spots and fast ice motion. We present unique highly local observations of BEQs occurring beneath the Whillans Ice Plain, in West Antarctica, from a network of 13 surface and borehole seismometers overlying the WIP stick-slip cycle high tide initiation area. We record seismicity only 100s-1000s of m from basal seismic sources. We compare the occurrence of these BEQs with co-located GPS observations of ice surface velocity. We detect BEQs by cross correlation, using a catalog of hand-picked events with seismic wave arrivals at multiple sites. We then locate each BEQ and determine source parameters by fitting the S wave spectra: moment magnitude, stress drop, and rupture area. The basal earthquakes occur in families of remarkably repeatable events. The time interval between subsequent events within a BEQ family typically depends on ice velocity, but there is a complex interplay between ice velocity and source parameters. We also search for temporal changes in BEQ source parameters and seek to relate these changes to ice velocity measurements, thereby inferring changing bed conditions. Our preferred interpretation is that BEQs are rupture at or near the surface of an over-consolidated till package, suggesting that changes in basal seismicity may directly indicate changing subglacial till conditions.

  14. Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are involved in the mediation of the arousal effect of noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Zoltán; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Stenberg, Dag

    2013-12-01

    Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are implicated in cortical arousal and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Cholinergic neurones are innervated by noradrenergic terminals, noradrenaline excites them via alpha-1 receptors and microinjection of noradrenaline into the basal forebrain enhances wakefulness. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing effects of noradrenaline. To elucidate the roles of cholinergic basal forebrain structures we administered methoxamine, an alpha-1-adrenergic agonist into the basal forebrain, in intact animals and again after selective destruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic cells by 192 IgG-saporin. In eight male Han-Wistar rats implanted with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes, a microdialysis probe targeted into the basal forebrain was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 6 h on a baseline day, and with cerebrospinal fluid in the first and with methoxamine in the second 3-h period of the subsequent day. The sleep-wake activity was recorded for 24 h on both days. Saporin was then injected into the basal forebrain and 2 weeks later the same experimental schedule (with cerebrospinal fluid and methoxamine) was repeated. In the intact animals, methoxamine exhibited a robust arousing effect and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep was suppressed. Lesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones abolished almost completely the NREM sleep-suppressing effect of methoxamine, whereas the REM sleep-suppressing effect remained intact. Thus, the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones mediate, at least in part, cortical arousal and non-REM sleep-suppression, but they are not involved in the REM sleep-suppressing effects of noradrenaline. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Basal body structure and composition in the apicomplexans Toxoplasma and Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa encompasses numerous important human and animal disease-causing parasites, including the Plasmodium species, and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively. Apicomplexans proliferate by asexual replication and can also undergo sexual recombination. Most life cycle stages of the parasite lack flagella; these structures only appear on male gametes. Although male gametes (microgametes) assemble a typical 9+2 axoneme, the structure of the templating basal body is poorly defined. Moreover, the relationship between asexual stage centrioles and microgamete basal bodies remains unclear. While asexual stages of Plasmodium lack defined centriole structures, the asexual stages of Toxoplasma and closely related coccidian apicomplexans contain centrioles that consist of nine singlet microtubules and a central tubule. There are relatively few ultra-structural images of Toxoplasma microgametes, which only develop in cat intestinal epithelium. Only a subset of these include sections through the basal body: to date, none have unambiguously captured organization of the basal body structure. Moreover, it is unclear whether this basal body is derived from pre-existing asexual stage centrioles or is synthesized de novo. Basal bodies in Plasmodium microgametes are thought to be synthesized de novo, and their assembly remains ill-defined. Apicomplexan genomes harbor genes encoding δ- and ε-tubulin homologs, potentially enabling these parasites to assemble a typical triplet basal body structure. Moreover, the UNIMOD components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP, and BLD10/CEP135) are conserved in these organisms. However, other widely conserved basal body and flagellar biogenesis elements are missing from apicomplexan genomes. These differences may indicate variations in flagellar biogenesis pathways and in basal body arrangement within the phylum. As apicomplexan basal bodies are distinct from their metazoan counterparts, it may be possible to

  16. Detailed anatomy of the braincase of Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha using high resolution tomography and new insights on basal crocodylomorph phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martin Leardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 from the Late Jurassic Morrison Fm. of Wyoming was originally described as a dinosaur by Marsh and in 1971 Ostrom suggested crocodilian affinities. In 2005, Göhlich and collaborators identified new material of this species from Colorado as a basal crocodylomorph. However, a partial skull found in association with mandibular and postcranial remains was not described. Methods Due to the small size and delicate structures within the braincase, micro CT studies were performed on this specimen. The new anatomical information was incorporated in a phylogenetic dataset, expanding both character and taxon sampling. Results This new material reinforces the non-crocodyliform crocodylomorph affinities of Macelognathusas it bears a large otic aperture, unfused frontals and lacks ornamentation on the dorsal cranial bones. The internal structures also support these affinities as this specimen bears traits (i.e., heavily pneumatized and expanded basisphenoid; the presence of additional pneumatic features on the braincase; and the otoccipital-quadrate contact not present in most basal crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, the presence of a wide supraoccipital and a cranioquadrate passage are traits shared with Almadasuchus from the early Late Jurassic of Argentina. Macelognathus was recovered as one of the closest relatives of crocodyliforms, forming a clade (Hallopodidae with two other Late Jurassic taxa (Almadasuchus and Hallopus. Discussion The clade formed by Almadasuchus + Hallopus + Macelognathus, the Hallopodidae, is characterized by a higher degree of suturing of the braincase, posteriorly closed otic aperture (paralleled in mesoeucrocodylians and cursorial adaptations. Also, the phylogenetic position of this lineage of derived crocodylomorphs as the sister group of Crocodyliformes implies a large amount of unsampled record (ghost lineage, at least 50 million years.

  17. Detailed anatomy of the braincase of Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha) using high resolution tomography and new insights on basal crocodylomorph phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Diego; Clark, James Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 from the Late Jurassic Morrison Fm. of Wyoming was originally described as a dinosaur by Marsh and in 1971 Ostrom suggested crocodilian affinities. In 2005, Göhlich and collaborators identified new material of this species from Colorado as a basal crocodylomorph. However, a partial skull found in association with mandibular and postcranial remains was not described. Methods Due to the small size and delicate structures within the braincase, micro CT studies were performed on this specimen. The new anatomical information was incorporated in a phylogenetic dataset, expanding both character and taxon sampling. Results This new material reinforces the non-crocodyliform crocodylomorph affinities of Macelognathusas it bears a large otic aperture, unfused frontals and lacks ornamentation on the dorsal cranial bones. The internal structures also support these affinities as this specimen bears traits (i.e., heavily pneumatized and expanded basisphenoid; the presence of additional pneumatic features on the braincase; and the otoccipital-quadrate contact) not present in most basal crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, the presence of a wide supraoccipital and a cranioquadrate passage are traits shared with Almadasuchus from the early Late Jurassic of Argentina. Macelognathus was recovered as one of the closest relatives of crocodyliforms, forming a clade (Hallopodidae) with two other Late Jurassic taxa (Almadasuchus and Hallopus). Discussion The clade formed by Almadasuchus + Hallopus + Macelognathus, the Hallopodidae, is characterized by a higher degree of suturing of the braincase, posteriorly closed otic aperture (paralleled in mesoeucrocodylians) and cursorial adaptations. Also, the phylogenetic position of this lineage of derived crocodylomorphs as the sister group of Crocodyliformes implies a large amount of unsampled record (ghost lineage), at least 50 million years. PMID:28133565

  18. Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system in the southern North Sea basin: imprints of climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschers, F. S.; Kasse, C.; van Balen, R. T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Weerts, H. J. T.; Wallinga, J.; Johns, C.; Cleveringa, P.; Bunnik, F. P. M.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution continuous core material, geophysical measurements, and hundreds of archived core descriptions enabled to identify 13 Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sedimentary units in the infill of the southern part of the North Sea basin (the Netherlands, northwestern Europe). This sediment record and a large set of Optical Stimulated Luminescence dates, 14C dates and biostratigraphical data, allowed to establish detailed relationships between climate change, sea-level oscillation, glaciation history and the sedimentary development of the Rhine fluvial system during the last glacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 5e-2, Eemian-Weichselian). A well-preserved Eemian sediment record was encountered as the infill of a Late Saalian (MIS6) subglacial basin. Part of this record reflects groundwater rise controlled (fine-grained) sedimentation as a result of postglacial (early) Eemian sea-level rise. It shows strong analogy to developments known from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Outside of the glacial depressions near coastal deposits are only fragmentarily preserved. The Early Glacial Rhine sediment record is dominated by organic debris and peat layers, marking landscape stability and low fluvial activity. Part of this record may have been formed under near coastal conditions. Significant amounts of reworked marine biomarkers in the lag-deposits of Early Pleniglacial (MIS4) fluvial systems indicate that this period is characterized by extensive reworking of older (MIS5) near-coastal sediments. Despite the marked Early Pleniglacial climatic cooling, input of new sediment from the drainage basin was relatively low, a feature that is related to the presence of regolith protective relic soil complexes in the basin. During the early Middle Pleniglacial, a major Rhine avulsion indicates the system was in an aggrading mode and that sediment supply into the lower reaches of the Rhine had strongly increased. This increase in sediment supply coincided with the timing of major

  19. Prognostic Value of Basal Serum Thyroglobulin Levels, but Not Basal Antithyroglobulin Antibody (TgAb Levels, in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Neshandar Asli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prognostic values of serum thyroglobulin (Tg and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb levels, measured immediately before I-131remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, have been advocated by some researchers; however, it had controversial outcomes. This study was carried out to examine this dilemma and to check the clinical significance of basal serum Tg and TgAb levels and postablation iodine 131whole body scan(WBS findings in DTC patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of 500 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, who had undergone treatment between 2003 and 2010, were assessed. Of those, 149 patients with results of basal serum thyroglobulin concentration and whole body scan using radioactive iodine were included. Age, sex, tumour histology, basal thyroglobulin (Tg, anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb and TSH concentration, radioactive iodine doses in each hospitalization, numbers of hospitalization, and results of whole body scans were recorded. The relationship among basal Tg, TgAb, TSH, and whole body scan with hospitalization number and total radioactive iodine doses were assessed. Results: A total of 149 patients, including 123 (83% females and 26 (17% males, with a mean age of 40±15 years, took part in the study. The mean (SD basal Tg, TgAb, and TSH were 91.7±169.2 ng/mL (0.1-1000 ng/mL, 250±893 U/mL (0-9000 U/m L, and 64.8±61.5 µU/mL (30-689 U/mLµ, respectively. A total of 52 (34.9% cases had TgAb levels greater than 100 U/mL. The mean basal Tg in patients who were admitted three or more times was significantly greater than that of patients with one hospitalization (p=0.026. In addition, the mean of Tg in patients who received 7.4 GBq radioactive iodine or less was significantly lower than the others (p=0.003. The mean of TgAb and TSH were not different between these groups. In the results of the whole body scans, patients with metastasis had higher frequency of

  20. Characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yating Kong; Xifeng Pan; Qimei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce the characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions.DATA SOURCES: Articles related to stroke, subcortical aphasia, basal ganglia aphasia and language rehabilitation published in Chinese from January 1988 to December 2005 were searched in Chinese journal full-text database (CJFD) using the keywords of"stroke, basal ganglia aphasia, language rehabilitation" in Chinese. Meanwhile, English articles about aphasia published from January 1982 to December 2005 were searched in and Pubmed database. Besides, several books associated with the contents were looked through manually.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, the articles about the pathomechanism and neurolinguistic characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, diagnostic methods of aphasia and language rehabilitation were selected, and those had no obvious relation with the above contents were excluded.Inclusive criteria: literatures explain the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, neurolinguistic pathogenesis and methods of rehabilitation therapy in details. The repetitive studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 95 literatures about basal ganglia aphasia were collected, including 31 about the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, 45 about its neurolinguistic pathogenesis, 5 about the evaluation and classification of aphasia, and 14 about its rehabilitation therapy. Thirty accorded with the inclusive criteria were used for review, and the other 65 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: Concisely introduced the definition, past investigation of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke, then dwelled on the multiplicity neurolinguistics characteristics. Aphasia evaluation was dependent upon clinical aphasic symptoms. The relationship between symptom and focus of infection was explored, and the mechanism of pathosis language behavior on basal ganglia aphasia patients was understood to provide consequence data that could

  1. Antibiotics in late clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Martens, Evan

    2017-06-01

    Most pharmaceutical companies have stopped or have severely limited investments to discover and develop new antibiotics to treat the increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria, because the return on investment has been mostly negative for antibiotics that received marketing approved in the last few decades. In contrast, a few small companies have taken on this challenge and are developing new antibiotics. This review describes those antibiotics in late-stage clinical development. Most of them belong to existing antibiotic classes and a few with a narrow spectrum of activity are novel compounds directed against novel targets. The reasons for some of the past failures to find new molecules and a path forward to help attract investments to fund discovery of new antibiotics are described. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Late hemorrhagic disease of newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, I E; Rao, S D Subba

    2003-03-01

    The clinical features of 14 infants diagnosed with late hemorrhagic disease of newborn (LHDN), of which 10 did not receive vitamin K prophylaxis, are presented. All infants were exclusively breast-fed and 12 did not have any underlying illness to explain the abnormal coagulation profile. The common presenting symptoms were seizures (71%), vomiting (57%), poor feeding (50%) and altered sensorium (36%). Physical examination shared pallor in all infants and a bulging anterior fontanel in 64%. Intracranial bleed was the predominant manifestation (93%), with CT scan showing intracranial bleed in 78%. Eight infants (57%) succumbed to their illness, while 36%had neurological sequelae. Since LHDN leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it should be prevented by providing vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns.

  3. Streptococcosis in seabass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanman, C.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus sp. isolated from infected seabass (Lates calcarifer can grow on medium at pH 9.6 and salinity 0 ppt. The lethal dose where the mortality is 50 percent (LD50 was 1.937×103 CFU/ml after 14 days. Diseased fish showed dark body coloration, erratic swimming, exophthalmia, dropsy, pale liver, splenomegaly and hemorrhage in the brain. Blood parameters i.e. haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and red blood cell of infected fish were decreased, while white blood cells were increased. Histopathological changes in diseased seabass were necrosis, vacuolization and granuloma of the liver, increased number of melanomacrophage in liver and spleen, shrinkage of glomerulus in kidneys, inflammation and necrosis of the spleen and heart, hyperplasia and telangiectasis of the gill, while vacuolization and capsulation of the exophthalmic eyes were observed.

  4. Late onset hereditary episodic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, M; Riant, F; Boukobza, M; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Bousser, M-G; Vahedi, K

    2009-05-01

    Episodic ataxias (EA) are hereditary paroxysmal neurological diseases with considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. So far seven loci have been reported and four different genes have been identified. Analysis of additional sporadic or familial cases is needed to better delineate the clinical and genetic spectrum of EA. A two generation French family with late onset episodic ataxia was examined. All consenting family members had a brain MRI with volumetric analysis of the cerebellum. Haplotype analysis was performed for the EA2 locus (19p13), the EA5 locus (2q22), the EA6 locus (5p13) and the EA7 locus (19q13). Mutation screening was performed for all exons of CACNA1A (EA2), EAAT1 (EA6) and the coding sequence of KCNA1 (EA1). Four family members had episodic ataxia with onset between 48 and 56 years of age but with heterogeneity in the severity and duration of symptoms. The two most severely affected had daily attacks of EA with a slowly progressive and disabling permanent cerebellar ataxia and a poor response to acetazolamide. Brain MRI showed in three affected members a decrease in the ratio of cerebellar volume:total intracranial volume, indicating cerebellar atrophy. No deleterious mutation was found in CACNA1A, SCA6, EAAT1 or KCNA1. In addition, the EA5 locus was excluded. A new phenotype of episodic ataxia has been described, characterised clinically by a late onset and progressive permanent cerebellar signs, and genetically by exclusion of the genes so far identified in EA.

  5. HBV genotypes prevalence, precore and basal core mutants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baha, Warda; Ennaji, My Mustapha; Lazar, Fatiha; Melloul, Marouane; El Fahime, Elmostafa; El Malki, Abdelouahad; Bennani, Abdelouaheb

    2012-08-01

    The study of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomic heterogeneity has become a major issue in investigations aimed at understanding the relationship between HBV mutants and the wide spectrum of clinical and pathological conditions associated with HBV infection. The objective of the current study was to find out the pattern of HBV genotypes circulating in Morocco and to investigate the precore (PC) and basal core promoter (BCP) mutants' status in Moroccan chronic hepatitis B patients. Viral genotypes were determined in 221 chronic carriers using INNO-LiPA HBV assay and hemi-nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed in 70 samples, and multiplex PCR method was used to confirm some genotyping results. PC and CP mutants were determined using Inno-Lipa. All isolates were successfully genotyped. The genotype distribution was D in 90.45% of cases, A (5.9%), E (1 case), and mixed genotypes (5 A/D and 2 D/F) in 3.17% patients. HBV carried in the HBV/D samples could be assigned to D7 (63.3%), D1 (32.7%) and 2% of strains to each D4 and D5, all HBV/A belonged to A2 subgenotype and HBV/E strain could not be sub-genotyped. In 70 studied strains, HBV mutants were detected in 88.6% of cases; PC mutants were detected in (40%) of patients and 21.5% present a mixture of wild type and G1896A mutation. BCP mutants were observed in 65.7% of cases, 22.9% were found to have the T1762/1764A double mutation, 18.6% had A1762/1764T mutation and 22.9% of patients showed the A1762T/G1764A double mutation with either A1762T/G1764T mutation. Co-infection by PC and BCP mutants was detected in 52.9% of cases. Movement from place to place most likely shapes the observed genotype distribution and consequent prevalence of genotypes other than A2 or D7 in this population. High circulation of PC and BCP mutants is common in chronic hepatitis B infection in Morocco.

  6. Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere by Basal Magma Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, V. M.; Cardoso, R. R.; Alexandrino, C. H.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal models of the lithosphere proposed to date have failed to provide satisfactory accounts of some of the important features in large-scale variations of ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow. The systematic difference between model calculations and observational data have given rise to the so-called “oceanic heat flow paradox”, for which no satisfactory solution has been found for over the last forty years. In the present work, we point out that this paradox is a consequence of the assumption that lateral temperature variations are absent in the sub-lithospheric mantle. In the present work we propose a simple magma accretion model and examine its implications for understanding the thermal field of oceanic lithosphere. The new model (designated VBA) assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, similar in character to those observed in magma solidification processes in the upper crust. However, unlike the previous thermal models of the lithosphere, the ratio of advection to conduction heat transfer (the Peclet number) is considered a space dependent variable. The solution to the problem of variable basal heat input has been obtained by the method of integral transform. The results of VBA model simulations reveal that the thickness of the young lithosphere increases with distance from the ridge axis, at rates faster than those predicted by Half-Space Cooling and Plate models. Another noteworthy feature of the new model is its ability to account for the main observational features in the thermal behavior of both young and old oceanic lithosphere. Thus, heat flow and bathymetry variations calculated on the basis of the VBA model provide vastly improved fits to respective observational datasets. More importantly, the improved fits to bathymetry and heat flow have been achieved for the entire age range of oceanic lithosphere and without the need to invoke

  7. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  8. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  9. [Basal cell carcinoma of prostate: a report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Ma, L L; Zhang, S D; Lu, M; Tian, Y; He, Q; Jin, J

    2016-02-18

    To explore the clinical pathological characteristics and improve the recognition in the diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of prostate. Three cases of BCC of prostate were reported and the relevant literature was reviewed to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. We analyzed three cases of prostatic BCC. Their ages were within a range of 57 to 83 years. One of them complained of hematuria and two complained of dysuria. All of them presented with prostatic hyperplasia. Two of them presented with high prostate specific antigen (PSA) and one with normal PSA. Case 1 had prostate cancer invasion of bladder, rectal fascia, with lymph node metastasis, bone metastasis and lung metastases. The patient received bladder resection+bilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy+lymph node dissection on November 2, 2014 . Postoperative pathological diagnosis showed BCC. Reexamination of pelvic enhanced MRI in January 8, 2015 suggested pelvic recurrence. Abdominal enhanced CT showed multiple liver metastases and pancreatic metastasis on July 11, 2015. Prostate cancer specific death occurred in October 2015. Case 2 was diagnosed as BCC in prostate biopsy on March 27, 2015. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) showed pulmonary metastasis and bone metastasis. Then the patient received chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and local radiation therapy. Reexamination of PET-CT on January 11, 2016 showed that the lung metastase tumors and bone metastase tumors were larger than before. Up to January 10, 2016, the patient was still alive. Postoperative pathological changes of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in case 3 showed BCC might be considered. The PET-CT suggested residual prostate cancer, which might be associated with bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. In April 20, 2016, the review of PET-CT showed pelvic huge irregular hybrid density shadow, about 14.5 cm×10.0 cm×12.9 cm in size, and tumor recurrence was

  10. COMPROMISO DE GANGLIOS BASALES EN DENGUE HEMORRÁGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Cortés Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available

    El dengue es una infección viral sistémica transmitida a los humanos por la hembra del mosquito Aedes aegypti. Alrededor del 10% de los pacientes con dengue pueden presentar alteraciones neurológicas durante o después de la infección. Existen unos signos conocidos como signos de alarma, los cuales, asociados al antecedente epidemiológico (procedencia de zona endémica, pueden ayudar a sospechar la infección. A continuación, se presentan algunas generalidades sobre el virus, las formas clínicas, las complicaciones y el análisis de una revisión sistemática de 65 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de dengue o dengue hemorrágico. A partir de ellos, se encontró que se evidenciaron signos y síntomas neurológicos en 4 de los 39 casos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Esta revisión permitió detectar un caso de hemorragia en la cabeza del núcleo caudado, asociada a la trombocitopenia marcada, inducida por el virus del dengue.

    BASAL GANGLIA INVOLVEMENT IN DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (DHF

    ABSTRACT

    Dengue fever is a systemic viral infection transmitted to humans by the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. About 10% of patients with dengue fever may develop neurological disorders during or after infection. There are some signs known as warning signs, which, associated to the epidemiological background (origin of endemic area, may help to suspect the infection in those patients from endemic areas. Here are some generalities of the virus, its clinical forms, complications and the analysis of a systematic review of 65 clinical records of patients diagnosed with dengue and / or dengue hemorrhagic fever. From these patients, it was found that neurological signs and symptoms were evident in 4 of the 39 cases that fulfilled inclusion criteria. This review allowed to detect a case of hemorrhage in the head of the Caudate Nucleus associated with thrombocytopenia, induced by

  11. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92% to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%. Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However

  12. Internalization and localization of basal insulin peglispro in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Julie S; Volk, Catherine B; Cao, Julia X C; Zhang, Chen; Ding, Liyun; Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Michael, M Dodson

    2017-10-15

    Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) is a novel, PEGylated insulin lispro that has a large hydrodynamic size compared with insulin lispro. It has a prolonged duration of action, which is related to a delay in insulin absorption and a reduction in clearance. Given the different physical properties of BIL compared with native insulin and insulin lispro, it is important to assess the cellular internalization characteristics of the molecule. Using immunofluorescent confocal imaging, we compared the cellular internalization and localization patterns of BIL, biosynthetic human insulin, and insulin lispro. We assessed the effects of BIL on internalization of the insulin receptor (IR) and studied cellular clearance of BIL. Co-localization studies using antibodies to either insulin or PEG, and the early endosomal marker EEA1 showed that the overall internalization and subcellular localization pattern of BIL was similar to that of human insulin and insulin lispro; all were rapidly internalized and co-localized with EEA1. During ligand washout for 4 h, concomitant loss of insulin, PEG methoxy group, and PEG backbone immunostaining was observed for BIL, similar to the loss of insulin immunostaining observed for insulin lispro and human insulin. Co-localization studies using an antibody to the lysosomal marker LAMP1 did not reveal evidence of lysosomal localization for insulin lispro, human insulin, BIL, or PEG using either insulin or PEG immunostaining reagents. BIL and human insulin both induced rapid phosphorylation and internalization of human IR. Our findings show that treatment of cells with BIL stimulates internalization and localization of IR to early endosomes. Both the insulin and PEG moieties of BIL undergo a dynamic cellular process of rapid internalization and transport to early endosomes followed by loss of cellular immunostaining in a manner similar to that of insulin lispro and human insulin. The rate of clearance for the insulin lispro portion of BIL was slower than

  13. Myogenesis in the basal bilaterian Symsagittifera roscoffensis (Acoela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninger Andreas

    2008-09-01

    , Symsagittifera roscoffensis shows a very complex musculature. Although data on presumably basal acoel clades are still scarce, the information currently available suggests an elaborated musculature with longitudinal, circular and U-shaped muscles as being part of the ancestral acoel bodyplan, thus increasing the possibility that Urbilateria likewise had a relatively complicated muscular ground pattern.

  14. Are the basal cells of the mammalian epididymis still an enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, S

    2014-10-01

    Basal cells are present in the columnar pseudostratified epithelium covering the epididymis of all mammalian species, which regulates the microenvironment where the functionally incompetent germ cells produced by the testis are matured and stored. Striking novelties have come from investigations on epididymal basal cells in the past 30-40 years. In addition to an earlier hypothesised scavenger role for basal cells, linked to their proven extratubular origin and the expression of macrophage antigens, basal cells have been shown to be involved in cell-cell cross-talk, as well as functioning as luminal sensors to regulate the activity of principal and clear cells. Involvement of basal cells in the regulation of electrolyte and water transport by principal cells was hypothesised. This control is suggested to be mediated by the local formation of prostaglandins. Members of the aquaporin (AQP) and/or aquaglyceroporin family (AQP3, AQP7 and AQP8) are also specifically expressed in the rat epididymal basal cells. Transport of glycerol and glycerylphosphorylcholine from the epithelium of the epididymis to the lumen in relation to sperm maturation may be mediated by AQP. Most probably basal cells collaborate to the building up of the blood-epididymis barrier through cell adhesion molecules, implying an involvement in immune control exerted towards sperm cells, which are foreigners in the environment in which they were produced.

  15. Eight unique basal bodies in the multi-flagellated diplomonad Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInally, Shane G; Dawson, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasitic protist that causes significant acute and chronic diarrheal disease worldwide. Giardia belongs to the diplomonads, a group of protists in the supergroup Excavata. Diplomonads are characterized by eight motile flagella organized into four bilaterally symmetric pairs. Each of the eight Giardia axonemes has a long cytoplasmic region that extends from the centrally located basal body before exiting the cell body as a membrane-bound flagellum. Each basal body is thus unique in its cytological position and its association with different cytoskeletal features, including the ventral disc, axonemes, and extra-axonemal structures. Inheritance of these unique and complex cytoskeletal elements is maintained through basal body migration, duplication, maturation, and their subsequent association with specific spindle poles during cell division. Due to the complex composition and inheritance of specific basal bodies and their associated structures, Giardia may require novel basal body-associated proteins. Thus, protists such as Giardia may represent an undiscovered source of novel basal body-associated proteins. The development of new tools that make Giardia genetically tractable will enable the composition, structure, and function of the eight basal bodies to be more thoroughly explored.

  16. Reconstructing basal boundary conditions in a regional ice sheet model: Application to Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Maxwell, D. A.; Truffer, M.

    2012-04-01

    A crucial assumption in all ice sheet models concerns the nature and parametrization of the basal boundary condition. Direct observations on large spatial scales are not possible, but inverse methods can be used to determine the distribution of basal properties from surface measurements. We developed open-source iterative inverse algorithms and applied them to PISM, a hybrid ice sheet model that solves a combination of the Shallow Ice and Shallow Shelf Approximations. In a regional-scale model of Jakobshavn Isbræ, the fastest flowing ice stream of Greenland, we invert for basal stickiness over the entire drainage basin. The sensitivity of the reconstructed basal stickiness to the following modeling choices is evaluated: temperature distribution within the ice, definition of the misfit functional, tolerance for the stopping criterion and initial estimates of basal stickiness. The effects and the management of missing data are analyzed. In 2002 the floating tongue of Jakobshavn Isbræ disintegrated catastrophically, leading to increased speeds and rapid thinning of the inland ice. Detailed velocity maps from before and after this breakup allow us to compare retrieved basal parameters and to track the continuing evolution of the basal boundary condition.

  17. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the variation (98.8 % in basal rate of metabolism (BMR in 70 species of marsupials is correlated with body mass, although lowland species have higher basal rates than highland species and burrowers have lower basal rates than non-burrowers. These factors collectively account for 99.2 % of the variation in marsupial BMR. Marsupials differ in BMR from eutherians by having no species with a high basal rate by general mammalian standards, even when consuming vertebrates or grass, food habits that are associated with very high basal rates in eutherians. The absence of high basal rates in marsupials reflects the absence of a correlation of rate of reproduction with basal rate, a correlation present in eutherians. These differences have two consequences: (1 marsupials are less tolerant of cold environments than eutherians, and (2 marsupials coexist with eutherians only when both have food habits associated with low basal rates and therefore when eutherians have reduced rates of reproduction. In Australia and South America marsupial carnivores diversified in the absence of eutherian equivalents. The importation to mainland Australia of dingos by humans appears to have been the immediate cause for the extinction of thylacines, Tasmanian devils, and eastern quolls. Carnivorous marsupials in South America were replaced by eutherians with the completion of the Panamanian land bridge. Macropods, which have lower basal rates than eutherian grazers, survive in central Australia probably because of their adjustment to xeric environments, whereas introduced domestic stock require the provision of water by humansGran parte de la variación (98,5 en la tasa metabólica basal de 70 especies de marsupiales se correlaciona con la masa corporal, aunque las especies de tierras bajas tienes tasas basales mayores que las de tierras altas, y las especies subterráneas tienes BMR’s menores que las no subterráneas. Colectivamente, estos factores dan cuenta de un

  18. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  19. Inverting adherent cells for visualizing ECM interactions at the basal cell side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudzenko, Tetyana [DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1a, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Franz, Clemens M., E-mail: clemens.franz@kit.edu [DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1a, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) govern a wide range of cellular functions, including survival, migration and invasion. However, in adherent cells these interactions occur primarily on the basal cell side, making them inaccessible to high-resolution, surface-scanning imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Here we describe a fast and reliable method for inverting adherent cells, exposing the basal cell membrane for direct analysis by AFM or SEM in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Cells including their matrix adhesion sites remain intact during the inversion process and are transferred together with the complete array of basally associated ECM proteins. Molecular features of ECM proteins, such as the characteristic 67 nm collagen D-periodicity, are well preserved after inversion. To demonstrate the versatility of the method, we compared basal interactions of fibroblasts with fibrillar collagen I and fibronectin matrices. While fibroblasts remodel the fibronectin layer exclusively from above, they actively invade even thin collagen layers by contacting individual collagen nanofibrils both basally and apically through a network of cellular extensions. Cell–matrix entanglement coincides with enhanced cell spreading and flattening, indicating that nanoscale ECM interactions govern macroscopic changes in cell morphology. The presented cell inversion technique can thus provide novel insight into nanoscale cell–matrix interactions at the basal cell side. - Highlights: ► We present a novel method for inverting adherent cells to expose the basal cell side. ► Basal cell sides can be imaged at high resolution by AFM and SEM. ► Cells can be inverted together with the underlying extracellular matrix. ► AFM images of inverted cells provide a nanoscale look at basal cell–ECM interactions.

  20. Late Triassic - Early Jurassic successions of the Atuel depocenter: sequence stratigraphy and tectonic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lanés

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Biostratigraphic correlations of the Late Triassic - Early Jurassic successions of the Atuel depocenter allowed determining the accommodation changes and the possible tectonic controls on sedimentation. The Rhaetian - late Early Sinemurian deposits contain facies of slope-type fan deltas, braided fluvial systems and low sinuosity rivers with alternate bars deposited during a synrift phase. The late Early Sinemurian - Toarcian series host facies of intermediate (Gilbert to shelf type fan deltas, braided and low sinuosity fluvial systems, wave-dominated estuaries, transgressive storm-dominated and turbidite-influenced marine shelves which record the sag phase. According to different criteria two stratigraphic schemes are proposed, the first one considering tectosedimentary units (TSU and the second one using "Exxon-like" sequences. In the first scheme the synrift TSU matches the actual Precuyo Mesosequence and the sag TSU is partly equivalent to the Cuyo Mesosequence, mainly keeping the current mesosequence scheme for the Neuquén basin but assigning the fandeltaic deposits to the Precuyo Mesosequence. The second sequence scheme considers the whole Late Triassic - Early Jurassic succession as a part of the Cuyo Mesosequence, where the synrift deposits composes the detached lowstand system tract (LST and most of the sag deposits makes the transgressive system tract (TST. The basal sequence boundary does not crop out, the flooding surface at the TST base and the maximum flooding surface at the TST top are respectively marked by the lowest estuarine levels and by black shales with suboxic-compatible bivalves (Bositra sp..

  1. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Brasser, R; Werner, S C; Matsumura, S; Ida, S

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal (`rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is th...

  2. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    the available literature on the subject. Method A PRISMA style review and search was performed in late May 2014 and covered MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsychInfo. Inclusion was based on if the study had causes for late-onset AUD in their results section. This revealed 24 articles relevant for this study. After...... not increase the risk for late-onset AUD. However, the data was insufficient to give a reliable quantification of these associations. Discussion A common problem for the studies included (and the ones excluded as well) was the lack of common definitions of late-onset, “stress” and “traumatic life events...

  3. Basal buoyancy and fast-moving glaciers: in defense of analytic force balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric approach to force balance advocated by T. Hughes in a series of publications has challenged the analytic approach by implying that the latter does not adequately account for basal buoyancy on ice streams, thereby neglecting the contribution to the gravitational driving force associated with this basal buoyancy. Application of the geometric approach to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, yields physically unrealistic results, and it is argued that this is because of a key limiting assumption in the geometric approach. A more traditional analytic treatment of force balance shows that basal buoyancy does not affect the balance of forces on ice streams, except locally perhaps, through bridging effects.

  4. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and Pcontrols. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non-triple-negative tumours have similar vascular characteristics in terms of lymphatic vessel density and vascular invasion but higher microvessel density, suggesting that such groups may

  5. Basal cell carcinoma arising on a verrucous epidermal nevus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Analia; Aguinaga, Felipe; Marinho, Flauberto; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of basal cell carcinoma that appeared from an epidermal verrucous nevus in a 61-year-old patient. The onset of basal cell carcinoma in sebaceous nevi, basal cell nevi and dysplastic nevi is relatively common, but it is rarely associated with epidermal verrucous nevi. There is no consensus on whether the two lesions have a common cellular origin or whether they merely represent a collision of two distinct tumors. Since this association - as with other malignant tumors - is rare, there is no need for prophylactic removal of epidermal verrucous nevi.

  6. Mechanisms and efficacy of vismodegib in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shivan H; Motamedi, Kevin K; Ochsner, Matthew C; Song, Tara E; Hybarger, C Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Historically patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma have been subjected to large surgical resections for the treatment of their disease. However, with the development of vismodegib, a first in class molecule that acts to inhibit the hedgehog pathway, patients with advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma may have renewed hope in limiting the morbidity involved with surgery. Preliminary data shows a relatively good safety profile and promising results, although further research remains to be conducted. Current progress on utilization of vismodegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma is reviewed in this article. Only literature with objective clinical evidence was included in this review.

  7. Methylphenidate exposure induces dopamine neuron loss and activation of microglia in the basal ganglia of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sadasivan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH is a psychostimulant that exerts its pharmacological effects via preferential blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT and the norepinephrine transporter (NET, resulting in increased monoamine levels in the synapse. Clinically, methylphenidate is prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy; although lately, there has been an increased incidence of its use in individuals not meeting the criteria for these disorders. MPH has also been misused as a "cognitive enhancer" and as an alternative to other psychostimulants. Here, we investigate whether chronic or acute administration of MPH in mice at either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, affects cell number and gene expression in the basal ganglia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through the use of stereological counting methods, we observed a significant reduction (∼20% in dopamine neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc following chronic administration of 10 mg/kg MPH. This dosage of MPH also induced a significant increase in the number of activated microglia in the SNpc. Additionally, exposure to either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg MPH increased the sensitivity of SNpc dopaminergic neurons to the parkinsonian agent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. Unbiased gene screening employing Affymetrix GeneChip® HT MG-430 PM revealed changes in 115 and 54 genes in the substantia nigra (SN of mice exposed to 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPH doses, respectively. Decreases in the mRNA levels of gdnf, dat1, vmat2, and th in the substantia nigra (SN were observed with both acute and chronic dosing of 10 mg/kg MPH. We also found an increase in mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory genes il-6 and tnf-α in the striatum, although these were seen only at an acute dose of 10 mg/kg and not following chronic dosing. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggest that chronic MPH usage in mice at doses spanning the therapeutic range in humans, especially at

  8. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health : Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to in

  9. Rapid Assessment for basal cavities on Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge: Implications for Present and Future Bat Conservation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey of mature forested areas on the refuge was done to examine trees with basal cavities for bats. Though the refuge supports many large diameter trees with basal...

  10. An Integrated Assessment of Basal Scattering and Topographic Roughness Information Derived from Greenland Radar-Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet-chaulet, F.; Jordan, T.; Cooper, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Schroeder, D. M.; Williams, C.; Paden, J. D.; Siegert, M. J.; Huybrechts, P.; Gagliardini, O.; Price, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the basal roughness of ice sheets is important for understanding and constraining the role of basal traction on ice dynamics. Numerical model simulations demonstrate high sensitivity to the parametrisation of the lower boundary condition, which is governed by both basal roughness and the thermal state of the bed. In terms of ice dynamics history, basal roughness can reveal aspects of past behaviour as well as provide insight towards more recent flow distribution of marine sediments. Basal roughness information, defined here in general terms as the irregularity of the basal interface relative to a reference surface, can be obtained from radar-sounding data in two physically different ways. Firstly, via the statistical properties of along-track topography (e.g. from spectral analysis); and secondly via the electromagnetic scattering properties of the radar pulse (e.g. by quantifying the spread of the distribution of scattered energy). In general, the basal roughness of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been little studied, and the vast increase in recent Operation Ice Bridge radar-sounding data presents an opportunity for comprehensive, quantitative ice-sheet-wide analysis. Here we present a synthesis of basal scattering and topographic based roughness information for the Greenland Ice Sheet, along with a comparison to present day numerical model output including ice velocity, basal traction, and basal temperature. One central topic which we address is the scale dependence of basal roughness information that is inferred from both analysis methods, and the relationship with basal sliding physics. Consideration of scale is important since basal sliding is primarily controlled by higher frequency roughness. The other topic that we consider is identifying whether there are any defined and unambiguous roughness characteristics in regions where there is suspected to be a thawed basal interface. An overall goal of this work is to integrate basal roughness information

  11. Basal-like phenotype is not associated with patient survival in estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Jumppanen, Mervi; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia; Kauraniemi, Päivikki; Tanner, Minna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lundin, Mikael; Krogh, Morten; Kataja, Pasi; Borg, Åke; Fernö, Mårten; Isola, Jorma

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Basal-phenotype or basal-like breast cancers are characterized by basal epithelium cytokeratin (CK5/14/17) expression, negative estrogen receptor (ER) status and distinct gene expression signature. We studied the clinical and biological features of the basal-phenotype tumors determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cDNA microarrays especially within the ER-negative subgroup. Methods IHC was used to evaluate the CK5/14 status of 445 stage II breast cancers. The gene expression...

  12. An ancestral turtle from the Late Triassic of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Rieppel, Olivier; Wang, Li-Ting; Zhao, Li-Jun

    2008-11-27

    The origin of the turtle body plan remains one of the great mysteries of reptile evolution. The anatomy of turtles is highly derived, which renders it difficult to establish the relationships of turtles with other groups of reptiles. The oldest known turtle, Proganochelys from the Late Triassic period of Germany, has a fully formed shell and offers no clue as to its origin. Here we describe a new 220-million-year-old turtle from China, somewhat older than Proganochelys, that documents an intermediate step in the evolution of the shell and associated structures. A ventral plastron is fully developed, but the dorsal carapace consists of neural plates only. The dorsal ribs are expanded, and osteoderms are absent. The new species shows that the plastron evolved before the carapace and that the first step of carapace formation is the ossification of the neural plates coupled with a broadening of the ribs. This corresponds to early embryonic stages of carapace formation in extant turtles, and shows that the turtle shell is not derived from a fusion of osteoderms. Phylogenetic analysis places the new species basal to all known turtles, fossil and extant. The marine deposits that yielded the fossils indicate that this primitive turtle inhabited marginal areas of the sea or river deltas.

  13. Severe Anaemia during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahenaz Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in pregnancy, it occurs in 10–28% of uncomplicated pregnancies, and is associated with a few complications. We present a case report of a 21-year-old patient with severe anaemia during late pregnancy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. At 38 weeks gestation and with a BMI of 48.9, a history of rupture of membranes was given but not confirmed. On examination, she appeared pale and therefore full blood counts were done. Interestingly her haemoglobin (Hb levels were 3.7 g/dL. Folate and vitamin B12 levels were also found to be low, and the diagnosis of anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency was made. After treatment with vitamin B12 injections, folic acid and blood transfusions, the patient’s haemoglobin levels improved from 3.7 g/dL to 10.7 g/dL. The conclusion is that effective history taking, diagnosis, and management can prevent many complications that are usually associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  14. Late complications of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Norie [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  15. Cytokine effects on the basal ganglia and dopamine function: the subcortical source of inflammatory malaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Jennifer C; Miller, Andrew H

    2012-08-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marlene Botha

    2017-06-06

    Jun 6, 2017 ... basal metabolic rate (BMR) scaling exponent of c = 0.82, and white muscle is ..... Table 3 Metabolic rate exponents (bd) predicted from the product of visceral mass (d) and maximum ..... There are no conflicts of interest.

  17. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  18. Basal Cell Carcinomas in Gorlin Syndrome: A Review of 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome (Naevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the PTCH gene with a birth incidence of approximately 1 in 19,000. Patients develop multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin frequently in early life and also have a predisposition to additional malignancies such as medulloblastoma. Gorlin Syndrome patients also have developmental defects such as bifid ribs and other complications such as jaw keratocysts. We studied the incidence and frequency of basal cell carcinomas in 202 Gorlin syndrome patients from 62 families and compared this to their gender and mutation type. Our data suggests that the incidence of basal cell carcinomas is equal between males and females and the mutation type cannot be used to predict disease burden.

  19. Endoscopic considerations treating hydrocephalus caused by basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Roth

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Endoscopic surgery may potentially play a significant role in the initial management of patients with large basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Technical nuances and individualized goals are crucial for optimal outcomes.

  20. Altitude of the top of the basal confining unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the basal confining unit in the Powder River basin. The data are...

  1. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  2. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  4. Triple negative breast carcinomas: similarities and differences with basal like carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agusti; Prat, Jaime

    2009-12-01

    The cDNA microarrays allows the classification of breast cancers into 6 groups: luminal A, luminal B, luminal C, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, and basal-like. This latter is characterized by the expression of basal cytokeratins (CKs), and frequent negativity for hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. There is a marked parallelism between triple negative breast carcinomas and basal-like carcinoma, but these are not equivalent terms. Estimated concordance is around 80%. CK5 seems to be the best marker for the identification of these tumors. Other good markers to identify these tumors are CK14, CK17, and epidermal growth factor receptor. A subset of triple negative breast carcinomas has myoepithelial differentiation, with positivities for smooth muscle actin, p63, S-100, and CD10 among others. Recent studies suggest that basal like carcinomas are originated from mammary stem cells.

  5. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  6. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basal cell nevus syndrome. For example, the drug vismodegib (Erivedge) has been shown to lower the number ... do, these cancers can be hard to treat. Vismodegib and sonidegib, drugs that target the hedgehog signaling ...

  7. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  8. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  9. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  10. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J H; Doyle, D.; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of haematoma. Intracranial haematoma is usually thought to be a secondary event, that is a complication of the ori...

  11. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy...

  12. The Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus as a Motor and Cognitive Interface between the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Fumika Mori; Ken-ichi Okada; Taishin Nomura; Yasushi Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control ...

  13. The Basal Ganglia as a Substrate for the Multiple Actions of Amphetamines

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Reka; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs with high abuse potential. Acute and chronic doses of amphetamines affect dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei that are anatomically positioned to integrate cognitive, motor and sensorimotor inputs from the cortex. Amphetamines can differentially alter the functioning of specific BG circuits to produce neurochemical changes that affect cognition, movement, and drug seeking behavior thro...

  14. Urticaria after methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher M; Green, W Harris; Hatfield, H Keith; Cognetta, Armand B

    2012-11-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is utilized in several countries for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, but allergic sensitization has been reported by the manufacturer. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of urticaria following MAL-PDT in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Prophylactic use of antihistamines may allow continued use of MAL-PDT in this setting.

  15. Changes in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Okuchi, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka Police Hospital (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Sakaki, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Hiramatsu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Tominaga, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Kamada, Y. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Iwasaki, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    We report specific changes bilaterally in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia. A 69-year-old man, resuscitated after cardiac arrest, showed symmetrical low-density lesions in the head of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus on CT. MRI revealed methaemoglobin derived from minor haemorrhage in the basal ganglia and thalamus, not evident on CT. We suggest that this haemorrhage results from diapedesis of red blood cells through the damaged capillary endothelium following reperfusion. (orig.)

  16. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  17. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Wenjun Huang; Zhineng Li; Haiyan Lv; Hongwen Huang; Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    The Crabs Claw (CRC) YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and character...

  18. Successful imiquimod treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Mirjam; Urosevic, Mirjana; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Dummer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who developed five basal cell carcinomas 23 years after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease. In 1980 he received radiation therapy twice. Due to relapses, he was treated with aggressive polychemotherapy and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, which then led to complete remission. Until now he is in complete remission. However, multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas have developed on irradiation fields that have been successfully treated by imiquimod.

  19. Rationale supporting basal insulin-incretin combined therapies in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by an insulin secretory defect that cannot compensate for insulin resistance. Such relative defect is present in the fasting state (insufficient basal insulin levels) and contributes to overnight hyperglycaemia; it is even more pronounced in the postprandial state when it is then the main responsible factor for hyperglycaemia following meals. An original approach to correct these two disturbances is to propose a therapy combining the injection of a basal insul...

  20. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  1. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  2. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  3. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  4. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an extension of credit to a consumer in or...

  5. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  6. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payment charge of 5 percent on the unpaid balance on any handler whose assessment has not been received in... rate of 11/2 percent per month shall be applied to the unpaid balance and late payment charge for the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141...

  7. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  8. Are we ready to predict late effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salz, Talya; Baxi, Shrujal S; Raghunathan, Nirupa;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After completing treatment for cancer, survivors may experience late effects: consequences of treatment that persist or arise after a latent period. PURPOSE: To identify and describe all models that predict the risk of late effects and could be used in clinical practice. DATA SOURCES:...

  9. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

  10. Combining basal insulin analogs with glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Riccardo

    2011-09-01

    Basal insulin analogs are recognized as an effective method of achieving and maintaining glycemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the progressive nature of the disease means that some individuals may require additional ways to maintain their glycemic goals. Intensification in these circumstances has traditionally been achieved by the addition of short-acting insulin to cover postprandial glucose excursions that are not targeted by basal insulin. However, intensive insulin regimens are associated with a higher risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain, which can contribute to a greater burden on patients. The combination of basal insulin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic is a potentially attractive solution to this problem for some patients with type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 mimetics target postprandial glucose and should complement the activity of basal insulins; they are also associated with a relatively low risk of associated hypoglycemia and moderate, but significant, weight loss. Although the combination has not been approved by regulatory authorities, preliminary evidence from mostly small-scale studies suggests that basal insulins in combination with GLP-1 mimetics do provide improvements in A1c and postprandial glucose with concomitant weight loss and no marked increase in the risk of hypoglycemia. These results are promising, but further studies are required, including comparisons with basal-bolus therapy, before the complex value of this association can be fully appreciated.

  11. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Catania, Ginny A.; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.; Paden, John D.; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state. PMID:28163988

  12. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Dissociating hippocampal and basal ganglia contributions to category learning using stimulus novelty and subjective judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Dennison, Christina S; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Peterson, Erik J; Roark, Aubrey A

    2011-04-15

    We identified factors leading to hippocampal and basal ganglia recruitment during categorization learning. Subjects alternated between blocks of a standard trial and error category learning task and a subjective judgment task. In the subjective judgments task subjects categorized the stimulus and then instead of receiving feedback they indicated the basis of their response using 4 options: Remember: Conscious episodic memory of previous trials. Know-Automatic: Automatic, rapid response accompanied by conscious awareness of category membership. Know-Intuition: A "gut feeling" without fully conscious knowledge of category membership. Guess: Guessing. In addition, new stimuli were introduced throughout the experiment to examine effects of novelty. Categorization overall recruited both the basal ganglia and posterior hippocampus. However, basal ganglia activity was found during Know judgments (both Automatic and Intuition), whereas posterior hippocampus activity was found during Remember judgments. Granger causality mapping indicated interactions between the basal ganglia and hippocampus, with the putamen exerting directed influence on the posterior hippocampus, which in turn exerted directed influence on the posterior caudate nucleus. We also found a region of anterior hippocampus that showed decreased activity relative to baseline during categorization overall, and showed a strong novelty effect. Our results indicate that subjective measures may be effective in dissociating basal ganglia from hippocampal dependent learning, and that the basal ganglia are involved in both conscious and unconscious learning. They also indicate a dissociation within the hippocampus, in which the anterior regions are sensitive to novelty, and the posterior regions are involved in memory based categorization learning.

  14. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior.

  15. Bax/bcl-2: cellular modulator of apoptosis in feline skin and basal cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, B R; Gandour-Edwards, R; Edwards, B F; Matthews, K R; Griffey, S M

    2001-01-01

    Bcl-2 and bax are two members of the BCL-2 gene family that play a prominent role in the regulation of apoptosis. Bax and bcl-2 expression were examined immunohistochemically in normal (healthy) feline skin and in 24 benign feline cutaneous basal cell tumours. The tumours were also examined for cellular proliferation by measurement of reactivity for the proliferation marker Ki-67, and for apoptosis by in-situ labelling for fragmented DNA. Bcl-2 was detected in normal basal epithelium and in 23 of 24 basal cell tumours. Bax was detected in both basal and suprabasal epithelium, but in only seven of 24 tumours. For tumours that expressed both bax and bcl-2, the bax:bcl-2 ratio was low. Neither bax nor bcl-2 expression was detected in 14 feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. Basal cell tumours showed modest cellular proliferation (median, 17.5% Ki-67- reactive cells), but few (less than 1%) apoptotic cells. The slow, indolent growth of feline cutaneous basal cells in these benign skin tumours may be a response, at least in part, to opposing regulatory expressions of bcl-2 and bax.

  16. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD. In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease.

  17. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, Prasad S.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M .J.; Paden, John D; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state.

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks.

  19. The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A

    2009-07-01

    Perception of musical rhythms is culturally universal. Despite this special status, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of rhythm perception, particularly with respect to beat processing. Findings are presented here from a series of studies that have specifically examined the neural basis of beat perception, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studying patients with Parkinson's disease. fMRI data indicate that novel beat-based sequences robustly activate the basal ganglia when compared to irregular, nonbeat sequences. Furthermore, although most healthy participants find it much easier to discriminate changes in beat-based sequences compared to irregular sequences, Parkinson's disease patients fail to show the same degree of benefit. Taken together, these data suggest that the basal ganglia are performing a crucial function in beat processing. The results of an additional fMRI study indicate that the role of the basal ganglia is strongly linked to internal generation of the beat. Basal ganglia activity is greater when participants listen to rhythms in which internal generation of the beat is required, as opposed to rhythms with strongly externally cued beats. Functional connectivity between part of the basal ganglia (the putamen) and cortical motor areas (premotor and supplementary motor areas) is also higher during perception of beat rhythms compared to nonbeat rhythms. Increased connectivity between cortical motor and auditory areas is found in those with musical training. The findings from these converging methods strongly implicate the basal ganglia in processing a regular beat, particularly when internal generation of the beat is required.

  20. Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mice disrupt idiothetic navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Hamlin

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer's disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic or uncued (idiothetic recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze, and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Direct visualization of spruce budworm antifreeze protein interacting with ice crystals: basal plane affinity confers hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertaya, Natalya; Marshall, Christopher B; Celik, Yeliz; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2008-07-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect certain organisms from freezing by adhering to ice crystals, thereby preventing their growth. All AFPs depress the nonequilibrium freezing temperature below the melting point; however AFPs from overwintering insects, such as the spruce budworm (sbw) are 10-100 times more effective than most fish AFPs. It has been proposed that the exceptional activity of these AFPs depends on their ability to prevent ice growth at the basal plane. To test the hypothesis that the hyperactivity of sbwAFP results from direct affinity to the basal plane, we fluorescently tagged sbwAFP and visualized it on the surface of ice crystals using fluorescence microscopy. SbwAFP accumulated at the six prism plane corners and the two basal planes of hexagonal ice crystals. In contrast, fluorescently tagged fish type III AFP did not adhere to the basal planes of a single-crystal ice hemisphere. When ice crystals were grown in the presence of a mixture of type III AFP and sbwAFP, a hybrid crystal shape was produced with sbwAFP bound to the basal planes of truncated bipyramidal crystals. These observations are consistent with the blockage of c-axial growth of ice as a result of direct interaction of sbwAFP with the basal planes.

  2. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  3. Late Pleistocene-Holocene earthquake-induced slumps and soft-sediment deformation structures in the Acequion River valley, Central Precordillera, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perucca Laura P

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the Acequión river valley, central western Argentina, is analysed. Well-preserved soft-sediment deformation structures are present in Late Pleistocene deposits; they include two large slumps and several sand dikes, convolutions, pseudonodules, faults, dish structures and diapirs in the basal part of a shallow-lacustrine succession in the El Acequión River area. The water-saturated state of these sediments favoured deformation.

  4. Persistent and Pervasive Basal Freeze-on: Implications for the Preservation of the Oldest Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Braaten, D. A.; Corr, H. F.; Creyts, T. T.; Das, I.; Frearson, N.; Jordan, T. A.; Studinger, M.; Wolovick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate records from ice cores are based on the assumption that the stratigraphy is relatively simple and that the ice at the bottom of the ice sheet is undisturbed. The search for the oldest ice has targeted low accumulation areas such as Dome A and deep basins such as the Aurora Basin. The preservation of old ice will be significantly altered if there is widespread freeze-on at the base of the ice sheet. Previous evidence for basal freeze-on from the interior of major ice sheets has been limited to the thin layers of sediment-laden ice at the base of deep ice cores and the accretion ice from Lake Vostok. Here we present the first evidence for widespread freeze-on to the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet from data collected by a seven nation International Polar Year Expedition to Dome A. In the extensive radar data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, we have identified distinct near-bed reflectors in the generally homogenous basal ice. The near-bed reflectors originate at the ice sheet bed coincident with flat, bright reflectors, sites associated with basal water. We interpret these near-bed reflectors as the interface between meteoric ice and ice frozen onto the base of the ice sheet. These frozen-on reflectors can be traced up to 100 km along flow. The thickness of the frozen-on basal ice reaches a maximum of 1100m that, in this case, represents 10-20% of the ice thickness along flowlines. In some sites, the frozen-on ice deflects the overlying meteoric ice upward 100's of meters indicating the ice accretion process influences the entire overlying ice sheet. The process of basal freeze-on beneath large ice sheets is likely persistent and pervasive. We infer that a significant fraction of the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet contains frozen-on ice and the process of widespread accretion must be considered in the search for the oldest ice. For example, the upper 70m thick accretion ice (accretion ice 1) from the Vostok ice core may be the result

  5. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  6. Geochemistry and tectonostratigraphy of the basal allochthonous units of SW Iberia (Évora Massif, Portugal): Keys to the reconstruction of pre-Pangean paleogeography in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rubén Díez; Fuenlabrada, José Manuel; Chichorro, Martim; Pereira, M. Francisco; Sánchez-Martínez, Sonia; Silva, José B.; Arenas, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The basal allochthonous units of NW and SW Iberia are members of an intra-Gondwana suture zone that spreads across the Iberian Massif and was formed during the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia in the late Paleozoic. This suture zone is made of allochthonous terranes and is currently preserved as a tectonically dismembered ensemble. A multi-proxy analysis is applied to the basal allochthonous units of Iberia to test their affinity and potential usage for tracing a suture zone. A comparison of the lithostratigraphy, tectonometamorphic evolution, geochronology, and geochemical characteristics of the Ediacaran series of these units reveals striking affinities. They derive from rather similar immature sedimentary successions, deposited along the same continental margin, and in relation to a Cadomian magmatic arc. Sm-Nd systematics indicates that the isotopic sources are among the oldest of the Iberian Massif (ca. 2.15-1.5 Ga), suggesting a very strong contribution from the West African Craton. These Ediacaran series were affected by high-P and low- to medium-T metamorphism (blueschist to eclogite facies) during the Late Devonian (ca. 370 Ma). They occur below allochthonous ophiolitic sequences, and on top of autochthonous or parautochthonous domains lacking of high-P and low- to medium-T Devonian metamorphism, i.e., tectonically sandwiched between lithosphere-scale thrusts. The combination of all these characteristics makes these particular Ediacaran series different from the rest of the terranes of the Iberian Massif. Such singularity could be useful for tracing more occurrences of the same suture zone along the Variscan orogen, particularly in cases where its preservation and recognition may be cryptic. It also contributes to improve the paleogeographic reconstruction of the margin of Gondwana during the Ediacaran.

  7. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  8. Basal keratinocytes contribute to all strata of the adult zebrafish epidermis.

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    Raymond T H Lee

    Full Text Available The epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is a stratified epithelium and forms an essential protective barrier. It is continually renewed, with dead corneocytes shed from the surface and replaced from a basal keratinocyte stem cell population. Whilst mouse is the prime model system used for epidermal studies, there is increasing employment of the zebrafish to analyse epidermis development and homeostasis, however the architecture and ontogeny of the epidermis in this system are incompletely described. In particular, it is unclear if adult zebrafish epidermis is derived entirely from the basal epidermal stem cell layer, as in the mouse, or if the most superficial keratinocyte layer is a remnant of the embryonic periderm. Furthermore, a relative paucity of cellular markers and genetic reagents to label and manipulate the basal epidermal stem cell compartment has hampered research. Here we show that the type I keratin, krtt1c19e, is a suitable marker of the basal epidermal layer and identify a krtt1c19e promoter fragment able to drive strong and specific expression in this cell type. Use of this promoter to express an inducible Cre recombinase allowed permanent labelling of basal cells during embryogenesis, and demonstrated that these cells do indeed generate keratinocytes of all strata in the adult epidermis. Further deployment of the Cre-Lox system highlighted the transient nature of the embryonic periderm. We thus show that the epidermis of adult zebrafish, as in the mouse, derives from basal stem cells, further expanding the similarities of epidermal ontogeny across vertebrates. Future use of this promoter will assist genetic analysis of basal keratinocyte biology in zebrafish.

  9. Comparison of tear lipid profile among basal, reflex, and flush tear samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Athira; Stapleton, Fiona; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Willcox, Mark D P

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether tear collection by flushing the ocular surface with saline (flush tears) or collection by stimulation (reflex tears) can be used as an alternative to basal tear collection for the identification and quantification of lipids in the tear film. Tear samples were collected from 10 participants with no history of ocular surface disease or contact lens wear. Up to 10 μl of basal, reflex, and flush tear samples were collected from each eye using a microcapillary tube on three occasions with the order of methods randomized and allowing at least 24 hours between each collection method. Lipids were quantified from each tear sample using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Total lipids significantly differed in their concentration (pmol/μl) and mole % with each collection technique. Cholesterol esters [mean % (SE)] formed the major component of the total lipidome in basal [54.8% (3.1)], reflex [35.7% (6.4)], and flush [33.0% (3.1)] tear samples. However, the mole % of each lipid class substantially varied with each tear collection method. Nonpolar lipids, including cholesterol, wax esters, and triacylglycerols, dominated the tear lipidome in basal [92.8% (1.9)], reflex [71.8% (7.9)], and flush [83.6% (3.8)] tear samples. However, the mole % of phospholipids in reflex [27.5% (8.1)] and flush [15.8% (3.8)] tear samples was higher (p = 0.005) than that in basal tears [5.4% (2.0)]. Flush or reflex tears did not have similar lipid profiles in either concentration or in mole % to basal tears. It is recommended that basal tears are used for tear lipid analysis as the reflex or flush tears contain very low levels of most lipid components.

  10. Importance of basal processes in simulations of a surging Svalbard outlet glacier

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    R. Gladstone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outlet glacier of Basin 3 (B3 of Austfonna icecap, Svalbard, is one of the fastest outlet glaciers in Svalbard, and shows dramatic changes since 1995. In addition to previously observed seasonal summer speed up associated with the melt season, the winter speed of B3 has accelerated approximately five fold since 1995. We use the Elmer/Ice full Stokes model for ice dynamics to infer spatial distributions of basal drag for the winter seasons of 1995, 2008 and 2011. This "inverse" method is based on minimising discrepancy between modelled and observed surface velocities, using satellite remotely sensed velocity fields. We generate steady state temperature distributions for the three time periods. Frictional heating caused by basal sliding contributes significantly to basal temperatures of the B3 outlet glacier, which exhibits a uniform steady state basal temperature at pressure melting point in all three cases. We present a sensitivity experiment consisting of transient simulations under present day forcing to demonstrate that using a temporally fixed basal drag field obtained through inversion can lead to thickness change errors of the order of 2 m per year. Hence it is essential to incorporate the evolution of basal processes in future projections of the basin. Informed by a combination of our inverse method results and previous studies, we hypothesize a system of processes and feedbacks involving till deformation and basal hydrology to explain both the seasonal accelerations and the ongoing inter-annual speed up, and speculate on the wider relevance of deformable till mechanics to non-surging glaciers.

  11. Influence of montmorillonites exchange capacity on the basal spacing of cation–anion organo-montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanqin, Wu [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zepeng, Zhang, E-mail: unite508@163.com [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Yunhua, Wang [Zhejiang Fenghong New Material Co., Ltd. (China); Libing, Liao [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Jiansheng, Zhang [Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: This picture shows the distribution of organic modifier (CTAB and SDS) in Mt interlayer and the basal spacing changes of Mt modified by CTAB and SDS. Organic modifier molecule in Mt interlayer is more and more orderly. The basal spacing of Mt is from 1.5 nm to 5 nm as modifier added. - Highlights: • The d{sub 001} of Ca-Mt, R-Na-Mt, Na-Mt modified by CTAB and SDS can reach 5 nm. • It is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater d{sub 001} if CEC is lower. • The organic molecules distribution in cation–anion OMt was analyzed. • The influence mechanism of Ca-Mt CEC on the d{sub 001} was discussed. - Abstract: With cationic and anionic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as modifiers, Ca-montmorillonites (Ca-Mt), artificial Na-montmorillonites (R-Na-Mt) and natural Na-montmorillonites (Na-Mt) with different cation exchange capacity (CEC) were modified by solution intercalation method, respectively. Then cation–anion organo-montmorillonites (OMt) were prepared. The influence of CEC on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt and the influence mechanism were discussed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential testing. The results indicate that the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt is related to CEC. For the same type montmorillonites, the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt decreases with the increase of CEC and it is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater basal spacing when CEC is lower. Moreover, the CEC of Na-Mt has the greatest influence on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt.

  12. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here.

  13. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior and during its 1982–1983 surge

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    O. Gagliardini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-year dataset, consisting in surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wave length changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodical changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. It confirms that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to infer realistic scenarios for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  14. A primitive ornithischian dinosaur from the Late Triassic of South Africa, and the early evolution and diversification of Ornithischia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Smith, Roger M H; Norman, David B

    2007-08-22

    Although the group played an important role in the evolution of Late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of the ornithischian dinosaurs remains poorly understood. Here, we report on a new primitive ornithischian, Eocursor parvus gen. et sp. nov. from the Late Triassic (?Norian) Lower Elliot Formation of South Africa. Eocursor is known from a single specimen comprising substantial cranial and postcranial material and represents the most complete Triassic member of Ornithischia, providing the earliest evidence for the acquisition of many key ornithischian postcranial characters, including an opisthopubic pelvis. A new phylogenetic analysis positions this taxon near the base of Ornithischia, as the sister taxon to the important and diverse clade Genasauria. The problematic clade Heterodontosauridae is also positioned basal to Genasauria, suggesting that an enlarged grasping manus may represent a plesiomorphic ornithischian condition. This analysis provides additional phylogenetic support for limited ornithischian diversity during the Late Triassic, and suggests that several major ornithischian clades may have originated later than generally believed. There are few morphological differences between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic ornithischians, supporting previous suggestions that the Early Jurassic ornithischian radiation may simply represent the filling of vacant ecological space following Late Triassic terrestrial extinctions.

  15. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The basal ganglia occupy a commanding place in neuroscience research, in clinical neurology and in biomedical education. The paucity of our understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in normal everyday life combined with our more extensive knowledge of their deficiencies in a variety of clinical syndromes is a potent spur to continuing investigation. That some of these neurodegenerative syndromes-such as Parkinson's disease-are already common only heightens the need for insight in the face of a population with increasing expectations of longevity. About a decade ago an explosion of information on the connectivity and immunocytochemistry of forebrain structures gave rise to concepts which have shaped the fabric of basal ganglia theory-'patch and matrix', 'disinhibition', 'parallel circuits'. Some of these ideas seemed to facilitate an understanding of the basal ganglia, others to render them more complex and impenetrable. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the work of the last decade has tended towards consolidation and refinement. However, several new developments are receiving attention, many of them related to disorders of the basal ganglia. The realisation that some forms of Parkinson's disease have a genetic determinant is gaining strength. The molecular biology of the dopaminergic synapse on the one hand and of the production of insoluble proteins on the other will clearly influence future research into therapeutic options and neuroprotection. The importance of apoptosis, neural plasticity and free radical formation remains unresolved but these are potential areas of promise. Meanwhile, scanning techniques for brain imaging are allowing real time investigation of the working striatum in normal and disordered humans and animals.We believe that the time is opportune for a broad review of current thinking on the basal ganglia in health and disease. The following articles are based on presentations given at a Symposium on the Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia held at

  16. Lacustrine Basal Ages Constrain the Last Deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Jeffrey; Laabs, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Basal radiocarbon ages from 21 high-elevation lakes limit the timing of final Pleistocene deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, USA. The lakes are located in glacial valleys and cirques 5 to 20 km upstream from LGM terminal moraines at elevations from 2830 to 3475 m. Many are impounded behind recessional moraines. Cores were retrieved from a floating platform with a percussion corer driven to the point of refusal. All penetrated inorganic silty clay beneath gyttja. AMS radiocarbon analyses were made on terrestrial macrofossils, daphnia ephippia, pollen concentrates, and bulk sediment retrieved from the base of each core. No radiocarbon reservoir effect was observed when bulk dates were checked against terrestrial material. Radiocarbon results were converted to calendar years using the IntCal09 calibration curve in OxCal 4.1. Given the stratigraphy observed in the cores, these calibrated basal ages are considered close limits on the timing of the local deglaciation and lake formation. The oldest three lakes have basal radiocarbon ages that calibrate to a few centuries after the Bölling/Alleröd warming, indicating that the landscape was becoming ice free at this time. These are followed by an overlapping group of five lakes with basal ages between 13.5 and 13.0 ka BP. Five more cores, from four separate lakes, have basal ages tightly clustered between 13.0 and 12.5 ka BP. Three of these lakes are dammed by moraines, suggesting glacial activity during the early part of the Younger Dryas interval. The lone kettle lake in the study yielded a basal age of 12.3 ka BP, considerably younger than the basal age of 13.9 ka BP from a nearby lake filling a bedrock basin, indicating that buried ice may have been locally stable for more than a millennium after deglaciation. The remaining seven lakes have basal ages between 12.0 and 11.0 ka BP. Four of these lakes are also dammed by moraines. These two non-overlapping clusters of basal ages for moraine

  17. Comparison of Insulin Detemir and Insulin Glargine for Hospitalized Patients on a Basal-Bolus Protocol

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    Sondra Davis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether insulin detemir is equivalent to insulin glargine in controlling hyperglycemia for the adult hospitalized patient on a basal-bolus treatment regimen. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at two acute care hospitals within the same health system. Patients from both facilities who were initiated on a basal-bolus subcutaneous insulin regimen were included in the study. The basal-bolus regimen consisted of three components: basal, bolus, and corrective insulin with only the data from the first seven days analyzed. Once the basal-bolus protocol was initiated, all previous glycemic agents were discontinued. The target glycemic goal of the study was 100–180 mg/dL. RESULTS: In both groups, 50% of the patients had achieved the target glycemic control goal (100–180 mg/dL by day 2 (p = 0.3. However, on the seventh or last day of basal-bolus treatment, whichever came first, 36.36% of patients receiving insulin detemir (n = 88 achieved the blood glucose reading goal compared to 52.00% in patients receiving insulin glargine (n = 100 (p = 0.03. This corresponded to an adjusted odds ratio of 2.12 (1.08 to 4.15, p = 0.03. The adjusting variables were provider type, whether the patient was hospitalized within 30 days prior and diagnosis of stroke. The mean blood glucose readings for the insulin glargine and the insulin detemir groups while on basal-bolus therapy were 200 mg/dL and 215 mg/dL, respectively (p = 0.05. The total number of blood glucose readings less than 70 mg/dL and less than 45 mg/dL was very low and there were no differences in number of episodes with hypoglycemia between the two groups. CONCLUSION: There was not a statistical difference between the two groups at 2 days, however there was on the seventh day or the last day of basal-bolus treatment. There were nonsignificant hypoglycemia events between basal insulin groups and the results for the last or seventh day

  18. Communicating hydrocephalus in adult rats with kaolin obstruction of the basal cisterns or the cortical subarachnoid space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; McAllister, James P; Shen, Yimin; Wagshul, Mark E; Miller, Janet M; Egnor, Michael R; Johnston, Miles G; Haacke, E Mark; Walker, Marion L

    2008-06-01

    Communicating hydrocephalus (CH) occurs frequently, but clinically-relevant animal models amenable to diagnostic imaging and cerebrospinal fluid shunting are not available. In order to develop and characterize models of subarachnoid space (SAS) obstruction at the basal cisterns (BC) or cerebral convexities (CX), 25% kaolin was injected in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats following halothane anesthesia; intact- or saline-injected animals served as controls. For BC animals (n=28 hydrocephalics, n=20 controls), an anterior approach to the C1-clivus interval was employed and 30 microl of kaolin or saline was injected. For CX injections (n=13 hydrocephalics, n=3 controls), 50-60 microl of kaolin was injected bilaterally after separating the partitions in the SAS. In BC-injected rats, kaolin was observed grossly in the basal cisterns but not in the cisterna magna or at the foramina of Luschka, indicating that communicating (or extra-ventricular)--not obstructive--hydrocephalus had been induced. Following ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of gadolinium injected into the lateral ventricle also demonstrated CSF flow from the foramina of Luschka. MRI also revealed that ventriculomegaly progressed steadily in BC animals and by 2 weeks post-kaolin the mean Evan's ratio (frontal horn) increased significantly (mean 0.45 compared to 0.31 in intact- and 0.34 in saline-injected controls; pkaolin deposits covering approximately 80% of the cerebral hemispheres and developed noticeable ventriculomegaly (mean Evan's ratio 0.40), which was significant relative to intact animals (p=0.011) but not saline-injected controls. Surprisingly, ventriculomegaly following CX injections was less severe and much more protracted, requiring 3-4 months to develop compared to ventriculomegaly produced by BC obstruction. No hydrocephalic animals demonstrated obvious neurological deficits, but BC-injected animals that subsequently developed more severe ventriculomegaly

  19. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  20. Late onset depression: A recent update

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    Ananya Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.